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Ludwig Deutsch Auction Price Results

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Ludwig DEUTSCH (1855-1935)   Egyptien sous un bougainvillier.   Huile sur toile.   Signée en bas à gauche.   61 x 50 cm.

Lot 58: Ludwig DEUTSCH (1855-1935) Egyptien sous un bougainvillier. Huile sur toile. Signée en bas à gauche. 61 x 50 cm.

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Description: Ludwig DEUTSCH (1855-1935) Egyptien sous un bougainvillier. Huile sur toile. Signée en bas à gauche. 61 x 50 cm.

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Deutsch, Ludwig: Der nubische Palastwächter

Lot 6045: Deutsch, Ludwig: Der nubische Palastwächter

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Description: Deutsch, Ludwig: Der nubische PalastwächterDer nubische Palastwächter. Gouache auf Malkarton. 40 x 25 cm. Unten links signiert und datiert (etwas berieben) "L Deutsch Paris 1..2" (1892?).Ludwig Deutsch studierte zunächst an der Akademie der bildenden Künste in Wien bei Anselm Feuerbach, bevor er nach Paris zog und seine Ausbildung an der Ecole des Beaux-Arts und der Academie Julian fortsetzte. 1885/86 unternahm Deutsch seine erste Reise nach Ägypten, denen zwei weitere Aufenthalte in dem arabischen Land folgten (1890 und 1898). Besonders Kairo übte einen nachhaltigen Eindruck auf den Künstler aus, wie seine zahlreichen Werke mit Darstellungen aus dem Alltagsleben der arabischen Metropole belegen. Auf den jährlichen Ausstellungen des Pariser Salons war Deutsch immer wieder mit Motiven aus dem Orient vertreten. Zu seinen erfolgreichsten Kompositionen zählt der "Nubische Palastwächter": Die solitäre Figur eines stattlichen jungen Mannes aus dem Volk der Nubier wacht vor einem mit bunten geometrischen Kacheln geschmückten Portal eines orientalischen Palastes. Deutsch hat dieses in seiner Einfachheit eindrucksvolle Motiv in verschiedenen Versionen behandelt und die Requisiten, wie Kettenhemd, Waffen, Pantoffeln, die der Künstler von seinen Ägypten-Reisen mitgebracht hatte und die sich in dem Pariser Atelier befanden, immer wieder leicht variiert. Eine Version befindet sich im J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, zwei weitere, in Öl gemalte Fassungen wurden im Dorotheum, Wien (29. November 2006, Los 152) und bei Christie's in New York (1. November 1999, Los 37) angeboten.

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Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

Lot 3: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

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Description: The Answer signed and dated 'L. Deutsch 1883' (upper left) oil on panel 18 x 113/4 in. (45.6 x 29.8 cm.) Painted in 1883 PROVENANCE Anon. sale, Sotheby's Humberts, Taunton, 26 September 1979, lot 554. The Fine Art Society, Ltd., London. Acquired from the above by the present owner circa 1980. NOTES Painted during Deutsch's first trip to Egypt in 1883, The Answer is a masterpiece of observation and meticulous execution. In order to communicate even the most microscopic of detail, Deutsch paints with a hair line brush and strives to include every single wrinkle, every single thread and every single link of chain mail. His influences for the fantastical architecture are mainly from Egypt and Damascus, yet his eclectic compilation of the individual objects and details is truly Ottoman. Based on a smaller study for the present work (fig. 1) (sold Christie's, London, 18 June 1998, lot 68) we can trace the visual alterations Deutsch has made on this composition. He changed the pattern of the marble floor tiles in order to lighten up its hue. In the study black and white tiles are laid down like a chessboard making an even ratio between the two colors. In the present composition, smaller black tiles are fitted between the corners of four larger white tiles - a ratio of one black tile to four white tiles - which creates a greater sense of light. On the other hand, in both compositions, Deutsch has used the exact same blue and white tiles to cover the wall behind the servant. These 17th Century Syrian tiles are most likely from Damascus, yet in actuality they would have been laid down differently than depicted here. Ceramic tiles from Iznik, Diyarbakir and Damascus all depict flower scrolls, which are symbols in Islam for intellectual growth and God's continuous presence in nature. Although large groupings of such scrolls produced by four, six or eight tiles were repeated throughout even larger designs, individual tiles were not repeated in purely geometric patterns. The tile grouping, therefore, appears to be based on a single tile that might have been in his private collection. A similar example of another prop is the mighfar, which appears in lot 16 as well. The painting is further enriched by numerous objects such as the 18th Century Turkish tombak ewer and basin resting on a 19th Century Syrian mother-of-pearl table with a 19th Century Indo-Persian shield resting against it. The Chieftain wears a beaded Balkan yatagan decorated with chalcedonies strapped tightly in his dusty rose sash, which he wears on an Ottoman gold and silver threaded silk robe ( aba ) topping a white striped cloak ( jubba ). An elegant cape is the brilliant finish to this fine combination of fabrics, whose light brown stripes match the color of the leather babouches . The servant in the back, holding an Arabian sword, wears an Indo-Persian arm protector and a Turkish dagger that is strapped in his green sash. Deutsch rarely suggests an anectode in his compositions. Here, the Chieftain, dressed to address the public, is caught leaving the private realm of his residence. The nearly closed Syrian doors behind him most likely are the entranceway to his harem providing an explanation for the armed Nubian guard's presence at the gate. (fig. 1) Ludwig Deutsch, L'Emir, Private Collection.

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Scène de marché

Lot 6: Scène de marché

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Description: LUDWIG DEUTSCH (VIENNE 1855 - 1935) Scène de marché Pastel sur papier marouflé sur carton 31 x 33,5 cm. (12¼ x 13¼ in.)

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A Muslim Cleric at Prayer

Lot 7: A Muslim Cleric at Prayer

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Description: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935) A Muslim Cleric at Prayer signed 'L. Deutsch' (upper left) oil on canvas 28¾ x 21 1/8 in. (73 x 54 cm.)

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LUDWIG DEUTSCH

Lot 7: LUDWIG DEUTSCH

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Description: LUDWIG DEUTSCH AUSTRIAN 1855-1935 THE INSPECTION signed L. Deutsch and dated 1883 (upper right) oil on panel 15 7/8 by 10 3/4 in. 40.3 by 27.3 cm

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Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

Lot 8: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

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Description: Morning Prayers signed and dated 'L. Deutsch Paris 1902' (upper left) oil on canvas 25 5/8 x 20 3/8 in. (65.2 x 51.8 cm.) Painted in 1902 PROVENANCE Anon. sale, Sotheby Parke Bernet, New York, 29 May 1980, lot 107. Fine Arts Society, Ltd., London. Acquired from the above by the present owner circa 1981. LITERATURE M. Haja and G. Wimmer, Les Orientalistes des Ecoles Allemande et Autrichienne, Paris, 2000, p. 200 (illustrated). NOTES The subject of mosque interiors and men at prayer were of frequent interest to Orientalist painters mainly for practical and occasionally philosophical reasons. The fundamental practical reason was that some of the most extraordinary architectural edifices in the East were non-secular buildings such as the Ummayad Mosque in Damascus, the Great Mosque in Cordoba, Hagia Sofia in Constantinople, the Ca‹d Bey Mosque in Cairo and the Green Mosque in Bursa. Such structures were scattered throughout the Middle East and were some of the most imposing works of art on display. In fact, the message conveyed by mosque architecture is one of power. As with the Mamelukes, "in the Ottoman Empire, secular power and religious authority were personified in the Sultan himself, whose rule had been granted by God. The great imperial mosques therefore were an expression of the sultan's grandeur: indeed, mosques are known by the names of their benefactors more often than not and unlike Christian churches, they are never given names associated with God or with religious personages" (D. Kuban and A. Ertug, Sinan: an Architectural Genius, Bern, 1999, p. 20). This point also ties into the philosophical attraction to the subject matter. Both ritualistically as well as theoretically, prayer practices in Islam are quite different when compared to Christianity. In Islam, Allah is absent of any human characteristics and therefore is everywhere without any limitations of time or space, thus needs no separate house. "Since the mosque is not a house of God, it is not consecrated in the sense that a pagan temple or Christian church is. In Islam, prayer is a common and simple duty incumbent upon a believer. It can be performed anywhere. Islam a priori rejects the notion that any artifact - any man made thing - can have any religious significance and this principle holds true for mosques...A mosque indicates a place of gathering but it is a communal gathering and not a transcendental one" (Kuban and Ertug, loc. cit., p. 20). Most artists visiting the Middle East were drawn to these impressive structures but only those who embraced these foreign lands and their different cultures became interested in the underlying cultural and religious differences. More often than not Orientalist painters such as Jean-L‚on G‚r“me depicted the act of prayer in mosque interiors (fig. 1) (sold, Christie's London, 4 May 1995, lot 42) with some Christian predisposition. As artists were often not allowed to paint in harems or mosques their imagery of people in such locations are often based on Edward Lane's book titled An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians. Such a database of imagery made it only easier for artists to paint what they have not researched, observed or understood. Deutsch in the Morning Prayer challenges himself to step beyond physical descriptions of worlds foreign to him and exhibits a deeper understanding of the Middle East. The meditative mood of the individuals depicted in the Morning Prayers communicates a finer spiritual commitment rather than a rhythmic following of dogmatic rituals. By the time the present work was executed in 1902, Ludwig Deutsch had been visiting and painting the Middle East for nearly a decade and was probably was planning his last trip of 1904. In Morning Prayers there are some compositional similarities with his earlier paintings of palace guards. The apparent and expressive focal points, such as the red Turkish babouches (see lot 16), the 19th Century northwestern Persian carpet, the Syrian lamp and the mother-of-pearl inlaid kursi are all archetypal elements of Deutsch's painting. Furthermore, the juxtaposition of the wine red sash against the cadmium red striped silk robe ( aba ) of the standing figure, set against his brilliant white turban is masterfully balanced against the massive size of the Ptlomaic granite pillar. Together with the figure depicted praying in elaborate costume, another man in very humble attire is seen meditating to the side. The absence of a spatial hierarchy as well as one religious ceremony that all members follow simultaneously is in line with a mosque's essential function as a provider of shelter for congregational prayer. (fig. 1) Jean-L‚on G‚r“me, Trois Personnages priant dans un Coin de Mosqu‚e, Private Collection.

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Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

Lot 10: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

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Description: The sahleb vendor, Cairosigned, inscribed and dated 'L. Deutsch Paris 1886' (upper left)oil on panel21 1/2 x 17 3/4 in. (54.6 x 45.1 cm.)Painted in 1886.

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                                          Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

Lot 11: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

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Description: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935) L'aubade signed and dated 'L. Deutsch 1919' (lower left) oil on canvas 39 1/8 x 32 in. (99.4 x 81.3 cm.)

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Lot 12: Ludwig Deutsch

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Description: Ludwig Deutsch(Austrian, 1855-1930)OUTSIDE A CAFEsigned and inscribed Deutsch Paris (upper left)oil on panel21 by 25 3/4 in. 53.3 by 65.4 cm.The theme of the Orient was a major preoccupation among numerous 19th century artists. As art historian James Thompson claimed, the East was "imagined, experienced, remembered." Although the French were great exponents of the Orientalist genre, the theme fascinated an international audience, including American artists such as Frederick Arthur Bridgman, whose exotic harem beauty (see lot 17) is a good example. Orientalism is an art historical term which often applies specifically to 19th century artists who created works inspired by North Africa and the Middle East. The debates surrounding this type of painting are manifold. How are we to analyze and interpret this kind of painting? Are these works ungrounded in reality, mere European fantasies of a world that painters imagined with the assistance of props and engravings within the comforts of their European ateliers? Do imperialist messages infiltrate their perfect surfaces? Or are these works infused with respect for ancient cultures, religous and secular ceremonies, and a genuine interest in a world more spiritually, aesthetically, and intellectually appealing?Certainly many 19th century artists remained armchair Orientalists, reaping the benefits of public demand for such work; however, many also traveled extensively to the Orient, assisted on archaeological expeditions, and thereby greatly expanded their pictorial vocabulary. Jean-Leon Gerome, an extraordinary master of this genre, traveled to the East no less than seven times in his lifetime. He taught generations of artists interested in the Orient; artists who could utilize their technical prowess to document the vivid colors and strong light, architecture, customs and costumes, real or imagined.Ludwig Deutsch was one such student who was greatly influenced by the allure of the Orient. He settled in Paris in 1876, and became one of the most celebrated Orientalist artists, along with friend and fellow Austrian, Rudolph Ernst. Outside a Cafe exemplifies Deutsch's masterful rendition of exacting photographic detail, where one can discern each crease in the fabric, follow the complex lattice-work of the framing architecture, or distinguish the individual physical characteristics of the faces and contrast the varying gradations of flesh tones. The vivid colors and textures are electrifying and the powerful diffused light engenders an overall glow to the painting. Deutsch approached the subject of Orientalism with fervor and admiration. His entire oeuvre is a testament to this preoccupation.Provenance:Mathaf Gallery Ltd., LondonLiterature:Martina Haja and Gunther Wimmer, Les Orientalistes des Ecoles Allemande et Autrichienne, Paris: ACR Edition, 2000, p. 213, illustrated

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Lot 12: Ludwig Deutsch

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Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

Lot 13: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

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Description: The Nubian Dance signed and dated 'L. Deutsch Paris 1886' (upper left) oil on panel 16 x 141/4 in. (40.6 x 36.3 cm.) Painted in 1886 PROVENANCE Rt. Hon. Lord Faber; Christie's, London, 17 December 1920, lot 20 (as A Dervish Dance ). W.W. Sampson & Son (acquired at the above sale). Anon. sale; Christie's, London, 16 March 1979, lot 140. Fine Arts Society, Ltd., London. Acquired from the above by the present owner circa 1980. NOTES The traditional zar dance, a spirit possession dance exercised to entice the spirit to behave itself rather than to exorcise it, was initiated in Sudan and adopted by Nubians as well as the Egyptians. In Islam, there are different kinds of demons ( jinn ) and it is the business of the sheikhas to determine which sort is in their patient. Although the zar dance is still practiced to this day openly by the lower classes, elite households that still perform it on rare occasions would never admit to doing so publicly. The dance, when performed for women, would always take place in private homes or at special locations but never out in the streets and public urban spaces. On the other hand the rules are more relaxed when the dance is performed for men. In present day Cairo, from time to time, it is possible to see zar dances performed by men on the streets and more often than not, the person possessed by the ill spirit is dressed in a white tunic. Here, the figures watching the zar dance are a mixture of Nubians and Egyptians. The musician, for example, is seated on a mastaba in the doorway and the man sitting on the floor covered in white as well as the standing woman and child in white robes in the foreground are all Nubians. The two boys squatting near the foreground are Egyptian street urchins ( herafiish ), and the man standing beside them in the golden robe as well as the standing woman with her child on the shoulder are urban Cairene types. The two distinguished Egyptian men sitting on the wooden bench in the background with a little mother-of-pearl inlaid table in front of them recall other major compositions by Deutsch such as The Chess Game (Christie's New York, 1 November 1999, lot 28). Details such as the man carrying a large goat skin water container on his shoulder, the sugarcane in a basket to the left and a table decorated with water, bread, tomatoes and feta cheese represent the artist's assembled visions from this city. Although street merchants of food and beverages are a common thing in Cairo, it is most unusual to have a proper table set up on a public street. The setting of the present performance is in front of a large Ottoman-period private house dating back to the late 16th or early 17th Century in Cairo. The house is decorated with masonry in ablaq courses; it features mashrabiyya screens and has a tri-lobed doorway. The alternate courses of red (brick) and yellow (stone) masonry was first used in Byzantine architecture in order to enrich the building's surface with polychromatic effects. Later the Mameluks adopted this technique based on existing examples of Byzantine period structures located in their lands. During the Ottoman rule in Egypt, Turkish architects were not sent to Cairo on assignment and instead local artists were used for building projects. Therefore, until the rule of Kavalali Mehmet Ali Pasha in 1805, Cairo experienced a linear evolution of architectural aesthetics based on Byzantine examples. The neighborhoods dating prior to the 19th Century and exhibiting such ablaq masonry courses are often called The Old Cairo. Deutsch painted a larger version of the same subject in 1886 which once belonged to the Royal Scottish Automobile Club.

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 Ludwig Deutsch , Austrian 1855-1935 The Lamp Lighter oil on panel

Lot 14: Ludwig Deutsch , Austrian 1855-1935 The Lamp Lighter oil on panel

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Description: signed L. Deutsch , inscribed PARIS , and dated 1900 (lower right) oil on panel

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Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

Lot 16: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

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Description: The Palace Guard signed and dated 'L. Deutsch Paris 1893' (upper left) oil on panel 251/2 x 181/2 in. (64.8 x 47 cm.) Painted in 1893 PROVENANCE J. Cooling and Sons, London. M. Newman Ltd., London. Anon. sale, Sotheby's, London, 26 November 1980, lot 91. Fine Arts Society, Ltd., London Acquired from the above by the present owner circa 1981. LITERATURE P. Cruysmans, Orientalist Painting, Brussels, 1982, p. 115 (illustrated). NOTES Ludwig Deutsch and Rudolf Ernst, the two most crucial Austrian Orientalists, were very close friends and led nearly parallel lives. Born in Vienna only one year apart, they both attended the city's renowned Academy of Fine Arts before settling in Paris. Largely influenced by Jean-L‚on G‚r“me's academic style, they both began traveling to the Middle East by 1880's. While Deutsch went on to Egypt, Ernst traveled through Algeria and Tunis. When Deutsch won the gold medal at the 1900 Exposition Universelle for an Orientalist composition, Ernst won the honorable mention. The two were naturalized as French citizens soon thereafter and purchased homes outside Paris that were decorated in the Orientalist fashion. Both homes housed sizable private collections of Middle Eastern textiles and artifacts. Little is known about Deutsch's visits to Egypt but it appears that from 1883 until 1904 he might have traveled there as many as five times. During his many trips to Egypt one subject matter appears to have captured his mind and stimulated his creativity entirely - Nubians. Located in today's southern Egypt and northern Sudan, ancient Nubia has one of the harshest climates with infrequent rainfall, making it nearly impossible to farm. Yet, in antiquity, Nubia was a land of great natural wealth, of gold mines, ebony, ivory and incense. Some of Africa's greatest civilizations emerged here, centers of achievement whose existence was based on industry and trade. Such prosperity made Nubia the target for continuous attacks from its Northern neighbors, first Egypt followed by the Eastern Roman Empire. Nubians were initially converted to Christianity during the time of Justinian in the 6th Century A.D. only to be converted to Islam during the Mameluke invasion. By the 16th Century, virtually all Nubians had converted and were conquered by Muslims. During the Ottoman reign Nubia was under the jurisdiction of the Khalif of Egypt who by 1805, with much help from England, had acquired complete internal jurisdiction over his land from the Ottoman Sultan at an annual cost of 80,000 gold pieces. It is around this time that Englishmen visiting the country recorded the Nubian palace guards, as well as the slaves in their memoirs - a subject matter that progressively become a favorite in the West by the second half of the century. Deutsch's triumph with the Nubian subject matter is reminiscent of G‚r“me's accomplishment with Bashi- Bazouks. Despite the high gloss finish, the microscopic detail and the exemplary attention to photographic exactitude, and without burdening their art with academic virtuoso, both artists achieve total expression of their subject's individual characters. Although the model in the present work from 1893 is different than the one used for The Palace Guard of 1892 (sold Christie's, New York, 1 November 1999, lot 37) (fig. 1), many of the architectural details, garments, arms and armor are shared. To further the sense of naturalism in his compositions, Deutsch became a collector of Middle Eastern artifacts that he incorporated into his paintings. The chiseled and tombak gilt Persian mighfar, arm-protector and shield, as well as the guard's red shoes and his Indian powder horn are all props from his private inventory that are illustrated in both works of art. The horizontal strip of Andalusian black and red marble decoration also appears in both works, signifying that this invented interior was based on Deutsch's close observations at genuine Hispano-Moroccan sites such as in Cordoba and Granada. The intensely detailed depiction of the guard enhanced by his isolated framing produce a psychologically penetrating image. By capturing the slightly quizzical element to his expression Deutsch conveys the nobility, strength and grace that were the essence of a palace guard. As the light glimmers on his mighfar's chain mail, the Persian brass shield leaning against the white marble column and reflects across the gold and the pink silks of his garments, it also highlights his full lips and illuminates his richly dark skin. The glorious combination of the guard's majestic posture enhanced by luscious textiles, powerful and glittering armor enveloped by a spectacular Andalusian double arched entrance is an evidence of Deutsch's astounding dexterity. (fig. 1) Ludwig Deutsch, The Palace Guard, Christie's New York, 1 November 1999, lot 37 ($3,192,500), Private Collection. SALESROOM NOTICE Period frame on loan from Eli Wilner and available for purchase. Please inquire with department.

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Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

Lot 17: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

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Description: The Palace Guardsigned 'L. Deutsch' (lower right)oil on panel31 1/4 x 23 3/4 in. (79.5 x 60.3 cm.)Painted circa 1900-02

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LUDWIG DEUTSCH (AUTRICHIEN, 1855-1935)

Lot 18: LUDWIG DEUTSCH (AUTRICHIEN, 1855-1935)

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Description: LUDWIG DEUTSCH (AUTRICHIEN, 1855-1935) Portrait de jeune femme au voile noir Porte le tampon du fabricant de panneaux 'L. Besnard' au versohuile sur panneau 36,5 x 26,8 cm. (14 3/8 x 10½ in.)

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Lot 19: DEUTSCH, LUDWIG (1855-1930)

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Description: A nubian guard, 1895, 1895 Oil/panel 19.9x13 in (50.5x33 cm) signed & dated (Lower Left).

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LUDWIG DEUTSCH (AUTRICHIEN, 1855-1935)

Lot 19: LUDWIG DEUTSCH (AUTRICHIEN, 1855-1935)

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Description: LUDWIG DEUTSCH (AUTRICHIEN, 1855-1935) Portrait de femme au collier signé et dédicacé 'A Mdme Catherine Belkheir L. Deutsch' (en haut vers la gauche), porte au dos du châssis le tampon du fabricant Morinhuile sur toile, non rentoilée 53 x 29 cm. (20¾ x 11 3/8 in.)

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Lot 20: DEUTSCH, Ludwig (1855-1930)

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Description: L'obedience Huile/panneau 128,0 x 16,1 inches (325.0 x 41.0cm) Signed left Illustrated.

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LUDWIG DEUTSCH (AUTRICHIEN, 1855-1935)

Lot 20: LUDWIG DEUTSCH (AUTRICHIEN, 1855-1935)

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Description: LUDWIG DEUTSCH (AUTRICHIEN, 1855-1935) Portrait d'homme au turban rouge Porte le tampon du fabricant de panneau 'L. Besnard' au versohuile sur panneau 33 x 24 cm. (13 x 9 3/8 in.)

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LUDWIG DEUTSCH (AUTRICHIEN, 1855-1935)

Lot 24: LUDWIG DEUTSCH (AUTRICHIEN, 1855-1935)

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Description: LUDWIG DEUTSCH (AUTRICHIEN, 1855-1935) La leçon signé et daté 'L. Deutsch 1901' (en bas à gauche) huile sur panneau 61 x 48,4 cm. (24 x 19 1/8 in.) Peint en 1901.

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Lot 28: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

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Description: Le fumeur signed and dated 'L. Deutsch Paris 1903' (lower left) oil on panel 23 x 16 in. (58.4 x 41.9 cm.) Painted in 1903 NOTES Painted in Paris in 1903, Le fumeur is deeply inspired by the opulent Orientalist decoration of Deutsch's studio, in the Pigalle area in the tenth arrondissement. When he finally settled in the French capital in the late 1870s, the Austrian artist recreated in his atelier the sumptuous horror vacui of Islamic interiors, filling his rooms with mashrabiyes, painted ceramic tiles, textiles, carpets and precious objects brought back from his numerous trips to the Middle East, and used as important accessories for his paintings. In Le Fumeur, Deutsch's refined taste for Ottoman collectanea stands out, whilst his observant eye indulges in the rarest Orientalist objects surrounding the elegant smoker. The Fumeur is lying on the most precious Turkoman carpet, a dark red Saryk Juval, in which we can admire the beautifully finished alem (the base panel, continuing around the sides), and the traditional design of four rows of Juval Gls (from gl, Turkish 'rose' and Persian 'flower', the gl is the primary ornament on the main carpet). The figure is cast against a wall of Damascus tiles of the rarest type, including a chromatically impressive and quite unusual yellow glaze, matching the more traditional blue decorations. Similarly, the carved mashrabiye, the mother of pearl inlaid tabouret and the precious ubuk (see lot 27) - the man's sophisticated pipe - betray the artist's passionate observation of the minutest details of Oriental street scenes. Le Fumeur is a major example of Deutsch's ability to capture the atmosphere of sweet, languid far niente, iconographically associated with Orientalist interiors and more intimate scenes. The artist's brushstroke is unsurpassed in these typical small-scale oils, dedicated to the attentive description of one figure in magnificently detailed surroundings. At the core of Deustch's aesthetic concern is the lucid, controlled mastery of chromatic contrasts - perfectly embodied by the focus on one figure, manifesting the refinements of the East.

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Lot 28: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

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Description: Deutsch, L. The Chess Game signed and dated 'L. Deutsch PARIS 1896'(lower right) oil on panel 21.5/8 x 16.3/8 in. (55 x 41.6 cm.) Painted in Paris, 1896 PROVENANCE Bond St. Gallery, London. Anon. sale, Christie's, London, 3 November 1977, 1ot 117. Acquired from the above sale for The Akram Ojjeh Collection. NOTES Preferring to paint his major compositions in his Paris studio, Deutsch used sketches he had made on his trips to Cairo in 1886, 1890 and 1898 as inspiration for his work. He embellished the final compositions with items from his personal collection of Near Eastern artifacts: mashrabiyyah woodwork, textiles and painted ceramic tiles. His eye for Ottoman collectanea is evident in The Chess Game which portrays the figures seated on an Oriental carpet with Damascus tiles as a backdrop and a mother-of-pearl inlaid table at their feet. He used some of these same props several years later in his 1903 picture Le fumeur (fig. 1). The Chess Game shows Deutsch's dexterity in transcribing a scene with breathtaking accuracy so as to give the painting an almost photographic quality. He was a keen observer of detail and the depiction of the figure's gestures and expressions, their clothing and their architectural surroundings all serve to enhance the verisimilitude of the scene. The game of chess was widely popular among the upper classes throughout the Near East. Though it had first been introduced to Europe during the Moorish rule in Spain, it retained its exoticism in Deutsch's time. The view of the men leisurely passing time over a game of chess conveys the impression of a life far removed from the troubles of the realities of industrial France. Rendered with meticulous draftmanship, the rich palette and high finish of The Chess Game are the trademark of Deutsch's most highly regarded works. The jewel-like quality of the chromatic contrasts and brushstroke is echoed by its small-scale format which he reserved for his compositions of more intimate scenes. (fig. 1) Ludwig Deutsch, Le Fumeur, 1903. Sold, Christie's, London, 17 June 1999, lot 28.

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LUDWIG DEUTSCH

Lot 28: LUDWIG DEUTSCH

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Description: AUSTRIAN 1855-1935 PORTRAIT OF IGNAZ DEUTSCH AND HIS WIFE: A PAIR (i) signed and dated L Deutsch / Paris 1886 upper right oil on panel each: 24 by 17.5cm., 9½ by 7in. (2)

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LUDWIG DEUTSCH

Lot 32: LUDWIG DEUTSCH

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Description: signed L. Deutsch Paris (upper left)oil on panel

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Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1885-1935)

Lot 32: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1885-1935)

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Description: A gathering around the Morning News, Cairo signed and dated 'L. Deutsch Caire 1885' (upper right) oil on panel 123/4 x 91/2 in. (32.4 x 24.2 cm.) Painted in 1885 NOTES Painted two years after Deutsch's first trip to Egypt in 1883, A gathering around the Morning News, Cairo is typical of the artist's work from his most productive period. In 1885 Deutsch took a new Paris studio in 11 rue Navarin which he kept until 1905. The paintings from this period are some of the artist's most meticulously executed and show his keen interest in the accurate depiction of Eastern life. Preferring to paint his major compositions in his studio, Deutsch used the many sketches he made on his trips to Cairo for inspiration, and in common with his friend Ernst, also took advantage of the vogue for photography to perfect ethnographical details. The scene depicts men leisurely passing time reading and discussing the news and conveys a more relaxed impression of life, far removed from the realities of industrial France. The gathering takes place outside a traditional Egyptian suk or marketplace, a popular subject for the Orientalist painters of the time. Beyond the ornately carved entrance, the stalls of the suk can just be seen in the cool darkness beyond, lit only by shafts of light from the pierced roof above. One of the merchants, holding items of Islamic metalwear, has emerged to join the morning gossip.

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Lot 33: DEUTSCH, Ludwig (1855-1935, French)

Description: Watchman, s.d.1881 Oil Painting (27x41in).

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Lot 37: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

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Description: Deutsch, L. The Palace Guard signed and dated 'L. Deutsch PARIS 1892' (lower left) oil on canvas 52.1/8 x 33 in. (132.4 x 83.8 cm.) Painted in Paris, 1892 PROVENANCE The Cooling Galleries, Ltd., London. Acquired from the above by the father of the present owner on 22 December 1937. NOTES A descendant of the ancient Nubian kingdom that had once ruled much of Northern Africa, the Mamluk guard in the present painting stands magisterially at the entrance to the Royal sanctuary. His firm gaze and confident stance present a formidable barrier to the secret world behind the doors to which few Westerners were allowed access. Revered even in the late 19th century for their heritage as noble warriors, the Nubians had for centuries been used as slave soldiers by the conquering Egyptians. The Palace Guard has not been seen in public since 1937 and it is a tour de force that was painted at the apex of Deutsch's career. His first sojourn to Cairo in 1886 had profoundly affected him and from then onwards he dedicated his production to transcribing the scenes he had witnessed, limiting his work solely to Near Eastern subjects and eventually earning the accolade of being a premier Orientalist painter. To further the sense of naturalism in his compositions, Deutsch became a collector of Near Eastern artifacts that he incorporated into his paintings. The present painting relies on many of these props and is, in reality, more of a fantasy than an description of an individual. The guard wears a 19th century Indo-Persian helmet, arm guard and shield and carries an Indian powder horn, however, the chain mail is not an authentic to this armour. Moreover, he carries a Turkish gun and Yataghan sword and his dagger is Arabian. A good deal of Deutsch's work portrayed scenes from the street life of Cairo as evident in The Chess Players (see lot 28). While many of these compositions did have a central focal figure, The Palace Guard goes further to produce a psychologically penetrating image by reducing the composition to its basest elements. Painted with breathtaking realism, the almost life-size scale and the high finish of the brushwork enhance the picture's photographic quality. As the light plays across the silks of his cape, the gold and brass of his armor and the chain mail of his gloves, it also catches the white of his eyes and illuminates the blues and pinks beneath his richly dark skin. The strength of the figure is palpable, enhanced by his commanding posture and penetrating gaze. The true mastery of the painting, however, is Deutsch's ability to humanize the figure by capturing the slightly quizzical element to his expression and to convey the nobility, strength and grace that were the essence of a palace guard.

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Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

Lot 39: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

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Description: A Horseman in the Desertsigned and dated 'L. Deutsch 1882' (lower right)oil on panel11 3/4 x 8 1/4 in. (29.9 x 21 cm.)Painted in 1882

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Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

Lot 43: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

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Description: The Palace Attendantsigned, inscribed and dated 'L. Deutsch Paris 1901' (lower left)oil on panel25 1/2 x 18 1/2 in. (64.8 x 47 cm.)Painted in 1901

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Lot 48: DEUTSCH, LUDWIG (1855-1930)

Description: Marche arabe oil/canvas 11.8x13.4 in (30x34 cm) signed (Lower Right) Certif. Thornton.

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Before prayer

Lot 48: Before prayer

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Description: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935) Before prayer with atelier stamp (on the reverse) oil on panel 16 x 10¼ in. (40.7 x 26 cm.)

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The lesson

Lot 49: The lesson

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Description: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935) The lesson signed and dated 'L. Deutsch 1901' (lower left) oil on panel 24 x 19 1/8 in. (61 x 48.4 cm.) Painted in 1901.

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An Arab with his servant

Lot 49: An Arab with his servant

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Description: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935) An Arab with his servant oil on panel 8¼ x 6¼ in. (21 x 15.9 cm.)

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Lot 52: DEUTSCH, Ludwig (1855-1935, French)

Description: Musician in interior, s.i.d.1904 panel Oil Painting (24x20in).

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Ludwig Deutsch (Vienna 1855-1935)

Lot 55: Ludwig Deutsch (Vienna 1855-1935)

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Description: Ludwig Deutsch (Vienna 1855-1935) Learned Advice signed, inscribed and dated 'L. Deutsch Paris 1895' (lower right) oil on panel 28 x 30½ in. (71.1 x 77.5 cm.)

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Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

Lot 55: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

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Description: A market vendoroil on canvas23 3/4 x 28 7/8 in. (60.3 x 73.3 cm.)

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Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

Lot 56: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

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Description: A woman from Cairooil on canvas25 5/8 x 21 1/4 in. (65 x 54 cm.)

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LUDWIG DEUTSCH

Lot 68: LUDWIG DEUTSCH

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Description: Islamic Priest

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Lot 68: LUDWIG DEUTSCH (AUSTRIAN, 1855-1935)

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Description: L'EMIR SIGNED 'L. DEUTSCH' (UPPER LEFT) OIL ON PANEL 91/2 X 63/4 IN. (24.1 X 17.1 CM.) NOTES ALTHOUGH AUSTRIAN BY BIRTH, LUDWIG DEUTSCH'S ENTIRE MATURE CAREER WAS BASED IN FRANCE. HE HAD BEEN A STUDENT AT THE VIENNA ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS BEFORE SETTLING IN PARIS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 1870S, WHERE HE ENROLLED AT THE ECOLE DES BEAUX ARTS AND FIRST MET RUDOLF ERNST, A COMPATRIOT AND NEAR-CONTEMPORARY WHO WAS ALSO TO BECOME A LIFE-LONG FRIEND. FOLLOWING IN THE FOOTSTEPS OF ERNST, FROM 1883 HE ABANDONED THE PORTRAITS AND GENRE SCENES THAT HE HAD TRADITIONALLY SUBMITTED TO THE SALON AND INSTEAD DEDICATED HIMSELF TO ORIENTAL SUBJECTS. IT WAS TO BE THESE ORIENTAL WORKS WITH THEIR METICULOUS DETAIL AND SCINTILLATING TECHNIQUE WHICH SAW DEUTSCH ATTAIN A REMARKABLE LEVEL OF POPULARITY IN THE 1890S. DEUTSCH'S SHARP AND, AT THE SAME TIME, VERY SYMPATHETIC EYE FOR THE SMALL GESTURE OR THE FLEETING EXPRESSION, ALLIED TO HIS VIRTUOSIC PAINTERLY SKILLS, WAS ALMOST UNRIVALLED IN THE DEPICTION OF SCENES OF EVERYDAY LIFE IN CAIRO. HIS FABULOUS ACUITY WAS DOUBTLESS IN LARGE PART DUE TO THE SKETCHES HE EXECUTED IN SITU AND FROM STUDY OF HIS OWN GREAT COLLECTION OF ISLAMIC TILES, TEXTILES AND METALWORK WITH WHICH HE DECORATED HIS STUDIOS IN PARIS AND THE SOUTH OF FRANCE.

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Lot 69: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1930)

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Description: SHARIA EL-SANADKYEH signed and dated LE CAIRE 1889 oil on cradled panel 24 by 19 in. 61 by 48.3 cm. This highly polished work epitomizes Deutsch's academic compositions of the Near East. The painstaking attention he devotes to the painting of exotic features such as the costumes, street sign, and latticed windows or mashrabiyyah, clearly shows the influence of earlier Salon Orientalists, above all GErome. Deutsch derived the material for his pictures not only from direct observation (Sharia el-Sanadkyeh, or "Street of the box-makers", was no doubt the name of a real Cairo thoroughfare), but also from the large collection of Near Eastern artefacts, mashrabiyyah, and painted tiles that decorated his studios in Paris and the South of France. Deutsch was born in Vienna but worked mainly in France, where he achieved great popularity in the 1890s with his minutely detailed scenes of life in Egypt. He briefly attended the Vienna Academy but received most of his artistic training at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Jean-Paul Laurens. Towards the end of the great era of the Salon, Deutsch, along with fellow-Austrian Rudolph Ernst, was considered among the chief proponents of academic Orientalism. In Philippe Julian's words, their works were "Meissoniers in Cairo, as accurate as a photograph, but not without charm"(The Orientalists, Oxford, 1977, p. 70). Deutsch, who became a naturalized French citizen towards the end of his life, exhibited his first picture at the Salon in 1879 and was a regular contributor for the rest of his life, winning a gold medal in 1892. He won a further gold medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900 and was elected Chevalier de la LEgion d'honneur by the French government. Sharia el-Sanadkyeh was painted at the height of Deutsch's academic period; his later work, from around 1909, tends to be larger in scale, more theatrical in content and painted in a freer style.

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Lot 69: Ludwig Deutsch

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Description: Austrian 1855-1935 the water carrier signed and dated 1920 l.l. oil on canvas 85.5 by 100.5cm., 33N by 39Iin. This major work from Deutsch's late period typifies his shift away from academicism in favour of a broader, more spontaneous manner. Usually large in scale, his works from circa 1909 onwards focus on everyday Eastern subjects, with impressionistic effect displacing the microscopic details characteristic of his earlier career. The Water Carrier is one of the few Deutsch oils issued as a limited edition lithograph.

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Lot 70: DEUTSCH, LUDWIG (1855-1930)

Description: The Milk Seller, Cairo, 1886 Oil/panel 21x18 inches (53x46 cm) signed & dated Paris (Upper Left).

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Lot 74: DEUTSCH, LUDWIG ()

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Description: Les fumeurs de narguille, 1855-1930 Oil/panel 9.4x11.3 in (23.8x28.6 cm) signed (Lower Left).

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 Ludwig Deutsch , French 1855 - 1935 The young goat herder of Shobrah, Egypt oil on canvas

Lot 78: Ludwig Deutsch , French 1855 - 1935 The young goat herder of Shobrah, Egypt oil on canvas

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Description: signed L. Deutsch and dated 1911 (lower left) oil on canvas

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Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

Lot 81: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

Description: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935) An Arab man signed 'L.Deutsch' (lower left); and with atelier stamp (on the reverse) oil on panel 18¼ x 14¾ in. (46.3 x 37.5 cm.)

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Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

Lot 82: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935)

Description: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935) A musician and a guardsman in an oriental interior signed 'L. Deutsch' (lower left) oil on canvas 11 x 7½ in. (27.9 x 19.3 cm.)

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Lot 82: DEUTSCH, LUDWIG (1855-1930)

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Description: Arab Chess Players Oil/canvas 84x66 cm Signed, Dated.

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The healer (Le guérisseur)

Lot 87: The healer (Le guérisseur)

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Description: Ludwig Deutsch (Austrian, 1855-1935) The healer (Le guérisseur) signed and dated 'L. Deutsch 1891' (lower left) oil on panel 19.3 x 24 in. (49 x 61 cm.) Painted in 1891.

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Lot 89: DEUTSCH, Ludwig (1855-1930)

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Description: Le marchand de pasteques Lithographie couleurs 20,1 x 261,8 inches (51.0 x 665.0cm) S 213/500.

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