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Robert Adam Auction Price Results

Robert Adam (1728-1792)  Please Register/Login to access your Invaluable Alerts

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WAX PORTRAIT - Profile Bust marked

Lot 302: WAX PORTRAIT - Profile Bust marked "Robert Adam, Architect, Died 3 March, 1792", housed in mahogany shadowbox with wine velvet lining.

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Description: WAX PORTRAIT - Profile Bust marked "Robert Adam, Architect, Died 3 March, 1792", housed in mahogany shadowbox with wine velvet lining. 5 3/4" x 4 3/4" overall. Fine condition.

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PAIR OF PORTE-TORCHERES 'AUX TETES DE BELIERS',

Lot 1174: PAIR OF PORTE-TORCHERES 'AUX TETES DE BELIERS',

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Description: PAIR OF PORTE-TORCHERES 'AUX TETES DE BELIERS', late George III, after designs by R. ADAM (Robert Adam, Edinburgh 1728-1792 London), England circa 1900.Finely carved gilt wood. H 140 cm. 1 PAAR PORTE-TORCHEREN 'AUX TETES DE BELIER', George III, nach Vorlagen von R. ADAM (Robert Adam, Edinburgh 1728-1792 London), England um 1800.Holz fein beschnitzt mit Blättern und Zierfries sowie vergoldet. Schalenförmiger Lichtträger mit leicht vorstehendem Blatt auf 3 geschweiften, durch Girlanden verbundenen Vierkantstützen mit Bocksfüssen. H 140 cm.Ein sehr ähnliches Paar ist abgebildet in: R. Edwards / P. Macquoid, English furniture, London 1954; III, S. 151 (Abb. 22).R. Adam studierte von 1754 bis 1758 in Italien, wobei ihn vor allem die Thermen in Rom und die Ruinen von Diokletians Palast in Spalato (heutiges Kroatien) interessierten, und kehrte dann nach England zurück, wo er 1761 zum Hofarchitekten des Königs Georg ernannt wurde. Seine hervorragende Arbeit brachte ihm rasch hohes Ansehen und Kontakte zu den bedeutendsten Männern seiner Zeit, wie z.B. zu Hume, Robertson und Adam Smith. Die Studien jenes Palastes aus Spalato, kombiniert mit den Einflüssen der italienischen Renaissance und der Barock-Architektur, führten zu Adams eigenartigem, reizvollem Stil mit neoklassizistischer Richtung. Adam beschränkte seine Tätigkeit nicht auf die Architektur, sondern beschäftigte sich auch mit Möbeln und Raumausstattungen. Seine Tüchtigkeit und die Feinheit der Dekorationen geben dem 'Adam Style' weit mehr als nur eine modische Bedeutung.Lit.: G. Ehret / J. Andrews, Englische Möbel, Augsburg 1990, S. 18f. (biogr. Angaben). Thieme/Becker, Leipzig 1999; 1/2, S. 68 (biogr. Angaben).

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PAIR OF PORTE-TORCHERES 'AUX TETES DE BELIERS',

Lot 1193: PAIR OF PORTE-TORCHERES 'AUX TETES DE BELIERS',

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Description: PAIR OF PORTE-TORCHERES 'AUX TETES DE BELIERS', late George III, after designs by R. ADAM (Robert Adam, Edinburgh 1728-1792 London), England circa 1900.Finely carved gilt wood. H 140 cm. 1 PAAR PORTE-TORCHEREN 'AUX TETES DE BELIERS', George III, nach Vorlagen von R. ADAM (Robert Adam, Edinburgh 1728-1792 London), England um 1800.Holz fein beschnitzt mit Blättern und Zierfries sowie vergoldet. Schalenförmiger Lichtträger mit leicht vorstehendem Blatt auf 3 geschweiften, durch Girlanden verbundenen Vierkantstützen mit Bocksfüssen. H 140 cm.Feines Paar von hoher Qualität.Ein sehr ähnliches Paar ist abgebildet in: R. Edwards / P. Macquoid, English furniture, London 1954; III, S. 151 (Abb. 22).R. Adam studierte von 1754 bis 1758 in Italien, wobei ihn vor allem die Thermen in Rom und die Ruinen von Diokletians Palast in Spalato (heutiges Kroatien) interessierten, und kehrte dann nach England zurück, wo er 1761 zum Hofarchitekten des Königs Georg ernannt wurde. Seine hervorragende Arbeit brachte ihm rasch hohes Ansehen und Kontakte zu den bedeutendsten Männern seiner Zeit, wie z.B. zu Hume, Robertson und Adam Smith. Die Studien jenes Palastes aus Spalato, kombiniert mit den Einflüssen der italienischen Renaissance und der Barock-Architektur, führten zu Adams eigenartigem, reizvollem Stil mit neoklassizistischer Richtung. Adam beschränkte seine Tätigkeit nicht auf die Architektur, sondern beschäftigte sich auch mit Möbeln und Raumausstattungen. Seine Tüchtigkeit und die Feinheit der Dekorationen geben dem 'Adam Style' weit mehr als nur eine modische Bedeutung.Lit.: G. Ehret / J. Andrews, Englische Möbel, Augsburg 1990, S. 18f. (biogr. Angaben). Thieme/Becker, Leipzig 1999; 1/2, S. 68 (biogr. Angaben).

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Oil on canvas portrait of Robert Adam born

Lot 1533: Oil on canvas portrait of Robert Adam born

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Description: Oil on canvas portrait of Robert Adam born Edinburgh 1728, died 1792, famous architect, signed indistinctly Janet Perry?, after the original by George Willison, nice gilt frame

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Lot 1: A set of four George III silver candlesticks

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Description: Maker's mark of Robert Makepeace and Richard Carter, London, 1777 Each on shaped triangular base with central acanthus bud finial, the baluster stems of canted triangular section and with ionic capitals framing winged cherubim masks, the stems each supported on three curved Greek fret and acanthus foliage monopodiae with ram's mask terminals, with vase-shaped sockets, cast and chased with laurel foliage, with detachable beaded circular nozzles, the bases with stiff-leaf border and centred beneath with a rosette, the stems each decorated with palmette and Greek fret ornament beneath a circular cartouche, engraved with a crest, the nozzles similarly engraved, marked on bases, sockets and nozzlesR 111/4in. (28.5cm.) high 95ozs. (2,970gr.) (4) PROVENANCE Lord Algernon Percy, later 2nd Baron Lovaine and 2nd Earl of Beverley (1750-1830) and thence by descent to his third son The Rt. Rev. Hugh Percy, Bishop of Carlisle (b.1784) and thence by descent to his son Algernon Heber-Percy (1812-1901) and thence by descent A Gentleman; Christie's London, 27 November 1991, lot 98 LITERATURE Probate Inventory of property belonging to Algernon, 1st Earl of Beverley, Silver at 8 Portman Square, 1830 B. Carver Wees, English, Irish and Scottish Silver at The Sterling and Francine Clarke Art Institute, New York, 1997, p. 516 NOTES These candelsticks epitomise the neo-classical style of the second half of the 18th century as promoted by the architects Robert Adam (1728-1792), James 'Athenian' Stuart (1713-1788) and James Wyatt (1746-1813). The tripod base and the baluster stem are inspired by the studies of ancient classical architecture recorded by Stuart and Revett in Antiquities of Athens, first published in 1762 and Caylus' Recueil d'antiquit‚s ‚gyptiennes, ‚trusques, gr‚cques, romaines et gauloises published in seven volumes between 1752 and 1767. The aristocratic patrons of the day who had been inspired by the sights of anitque Roman and Greek architecture, which they had admired on the Grand Tour, turned to these architects to design their London and country houses. The candlesticks are each engraved twice with the Percy crest. The head of the Percy family, Hugh, 1st Duke of Northumberland (1714-1786) was a champion of the neo-classical style. However, the absence of a duke's coronet, and the provenance of the candlesticks with the descendants of the Earls of Beverley would suggest that the crest is for the Duke's second son Lord Algernon Percy, who succeeded his father as 2nd Baron Lovaine on the latter's death and was later created 1st Earl Beverley in 1790. Lord Algernon Percy went on the Grand Tour on two occasions. He left for France immediately after leaving Eton College in 1768. He travelled in the company of Louis Dutens, with whom he was to return to Italy in 1782, after his marriage to Isabella Burrell in 1775. On his first tour Lord Algernon's travelling companion noted that he did not dislike 'parade and splendour and evinced great taste in his expenditure'. After travelling through France he visited Genoa and from there Florence, arriving in Rome in November 1769. There, in the following year, he was painted by Pompeo Batoni (1708-1787). No doubt inspired by Rome and the designs of the architect Robert Adam, who had worked for his father at Northumberland House, Syon House and Alnwick Castle, Lord Algernon commissioned Makepeace and Carter to fashion a set of candlesticks in the latest neo-classical style. Makepeace and Carter were in parntership for a short period between January 1777 and December 1778. A. Grimwade suggestes in London Goldsmiths, 1697-1837, London, 1976, pp.459-460, that Richard Carter was either the younger brother, or perhaps cousin of John Carter. John Carter had provided Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn with a set of four candelabra for his London house in St. James's Square. The candelabra of 1774 were to a design by Robert Adam, as were the Temple Newsam candlesticks he produced in 1767. There are a number of similarities between these candelsticks and the Adam designed Williams-Wynn candelabra. Both stems rise from an 'altar' tripod base and the openwork stems are formed from three monopodia. The also both display a consistently sophisticated use of neo-classical vocabulary. The connections with Adam and the Percy family and the design similarities between surviving Adam drawings and his surviving commissions suggest Adam as a possible designer.

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Adam, Robert (1728-1792), Autograph letter signed, August 15, 1772, three pages, to an unidentified Lord, concerni...

Lot 1: Adam, Robert (1728-1792), Autograph letter signed, August 15, 1772, three pages, to an unidentified Lord, concerni...

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Description: Adam, Robert (1728-1792), Autograph letter signed, August 15, 1772, three pages, to an unidentified Lord, concerning business matters and referencing his the work of his brothers, "All the four brothers have been so much and so constantly employed in arranging and settling our different affairs that we have been able to think of nothing else for some time past", 4to, (minor spotting and a few nicks).

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Lot 2: Robert Adam, F.R.S., F.S.A. (1728-1792)

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Description: A capriccio Landscape, with travellers in the foreground with inscription 'Meatyard: Aug 1942 A/-/-' (lower right, overmounted) pen and brown ink and watercolour, circular 8.3/8 in. (21.3 cm.) diam. PROVENANCE S.R. Pierce. Stanhope Shelton. EXHIBITION Bury St. Edmunds, Art Gallery 1973. NOTES Although known as an exponent of neoclassicism, Adam also maintained an enthusiasm throughout his life for romantic landscape drawing. The drawings that he produced were essentially for his own enjoyment. The author of his obituary in The Gentleman's Magazine, 1792, commented that in his landscape drawings Adam captured 'a luxuriance of composition and an effect of light and shadow which have scarcely ever been equalled'. The largest group of these rather personal drawings have remained in the Adam family and are now at Blair Adam, near Kinross, Tayside (the Adam family estate).

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Lot 4: ADAM, Robert (1728-1792, British)

Description: Shepherd and his flock by classical ruins, col ink htd.white Works on paper (20x15in).

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Lot 5: ADAM, Robert (1728-1792, British)

Description: Figures by mountain gorge, pen wash sold with another Works on paper (13x10in).

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Lot 7: ADAM, Robert (1728-1792, British)

Description: Plan of bed chamber storey for unidentified building, s.i.d.1790 pen black ink grey wash Works on paper (19x13in).

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Lot 7: Robert Adam, F.R.S., R.S.A. (1728-1792)

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Description: Plan of the Bed Chamber Storey of an unidentified Building inscribed'Plan of the Bed Chamber Story [ sic ]' (upper centre), signed and dated 'R Adam Archi t. Edin g. 1790' (lower left) and further inscribed with the room names and sizes pen and black ink, grey wash, unframed 12.7/8 x 18.3/8 in. (32.7 x 46.7 cm.).

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Lot 8: A PAIR OF GEORGE III GILTWOOD AND GILTMETAL TWO-LIGHT CANDELABRA

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Description: Each with a foliate twisted baluster shaft surmounted by a lappeted and pearled domed top, issuing two scrolled foliate branches, gadrooned drip-pans and reeded nozzles, above a spreading acanthus circular base sumounted by a waisted gadrooned colour, originally fixed to a torchere 20 in. (51 cm.) high; base 10 in. (26 cm.) diam. (2) PROVENANCE Sir Julius Wernher, 1st Bt. (d. 1912) or his second son Sir Harold Wernher, GCVO, 3rd Bt. (d. 1973), Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire. NOTES With their flute-spiralled baluster on acanthus-foliated plinths, after the Piranesian 'Roman candelabra' manner, these candelabra relate to a candlestick form introduced around 1770 by the architect Robert Adam (d. 1792). Such composite elements, derived from a candelabrum in G.B. Piranesi's Diverse Maniere d'Adornare I Cammini, 1769 (pl. 61), relate to the design for tall giltwood tripod candelabra executed by Adam in 1772 for John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (d. 1792) and later illustrated in Robert and James Adam's Works in Architecture, London, 1822, vol. III (pl. XI).

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Lot 8: A PAIR OF GEORGE III GILTWOOD AND GILTMETAL TWO-LIGHT CANDELABRA

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Description: Each with a foliate twisted baluster shaft surmounted by a lappeted and pearled domed top, issuing two scrolled foliate branches, gadrooned drip-pans and reeded nozzles, above a spreading acanthus circular base sumounted by a waisted gadrooned colour, originally fixed to a torchere 20 in. (51 cm.) high; base 10 ¼ in. (26 cm.) diam. (2) PROVENANCE: Sir Julius Wernher, 1st Bt. (d. 1912) or his second son Sir Harold Wernher, GCVO, 3rd Bt. (d. 1973), Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire. Footnotes:With their flute-spiralled baluster on acanthus-foliated plinths, after the Piranesian 'Roman candelabra' manner, these candelabra relate to a candlestick form introduced around 1770 by the architect Robert Adam (d. 1792). Such composite elements, derived from a candelabrum in G.B. Piranesi's Diverse Maniere d'Adornare I Cammini, 1769 (pl. 61), relate to the design for tall giltwood tripod candelabra executed by Adam in 1772 for John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (d. 1792) and later illustrated in Robert and James Adam's Works in Architecture, London, 1822, vol. III (pl. XI).

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Lot 10: Robert Adam, F.S.A.

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Description: 1728-1792 travellers by a castle, a town and lake beyond pen and brown ink and watercolour on laid paper 20.5 by 31.5cm., 8 by 12Din.

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Lot 14: ADAM, Robert (1728-1792). Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia. [London:] for the author, 1764.

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Description: 2o (516 x 366mm). 61 numbered engraved plates on 54 leaves, 6 folding and 8 double-page, by F. Bartolozzi, E. Rooker, F. Patton, P. Santini, A. Walker, D. Cunego, J. Bassire and Antonio Zucchi. (Slight browning along joins of folding plates.) Contemporary mottled calf, covers with single fillet, gilt-tooled spine with red morocco lettering-piece (rubbed and scuffed at extremities). Provenance : The Earl of Chichester (armorial bookplate). FIRST EDITION in internally fine condition. Adam's most important collaborator in the production of this glamorous work was C.-L. Cl‚risseau (1721-1820), his drawing master, who was responsible for both the perspective views and for directing work on engraving the plates in Venice between 1757 and 1760. The response of Adam and Cl‚risseau to the antique is fittingly described by Eileen Harris as '"pseudo-archaeological" in that it treated the physical remains of antiquity as touchstones for the imaginative and scenic, as opposed to deductive and architectonic, recreation of ancient buildings... between them Adam and Cl‚risseau took every opportunity to charge the archaeological and geometrical data contained in the plates of Spalatro with an emotive, picturesque energy" ( British Architectural Books, 1990, p. 78). Fowler 2; Berlin Katalog 1893; Brunet I, 46; Cicognara 3567.

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Lot 14: ADAM, Robert (1728-1792, British)

Description: The third drawing room at the Earl of Derby's House, pencil pen black grey wash Works on paper (24x17in).

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A GEORGE III ORMOLU-MOUNTED HAREWOOD AND MARQUETRY DEMI-LUNE COMMODE

Lot 15: A GEORGE III ORMOLU-MOUNTED HAREWOOD AND MARQUETRY DEMI-LUNE COMMODE

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Description: Crossbanded overall in rosewood, the radially-veneered top with burr-yew panel at the rear edge enclosed by floral garlands, further inlaid with scrolls of acanthus linked by husks, above a panelled frieze centred by a patera draped with husks, above a pair of doors inlaid with garlands of abundant flowers draped between paterae, enclosing two mahogany-fronted drawers, flanked by panels of ribbon-tied urns draped with husks, with panelled uprights of husk trails, on short cabriole legs in the French manner with sabots, probably originally with mounts at the knees 331/4 in. (84.5 cm.) high; 543/4 in. (139 cm.) wide; 221/4 in. (56.5 cm.) deep PROVENANCE With Moss Harris and Sons, 1929 LITERATURE Moss Harris and Sons, Exhibition of Old English Furniture, 1929, no. 29. L. Wood, Catalogue of Commodes, London, 1994, p. 135 and n. 5. NOTES The richly flowered pier-commode is designed in the George III French or 'antique' manner with scrolled and ormolu-enriched truss feet, and inlaid in celebration of lyric poetry and the triumph of Apollo, the poetry deity. A golden sunflower, recalling the History of Apollo's loves as recounted in Ovid's Metamorphoses, radiates from a flowered and laurel-wreathed patera, while further laurels festoon from scrolls of Roman acanthus. Its 'tablet'-lambrequined fa‡ade evokes ancient sacrifices at love's altar, with Venus's sacred roses festooned in garlands between beribboned and laurel-wreathed libation-ewers. The frieze is hung with laurel-festooned paterae; while the interior drawer-handles likewise featured flowered paterae wreathed, in the Etruscan fashion, by 'Venus' pearl-strings (their pattern is illustrated in an 18th century metalworkers' book, no. 804, reissued by T.R. Crom, An Eighteenth century English Brass Hardware Catalogue, Florida, 1994, p.112). The antique ornament of sacrificial ewers and paterae had been introduced in the 1750s for fashionable dressing-room apartments by the Rome-trained architect James Stuart (d. 1788). Such ewers for instance feature on Lady Fetherstonhaugh's 'bonheur du-jour' cabinet, which was executed for Uppark, Sussex around 1770, and has been attributed to the cabinet-maker John Cobb (d. 1778) of St. Martin's Lane, who was also famed at the period for his inlaid furniture (see Christie's Exhibition, Patronage Preserved, 3-20 January 1991, no. 22, p. 50). The laurel-festooned foliage, inlaid in the top, relates to the 'antique' style adopted in the 1770s by Thomas Chippendale Junior (d. 1822) and popularised through his pattern-book entitled Sketches of Ornament, 1779. Its French-fashioned pilasters terminating in trussed legs featured on a commode, with similar patera and festoon ornament, that was designed in 1767 by the Berkeley Square cabinet-maker John Linnell (d. 1796) and crafted by the Paris-trained 'inlayer' Christopher Furlohg (H. Hayward & P. Kirkham, William and John Linnell, London 1980, vol. II, figs. 108 and 109). This commode belongs to a group of this distinctly French form, of which the most closely studied is one which may have been commissioned for the Curzon Street house built by the architect Robert Adam (d. 1792) for the Hon. Henry Frederick Thynne in the early 1770s and which is now in the Lady Lever Art Gallery (L. Wood, op. cit., pp. 135-141, no. 12). Lucy Wood tentatively suggests that the Thynne commode was made by an immigr‚ craftsman, possibly French, because of non-English idiosyncracies in the construction, notably a double thickness top, as if the maker was more used to making commodes with marble tops. The present commode has fewer of these idiosyncracies, with its top veneered on deal, English drawer construction and horizontally planked back. However, it is stylistically very similar indeed in form and marquetry to Lever, no. 12, and shares the internal arrangement and handles precisely. The third commode in this specific sub-group is one formerly in the collection of Lord Wrottesley, sold Sotheby's London, 28 June 1968, lot 162. The construction of the Wrottesley commode, detailed in Wood, loc. cit., is very like the present lot, and less French in style than no. 12.

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Edwardian Polychromed Satinwood Corner Cupboard

Lot 15: Edwardian Polychromed Satinwood Corner Cupboard

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Description: Attractive Edwardian Polychromed Satinwood Corner Cupboard, first quarter 20th century, in the style of Robert Adam (English, 1728-1792), the mullions of the glazed upper doors arranged as two-handled covered Antique vases, the interior lined in ivory silk moire and fitted with a pair of shelves, the base with two doors, each painted with a different neoclassical Muse, h. 82", w. 36", d. 18".

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Lot 18: A GEORGE III GILTWOOD CONSOLE TABLE

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Description: The later white marble top above an egg-and-dart rim and a fluted frieze with swagged apron, on three scrolling guilloche supports, each issuing from an acanthus leaf, above a stepped plinth, on paw feet, the central leg with restored break, the back of the frame replaced, two constructional cracks to frieze 41 in. (104 cm.) wide; 311/4 in. (79 cm.) high; 18 in. (46 cm.) deep PROVENANCE Probably commissioned by Thomas Stapleton, Esq. (d. 1821), for Carlton Hall (now Towers), Yorkshire. Thence by descent. NOTES This elliptic pier table is designed in the George III French manner of the 1770s. Its flute and husk-enriched frieze is festooned with drapery and is supported on tripod acanthus-enriched trusses terminating in ribbon-tied bacchic lion-paws. The whorled trusses relate to those of a tripod-cassolette sketched in the early 1770s in the ormolu pattern books of Boulton and Fothergill (see: N. Goodison, Ormolu: The Work of Matthew Boulton, London, 1974, fig. 161b). The general composition of this table evolved from one designed in 1756 by the architect Robert Adam (d.1792) for Sir Lawrence Dundas (see: A.T. Bolton, The Life and Architecture of Robert and James Adam, London, 1922, vol. II, p. 291). However, the more elegant form is closer to that of elliptic pier-tables, with voluted trusses, designed in the early 1770s by John Yenn (d.1821) for Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire (see: P. Ward-Jackson, English Furniture Designs of the 18th Century, London, 1958, fig. 261). The design relates very strongly to a group of tables by Mayhew and Ince of which one was sold anonymously, Christie's New York, 12 October 1996, lot 191. Amongst other drapery-swagged tables by Mayhew and Ince is a sideboard table which they supplied about 1770 to Lord Kerry (see: C. Cator, 'The Idlest Ostentation: The Earl of Kerry and Mayhew and Ince', Furniture History, 1990, pp. 27-33, figs. 1-2). CARLTON HALL Carlton Hall, now called Carlton Towers, is the ancient home of the Stapleton family who in 1840 successfully claimed the Beaumont barony that had been extinct since 1507. The house was much altered during the long tenure of Thomas Stapleton from 1750 to 1821. He continued the process begun by his father of modernising the Jacobean interiors and from 1770 built the huge east wing to the designs of Thomas Atkinson (d.1798). The wing was again altered for the 9th Lord Beaumont in the 1870s, the exterior by E.W. Pugin, the interior by J.F. Bentley, in which much of the 18th Century furniture was displaced. SALESROOM NOTICE Dr. John Martin Robinson has suggested that this table originally stood below the mirror on the window pier in the first floor drawing-room (now the library) at Carlton Hall (now Towers), Yorkshire.

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Lot 19: William Hamilton, R.A. (1750/51-1801)

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Description: The Duke of Hamilton's return from coursing oil on canvas 40 x 50 in. (102.2 x 127.6 cm.) PROVENANCE F.A. Phillips; Christie's London, 26 May 1906, lot 110 (230 gns. to Faudel-Phillips). Anon. sale, Christie's London, 27 March 1981, lot 51 (sold 24,200). ENGRAVED A. Cardon, P. & D. Colnaghi, 1803. NOTES The drawing for this picture (see fig.1), sold in these Rooms on 12 November 1968 as lot 83 (650 gns.), was inscribed on the reverse: '... my hounds shall wake/The lazy morn, and glad th' horizon round, Somerville's Chase'. These are the last lines of William Somerville's poem The Chase (or Chace ), first published in 1735. Educated at Winchester and Oxford, Somerville (1675-1742) was a devoted follower of field sports. He was fifty before he published any of his works, of which The Chase, a poem of four books in blank verse which was published in several additions, is the most celebrated. William Hamilton's origins were firmly rooted in the field of the decorative interior. He developed a distinctive style which has been described as 'soft' neo-classicism. His father was an assistant to the Scottish architect Robert Adam (1728-92), who helped the son, still in his teens, to study in Rome under the decorative painter Antonio Zucchi (1728-95). Returning to England, perhaps with Zucchi, Hamilton worked with him at Kedleston, newly built to designs by Robert Adam, in the later 1760s. He followed this period with Zucchi by studying at the newly established Royal Academy Schools from 1769. He first exhibited, with a subject taken from early English history, in 1774, though most of his exhibits in the 1780s were portraits, particularly theatrical portraits. In 1784 he became an Associate, and in 1789 a full member, after which he exhibited mainly historical and literary subjects. One consequence of his close association with the Academy was contact with Henry Fuseli (1741-1825), whose influence can be seen in his works from early in the 1790s onwards.

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Lot 20: A SET OF TWELVE GEORGE III MAHOGANY DINING-CHAIRS

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Description: By John Linnell Each with a waved foliate-carved toprail with a patera at each end, above a pierced interlaced acanthus-enriched splat, the padded seat covered in close-nailed red leather, on beaded and patera-carved channelled square legs joined by stretchers, restorations, two splats and one toprail replaced 371/2 in. (95 cm.) high; 221/2 in. (57 cm.) wide; 17 in. (43 cm.) depth of upholstered seat (12) PROVENANCE Supplied to Robert Child, Esq., probably for the Dining-Room at Upton House, Oxfordshire and by descent with The Earls of Jersey, where they were later moved in the 19th Century to Middleton Park, Oxfordshire until sold Hampton's house sale, 28 May-1 June 1934, lots 283 and 284 (lots 283-285 were amended to four lots of six at the sale). Six purchased at the sale by Dr. Till through Captain Knight for œ84, six purchased from Mawers Ltd., in London for œ94.10.0, three months later. LITERATURE H.Hayward and P.Kirkham, William and John Linnell, London, 1980, vol. I, pp. 78, 99, 101, 116, vol. II, p. 26, fig. 46. EXHIBITION London, Christie's, Linnell Loan Exhibition, September 1980 (no. 11). London, Victoria & Albert Museum, Rococo Art and Design in Hogarth's England, May 1984, p. 183, no. 67. NOTES Linnell's design for these chairs is preserved in the Victoria & Albert Museum, E.113-1929. THE UPTON HOUSE CHAIRS BY JOHN LINNELL THE ORNAMENT The serpentine backs of the chairs are richly fretted, with festive vase-ribboned splats, whose double-entwined trusses are wrapped by acanthus. More Roman foliage features in pearl-and-reed enriched cartouches displayed in the scalloped hollows of their arched crest-rails. The beribboned rail trusses, embellished with Venus-shell scallops, are bolted to the back-uprights by Grecian palm-flowered bosses, while more flowers are framed in ribbon-scrolled medallions and tied by 'Venus' pearl-strings. These are sunk in the fluted pilasters of the stretcher-tied legs. THE PATTERN AND COMMISSION The design of these parlour chairs can be firmly attributed to the Berkeley Square cabinet-maker John Linnell (d. 1796), the author of A New Book of Ornaments, issued at the time of George III's accession in 1760. Their composition can be seen as a particularly elegant example of the type of 'Parlour Chair' for which patterns were issued by Robert Manwaring in his Cabinet and Chair-Maker's Real Friend and Companion, 1765, and in Household Furniture in Genteel Taste for the Year 1760 published by 'A Society of Upholsterers'. Linnell's basic design for this pattern of tufted and leather-seated parlour chair, but lacking the rail and leg ornament, survives in an Album preserved at the Victoria and Albert Museum, and entitled A Miscellaneous Collection of Original Designs made by John Linnell. The design is likely to have been executed in 1767, the year that Linnell was also supplying Dining-Room furniture to accord with the Roman architecture that Robert Adam (d.1792) had introduced at Osterley Park, Middlesex, another of Robert Child's properties, and also at Shardeloes, the Buckinghamshire villa of William Drake (d. 1796). The parlour chair at this period was designed to stand against a wall and its ornament often followed the architecture of the room. In the case of these chairs, their pattern accords with Adam's 1761 design for Shardeloes' 'Great Parlour' chimneypiece, whose palm-flowered frieze incorporates a tablet of youths sporting at 'The Feast of Bacchus'; and whose pilasters comprise conjoined pairs of large scrolled trusses wrapped by foliage. This 'Double Truss Chimney' was invoiced by the sculptors Benjamin and Thomas Carter in 1765. So Linnell is likely to have invented the pattern for Shardeloes, where he also introduced palm flowers and antique flutes in the ornament of the sideboard-table pedestals, that were supplied in 1767 to support a pair of Adam-patterned vases. The latter, of bacchic wine-krater form, had serpentined 'truss' handles springing from bacchic satyr-masks, while their strigil-fluted bowls were acanthus wrapped. Adam labelled their pattern in The Works in Architecture of Robert and James Adam as being invented for Syon House, the Middlesex villa of Hugh Smythson, Earl and later Duke of Northumberland. However the sideboard vases were first introduced by Linnell at Osterley Park, and when he supplied similar ones for Shardeloes in 1767, he invoiced them as being 'like Mr. Child's' (Hayward and Kirkham, op. cit., vol. I, p. 101). The actual Linnell drawing is for chairs with plainer legs, although the Shardeloes set and the present chairs share beads bolted to the legs with flowered bosses. Twelve chairs of the plainer type were also in the Middleton Park sale in 1934 and were subsequently sold anonymously Sotheby's London, 15 November 1996, lot 61. In the present case, it would seem that John Linnell provided Robert Child with a set of parlour chairs, like the ones he had supplied for Mr. Drake at Shardeloes slightly before. THE PROVENANCE: UPTON HOUSE, BANBURY These chairs, and the set with plainer legs mentioned above, were recorded in a photograph of the dining-room at Middleton Park, Oxfordshire, in the early 20th Century. Hayward and Kirkham ( op. cit., p 116) stated that the chairs were ordered by Child for Middleton. This is clearly impossible as Middleton then belonged to Lord Jersey, whose son only married Child's granddaughter in 1804. It is far more likely that the chairs were commissioned for Upton House, Banbury, bought by Child's elder brother Francis in 1757, and enlarged by Robert Child himself. Linnell is known to have worked at Upton, supplying a chimneypiece and overmantel to Mrs. Child's dressing-room (Hayward and Kirkham, op. cit., p. 116). In order to deprive the Fane descendants of his son-in-law Lord Westmoreland, who had eloped with his daughter, Child settled his property, including Upton House, on his granddaughter, Lady Sarah Fane, who married the Earl of Jersey in 1804. Thus Upton House passed to the Earls of Jersey, although Sarah, Lady Jersey, who died in 1867, had retained it after her husband's death in 1859. That Upton was her house is recorded in the memoirs of her granddaughter-in-law Fifty-one Years of Victorian Life, 1923, p. 56. The inventory of Upton House taken after the death of Sarah, Lady Jersey in 1867, recorded in the Dining-Room (Warwickshire RO, CR 157/13): 12 mahogany chairs, leather covered and two armchairs to match In 1934, the contents of Middleton Park were sold by Hampton and Sons, and the house demolished to make way for Sir Edwin Lutyens's last great country house. These chairs were included in that sale, together with the set with plainer legs referred to above. Initially, the auctioneers presented the two sets together as three consecutive lots, and so they appear in the printed catalogue. However, on the eve of the sale it was noticed that there were variations, principally in the treatment of the legs but also in the carving of the base of the splat. In the sale itself the chairs were divided into four lots of six. This is recorded in Dr. Till's own copy of the catalogue. Dr Till only bought one of the six at the time, subsequently acquiring the other six having borrowed the œ95 from his new mother-in-law.

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Lot 20: JOHN NIXON (c.1750-1818)

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Description: Brighton, showing Miss Widgett's circulating Library, Marlborough House, the Castle Inn and Assembly Rooms and the Marine Pavilion signed and dated "J. Nixon. 1792" (lower left) pencil, pen and grey ink and watercolour 15 3/4 x 21 3/4 in. (40 x 55.3 cm.) This watercolour is a rare and early view of Brighton in the early 1790s. On the far left hand side of the watercolour is Miss Widgett's circulating library, which was one of the great requirements of fashionable society at that time. The large house to the right of this and above the figures with nets is Marlborough House, the most distinguished building in Brighton with the exception of the Brighton Pavilion. The house is shown after the completion of Robert Adam's remodelling which was begun shortly after its purchase in 1786 by William "Single Speech" Hamilton. The large building to the right of this is the Castle Inn and Assembly Rooms which were the main focus of fashionable society in Brighton. To the right of this with the classical portico is the Marine Pavilion which was built by Henry Holland in 1787. The coade stone figures which were placed above the entablature over the ionic columns of the central bay can be clearly seen in this drawing. We are very grateful to Andrew Barlow of the Brighton Art Gallery and Museum for his help in preparing this catalogue entry.

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Lot 22: A GEORGE III CAST-IRON STOVE

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Description: By James Oldham Of square pyramidal form, with pearled panels and thyrsus finial, the square central section with oval panels, one enclosing a door, above a pierced apron with an ash-drawer, on square baluster legs headed by foliage, with the royal arms, cast 'OLDHAM LONDON PATENT AIR STOVE' 72 in. (183 cm.) high; 151/2 in. (39.5 cm.) wide; 153/4 in. (40 cm.) deep NOTES The stove, enriched with tablets and medallions of Venus pearl-strings, is conceived as a vase-capped 'altar', in the 'antique' manner introduced in the 1770s by the architect Robert Adam (d. 1792). Its flower-fretted stove-chest is framed by Doric pilasters and surmounted by an Egyptian obelisk pedestal that is crowned by a bacchic vase with a Grecian-stepped pedestal. This perforated 'cassolette' vase is shaped as a palm-wrapped thyrsus-cone. Palms also wrap the stand's vase-baluster feet, while 'Apollo' sunflowered medallions embellish its flute-fretted frieze. This stove pattern, with its 'Eternity' obelisk, features on the late 1770s trade-sheet issued by the Smithfield stove-maker Henry Jackson; while a related obelisk stove was designed in 1776 for Home House, London (A. Kelly, English Fireplaces, London, 1968, p. 70, fig. 79). The present stove, dating from around 1780, bears a tablet with the Royal Arms of George III and the 'patent air stove' register of James Oldham. He traded at the 'Patent Stove Warehouse', Holborn and is listed in 1787 as supplying stoves for Carlton House, London for George, Prince of Wales, later George IV (Public Record Office, Ref. Ho. 73/32).

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Lot 23: A PAIR OF WHITE-PAINTED AND PARCEL-GILT PEDESTALS

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Description: Of George III style, 19th Century Each of triangular form with anthemion-decorated frieze, the angles with rams heads, above an incurved panelled body, the angles with husk trails above scrolling foliage centred by an acanthus husk issuing a palmette, the angles with sphinxes, on a plinth base, redecorated and with traces of earlier black decoration 32 in. (81.5 cm.) high; 21 in. (53.5 cm.) diam. (2) NOTES The basic pattern for the tipod altar pedestal, which is embellished with ram-heads tied by a palm-flowered ribbon-guilloche and supported on a palm-flowered plinth with sphynx monopodia, derives from the celebrated Roman candelabrum of the Vatican Museum. With its hollowed sides it also relates to tripod-pedestal designs by the architect Robert Adam (d. 1792), such as the sphynx-supported pedestals executed in 1777 for Sir Watkin Williams-Wynne (E. Harris, The Furniture of Robert Adam, London, 1963, figs. 77 and 139).

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A PAIR OF GEORGE III GREEN-PAINTED AND PARCEL-GILT WINDOW SEATS

Lot 23: A PAIR OF GEORGE III GREEN-PAINTED AND PARCEL-GILT WINDOW SEATS

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Description: Possibly Scottish Each with scrolled padded arms and serpentine seat covered in green and cream Adam design silk-damask, on fluted tapering husk-wreathed legs and leaf-wrapped baluster feet, previously with blocks, redecorated, minor variations, with ash seat rails 30 in. (76 cm.) high; 501/2 in. (128 cm.) wide; 221/2 in. (57 cm.) deep (2) NOTES The architect Robert Adam (d. 1792) introduced spiralled laurel festoons in 1768 on the antique-fluted columnar legs of a pier-table pattern invented for Brodsworth Hall, Yorkshire; and the feature was followed later in the 1770s in a pier table design executed by the architect James Wyatt (d. 1813). The latter design also included a scroll-ended window-seat (E. Harris, The Genius of Robert Adam, London, 2001, fig. 353; and J. Fowler and J. Cornforth, English Decoration in the 18th Century, London, 1968, fig. 13). Another pair of window-stools, with laurel-entwined and reeded legs was sold from the Sloan Collection, Christie's New York, 13 October 1995, lot 161 ($51,750). SALESROOM NOTICE The green paint on these window-seats is largely an early scheme, possibly 18th Century but probably 19th Century, with traces of still earlier schemes beneath. The gilt ornaments are lead. The results of a paint test are available on request.

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Lot 24: A PAIR OF GEORGE III WHITE-PAINTED AND PARCEL-GILT PIER GLASSES

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Description: Designed by Robert Adam and made by Sefferin Alken, altered by James Wyatt Each with rectangular plate in an anthemion-decorated frame with beaded and foliate border, the cresting with drapery-swagged tablet below an urn, the decoration refreshed and regilt, originally with further cresting and apron, the drapery-swagged tablet added by Wyatt in the mid 1790s, at which time the height was reduced and the width extended, necessitating wider plates, one plate circa 1795 and the other circa 1989 111 in. x 64 in. (282 cm. x 162.5 cm.) (2) PROVENANCE Supplied to the 6th Earl of Coventry (d. 1809), for the Great Room at Coventry House, Piccadilly, in 1769, at a cost of œ68.16.71/2d, and moved to Croome Court circa 1848. Anonymous sale, in these Rooms, 19 November 1989, lot 101, (œ18,700 inc. premium). NOTES The huge mirror-glasses are framed in the antique style promoted by Robert 'Bob the Roman' Adam (d. 1792) architect to George III, and embellished in a festive Homeric fashion celebrating love and virtue. Golden flower-festooned urns, accompanied by beribboned sacred veils, are displayed on statuary white tablets above rectilinear frames. These are wreathed by Venus' pearls and Apollo's laurels, and these frame a palm-flowered ribbon-guilloche derived from the neck-band of a Grecian Ionic temple illustrated in James Stuart's, Antiquities of Athens, London, 1762. This frame pattern derived from one, with an urn-capped figurative medallion that Adam had executed in the same year for a 'Glass Frame for the Anti room at Shelburne House [now Lansdowne House, London]' (E. Harris, The Furniture of Robert Adam, London, 1963, fig. 18). The pier glasses were commissioned in 1768 for his Piccadilly mansion by George William, 6th Earl of Coventry (d. 1809) of Croome Court, Worcestershire, who served as 'Lord of the Bedchamber' to George III. He had purchased a mansion in this street of Palaces overlooking Green Park following his marriage in September 1764 to Barbara, daughter of the 10th Lord St.John of Bletsoe. His mirror-frames were designed to harmonise with the ceiling of the 'Great Room or Dining Room', for which Adam had provided a pattern three years earlier that incorpo stuccoed medallions of classical heads and urns together with inset paintings in the style of the painted ornament of the Ancients'. (Soane Museum, Adam MSS, vol. 20, no. 63). Adam's frame design is further enriched with Roman acanthus together with a cresting of a tazza filling the space between an accompanying table. The mirrors were supplied to accompany scagliola-slabbed sideboard-tables, for which Adam had provided a design in 1767. These tables, executed by the Soho carver Sefferin Alken (d. 1782) were invoiced in November 1768, while their Roman Mosaic tops were executed by Messrs. Bartoli and Richter, (sold from the Collection of Sir Charles Clore (+), in these Rooms, 20 November 1986, lot 94). Sefferin Alken of Dufours Court, Broad Street, Soho, invoiced these mirror frames on 18 July 1769, as: 'To 2 glass frames alike over the Tables. In the Clear 9ft by 4'6". A gutheroon moulding to outside. Girt 11/4 carvd Arches a band round Do. And a water leaf, an Astragal to inside Girt 1 inch with Rakeing leaves a faciea between with scroles at bottom a honey-suckle & floroon between. An Ornament at top carv'd. A Pot in Middle lying on a ground. A honey suckle at top and bold foliage comeing from behind the Pot, & Women lying on the foliage, at bottom an Ornament a basket of fruit, and bold foliage comeing from Do. Etc... œ68.6.7.12' The removal of the trophy ornament, apart from the vases, and the insertion of the bacchic veil-draped tablets no doubt reflects the refined taste of the architect James Wyatt (d. 1813), at the time that he was carrying out work for the Earl in the mid-1790s. In particular, their present urn-capped tablets correspond to the architecture of the 'Punchbowl Gates' executed in the manner of Robert Wyatt in 1794 at Croom Court (see A. Kelly, 'Coade Stone at Croome', Apollo, April 1997, p. 21. fig. 1). The furniture from Coventry House was sent to Croome Court after the 9th Earl assigned the lease in 1848.

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English Carved Giltwood Oval Looking Glass, in the

Lot 26: English Carved Giltwood Oval Looking Glass, in the

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Description: English Carved Giltwood Oval Looking Glass, in the style of Robert Adam (English, 1728-1792), the tall giltwood cresting modeled as an upright anthemia-husk garland draped and resting on a trumpet-form pedestal, h. 48", w. 24".

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A gorge with a boat and figures in the foreground

Lot 27: A gorge with a boat and figures in the foreground

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Description: Robert Adam, R.A. (1728-1792) A gorge with a boat and figures in the foreground pen and black ink and grey wash, on oatmeal paper 10½ x 12½ in. (26.7 x 31.7 cm.)

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A PAIR OF GEORGE III MAHOGANY POT-STANDS

Lot 28: A PAIR OF GEORGE III MAHOGANY POT-STANDS

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Description: Each with circular dished top above a fluted frieze, on cabriole legs and scrolled feet 131/4 in. (33.5 cm.) high; 141/2 in. (37 cm.) diameter (2) NOTES The sideboard plate-basket stands, with round-medallion and antique-fluted frames, are designed in the 'Roman' fashion promoted by George III's court architect Robert Adam (d. 1792); while their serpentine trussed leg reflects the elegant 'French' fashion introduced in the 1760s. This form of leg is rarely found on parlour chairs, but does appear on a set, whose palm-flowered backs correspond to a pattern introduced in 1772 by the St. Martin's Lane cabinet-maker Thomas Chippendale (d. 1779). A pair of the latter chairs was sold anonymously, in these Rooms, 15 April 1999, lot 52). The set of 'compass back' chairs, with the same reed-banded legs headed by gothic-cusped arches, was supplied, together with a 'neat mahogany plate basket' for the dining-room designed by Adam at Mersham-le-Hatch (P. Thornton, 'The Furnishing of Mersham-le-Hatch, part II', Apollo, June 1970, p. 44, fig. 6).

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Lot 33: A PAIR OF GEORGE III GILTWOOD OPEN ARMCHAIRS

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Description: Attributed to Fran쳌ois Herve Each with an oval padded back, armrests and seat covered in metal-thread embroidered foliate silk, the back and arms with twisted-ribbon borders, above a guilloche band, on stop-fluted turned tapering legs headed by square panels, on bun feet, losses to the gilding, later gilded and with signs of original green underpainting, with pegged construction and batton carrying-holes (2) PROVENANCE: Probably supplied either to John, 3rd Earl of Bute (1713-1792) for the drawing-room at Luton Park, Bedfordshire circa 1767-74 or to John, Viscount Mountstuart, later 1st Marquess of Bute (1744-1814) for Cardiff Castle circa 1777-8 and by descent to The 6th Marquess of Bute ( ), sold from the Bute Collection, in these Rooms, 3 July 1996, lot 23. Footnotes:These 'Louis XVI' chair-frames, with medallion-cartouche backs and fluted columnar legs, are embellished with flowered tablets, voluted scrolls and beribboned mouldings of twined-thread and pearled guilloche in the 'antique' manner popularised by the furniture-engravings of the architect Jean-Charles Delafosse (d.1789), which were published in conjuction with his Nouvelles Iconologies, 1768-71. With their pegged construction of quadrant-headed leg and stepped rosette block, they relate to the documented oeuvre of the Parisian-trained menuisier Fran쳌ois Herve of John Street, London. A partner of John Meschain, 'Cabinet and Chair maker', Herve enjoyed the patronage of George, Prince of Wales and was employed at Carlton House between 1783-94 under Henry Holland's direction. It is, therefore, pertinent that Henry Holland was also engaged by John, Viscount Mountstuart (d.1794) to rebuild Cardiff Castle circa 1777-8. Although related to Parisian-manufactured fauteuils of the late 1760's (such as that stamped by Sulpice Brizard, ma”tre in 1762, illustrated in P. Kjellberg, Le Mobilier Fran쳌ais du XVIIIe Siecle, Paris, 1989, p.119), the basic arm-pattern also featured on a suite of needlework-upholstered 'cabriole' chairs supplied by the 'upholder' James Cullen (d.1779) circa 1774 for the richly-mirrored drawing-room created by the architect Robert Adam at Northumberland House, London. Cullen was certainly involved with Reilly and Cobb in importing French patterns and furniture, but his role seems to have been purely in his capacity as owner of the warehouse, and it seems much more probable that the Northumberland House chairs were executed in England (D. Owsley and W. Rieder, The Glass Drawing-Room from Northumberland House, London, 1964). While Adam was drawing up his schemes for the Northumberland room, he was also supplying designs for the decoration and furnishings of the 3rd Earl of Bute's drawing-room at Luton Park, Bedfordshire. The drawing-room pier-tables which he designed for Luton, engraved in 1772 and illustrated in R. Adam, The Works in Architecture of Robert and James Adam, II, 1822, pl. VIII, interestingly also featured fluted columnar legs and ribbon-guilloche friezes. It is, therefore, certainly conceivable that the Bute suite of chairs was supplied for the same room. A further set of six chairs, which may originally have formed part of the Bute suite, was sold by the Executors of the late Francis Gerald, 7th Viscount Clifden in these Rooms, 16 December 1966, lot 182.

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Lot 33: A PAIR OF GEORGE III GILTWOOD OPEN ARMCHAIRS

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Description: Attributed to Franois Herve Each with an oval padded back, armrests and seat covered in metal-thread embroidered foliate silk, the back and arms with twisted-ribbon borders, above a guilloche band, on stop-fluted turned tapering legs headed by square panels, on bun feet, losses to the gilding, later gilded and with signs of original green underpainting, with pegged construction and batton carrying-holes (2) PROVENANCE Probably supplied either to John, 3rd Earl of Bute (1713-1792) for the drawing-room at Luton Park, Bedfordshire circa 1767-74 or to John, Viscount Mountstuart, later 1st Marquess of Bute (1744-1814) for Cardiff Castle circa 1777-8 and by descent to The 6th Marquess of Bute (+), sold from the Bute Collection, in these Rooms, 3 July 1996, lot 23. NOTES These 'Louis XVI' chair-frames, with medallion-cartouche backs and fluted columnar legs, are embellished with flowered tablets, voluted scrolls and beribboned mouldings of twined-thread and pearled guilloche in the 'antique' manner popularised by the furniture-engravings of the architect Jean-Charles Delafosse (d.1789), which were published in conjuction with his Nouvelles Iconologies, 1768-71. With their pegged construction of quadrant-headed leg and stepped rosette block, they relate to the documented oeuvre of the Parisian-trained menuisier Franois Herv of John Street, London. A partner of John Meschain, 'Cabinet and Chair maker', Herv enjoyed the patronage of George, Prince of Wales and was employed at Carlton House between 1783-94 under Henry Holland's direction. It is, therefore, pertinent that Henry Holland was also engaged by John, Viscount Mountstuart (d.1794) to rebuild Cardiff Castle circa 1777-8. Although related to Parisian-manufactured fauteuils of the late 1760's (such as that stamped by Sulpice Brizard, matre in 1762, illustrated in P. Kjellberg, Le Mobilier Franais du XVIIIe Sicle, Paris, 1989, p.119), the basic arm-pattern also featured on a suite of needlework-upholstered 'cabriole' chairs supplied by the 'upholder' James Cullen (d.1779) circa 1774 for the richly-mirrored drawing-room created by the architect Robert Adam at Northumberland House, London. Cullen was certainly involved with Reilly and Cobb in importing French patterns and furniture, but his role seems to have been purely in his capacity as owner of the warehouse, and it seems much more probable that the Northumberland House chairs were executed in England (D. Owsley and W. Rieder, The Glass Drawing-Room from Northumberland House, London, 1964). While Adam was drawing up his schemes for the Northumberland room, he was also supplying designs for the decoration and furnishings of the 3rd Earl of Bute's drawing-room at Luton Park, Bedfordshire. The drawing-room pier-tables which he designed for Luton, engraved in 1772 and illustrated in R. Adam, The Works in Architecture of Robert and James Adam, II, 1822, pl. VIII, interestingly also featured fluted columnar legs and ribbon-guilloche friezes. It is, therefore, certainly conceivable that the Bute suite of chairs was supplied for the same room. A further set of six chairs, which may originally have formed part of the Bute suite, was sold by the Executors of the late Francis Gerald, 7th Viscount Clifden in these Rooms, 16 December 1966, lot 182.

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Robert Adam (1728-1792)

Lot 34: Robert Adam (1728-1792)

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Description: Design for a chimney-pieceinscribed and dated 'Adelphi Decr 21st' (lower right in the margin) and further inscribed with measurementsone black ink; one brown ink and grey wash, one watermark I VILLEDARY, unframed9 3/4 x 12 1/4 in. (24.8 x 31 cm.); and a further chimney-piece by another hand circa 1765 (2)

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ROBERT ADAM (1728-1792) RAMBLERS 20cm x 20cm (8in x 8in)

Lot 35: ROBERT ADAM (1728-1792) RAMBLERS 20cm x 20cm (8in x 8in)

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Description: ROBERT ADAM (1728-1792) RAMBLERS Pen and ink and wash, circular 20cm x 20cm (8in x 8in)

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A PAIR OF GEORGE III GILTWOOD OPEN ARMCHAIRS

Lot 36: A PAIR OF GEORGE III GILTWOOD OPEN ARMCHAIRS

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Description: Possibly by John Linnell Each with oval padded back in a reeded and husk-carved frame, with outcurved part-padded arms and a serpentine seat, covered in pale green foliate silk damask, on husk-carved channelled cabriole legs, regilt (2) NOTES The chairs' Roman-medallion backs are of French 'cabriolet' form, such as featured in Thomas Chippendale Junior's designs of the 1770s to Burton Constable, Yorkshire (C. Gilbert, The Life and Work of Thomas Chippendale, London, 1978, fig. 202). Comprised of laurel-wreathed reeds, sacred to the Arcadian deity Pan, they evoke pastoral and lyric poetry and Ovid's Metamorphoses ; while their rails are embellished with libation-paterae framed by Roman acanthus and the laurel-festooned 'sunflower' badge of Apollo, the poetry deity. In the late 1770s Robert Adam (d.1792), architect to George III, introduced such laurel reeds and sunflowered paterae on the seat pattern invented for Sir Abraham Hume's Hill Street house (E. Harris, The Furniture of Robert Adam, London, 1963, fig. 124). The design of related medallion chair-frames at Osterley Park, Middlesex has been attributed to John Linnell (d. 1796), cabinet-maker and upholsterer of Berkeley Square. They were to be upholstered in Gobelins tapestry to accompanying wall-hangings featuring medallion vignettes by Fran‡ois Boucher inspired by Ovid's Metamorphoses or 'Loves of the Gods'. (H. Hayward, William and John Linnell, London, 1980, fig 92).

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A GEORGE III GILTWOOD BERGERE

Lot 39: A GEORGE III GILTWOOD BERGERE

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Description: Attributed to Thomas Chippendale The moulded frame with guilloche-carved back centred by a patera and with ribbon-tied acanthus, with curved padded back, seat and arms covered in foliate blue silk-damask, with turned legs and channelled lotus-leaf-carved feet with guilloche collars, on brass castors, regilt, the underside with cramp cuts PROVENANCE Probably bought by either the 2nd Earl Sommers (d.1852) or his son the 3rd Earl Sommers (d.1883) and by descent. NOTES A pair to this chair was sold anonymously, Christie's New York, 19 April 2001, lot 278 ($52,875)). The bergere was almost certainly made and supplied by the St. Martin's Lane firm established by Thomas Chippendale (d. 1779). Its design reflects the emerging design influence of around 1770 of Thomas Chippendale Junior (1749-1822), to harmonise with the 'Roman' style of architecture introduced by the Rome-trained architects Sir William Chambers (d.1796) and Robert Adam (d.1792). Chippendale Junior, who later published a pattern-book entitled Sketches of Ornament, 1779, and who styled himself 'Upholsterer and Cabinet-Maker to the Duke of Gloucester', may also have designed the similar seat furniture that was supplied for the Duke's London house and shown off by him to Thomas Mouat in 1775 (C. Gilbert, The Life and Work of Thomas Chippendale, London, 1978, vol. I, p. 235). George III also commissioned similar chairs for Windsor Castle ( ibid., fig. 185). The form of this bergere's arched back would be intended to match the fashionable 'Roman' medallion-back 'cabriolet' chairs featured in designs sent to Burton Constable, Yorkshire ( ibid., fig. 202). This bergere's cresting displays a 'poetic' flowered and laurel-wreathed libation-patera within a pearled ribbon-guilloche; while other pearled and sunflowered paterae enrich its antique-fluted seat-rail, and its arms are wrapped by palms. Similar bergeres, displaying 'Apollo' palm-flowers, were provided for the actor David Garrick's 'Apollo' Drawing Room at the Adelphi, which Adam had designed around 1770 ( ibid., fig. 160, and M. Snodin and J. Styles, Design and the Decorative Arts, London, 2001, fig. 48). The firm was also employed by the 1st Viscount Melbourne to furnish related seat furniture for Brocket Hall, Northamptonshire; as well as for his Piccadilly House in London, which had been built to Chambers' designs between 1771 and 1774 (Gilbert, op. cit., fig. 186).

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A PAIR OF GEORGE III ORMOLU-MOUNTED TULIPWOOD, HAREWOOD AND MARQUETRY CARD-TABLES

Lot 40: A PAIR OF GEORGE III ORMOLU-MOUNTED TULIPWOOD, HAREWOOD AND MARQUETRY CARD-TABLES

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Description: Each diagonally-banded overall, the serpentine rectangular hinged top with seven marquetry playing-cards laid down across the top surrounded by scrolling foliage, the corners each with a flowerhead, above a serpentined frieze and apron with conforming foliate panels, the right-hand side enclosing a mahogany-lined frieze drawer, with gateleg action, on tapering cabriole legs with pierced foliate sabots, one with paper label inscribed in ink and with a blue border 29 in. (73.5 cm.) high; 381/2 in. (97.5 cm.) wide; 191/2 in. (49.5 cm.) deep (2) PROVENANCE By family descent, probably since the 18th century. NOTES These elegant card-tables are inlaid and ormolu-mounted after the George III French antique fashion of the 1760's. Their marquetried tablets of silken harewood are ribbon-banded in rosewood, whose parquetry is striated from the centre and creates lozenged compartments uniting the tops and fa‡ades. The tops, which are flowered in the hollowed spandrels of the tablets, display sporting trophies of cards, while the floral counters are incorporated in their cartouche frames of ribbon-tied Roman acanthus. Similar ' rainceaux ' of foliage enrich the frieze tablets, while the feet of the serpentined and taper-hermed legs are also embellished with golden bas relief foliage. The delicate lines of the coloured arabesques of inlaid foliage evoke in particular the decoration of Roman places of entertainment, such as appear on the ceiling in the ancient Baths of Augustus illustrated in Bernard de Montfaucon's L'Antiquit‚ Expliqu‚ ', Paris, 1764 (Supplement, vol. III, pl. LIX). The fashion for such ornament had been promoted by the architect Robert Adam (d. 1792), who had, for instance, adopted the Augustus ceiling design for Lady Scarsdale's apartment at Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire. Her ceiling was executed in 1760 by Adam's Rome-trained Italian artist, Agostino Brunias, and described as 'quite in a new taste' (E. Harris, The Genius of Robert Adam, London 2001, p. 22, figs. 21 and 20). In place of the armorials or figurative medallions, the table centres display three piles of playing cards, whose upturned hands include the Garter-wreathed Ace of Spades bearing the 1765 stamp duty letter. Such whimsical trompe l'oeil decoration had long been fashionable for marble and scagliola tables, however on this occasion the game of 'vingt et un' revealed on these tables may possibly link them with one of London's fashionable Asssembly Rooms, such as those operated during the 1760s at Carlisle House, Soho by the Austrian singer Theresa Cornleys (d. 1797). The style of their ribbon-tied inlay in the French 'arabesque' fashion also relates to ornament introduced by Thomas Chippendale Junior (d. 1821), and used to advertise his succession to his father's St. Martin's lane workshops in 1779 when he published his pattern-book entitled, Sketches of Ornaments . The Chippendale firm were also to include similar foliage, accompanying laureled urns, on inlaid corner cupboards that were listed in a dressing-room in the 1795 inventory of Harewood House, Yorkshire (C. Gilbert, The Life and Work of Thomas Chippendale, London, 1978, vol.II, fig. 223). If the tables come from the Chippendale workshops, the possibility that these tables were commissioned by Theresa Cornleys is enhanced since Messrs Chippendale and Haig were listed amongst her creditors at the time of her 1772 bankruptcy. During the previous decade she had furnished Carlisle House in a sumptuous manner, causing Fanny Burney to write in 1770: 'The magnificence of the rooms, splendour of the illuminations and embellishments and the brilliant appearance of company exceeded anything I ever before saw' (O. Brackett, Thomas Chippendale, London, 1924, p.83). Also it was disclosed at the Court of Bankruptcy on 31 March 1773, that Madame Cornleys' estate including her 'Magnificent Dwelling House' and the 'furniture and ornaments' which had been inventoried at Carlisle House in 1771 had all been acquired on behalf of Chippendale and his syndicate. It was also recorded on this occasion that since the valuation of contents had been made in 1767, a further sum of money had been laid out in the fitting up of a 'Gallery and China Room' at Carlisle House (Bracket, ibid., pp. 138-141). A pair of related inlaid card-tables, was sold by the descendants of the 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, and formerly at Stowe, Buckinghamshire, Lawrence's, Crewkerne, Somerset, 6 May 1999, lot 411, œ150,000. A pair of the present model was offered anonymously Sotheby's New York, 22 January 1999, lot 244 which may be those illustrated in M. Jourdain, English Furniture and Decoration of the later 18th century, New York, n.d., p. 227, fig. 348.

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Lot 40: A PAIR OF GEORGE III ORMOLU-MOUNTED OPAQUE GLASS TWO-LIGHT CANDELABRA

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Description: By Matthew Boulton Each with ovoid body surmounted by a leaf-cast and pearled canopy with pine-cone finial, ringed by a band of chain-swagged guilloche, with winged sphinx at each side issuing acanthus-wrapped candlebranches with fluted nozzle and turned drip-pan, on a fluted spreading socle and square base, on a square white marble pedestal, one body with repaired crack 143/4 in. (37.5 cm.) high; 151/2 in. (39.5 cm.) wide (2) PROVENANCE Bought from Partridge, London, 23 March 1987 for œ40,000. LITERATURE Partridge, Summer Exhibition, 1987, no. 43. NOTES The George III candelabra, of egg-shaped vases with laurel-wreath bases, are designed in the Roman 'antique taste' to evoke Ovid's 'Loves of the Gods' or Metamorphoses, and the History of Jupiter, whose seduction of Leda in the guise of a swan lead to the birth of Rome's founders, Romulus and Remus. Generally known as 'Wing [caryatid] figured Vases', they derived from a design by Sir William Chambers (d. 1796) and were invented in the early 1770s by the Birmingham industrialist Matthew Boulton (d. 1809), following the recent establishment of his 'or moulu manufactory at Soho in Staffordshire' in partnership with John Fothergill (N. Goodison, Ormolu: The Work of Matthew Boulton, London, 1974, pp. 166-168). The use of 'Caryatides' as antique ornament had been promoted at this period by the 2nd edition (1768) of Sir William Chambers' Treatise on Civil Architecture, 1759. In 1770 Chambers, architect to George III, provided Boulton with ideas for related palm and laurel-enriched 'bacchic' vases, with hermed caryatids of Arcadian satyrs. One of these designs, invented as a chimneypiece garniture for Queen Charlotte's Buckingham House apartment, is likely to have been included in Chambers' exhibits at the 1770 Royal Academy, and comprising, 'Various Vases etc. to be executed in or moulu, by Mr. Bolton, for their Majesties' (J. Harris and M. Snodin, Sir William Chambers, London, 1997, pp.155, 156 and pl. 231). A version of this design was adapted by Boulton, and named after George III as the 'King's vase' (N. Goodison, 'The King's Vases', Furniture History, 1972, pp. 35-40, pls. 34 and 33a). Other vases were executed to the same shape, but their branches were comprised of caryatic 'bacchantae', the nymph-companions of the satyrs at the Feasts of Bacchus ( ibid., pl. 33B). The present ovoid vases stand on statuary marble plinths, and are of bacchic thyrsus-finialed 'krater' form. Their trompe l'oeil marble bodies of opaque Stourbridge glass probably supplied by James Keir ( ibid., p.167), are wreathed by flowered and pearl-festooned ribbon-guilloches; while their handles, incorporate 'vase-and-tazza' candlebranches and issue from addorsed Egyptian sphinx or winged-nymph caryatic herms. A sketch of these vases, from Boulton and Fothergill's Pattern Book I, p. 156, surviving in the Boulton archives in the Birmingham Assay Office Library, bears the number 238 (Goodison, op. cit., 1974, fig. 162, no.B). Boulton exhibited some of his 'sphinx' vases at the exhibition sale of his 'superb and elegant produce' held at Messrs Christie and Ansell's London show-rooms in April 1772. However he had already sold one of this pattern for œ12.12.0., when the Earl of Stamford visited Soho in January of the same year. At the sale a pair of vases, with single nozzle branches and a third nozzle concealed in their reversible lids, was purchased by Robert Child (d.1782) for Osterley Park, Middlesex where they were placed on pedestals designed by the architect Robert Adam (d. 1792) (J. Hardy, Osterley Park House, London, 1985, p. 63). Those purchased by Child were listed in Boulton's account with William Matthews, his London banker, as 'A pair of wing-figured vases white bodies without pedestals... 29.8.0'. However, they were then delivered to another client, so Boulton had to despatch a different pair to Osterley, where they arrived in July 1772 ( ibid., pp. 166-8 and figs. 127-131). Another pair was acquired by Tsar Paul I ( Pavlovsk Park and Palace, Leningrad, 1975, pls. 41-44). A single candelabrum of this model with Derbyshire fluorspar body, is in the Speed Art Museum, Louisville, Kentucky, the gift of James C. Codell, Jr. Another candelabrum, also with fluorspar body, is illustrated in Mallett: The Age of Matthew Boulton, n.d. [2000], p. 64.

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A GEORGE III SATINWOOD AND FLORAL MARQUETRY BREAKFRONT BOOKCASE

Lot 40: A GEORGE III SATINWOOD AND FLORAL MARQUETRY BREAKFRONT BOOKCASE

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Description: Attributed to Mayhew and Ince Crossbanded overall with sabicu and inlaid with ebony and boxwood lines, the breakfront cornice inlaid overall with simulated flutes and surmounted to the centre with a stylised broken scroll swan-neck pediment with neo-classical urn inlaid with a pearled border above an acanthus cup and spreading splayed socle, the broken pediment inlaid with richly-engraved acanthus arabesques and spiralling rosettes, the frieze inlaid with simulated flutes and with 19th century bronze library numbers 62, 63 and 64, above a pair of glazed doors with repeating oval and lozenge-pattern glazing flanked by two further corresponding doors with stylised floral patera enclosing a fitted interior with three adjustable shelves to the centre and four to each side, all with corresponding 19th century brass alphabetical denominations, the moulded low waist above a fluted frieze and a pair of panelled doors with central rosette patera on a sabicu ground enclosing a fitted interior with a further adjustable shelf flanked by two tiers of three drawers with domed foliate patera handles above a moulded plinth base, one drawer with pasted in photograph of Northwick Park, the locks to the lower section with S-pattern keyholes 1031/2 in. (263 cm.) high; 76 in. (193 cm.) wide; 151/4 in. (38.5 cm.) deep PROVENANCE The late Captain E.G. Spencer-Churchill, M.C., Northwick Park, Gloucestershire, Christie's house sale, 28 September 1964, lot 168. Bought from Norman Adams. LITERATURE C. Claxton Stevens and S. Whittington, 18th Century English Furniture, The Norman Adams Collection, Woodbridge, rev. ed., 1985, p. 223 ('... satisfying proportions...'). NOTES The golden bookcase evokes lyric poetry and the triumph of the poetry deity Apollo, and is dressed with a vase in the Roman 'Columbarium' fashion promoted by the Rome-trained architect Robert Adam (d.1792), architect to George III. The palm-wreathed krater-vase finial graces its arched and bow-scrolled pediment inlaid with laurels issuing from its flowered volutes. Its trellised glazing is mosaiced in circular compartments derived from the ceiling of the Temple of Apollo engraved in Robert Wood's Ruins of Palmyra, 1753. These are flowered with sunflowered paterae recalling Ovid's Metamorphoses and the History of Apollo and Clytie. Large patera-medallions inlaid on the door tablets of its central commode section are similarly flowered, while the tablets of the recessed drawer-nests are embellished with ormolu sunflowered and laurel-wreathed paterae and laurel-wreaths. As well as the trompe l'oeil flutes inlaid in the cornices of both sections, the bookcase is embellished with black and white fillet-ribbons in Adam's 'Etruscan' fashion. It is fitted with fine serpentine-fretted lock-plates introduced in the early 1770s and featured on a number of items supplied by some of the leading cabinet-makers including Thomas Chippendale of St. Martin's Lane. (C. Gilbert, The Life and Work of Thomas Chippendale, London 1978, vol. II, fig. 267). The commode ornament of flutes and sunflowered paterae relate to that of a pair of commodes supplied around 1780 to Charles 4th Duke of Marlborough and attributed to the Golden Square firm of John Mayhew and William Ince (H. Roberts, 'Furniture for the 4th Duke of Marlborough', Furniture History, 1994, p. 139, fig. 29). The same handles also appear on a roll-top desk attributed to this firm (L. Wood, Catalogue of Commodes, London, 1992, p. 229, fig. 215). POSSIBLE PROVENANCE The early provenance of this bookcase is a puzzle that, when solved, will undoubtedly provide a key link in unravelling an as yet unidentified Mayhew and Ince commission. In 1964 it was sold from Northwick Park, Gloucestershire. At the time the sale was known for the collections, notably of Old Masters, formed by Captain E.G. Spencer Churchill, M.C. (1876-1964). Exactly what at Northwick had been collected by Captain Spencer-Churchill and what had been inherited is impossible to guess. There were two other lots in the sale that suggest a wider Mayhew and Ince commission may be hidden in the sale - a demi-lune satinwood commode of the same shape but simpler form as lot 20 in this sale (lot 118 at Northwick) and a chamber organ (lot 246). If it emerged that this bookcase, the commode and the organ were part of an earlier Mayhew commission, there are at least two possible sources for that. Captain Spencer-Churchill inherited Northwick from his mother's family, the Rushouts, Barons Northwick. It is possible that some of the furniture survived the colossal Northwick collection sales of 1859. Any commission would possibly have been by John Rushout, 1st Baron Northwick (1738-1800). While a Rushout-Northwick commission is conceivable, it does seem less likely that the alternative. Captain Spencer-Churchill was great great grandson of the 4th Duke of Marlborough (d.1817) who was a long term client of the firm, at Blenheim Palace and probably for his son at Whiteknights, near Reading (H. Roberts, 'Furniture for the 4th Duke of Marlborough', Furniture History, 1994, ppp. 130-9). It seems more likely that the three lots attributable to Mayhew and Ince at Northwick Park in 1964 had descended to Captain Spencer-Churchill as remnants of his own family's enormous commission, rather than their having remained in his house throughout. SALESROOM NOTICE This bookcase is recorded in the Library in the 1859 inventory of Northwick Park ('A bookcase satinwood inlaid, with drawers and enclosed with doors') but it is not recorded in the later 19th century inventories or that taken in 1912 when George Spencer-Churchill inherited the house. This suggests that on the death of the 2nd Lord Northwick in 1859 it was either sold or inherited separately, to be bought or left back to the house during George Spencer-Churchill's life. There theory is supported by the history of the chamber organ, possibly also by Mayhew and Ince. This is also present in the 1859 inventory, absent in the later ones, and had returned to the house to be lot 246 in the house sale in 1964.

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English Gilt-Brass Tripodal Garniture, second

Lot 41: English Gilt-Brass Tripodal Garniture, second

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Description: English Gilt-Brass Tripodal Garniture, second quarter 20th century, in the form of an antique brazier in the style of Robert Adam (1728-1792), now mounted as a table lamp on a verde antico marble plinth surmounting an ebonized wooden disc base, the knees of the brazier legs modeled as horned goat masques, the lamp fitted with a white slubbed silk shade, h. 21".

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Lot 42: ADAM, ROBERT (1728-1792)

Description: Design for a classical bridge Ink 14x18 inches (36x46.5 cm).

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Early framed miniature of Robert Adam tassie wax

Lot 42: Early framed miniature of Robert Adam tassie wax

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Description: Early framed miniature of Robert Adam tassie wax death memorial plaque of figure in profile dressed in classical robe with inscription "Robert Adam architect died 3 March 1792" with indistinct signature (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792)

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Lot 43: ADAM, ROBERT (1728-1792)

Description: Chimney piece for the dining room at Moccas Court, Herefordshire, 1781 Ink 13x19 inches (33x47 cm) Inscr. D.

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Lot 44: A LATE GEORGE III MAHOGANY 'WICKER-WORK' WINE CISTERN

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Description: Late 18th/early 19th century Of octagonal form, the sides carved to simulate wicker, with inset removable metal liner, on a later conforming base with bracket feet 26½in. (67cm.) high, 47in. (119.5cm.) wide PROVENANCE: Text:Almost certainly supplied to William Weddell or Thomas Robinson for Newby Hall, North Yorkshire. Thence by descent until sold by Mr. and Mrs. R.E.F. Compton, Newby Hall house sale, Tennant's of Yorkshire, 1-4 July 1985, lot 316. Newby Hall was aggrandized by its owner William Weddell (d.1792) in the 1760's and 1770's. Weddell, a collector of ancient sculpture and paintings, was an early promoter of the neoclassical taste in England and suitably employed Robert Adam to supervise the renovations where Thomas Chippendale supplied 'a considble [sic.] part' of the furniture in the house. While it is tempting to attribute this cistern to the Chippendale workshop, this object cannot be identified in the complete inventory of the house taken by Thomas Chippendale Junior on the occasion of Weddell's death in 1792 (for a full discussion and inventory listing of Newby Hall, see J.Low, 'Newby Hall: Two Late Eighteenth-Century Inventories', Furniture History, 1986, pp.135-175). 'A large wood Cistern lin'd with lead' is listed in the Front Area and the Water House similarly lists 'A large cistern lined with lead', however these entries fail to describe this object's distinctive octagonal form (and the metal liner which may very well be original to the piece is not a lead one). By contrast, there is listed a 'mahogany Oval Cistern' in The Parlour. The cistern is conceived in the Georgian 'antique' manner promoted by Adam, Chippendale and connoisseurs such as Weddell. Its woven reed sides in the fashion of a bacchic basket imitates contemporary French objects executed in ormolu. The fashion for octagonal cisterns was introduced in the 1770's and was promoted in A. Hepplewhite's pattern book The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer's Guide published in 1788. It is quite possible that this fashionable cistern was supplied to Weddell or Thomas Robinson who inherited the Newby property as a child and would have come to age in the early nineteenth century.

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Lot 47: ADAM, ROBERT (1728-1792)

Description: The castel of Cullen, Banffshire Ink 15x20 inches (39x51 cm) signed.

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Lot 48: ADAM, ROBERT (1728-1792)

Description: Romantic landscape with a ruined cvastle above a river with a bridge Ink 12x15 inches (31x39 cm) Inscr.

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Lot 49: A PAIR OF GEORGE III GILTWOOD PIER GLASSES BASED ON A DESIGN BY ROBERT ADAM

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Description: Each with rectangular plate, with beaded and acanthus-leaf cavetto frame with channelled edge, surmounted by an athenienne cresting with the urn issuing a floral spray above a waisted neck and guilloche frieze, on three goat-head monopodia hung with drapery, on hoof feet above a rectangular reverse painted, polychrome glass panel, one broken and repaired, depicting a baske of flowers, flanked by foliate scrolls centred by flower-head patera, one inscribed in pencil to the reverse "Left-hand Side" lacking one patera and one end scroll, the centre of one scroll also lacking, restorations 46 3/4 in. (119 cm.) wide; 103 in. (261.5 cm.) high; 18 in. (46 cm.) deep PROVENANCE Almost certainly supplied to Sir Thomas Taylour, 1st Earl of Bective (d.1795), for the Saloon at Headfort House, co. Meath, Ireland. Thence by descent at Headfort. The Earl of Bective first commissioned designs from the fashionable London architect Robert Adam (d.1792) following the removal Adam's practice from Grosvenor Square to the Adelphi in 1768. In 1771 Adam provided a design for the Eating Parlour at Headfort House with a proposed Roman vaulted ceiling, however in 1775 a new design was produced for the ceiling and the "Chimney side", and later executed. The adjoining Saloon ceiling was executed after Adam's design of 1772, and both rooms were furnished with the same pattern pier glass. The tripartite Saloon ceiling was embellished with a light relief stucco and centred by a decorative medallion of bacchic figures celebrating the vintage and recalling the Arcadian theme of Peace and Plenty. The mirror crestings were designed in harmony with the room decoration, differing slightly from Adam's 1771 scheme for the Eating Parlour which featured similar rectangular pier glasses on the "Window Side", with griffons flanking a crowned medallion. The present pier glasses relate to the antique tripods in his design of January 1772 for the stuccoed walls of the Great Staircase and the circular frieze of foliate swags and tazze, decorating the Saloon ceiling.

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Lot 49: Thomas Malton, Jnr. (1748-1804)

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Description: elegant company walking by the serpentine, hyde park Pen and black ink and watercolour over pencil with original washline mount 25.5 by 37.5 cm.; 10 by 14 3/4 in. This watercolour shows elegant figures walking by the Serpentine in Hyde Park. In the distance are visible Apsley House, built for the 2nd Earl Bathurst by Robert Adam from c. 1772 to 1778, and Westminster Abbey. Malton may have intended to engrave this watercolour as part of his series 'A Picturesque Tour through London', published by the artist on 21st August 1792. However no engraving of this subject was produced.

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Lot 50: A PAIR OF GEORGE III GILTWOOD ARMCHAIRS DESIGNED BY ROBERT ADAM, MADE BY JAMES LAWSON AND SUPPLIED TO SIR LAWRENCE DUNDAS FOR THE BANQUETING HALL AT MOOR PARK IN OCTOBER 1764

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Description: Each with a serpentine-shaped rectangular padded back, outscrolled arms and seat covered in light-green material, the front of the arms with pierced entrelac band and terminating in patera, the seat-rails with pierced flowered guilloche frieze, the front corners with ram's heads on tapering cabriole legs headed by acanthus scrolls and centred by flower-heads, on hoof feet, regilt (see below), minor replacements to the carved decoration, originally with sunk castors within the hoof feet 41 in. (104 cm.) wide; 36 in. (91.5 cm.) high, 22 in. (56 cm.) depth of seat (2) PROVENANCE Supplied to Sir Lawrence Dundas, Bt. (d.1781) for the Banqueting Hall at Moor Park, Hertfordshire on 24 October 1764 (at a cost of œ12-10s-6 for each armchair). Thence by descent to his son, Thomas Dundas, later 1st Baron Dundas at Moor Park. Acquired with Moor Park in 1784 by Thomas Bates Rouse, Esq. (d.1799). Purchased with the home in 1801 by Robert Williams (d.1814), M.P. for Dorchester. Thence by descent to his son, Robert Williams Esq., also M.P. for Dorchester. Acquired with Moor Park, in 1828 by Robert, 2nd Earl Grosvenor, later Marquess of Westminster (d.1845). Thence by descent to his third son, Lord Robert Grosvenor, later 1st Baron Ebury (d.1893). Thence by descent to Robert, 3rd Baron Ebury, remaining in situ at Moor Park until 1919, until sold by him, in these Rooms, 5 May 1942, lot 97 (œ97 39s 18d to Wolff). Acquired from the decorator Dolly Mann circa 1942-3 (certainly before 1944) and thence by descent. LITERATURE FOR THE SUITE: 'Moor Park, Hertfordshire', Country Life, Vol. XXXI, 1912, p. 18 and p. 56. 'A Christopher Wren house', The Queen, 25 August 1926, pp. 9-11. International Studio, December 1928, XCI, 379, pp. 6-7. A. Coleridge, 'Sir Lawrence Dundas and Chippendale', Apollo, Vol. LXXXVI, September 1967, p. 199. C. Thomerson, English Heritage Conservation Bulletin, June 1988, p. 6-7. J. Bryant, 'Back as Adam intended', Country Life, 3 November 1988, pp. 194-5, figs. 4,6,7. J. Bryant, Country Life, 16 February 1997, p. 108. G. Beard, Upholsterer's and Interior Furnishings in England, London 1997, fig. 281. NOTES THE MOOR PARK ARMCHAIRS These magnificent golden chairs belong to the remarkable suite of seat-furniture designed in 1764 by Robert Adam (d.1792), architect to King George III and commissioned by Sir Lawrence Dundas for the Banqueting Hall at Moor Park, Hertfordshire. Supplied by the cabinet-maker James Lawson of Chandos Street, Covent Garden who flourished from 1763-78, they were delivered on 24 October 1764. Remarkably, as with so much of Dundas' furniture commissions from the 1760s, the original invoice, dated 26 October 1764, survives in the Zetland papers at the North Yorkshire County Record Office (ZNLX 1/7/26-30, 72). It was thus described: ' 2 carved and gilt sophas on casters cover'd with blue Turkey leather cusheons & 2 bolsters for each at....œ36 œ72-0-0 6 carved and gilt chairs on casters cover'd with blue Turkey leather.... at.... œ12-10 5 œ75-0-0 2 large carved and gilt scroll stools on casters cover'd with blue Turkey leather....at œ20-2-6.. œ40-5-0' The Moor Park Suite was, therefore, amongst the most expensive suites of seat-furniture executed in the 18th Century and, at œ12-10-5 each armchair, was only marginally less expensive than Thomas Chippendale's second most expensive suite of seat-furniture, the rococo seat-furniture also supplied to Dundas in 1766 for the Great Room at Arlington Street at a cost of œ13 per chair. Remarkably, Chippendale's most expensive suite was also commissioned by Dundas, of which a pair of armchairs and a pair of sofas was sold by The Marquess of Zetland in these Rooms, 3 July 1997, lots 100 and 101, was also designed by Robert Adam and was supplied at a cost of œ410-4-0 in total, each armchair costing œ20. As Dundas was certainly wary of overcharging by cabinet-makers, having successfully disputed Samuel Norman's bill of 1763, his exacting expectations must have been satisfied by Lawson's remarkable suite of seat-furniture, and the esteem in which the suite was held is clearly revealed by the care and expense of the transportation from Lawson's Covent Garden workshops to Moor Park, also listed in the invoice of 26 October 1764: 'Large Packing Cases for Sophas, Stools & Chairs œ9.13 Men sent to Moor Park to unpack œ1.16' SIR LAWRENCE DUNDAS AND MOOR PARK Sir Lawrence Dundas, 'The Nabob of the North', was the outstanding merchant-venturer of his day and has the distinction, perhaps uniquely, of employing virtually all of the greatest exponents of the cabinet-makers art during George III's reign. Perfectly complimented in all things aesthetic by his ' dear life ' Margaret Bruce of Kennet (1715-1802), Dundas' account books reveal that he patronised no less than Samuel Norman, Fell and Turton, Chippendale and Rannie, Vile and Cobb, France and Bradburn, Mayhew and Ince, James Lawson and Pierre Langlois in the 1760s alone. Financial success and political ambition have always been inextricably linked with architectural patronage, and the 1760's saw an unprecedented burst of building activity by the Dundases. It was in 1763 that Dundas acquired not only Arlington Street but also Moor Park. The latter, a princely mansion designed by Giacomo Leoni in 1720 for Benjamin Styles, was in need of some improvements and it was to Robert Adam, a fellow Scot, that Dundas turned, at first in the house and, from 1766, to 'ornament the Garden, farm and park'. Restricted, unlike at Arlington Street, by the superb baroque interiors painted by Francesco Sleter and Giacomo Amiconi that survived at Moor Park, Adam was engaged to aggrandise the interiors in the fashionable 'antique' taste, overseeing the design of the furnishings and alterations to the Gallery to allow for the hanging of Neilson's celebrated suite of Gobelins tapestries, which were shipped from Paris in June 1769. These magnificent golden chairs were designed by Adam for the Banqueting Saloon at Moor Park. Conceived to harmonise with the Arcadian deities painted around the walls of the villa's great room of entertainment, the beribboned ram's-masks recalling ancient festivities honouring the wine-god Bacchus, this suite reflects the robust 'antique' style that was to earn the architect the title of ' Bob the Roman'. Adam's reputation for introducing the ' true taste for the antique' was further consolidated with the appearance of his sumptuous publication, 'The Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro' of 1764, which revealed the fruits of part of his Italian studies, before the establishment of his London practice in the late 1750s. ADAM'S DESIGN Adam's sketch for the suite's scroll-ended stools, whose prototype was the 'triclinium' couch upon which Romans reclined at Banquets, previously unpublished, is now in the Sir John Soane Museum, having survived in an album of his working drawings (Soane's Museum, Adam, vol. 54, series 1, no. 66 ). It is from this pattern that the armchairs evolved, their frames, with Ionic volutes rising from a foliated rail, corresponding to Roman pier-capitals, such as featured on Apollo's Temple at Didyma (M. Lyttleton, Baroque Architecture in classical Antiquity, London, 1974, fig. 35). Accompanied by a detailed study of flowered ribbon-guilloche of Roman acanthus foliage that forms an elaborate fretwork over the seat-rail's upholstery, the principal sketch displays alternate treatment for the stool's end-scrolls, but it is accompanied by a further sketch illustrating the choice of ram's heads. These ram's heads were inspired by 'antique' sacrificial altars, and it is therefore extremely pertinent that Adam himself displayed such a marble altar, acquired in Rome, at his house in Grosvenor Square, surmounted by a bronze replica of the celebrated antiquity, the Farnese bull. However, the stool's sculptural composition, with ram's heads hung above ram-monopodia emerging from flower-voluted trusses, most clearly reflects Adam's Roman style learnt through friendship with the architect Gianbattista Piranesi (d.1778) and the latter's study of furniture assembled from antique fragments. This composition differed from the 'French Easy Chair' form, such as appeared on the stayr-hoofed 'Shakespeare' throne designed in the 1750s by William Hogarth (d.1764) 'Rococo Art and Design in Hogarth's England', Exhibition Catalogue, London, 1984, E7, pp. 67-8 and reflects the design 'revolution' of which Adam boasted in the first volume of his Works in Architecture, 1774. This pair of 'Scroll Chairs' have serpentine-arched crestings in harmony with the arms, which are embellished with fretted ribbon-guilloche edged by reed-gadrooning and terminate in volutes with flowered patera. The acanthus ribbon-guilloche of the seat-rail serves to tie the ram-heads, and these bear acanthus-husk trails that festoon the feet, which are wrapped with Roman foliage and originally concealed castors. Although the Moor Park Suite is, therefore, amongst the earliest examples of Adam designed Neo-classical seat-furniture, and served as a prototype for the other celebrated Dundas suite, executed by Thomas Chippendale to Adam's design in 1765, much of the ornament had already entered the cabinet-makers vocabulary. Thus the serpentined cresting, accompanying back-swept and Ionic-scrolled arms, had already featured in Thomas Chippendale's 1759 engraving for an antique-herm footed sofa issued in his The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director, 1762 (pl.XXX), while the ram-headed monopodia featured in his 1762 ' commode table ' pattern (pl. LXVII) and the ram's-head on a 1760 ' busto term ' pedestal, a bust bracket, a candle-stand pattern (pls. CXLVIII, CLXI and CXLV) and a pedestal pattern of 1761 (pl. CL). The name ' couch ' was also a contemporary term. Moreover the guilloche-ribboned arm and seat-rail with bust-enriched corners also featured on a sofa-pattern issued by Messrs. Ince and Mayhew in their Universal System of Household Furniture, 1762 (pl. LXII) who also depicted ram's-masks and reed-gadrooned borders on an acanthus-wrapped candlestick pedestal that they adapted from a French/antique pattern by G.M. Oppenordt, (pl. LXVI). The Moor Park Suite is therefore, the first profoundly Neo-classical suite of seat-furniture to survive as a legacy of Sir Lawrence Dundas' enlightened patronage. It is, therefore, lamentable that so little is now known about its maker. James Lawson, working in partnership with his brother Peter until 1767, was clearly a cabinet-maker of exceptional reputation and ability. Patronised by Dundas at Moor Park, Aske Hall and Arlington Street from June 1763, he appears to have received payments amounting to ' about œ1100 ' by 1770, according to Sir Lawrence's account books. That Lawson worked closely with Adam throughout the Moor Park commission is confirmed again by the correspondence, ' Mr Adams ' visiting Lawson's workshop on 10 January 1765 to inspect the newly-arrived ' large glasses ' from Paris. The Moor Park suite was undoubtedly his masterpiece, however the majority of the furniture he supplied to Dundas, as indicated by the bills, was on a more utilitarian level. THE PROVENANCE Moor Park, together with the suite of seat-furniture, was sold on three occasions in the late 18th and early 19th Centuries. Firstly, in 1784, it was acquired by Thomas Bates Rouse (d.1799) of the East India Company. Subsequently bought by Robert Williams (d.1814), M.P. for Dorchester, in 1801 it was sold by his son, another Thomas Williams to Robert, 2nd Earl Grosvenor, later Marquess of Westminster (d.1845) in 1828. Inherited by Westminster's third son, Lord Ebury the suite remained in situ until 1919, when the house passed into the hands of arguably the greatest collector of English furniture - the 1st Lord Leverhulme. The suite of seat-furniture, however, was retained by Lord Ebury, and though the pair of sofas and a pair of armchairs were acquired by Lord Leverhulme at Sotheby's London, on 6 July 1923, lots 154-5, the remaining four chairs, together with the pair of scroll-ended seats, were not sold until 1942. They were then auctioned by Lord Ebury at Christie's on 5 May, lot 97 (œ97-39-18 to Wolff). Purchased from the decorator Dolly Mann circa 1942-3, this pair of armchairs has remained in the same private collection to the present day. One of the Leverhulme chairs, photographed in situ at The Hill, Hampstead circa 1920, as well as the sofas, were subsequently in the Leverhulme sale, Anderson Galleries, New York, 9 February 1926, lots 90-91. Today the rest of the suite, excepting one of the scroll-ended couches and one armchair, whose present whereabouts are unknown, is now at Kenwood, having been assembled from as far afield as the White House, Washington and Ireland. THE UPHOLSTERY AND GILDING While seats designed for banqueting halls were generally executed in mahogany, those for a banqueting saloon, which served as a combined eating and withdrawing-room, were generally gilded. Also, whereas such grand frames might normally be expected to be damask upholstered, it was considered that leather or horsehair were more suitable for eating rooms. It is therefore, relevant that when restoring the armchairs at Kenwood, English Heritage discovered traces of the original ' blue Turkey leather ' upholstery. Interestingly, when the Dundas pattern was later adapted for Adam's stone-painted banqueting couches at Osterley Park, Middlesex, these were also upholstered in Royal blue leather. A close comparison between the Kenwood chairs and the present pair reveals not only identical webbing and the remains of the original tufting with blue twining or stuffing ties - the precursor of button-back upholstery - but also the fact that the hoof-feet originally disguised castors. These chairs are also identically constructed to those at Kenwood, although there are inevitable minor variations within the suite itself, one of the Kenwood chairs and one of the Scroll-couches being constructed without any angle-brackets. Unusually moreover, an analysis of the gilding of the present chairs reveals that, beneath two later layers, probably 19th Century, one of gold paint and the other of gold leaf, the original 18th Century oil-gilt surface on a thin layer of yellow mordent survives. Of the suite, therefore, these chairs are in the most original state. We are grateful to Treve Rosoman, Curator of the Architectural Study Collection, English Heritage and Stephen Astley of the Sir John Soane Museum for their help in preparing this catalogue entry.

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A GEORGE III MAHOGANY BUREAU-CABINET

Lot 50: A GEORGE III MAHOGANY BUREAU-CABINET

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Description: Attributed to Thomas Chippendale The dentilled broken pediment centred by a patera, above a fluted frieze and a pair of arched mirror-panelled doors with shell and acanthus upper spandrels and rosette lower corners, the sides hung with ribbon-tied foliate, enclosing three adjustable shelves, the six shelf-supports with lacquered-brass knob handles, above four small mahogany-lined drawers and four pigeon-holes, the lower section with a hinged slope enclosing a fitted interior with nine small drawers, six pigeon-holes and a green baize-lined writing-surface with re-entrant corners, above two drawers and a pair of concave cut-corner panelled doors with later lock and enclosing three oak sliding trays, on shaped bracket feet, with two printed paper depository labels, one on top of the other, for Ward's Furniture Depository 'A LOVEGROVE ESQ EX LEWISHAM', inscribed in chalk 'Side Damaged', the handles original, with S-pattern locks on the drawers, the later bureau lock stamped 'BARRON PATENT' but retaining the S-pattern keyhole, the mirror plates and their backboards replaced, originally with an urn on the central cornice platform, the interior fittings of the upper section probably slightly re-arranged, the oak slides in the base originally cloth-covered 94 in. (239 cm.) high; 473/4 in. (121.5 cm.) wide; 243/4 in. (63 cm.) deep PROVENANCE Dr. Arthur Charles Adams Lovegrove (1863-1943), before 1905, and by descent. NOTES The Hunter bureau-cabinet belongs to a very select sub-group of furniture attributed to Thomas Chippendale, where a combination of design, construction and comparison allows a confident attribution to the master. Only one other bureau-bookcase that so closely follows the same pattern is known and Christopher Gilbert wrote of that one, in his Life and Work of Thomas Chippendale, vol. I, p. 290, that 'as a rule it is fruitless to speculate about such [unprovenanced] furniture but one item, a desk and bookcase published by R.W. Symonds in 1931, can with confidence be attributed to Chippendale's workshop. The design is based on Plate CVII in the third edition, but some decorative elements, up-dated in the neo-classical taste, display striking analogies to carved details on cabinets at Harewood, and furthermore the lower stage contains sliding trays lined in old marbled paper, a finish consistently applied by Chippendale but not assocated with any other firms'. The cabinet published by R.W. Symonds was exhibited by Hotspur Ltd., at The Grosvenor House Fair, 1996, and is illustrated in the catalogue, p. 93. The base of the Hunter bureau-cabinet has oak slides of the same thickness as those covered with marbled paper on the Hotspur cabinet. Those on the Hunter cabinet seem originally to have been covered with a flap of fabric, usually to protect the contents from dust. Chippendale's more 'picturesque' design features a bookcase, with a projecting Roman temple-pedimented and Ionic-dentilled cornice with a draped urn. The present bookcase's improvements to the design reflect the elegant 'Roman' fashion promoted by Robert Adam (d.1792). Beneath an antique-fluted cornice, the spandrels are flowered with palm-issuing acanthus, evoking the poetry deity Apollo. Sunflowered libation-paterae displayed on the pediment and tablets recall that deity's love. Its scrolled and fretted 'truss' feet also shun the 'picturesque' ornament of Chippendale's earlier design. Even allowing for these more neo-classical improvements, the design of both derives very closely from plate CVII in the 3rd edition of Chippendale's Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director, of 1762. The engraving itself is dated 1760, providing a useful terminus ante quem for this rigorously neo-classical pattern. The execution of both the Hunter and Hotspur cabinets differ in tiny details from the Director pattern and provide an interesting example of the process of classical change that affected the design. The most substantial difference is the addition of a classical fluted frieze below the cornice on both cabinets, where the design shows no frieze at all. The design shows flowerheads within the cut-corners of panels in both sections: on both cabinets these are replaced with paterae. Other elements of the bureau-cabinet are of the highest quality, both of design and execution. The baize writing-surface has indented 're-entrant' corners, a characteristic shared by some of a slightly earlier group of Kentian bureau-cabinets of related breakfront form, including that sold from the collection of the late Helena Hayward, F.S.A, Sotheby's London, 4 July 1997, lot 44. The breakfront form of the upper sections of these bureau-cabinets is very unusual and it is conceivable that Chippendale's design was inspired by the Hayward group, dated to circa 1750, and which are now attributed to William Hallett Senior. A feature of the Hunter cabinet of exceptional rarity is the small giltmetal handles that adjust the shelf-supports in the interior of the upper section. S-PATTERN KEYHOLES One of the small constructional elements that points to Chippendale's authorship is the use of s-pattern keyholes, almost unique to him. The locks on the main slope and the two outer drawers of the Hunter bureau-bookcase have this feature. In his 1768 account to Lady Shelburne, Chippendale mentioned that a commode table has 'very good spring and tumbler locks and S-bitted keys' (Gilbert, op. cit., vol. I, p. 253, and vol. II, p. 147, fig. 267). This keyhole pattern has very occasionally been recorded on furniture attributed to Chippendale's competitor John Cobb, for example on the commode sold anonymously, Christie's New York, 19 April 2001, lot 148. However, nearly all occurrences are on furniture attributed to Chippendale. THE PROVENANCE The early 20th century depository labels on this bureau-cabinet, and family tradition, confirm that it entered the family with Dr Arthur Lovegrove. Born in Sevenoaks, Kent, he obtained medical registration in 1889, married in Doncaster in 1894 and died at Hexham, Northumberland, in 1943. Although it is not known whether he inherited this bureau- cabinet, or bought it, it is known that he was left other items of furniture by grateful patients. This makes the details of his working career more tantalising, as from an early date he worked in the heart of Chippendale country in Yorkshire, for example East Cowton in 1894 (8 miles from Richmond), and in Ripon in 1894. He must have acquired the cabinet before 1905, when he was briefly in practice in Lewisham, and this cabinet was in store there. We are grateful to Roger Lovegrove of the Lovegrove Information Centre (www.lovegrove.org.uk) for his help with this biographical information.

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ADAM, Robert (1728-1792).  Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia.  [London:] for the author, 1764.

Lot 52: ADAM, Robert (1728-1792). Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia. [London:] for the author, 1764.

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Description: ADAM, Robert (1728-1792). Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia. [London:] for the author, 1764.Broadsheets (527 x 378 mm). Engraved frontispiece and 60 engraved plates (14 double-page, some folding) on 54 leaves, by Francesco Bartolozzi, [Francesco, Antonio and Giuseppe] Zucchi, Francis Patton, Paolo Santini, and others (some spotting, and one or two marginal tears, one repaired on the verso and another just affecting the image on plate V "General Plan of the Palace as it now remains"). Contemporary mottled calf (rebacked preserving the original spine, scuffed at the extremities). Provenance: a few 19th-century penciled annotations to later plates.FIRST EDITION OF THIS MAGNIFICENT WORK. Adam's book, with its elaborately engraved views, was the outcome of his visit to Spalatro (Split) during his Grand Tour. It was intended to emulate the success of Robert Wood's The Ruins of Palmyra, published in 1763. Spalatro seemed perfect for such a project, being the only significant unexplored classical site to hand. In Florence, Adam had met the architect Charles-Louis Clérisseau (1721-1820), who was to be Adam's instructor for the next two years and who was to supervise much of the engraving for the book in Venice and London. While Adam acted as leader of the expedition and contributed architectural observations, as well as gathering subscribers for publication, the preface was written by his cousin, the Scottish historian William Robertson. The engravings were probably based on drawings by Clérisseau (six of which are preserved in the Hermitage Museum), and were said by the Critical Review in October 1764 to possess "a taste and execution that has never been equalled in this country." Indeed, when Adam returned to Britain in 1758, "the custom's officer at Harwich had so admired the drawings that he had charged no duty" (Millard, p.5). Millard II, 1; Berlin Kat. 1893; Brunet I, 46; Cicognara 3567.

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