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Stanhope Alexander Forbes Auction Price Results

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Stanhope A Forbes (1857-1947) signed study

Lot 89: Stanhope A Forbes (1857-1947) signed study

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Description: Stanhope A Forbes (1857-1947) signed study European street scene 10.5 x 8.5" dam???

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes RA (1857-1947) Goodbye, Off to Skibbereen monochrome print

Lot 164: Stanhope Alexander Forbes RA (1857-1947) Goodbye, Off to Skibbereen monochrome print

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Description: Stanhope Alexander Forbes RA (1857-1947) Goodbye, Off to Skibbereen monochrome print h:57.75  w:45 in.

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Attributed to Stanhope Alexander Forbes

Lot 263: Attributed to Stanhope Alexander Forbes

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Description: Attributed to Stanhope Alexander Forbes [1857-1947] Fishermen repairing nets oil sketch on canvas signed Stanhope A. Forbes to reverse in pencil there is also a label attached to the back board inscribed 'Sketch by' with signature of Stanhope A. Forbes oil on canvas laid in a mount 23 x 30.5cm. Provenance. Family history has it that this sketch was gifted to the vendor's Grandmother, a Miss Kathleen Fraser, by Stanhope Forbes. There are two photocopy letters accompanying the lot, both written and signed by Stanhope Forbes. One is difficult to read. The other is a reference by the artist for Miss Kathleen Fraser stating Fraser was 'for a considerable time, his pupil, and was well qualified to teach drawing or painting'. The letters are dated 1915.

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Attributed to Stanhope Alexander Forbes

Lot 496: Attributed to Stanhope Alexander Forbes

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Description: Attributed to Stanhope Alexander Forbes [1857-1947]- Fishermen repairing nets:- oil sketch on canvas signed Stanhope A. Forbes to reverse in pencil there is also a label attached to the back board inscribed 'Sketch by' with signature of Stanhope A. Forbes oil on canvas laid in a mount 23 x 30.5cm. *Provenance. Family history has it that this sketch was gifted to the vendors Grandmother, a Miss Kathleen Fraser, by Stanhope Forbes. There are two photocopy letters accompanying the lot. Both written and signed by Stanhope Forbes. One is difficult to read. The other is a reference by the artist for Miss Kathleen Fraser stating Fraser was 'for a considerable time, his pupil, and was well qualified to teach drawing or painting'. The letters are dated 1915.

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes (1857-1947 British)

Lot 1099: Stanhope Alexander Forbes (1857-1947 British)

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Description: Cottage in a Landscape with Figures, signed lower right: Stanhope A. Forbes, oil on canvas. Provenance: Property from a Private Collection, Little Rock, AR

Condition Report: Visual: Minor stable craquelure throughout and stretcher bar creases. A few minor scattered specks of loss throughout. A patch in the right center of the verso. Blacklight: A quarter-sized area of touch-up along the left center. A few spots of possible older touch-up in the upper left. We have described this and all lots to the best of our ability. It is the prospective purchaser's obligation to inspect this and all lots firsthand to satisfy questions of age, authenticity and condition in advance of bidding. We are not responsible for omissions in condition reports. Your bid indicates acceptance of our Conditions of Sale. AS-IS. ALL SALES FINAL.

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes R.A. (1875 - 1947) The Duck Pond, 23 x 19in.

Lot 1101: Stanhope Alexander Forbes R.A. (1875 - 1947) The Duck Pond, 23 x 19in.

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Description: Stanhope Alexander Forbes R.A. (1875 - 1947) oil on canvas, The Duck Pond, signed, 23 x 19in.

Condition Report: In very good original untouched condition, framed under glass, canvas very slightly saggy and a little dirty but no damage or faults noted, original gilt gesso scroll frame which is tired and has suffered from a number of small losses, no inscriptions or labels verso. Provenance: Private vendor who inherited in from his father. Descriptions provided in both printed and on-line catalogue formats do not include condition reports. The absence of a condition statement does not imply that the lot is in perfect condition or completely free from wear and tear, imperfections or the effects of aging. Interested bidders are strongly encouraged to request a condition report on any lots upon which they intend to bid, prior to placing a bid. All transactions are governed by Gorringes Conditions of Sale.

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes (1857-1947) Sketch of a female nude, 9 x 11in.

Lot 1101: Stanhope Alexander Forbes (1857-1947) Sketch of a female nude, 9 x 11in.

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Description: Stanhope Alexander Forbes (1857-1947) watercolour, Sketch of a female nude, signed, 9 x 11in.

Condition Report: Watercolour on paper which has been cropped from an album and is now under glass but appears not to be laid down, margins are somewhat irregular with a short torn section at 4 o'clock, Stanhope Forbes signature in pencil, watercolour itself with outlines in pencil, perhaps a little faded but still retaining breadth of colour, in a modern gilt scroll frame with no labels or further provenance known. Descriptions provided in both printed and on-line catalogue formats do not include condition reports. The absence of a condition statement does not imply that the lot is in perfect condition or completely free from wear and tear, imperfections or the effects of aging. Interested bidders are strongly encouraged to request a condition report on any lots upon which they intend to bid, prior to placing a bid. All transactions are governed by Gorringes Conditions of Sale.

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes (1857-1947) 'The Road to the Fields', 7 x 10.5in.

Lot 1426: Stanhope Alexander Forbes (1857-1947) 'The Road to the Fields', 7 x 10.5in.

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Description: Stanhope Alexander Forbes (1857-1947) oil on board, 'The Road to the Fields', signed, 2002 Messum's Exhibition label verso, 7 x 10.5in.

Condition Report: Oil on canvas board in good clean condition, signed lower left. In ornate giltwood frame in good order. Messums lable verso with details of work. From estate of Miss Becket of Becket Newspapers. Descriptions provided in both printed and on-line catalogue formats do not include condition reports. The absence of a condition statement does not imply that the lot is in perfect condition or completely free from wear and tear, imperfections or the effects of aging. Interested bidders are strongly encouraged to request a condition report on any lots upon which they intend to bid, prior to placing a bid. All transactions are governed by Gorringes Conditions of Sale.

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes (1857-1947) Landscape with cart and village 12 x 13.75in.

Lot 1764: Stanhope Alexander Forbes (1857-1947) Landscape with cart and village 12 x 13.75in.

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Description: Stanhope Alexander Forbes (1857-1947) oil on wooden panel Landscape with cart and village signed 12 x 13.75in.

Condition Report: Descriptions provided in both printed and on-line catalogue formats do not include condition reports. The absence of a condition statement does not imply that the lot is in perfect condition or completely free from wear and tear, imperfections or the effects of aging. Interested bidders are strongly encouraged to request a condition report on any lots upon which they intend to bid, prior to placing a bid. All transactions are governed by Gorringes Conditions of Sale.

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Lot 1: FORBES, STANHOPE ALEXANDER (1857-1947)

Description: The evening meal, 1910c. Oil/canvas 16x12 inches (41x31 cm) signed (Lower Left).

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes R.A. (1857-1947)

Lot 1: Stanhope Alexander Forbes R.A. (1857-1947)

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Description: oil on canvas

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Lot 2: FORBES, STANHOPE ALEXANDER (1857-1947)

Description: old newlyn, 1884 Oil/canvas 15x12 inches (38x30.5 cm) signed & dated (Lower Left).

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Stanhope A. Forbes, (British, 1857-1947), Meeting on a Village Lane

Lot 2: Stanhope A. Forbes, (British, 1857-1947), Meeting on a Village Lane

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Description: Stanhope A. Forbes (British, 1857-1947) Meeting on a Village Lane oil on canvas signed "Stanhope A. Forbes" (lower right) 29 x 22 1/2 inches.

Condition Report: For further information regarding this lot, please contact Robyn Farrell at 312.334.4207 or robyn@lesliehindman.com.

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Lot 3: FORBES, Stanhope Alexander (1857-1947, British)

Description: High water, Greek, Cornwall, s.d.1931 Oil Painting (25x20in).

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Lot 4: FORBES, STANHOPE ALEXANDER (1857-1947)

Description: The old weighinh house, Penzance, 1922 Oil/canvas 24x30 inches (61.5x76 cm) signed & dated (Lower Left) Inscr. S/label/verso.

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Lot 5: FORBES, STANHOPE ALEXANDER (1857-1947)

Description: A Cornish village, 1925 Oil/canvas 24x30 inches (60x75 cm) signed & dated (Lower Right) Royal Academy, 1927, no. 169.

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Lot 5: Stanhope Alexander Forbes, R.A.

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Description: 1857-1947 fishermen signed and dated 1896 oil on canvas 27 by 35.5 cm., 10 1/2 by 14 in. Stanhope Forbes settled in Newlyn in 1884, founding the Newlyn School of Art in 1899. Provenance: By descent within the artist's family to the present owners.

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Lot 5: FORBES, STANHOPE ALEXANDER (1857-1947)

Description: The fountain tavern, 1939 Oil/canvas 20x25 inches (51x63.5 cm) signed & dated (Lower Left).

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Lot 5: FORBES, STANHOPE ALEXANDER (1857-1947)

Description: At noonday, 1918 Oil/canvas 48x40 inches (122x102 cm) signed & dated (Lower Right).

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Lot 6: FORBES, STANHOPE ALEXANDER (1857-1947)

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Description: Fishergirl, Newlyn, 1894, 1894 Oil/canvas 24x16.8 in (60.9x42.6 cm) signed & dated (Lower Right).

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f - STANHOPE ALEXANDER FORBES, R.A. 1857-1947

Lot 6: f - STANHOPE ALEXANDER FORBES, R.A. 1857-1947

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Description: signed, inscribed Quimperle and dated 1882oil on canvas

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Lot 7: Stanhope Alexander Forbes, R.A. (1857-1947)

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Description: Portrait of an old Lady signed lower left Stanhope A. Forbes oil on canvas 20 x 171/2in. (50.8 x 44.5cm.).

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes R.A. (1857-1947)

Lot 9: Stanhope Alexander Forbes R.A. (1857-1947)

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Description: Study for 'Homealong' signed (lower left),oil on canvas86 x 71 cm. (33 7/8 x 28 in.)

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Lot 11: FORBES, Stanhope Alexander (1857-1947)

Description: Enfants sur la plage Huile/toile 179,1 x 13,0 inches (455.0 x 33.0cm) Non Sign. upper left Illustrated.

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Lot 12: FORBES, Stanhope Alexander (1857-1947)

Description: L'Hypnotiseur Huile/toile 9,1 x 12,2 inches (23.0 x 31.0cm) Signed upper left Illustrated.

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Lot 13: FORBES, Stanhope Alexander (1857-1947)

Description: 'Desiree', portrait de profil, c.1880 Huile/toile 18,1 x 12,2 inches (46.0 x 31.0cm) Non Sign. upper left Illustrated.

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes R.A. (1857-1947)

Lot 13: Stanhope Alexander Forbes R.A. (1857-1947)

Description: Blackberry pickers signed (lower left),oil on canvas51.5 x 76.5 cm. (20 1/4 x 30 1/8 in.)

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Lot 13: Stanhope Alexander Forbes, R.A. (1857-1947)

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Description: A New Mount signed 'Stanhope A. Forbes.' (lower left) oil on canvas 38 x 48 in. (96.5 x 121.9 cm.) PROVENANCE Richard Green, London, 1987. LITERATURE The Royal Academy Illustrated, London, 1919, p.116. EXHIBITION London, Royal Academy, 1919, no.83. NOTES The present work was painted at Kerris Vean Farm, Newlyn, on land belonging to the Bolitho Estate. Mount's Bay is visible in the distance across the water.

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Lot 14: FORBES, Stanhope Alexander (1857-1947)

Description: Marche au village breton Huile/toile/panneau 8,7 x 10,6 inches (22.0 x 27.0cm) Signed left Illustrated.

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Lot 15: FORBES, Stanhope Alexander (1857-1947)

Description: Portrait d'un marin breton, c.1890 Huile/panneau 12,2 x 104,3 inches (31.0 x 265.0cm) Non Sign. upper left Illustrated.

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Lot 15: John William Waterhouse, R.A. (1849-1917)

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Description: St Cecilia 'In a clear walled city on the sea, Near gilded organ pipes......slept St Cecily' oil on canvas 481/2 x 79 in. (123.2 x 200.7 cm.) PROVENANCE Bought from the artist's studio in 1895 by George McCulloch, 184 Queen's Gate, Kensington. His posthumous sale, Christie's London, 23 May 1913 (first day), lot 91 (2,300 gns. to Gooden & Fox). Sir Brodie Henderson, KCMG, of Upp Hall, Braughling, Ware, Herts. Myriam di Stefano, Rome. With J.S. Maas & Co., November 1968 ( Victorian Paintings, Drawings and Watercolours, no. 33). Robert Walker. Private Collection. ENGRAVED A photogravure, signed by the artist, was published by Arthur Tooth & Sons in 1896. LITERATURE Times, 4 May 1895, p. 12. Athenaeum, no. 3523, 4 May 1895, p. 574, and no. 3525, 18 May 1895, p. 647. Illustrated London News, 18 May 1895, p. 620. R. Jope Slade, 'The Royal Academy of Arts, 1895', Art Journal, 1895, p. 176. Magazine of Art, 1895, p. 284. A. L. Baldry, 'The Collection of George McCulloch, Esq., Art Journal, 1897, p. 376. A.G. Temple, The Art of Painting in the Queen's Reign, London, 1897, p. 203. R.E.D. Sketchley, 'The Art of J.W. Waterhouse, RA', Art Journal, Christmas Number, 1909, pp. 18, 23, 32 (illustrated). K. Roberts, 'Four Victorian Exhibitions', Burlington Magazine, vol. CX, no. 789, Christmas 1968, p. 716. J.S. Maas, Victorian Painters, London, 1969, p. 20, illustrated. R. Edwards, 'A Panorama of Victorian Painting', Connoisseur, December 1969, illustrated p. 267. M. Harrison & B. Waters, Burne-Jones, London, 1973, illustrated pl. 267. A. Hobson, The Art and Life of J. W. Waterhouse, RA, London, 1980, pp. 91-96, 186 (no.112), illustrated in colour, pl. 63. A. Hobson, J. W. Waterhouse, London, 1989, pp. 56-7, 64, 122, illustrated in colour, pl. 38. J. K. and C. L. Baker, 'Miss Muriel Foster: The John William Waterhouse Model', Journal of Pre-Raphaelite Studies, vol. 8 (new series), Fall 1999, p. 72. EXHIBITION London, Royal Academy, 1895, no. 97. London, Corporation of London Art Gallery, Loan Collection of Pictures, By Painters of the British School who have flourished during Her Majesty's Reign, 1897, no. 152, lent by George McCulloch. Liverpool, Walker Art Gallery, Autumn Exhibition of Modern Pictures, 1897, no. 1035, lent by George McCulloch. London, Royal Academy, Exhibition of Modern Works in Painting and Sculpture forming the Collection of the late George McCulloch, Esq., Winter 1909, no. 61. Rome, International Fine Arts Exhibition, 1911, British Section, no. 353, lent by Mrs J. Coutts Michie (George McCulloch's widow, who had married the Scottish artist James Coutts Michie in 1909). London, Royal Academy, Exhibition of Works by Recently Deceased Members of the Royal Academy, Winter 1922, no. 100, lent by Sir Brodie Henderson, KCMG. NOTES Kneeling on a crimson cushion, the Saint has been playing a small organ in a garden overlooking the sea. Her labours have tired her and she has sought rest in a marble chair, studying an illuminated song-book over which she has fallen asleep. It is twilight; the sun sinks beyond the mountainous horizon, piercing the cypresses with its dying rays. The only sounds are the plash of water from an ancient fountain and the lapping of waves against the hulls of the triremes anchored in the distant harbour. Then, as the shadows lengthen, a more unearthly sound is heard. Two youthful angel musicians appear to serenade the Saint with violin and rebec, imparting an ineffable sweetness to her dreams. St Cecilia was a Roman virgin martyr who lived in the 2nd or 3rd century AD. Her relics, which are thought to be genuine, are preserved in the basilica of S. Cecilia in Trastevere, a church of very early foundation. Brought up as a Christian, she took a vow of chastity, and, on marrying a Roman nobleman named Valerius, persuaded him to accept sexual abstinence. He agreed on condition that he was allowed to see her guardian angel, whereupon the angel descended and placed garlands of roses and lilies on their heads. Both Valerius and his brother Tiburtius were baptised as Christians, and in due course they and Cecilia suffered martyrdom for their faith. Cecilia is famous in Christian iconography as the patron saint of music. Her connection with the art appears to stem from the fact that in early accounts of her life she is said to have rejected the sound of musical instruments that greeted her as she entered the house of her betrothed; she had ears only for the heavenly music that required her to remain stainless in soul and body. The connection was established by the 15th century, and from then on she was constantly depicted in her patronal role. While usually shown playing an organ, she does not disdain other instruments, and the idea of her listening to celestial music is frequently introduced by means of upturned eyes and accompanying angel choirs. Waterhouse has clearly made free use of these traditions. His picture's mise-en-scŠne is vaguely Roman, although this does not preclude such wilful anachronisms as the medieval book and musical instruments. The Saint is portrayed not only as a performer on the organ but as capable of strumming a tune on the lute which lies discarded beside her throne-like chair. The notion of angels as both guardians and musical accompanists is obviously dominant, while the roses which flourish in the walled garden are often St Cecilia's attribute, referring to the wreath with which she was miraculously crowned. The other flower which abounds in this hortus conclusus, the poppy, is a well-known emblem of oblivion and sleep. Waterhouse's serene and poetic picture is one of his most important works, comparable in scale, ambition and intensity of feeling to such well-known examples in public collections as The Lady of Shalott (1888; Tate Gallery), Hylas and the Nymphs (1896; Manchester Art Gallery), or Echo and Narcissus (1903; Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool). The picture was not included in the Last Romantics exhibition which was mounted at the Barbican Art Gallery in 1989, but it could well have been. Indeed, it perfectly represents one vital element in the complex phase of British romantic art which the exhibition celebrated, namely the survival well into the twentieth century of Pre-Raphaelite themes and sensibilities under academic forms. St Cecilia was painted at the height of Waterhouse's career. It was exhibited at the Royal Academy in the very year, 1895, that he was elected to full membership, and may well have helped to secure him this accolade. Forty-six at the time, he had been born in Rome, where his father, a minor artist and copyist, belonged to the expatriate community. When he was six, the family had returned to London, and in 1870, at the age of twenty-one, he had entered the Royal Academy Schools, where he was a contemporary of Frank Dicksee, Alfred Gilbert, Stanhope Forbes and other luminaries of the coming generation. He made his debut at the RA four years later, and it remained the central showcase for his work, although he occasionally supported the Grosvenor and New Galleries, as well as showing at Suffolk Street and regularly sending work to the Liverpool Autumn Exhibitions. After tentative beginnings, Waterhouse rapidly gained assurance. During his early career, he tended to specialise in modern subjects inspired by visits to Italy and in classical themes somewhat in the Alma-Tadema mode. He was elected ARA in 1885, and the following year his picture The Magic Circle (Tate Gallery) was bought for the Chantrey Bequest. From then on he never really looked back, becoming an increasingly respected figure in London's artistic establishment. Having married in 1883, he and his wife settled in Primrose Hill, north London, where St Cecilia would have been painted; but in 1900, five years after Waterhouse had achieved RA status, the couple left this bohemian quarter for that select enclave of successful academicians, St John's Wood. Both in the local art school, at that time an important training ground, and in the RA Schools themselves, Waterhouse was a highly regarded teacher, while his work gained an ever more devoted following. Many of the new regional museums bought pictures, and he had a loyal circle of private patrons, including George McCulloch, who acquired St Cecilia, Sir James Murray of Aberdeen, and Sir Alexander Henderson, later Lord Faringdon, and his family. Waterhouse's reputation abroad was no less secure. His pictures were widely exhibited in Europe and America. St Cecilia was shown at the International Exhibition in Rome in 1911, although Mariamne, a masterpiece of 1887 (Forbes Magazine Collection), was the most travelled of his works, winning a medal at the great exhibition in Paris two years later, and going on to receive plaudits at comparable shows in Chicago (1893), Brussels (1897) and Dublin (1907). In the 1880s and 1890s, major pictures by Waterhouse were bought for no fewer than three museums in Australia, those in Melbourne, Adelaide and Sydney. Mariamne, a subject from Josephus, marks the culmination of Waterhouse's 'Alma-Tadema' phase. The following year, 1888, he exhibited the famous Lady of Shalott (Tate Gallery), thus marking a dramatic change to a more Pre-Raphaelite manner. This was sometimes reflected in a choice of specific themes that the Pre-Raphaelites had already explored; at others it was more a matter of moods and soulful facial types that had something in common with those of Burne-Jones. There seems to be no actual record of the two artists meeting, and they were certainly never on intimate terms, but they probably did encounter one another at some stage. They might well have done so at the Grosvenor or New Galleries, bastions of aestheticism of which Burne-Jones was the undisputed star; or perhaps they met when each was elected ARA in 1885, even though the circumstances which had brought them to this point were very different. For Waterhouse, it was an important step on the career ladder, never to be repudiated. Burne-Jones, sixteen years older and well established as the leading light of the Grosvenor, had agreed to stand against his better judgment, persuaded by the President, Sir Frederic Leighton, who wished to broaden the Academy's membership and attract talent from the rival establishment. Whereas Waterhouse went on to full membership of the RA and a leading role in its affairs, Burne-Jones soon realised his mistake and, in 1893, resigned. Whatever the nature of their relationship, Burne-Jones's influence on Waterhouse was never limiting; on the contrary, it seemed to release the younger man's powerful artistic personality. Nor did it ever extend to matters of technique. Even in his early work Waterhouse had realised his Alma-Tadema-like subjects in terms of a robust handling of paint that was far removed from the Dutchman's meticulous touch, and this remained true when he adopted a more Pre-Raphaelite manner. His broad brushwork, though looser than it had been by the time he painted St Cecilia, is comparable to that of such contemporaries as Stanhope Forbes, Henry La Thangue, George Clausen and John Lavery, the first two of whom had been his fellow students in the RA Schools, or of his close friend William Logsdail, a neighbour in Primrose Hill, who specialised in London views. (It is worth noting that when St Cecilia was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1895, paintings by La Thangue, Clausen, Logsdail and Lavery hung with it in the same room.) The only difference was that while Waterhouse was painting literary subjects executed in the studio, other artists were concerned with realism and were often painting en plein air. Indeed these artists' approach to technique derived ultimately from the French arch-realist whom they all passionately admired, Jules Bastien-Lepage. Waterhouse was not alone in England in attempting to revivify the indigenous literary tradition by casting it in a form which, because of its close association with French realism, seemed excitingly modern; but no one else bridged the gap with more consistency or flair. That he brought off the synthesis so triumphantly is possibly his greatest achievement, and the one that gives him most significance in the art history of his time. St Cecilia exhibits all the traits of Waterhouse's particular brand of late, academic Pre-Raphaelitism. It is based on a poem by Tennyson that had been illustrated by D.G. Rossetti in the famous Moxon edition of the poet's works published in 1857 (Fig. 1). As is well known, this book had been a landmark in the current revival of book illustration, providing a showcase for the work of Rossetti, Millais and Holman Hunt and contrasting it with that of artists such as Richard Redgrave or Daniel Maclise, still cast in the old conventions. Tennyson's poem 'The Palace of Art' had first appeared in print in 1833. Inspired by a friend's remark that 'we cannot live in art', it attempts to show the numbing sterility of the aesthetic existence, the life dedicated to the cultivation of beauty and deliberately isolated from the outside world. Much of the poem is taken up with images which adorn the 'lordly pleasure-house', one if which is described as follows: Or in a clear wall'd city on the sea, Near gilded organ-pipes, her hair Wound with white roses, slept St Cecily; An angel look'd at her. Waterhouse was clearly obsessed with the Moxon Tennyson and its Pre-Raphaelite illustrators, drawing inspiration for no fewer than four major paintings from this source. The first was The Lady of Shalott of 1888 (Tate Gallery), already mentioned as the pivotal work which introduced the artist's Pre-Raphaelite phase. It was followed by another illustration to this poem, shown at the RA in 1894 (Leeds City Art Gallery). In this the heroine is not seen drifting down the river to Camelot, as she is in the Tate painting, but weaving her fatal tapestry, a subject that Holman Hunt had treated in the Moxon edition. Like 'The Palace of Art', Tennyson's 'Lady of Shalott' is concerned with the futility of aesthetic seclusion, and it would be interesting to know if this moral dilemma, as distinct from the graphic images in which Tennyson cloaks it, was of interest to Waterhouse. Whatever the case, St Cecilia, with its further underlying reference to the issue, was exhibited the following year. Finally, in 1897, Waterhouse showed the fourth of his Tennysonian pictures, Mariana in the South (private collection). This takes its subject from the poem of the same name and, like St Cecilia, deliberately challenges comparison with Rossetti, who had illustrated the subjects of both pictures in 1857. Although our picture's imagery can, as we have seen, be discussed within the general context of the saint's legend, it is clear that Waterhouse has borrowed extensively from Tennyson's brief but graphic account. The 'wall'd city on the sea', the 'gilded organ-pipes', the sleeping saint and the watchful angel, all these find their equivalent in the painting. As for Rossetti's illustration, here, too, the walled city, the organ and the angel re-appear. What is equally if not more interesting, however, is the question of whether Waterhouse knew Rossetti's dictum that in making an illustration an artist should 'allegorise on his own hook', that is to say he should not feel constrained to stick slavishly to the text but use his imagination to create a design that has independent life and meaning. Rossetti's St Cecilia composition puts this theory into practice with a vengeance, showing the angel not merely 'looking' at the saint but giving her a passionate kiss, interpreted by the artist's brother William Michael as 'the kiss of death'. It is hardly surprising that Tennyson, according to Rossetti, 'loathed' the result, or that Madox Brown described it as 'jolly quaint'. Waterhouse's approach to the problem is less controversial, yet he too evidently felt at liberty to 'allegorise' within the terms of his vision. Two angels, not one, watch the sleeping saint, and the white roses which entwine her hair in the poem flourish on a bush to the left in the painting. Spotting influences can be a tiresome art-historical conceit, but in the case of Waterhouse, a deeply eclectic artist open to all kinds of impressions, it is tempting to pursue this line of enquiry further, encouraged by the transparent relationship between our painting and Rossetti's illustration. There are, first, we may surely assume, early memories of Italy at work in St Cecilia, reminiscences of warm summer evenings, cypress groves and Roman antiquities, even if the marble seat, with its acanthus decoration in low relief, had some source in a museum, or even a book, nearer home. There is also an 'early Italian' dimension to the picture, the mood of virginal purity and innocence, as well as the composition itself, recalling some Florentine Annunciation. Leonardo's early painting in the Uffizi (Fig. 2) is a telling example, and one which Waterhouse would almost certainly have known. What he would not have been so aware of were the Bolognese and Roman baroque masters whom today we associate particularly with accounts of St Cecilia and her angel choir. Rendered deeply unfashionable by Ruskin, their work perhaps hardly registered with Waterhouse, and certainly plays no part in his picture's conception. Nor, it is safe to say, would he have been thinking of these artists' passionate English admirer, Sir Joshua Reynolds, who had painted two of his female sitters, Mrs Billington and Mrs Sheridan, in the role of music's patron saint. Yet more recent British artists were certainly not far from Waterhouse's thoughts. There is still perhaps an echo of Alma-Tadema in the harbour reached by a flight of steps from an opening in a marble balustrade, just the sort of device which the master often employed to fill his backgrounds and introduce figures in dramatically different planes. But the really significant image here is St Cecilia herself. Like so many Victorian artists of an idealising tendency, Waterhouse saw the reclining female figure as an indispensable part of his visual vocabulary, automatically appropriating it as a vehicle of beauty and eroticism on the authority of the great sculptures of classical antiquity which, at one level or another, still haunted every artist's mind. He had already considered the motif in the first of his pictures on the theme of Ophelia, dating from 1889 (see Hobson, op.cit., 1980, pl.74), and he would return to it on several occasions, notably in Ariadne (ibid., pl.75), a painting of 1898 which is virtually a pagan version of St Cecilia, repeating the harbour scene in the background and substituting leopards for angels. Making every allowance for subconscious assimilation as distinct from deliberate borrowing, it is hardly far-fetched to relate at least St Cecilia, with her virginal mien and context of roses, to the figure of the sleeping princess in Burne-Jones's Briar Rose paintings (Fig. 3). Waterhouse can hardly have failed to be among the crowds that flocked to see these famous works when they were exhibited at Agnew's in 1890. He would have seen them again when he visited Buscot Park in Oxfordshire, the country seat of his patron Alexander Henderson, who bought them and installed them there in the saloon. But the artist who most consistently returned to the theme of the reclining woman (and it is of course no accident that he was a thoroughgoing classicist) was Frederic Leighton. Leighton had taught Waterhouse in the RA Schools and, as President from 1878, had occupied a position of supreme authority for almost the whole of the younger artist's Academy career. It may be that Waterhouse remembered seeing Leighton's first image of this type, Ariadne abandoned by Theseus, which was shown at the RA in 1868, and he would certainly have studied the sequel, Hercules wrestling with Death for the Body of Alcestis, which was shown in 1871, when he was a student. Anthony Hobson, in his monograph on Waterhouse, makes a point of comparing this picture with St Cecilia, observing that it foreshadows all its main elements, the sleeping figure, the massed trees to left and right, and the sea glimpsed through a 'hole' in the middle of the composition. Over the years, Leighton was to show other variations on the theme, Idyll in 1881, Cymon and Iphigenia in 1884, Summer Slumber in 1894. The last again seems particularly relevant, appearing at the RA only a year before St Cecilia and anticipating in secular terms the picture's themes of languor and oppressive heat. Leighton was to paint one more work in this vein, the now celebrated Flaming June (Fig. 4), exhibiting it at the RA the same year as St Cecilia . By the time the next exhibition came round, he was dead. Two more pictures are perhaps worth mentioning in this context. One is Albert Moore's A Summer Night (Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool). Exhibited at the RA in 1890, this has the same sort of relationship to Waterhouse's picture as Leighton's Summer Slumber or Flaming June . In a composition which evokes a sense of almost stifling heat, a group of young women, semi-nude and very classical in inspiration, prepare themselves for a night's rest on the water's edge. The other picture is Sargent's Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose (Tate Gallery), which had appeared to ecstatic acclaim at the RA of 1887. This may seem a rather eccentric comparison, but, like St Cecilia, the picture has a strong symbolist dimension, presents us with figures of virginal purity, and brilliantly creates an effect of dusk in a flower-filled garden. Is it beyond the realms of possibility that at some perhaps subconscious level, Waterhouse was attempting to rival Sargent's controversial but popular work, which had been bought for the Chantrey Bequest? When all the comparisons have been made, all the possible influences suggested, St Cecilia remains a picture of great originality. It could never for a moment be mistaken for the work of anyone but Waterhouse. He may be an eclectic artist, but his capacity to absorb impressions and turn them to his own account never ceases to astonish. If there is something slightly Burne-Jonesian about some of his faces, they are also instantly recognisable as his. Indeed, like Burne-Jones, he used the same models over and over again, and all those in St Cecilia re-appear in other works. Recent research on this subject of Waterhouse's models has identified one of his favourites as Muriel Foster. Born in 1878, she began to sit for him in 1893, when she was fifteen. Among her many roles in his work are those of the two angels in St Cecilia, painted two years later. Never marrying, she trained as a nurse in the early 1900s and died as recently as 1969. One of the most original features of the picture is its colouring, a rich harmony of blues, greens, purples and browns, enlivened by passages of white and dramatic touches of red, pink and gold. The two crimson cushions are the details which anchor the scheme and do most to create visual excitement, but they are ably supported by the red, mauve and white flowers, set like jewels in their more sombre setting. Then there is Waterhouse's impressionistic handling of the paint itself, free and gestural yet never stooping to vulgar bravura. As we examine the surface, we sense the artist searching for his effects with a touching honesty and humility, yet having the confidence to stop when his purpose is achieved, even at the cost of some roughness. The pink drapery on which the Saint is seated is a particularly telling passage. It is not difficult to think of comparable paintings in which every detail has been brought to a high degree of finish, robbing the spectator of that opportunity to exercise his own imagination on which so much of the effect of St Cecilia depends. The picture had a warm reception when it appeared at the Royal Academy. F. G. Stephens, the veteran art critic on the Athenaeum, who had been a member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood back in 1848, found it 'poetical', thought its colouring 'brilliant', and generally 'recommended' it to his readers. The Illustrated London News observed that 'for those who seek...ideal subjects..., Mr Waterhouse's "St Cecilia"...is the best example (in the exhibition). It follows...the field once occupied by Rossetti, but is wanting in his oppressive sensuousness'. The Magazine of Art felt that In 'St Cecilia' Mr Waterhouse has taken another stride forward. There is not, perhaps, the mystery which has invested so many of his pictures with indescribable charm; but there are here greater merits, as compensation, in the composition, fine and well balanced, and a true sense of poetry, in its wider significance of conception, handling, colour, and painter-like quality. The artist's imagination....has been well supported by his generous palette; and his wealth of colour, of mauve and white, of green and blue and red, are resolved into a harmony exquisitely adapted to the subject. The Art Journal also joined the chorus of praise, in doing so making some interesting comments on Waterhouse's popularity and influence: Mr J. W. Waterhouse, RA (elected to full membership May 16),...has a very large personal following. No British painter at the present moment can with justice be called a maestro di scuola ; but in the canvases of the students of the Academy the active working influences will be found to be those of Mr Waterhouse, first, then Mr Tadema, and, in landscape, Mr Alfred East. Seeing that Mr Waterhouse is essentially a painter's painter, he has always enjoyed an astonishingly broad popularity. In 'St Cecilia', the important work which represents nearly two years' unremitting toil and experiment, the aim is wholly decorative, the colour superb, and the painting swift and direct, that of a man who has reached his goal...The effect is...somewhat ecclesiastic; entirely remote from realism and the world of our daily life. But the most enthusiastic response of all came from Harry Quilter, the art critic of the Times . In 'the second room....', he wrote, 'Mr Waterhouse shows one of the most brilliant and essentially modern performances of this eclectic age. A hundred artists have painted St Cecilia, but none, so far as we remember, has set the legend in precisely this way, as remote from the studied simplicity of Sir Joshua as it is from the classicism of Raphael'. After describing the imagery, he continued: The pleasant thing about this picture is that Mr Waterhouse has chosen, so to speak, a pre-Raphaelite subject, and yet has treated it in a way that is not pre-Raphaelite any more than it is impressionist, or touched with any other affectation. He speaks in his own language, follows his own colour scheme, and even - though perhaps those who have studied many of his pictures might wish for a little more variety in this respect - has evidently taken for his St Cecilia the same model that he took for his 'Belle Dame sans Merci' and for many another picture. Mr Waterhouse's work is now so well known that to make it the subject of a discourse would be to waste words. Enough to say that, while it is without the commanding force that we ask for and find in the greatest painters, it has many beautiful qualities of invention and colour, and that of all his pictures 'St Cecilia' seems to us to be in both these way the happiest. Even before it left Waterhouse's studio, the picture had been bought by George McCulloch, a Scottish prospector and mining engineer who had made a fortune in Australia. He was currently building himself a house at 184 Queen's Gate, Kensington, and St Cecilia hung there in the dining room. McCulloch formed one the greatest late nineteenth-century collections of modern paintings and sculpture; its great strength lay in British academic paintings, although it also included major 'aesthetic' works and fine examples of leading European masters. Some of the greatest pictures now in the Lady Lever Art Gallery, Port Sunlight, including Millais' Sir Isumbras, Leighton's Daphnephoria and Garden of the Hesperides, Luke Fildes' An Al-Fresco Toilette and Sargent's On his Holidays, belonged to McCulloch. Other highlights of the collection were Alma-Tadema's Sculpture Gallery (Rochester, New York), E. A. Abbey's Richard, Duke of Gloucester, and the Lady Anne (Yale University), Dicksee's Funeral of a Viking (Manchester), Whistler's Valparaiso Bay (Freer Gallery of Art, Washington), Albert Moore's last masterpiece, The Loves of the Winds and the Seasons (Blackburn), and three late Burne-Joneses, Love among the Ruins (Wightwick Manor), The Sleeping Princess (Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery of Modern Art, Dublin), and The Wedding of Psyche (Brussels). Almost every British academic artist of any standing was represented, and the foreign works included examples of Bouguereau, G‚rome, Fritz Thaulow and Bastien-Lepage. Among the three Bastiens were two of his best-known works, Pauvre Fauvette (Glasgow) and Pas MŠche (National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh). A photograph of McCulloch and his wife seated against some of their pictures in their palatial Kensington home forms the frontispiece of the catalogue of the exhibition Great Victorian Pictures: Their Paths to Fame that was mounted by the Royal Academy in 1978. The collector looks every inch a self-made man, and the scene is one of unbridled bourgeois opulence. There is something touching about this tough entrepeneur falling for a picture like St Cecilia, but in fact it represented a distinct aspect of his taste. He owned two more works by Waterhouse, the others being Flora and the Zephyrs (1898) and an Ophelia (1894) which was sold in these Rooms on 11 June 1993, lot 110; and there were other images of maidenly innocence in the collection, including the Burne-Joneses and T. C. Gotch's Child Enthroned . His commission from Morris & Co. for a set of Holy Grail tapestries, replicas of those already made for his business associate W. K. D'Arcy of Stanmore Hall, is further evidence of his response to otherworldly themes. In the winter of 1909, a year after McCulloch's death, his collection was exhibited en bloc at the Royal Academy, and in May 1913 it was sent for sale at Christie's. There were over three hundred lots, and they took three days to disperse. St Cecilia fetched 2,300 guineas, nearly œ100,000 in today's currency and at the time a record price for a work by Waterhouse. It was bought by the dealers Gooden and Fox for Sir Brodie Henderson (1869-1936), civil engineer, gallant soldier, and the brother of Alexander Henderson, first Baron Faringdon, whose family were by far the artist's most important patrons during his later years. Between them the Hendersons acquired many of his subject pictures, as well as commissioning several portraits of their wives and daughters. Towards the end of his life Waterhouse suffered much from illness. This made the support of the Hendersons all the more valuable, especially as taste was rapidly turning against the literary subjects in which he specialised. His closeness to the family is further illustrated by their response to his death, which took place on 10 February 1917. Brodie Henderson himself did not attend his funeral, probably because he was in the army and this was the penultimate year of the Great War, but his wife, daughter, and another brother were all present. Research has yet to show when St Cecilia left the Henderson collection, but in a sense this is immaterial. The picture had already acquired a provenance which, for this particluar artist, could hardly be more distinguished, and one that surely reflects the quality of the work itself. We are grateful to Peter Trippi, the author of a forthcoming biography of Waterhouse, for his help in preparing this entry. Mr Trippi will be giving a lecture entitled 'St. Cecilia: A Victorian Masterpiece' in the Great Room of Christie's King Street at 6.30 pm. on Tuesday 6 June. Entrance to the lecture will be free.

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Lot 16: FORBES, Stanhope Alexander (1857-1947)

Description: Le Rendez-vous, c.1880 Huile/toile 214,6 x 17,7 inches (545.0 x 45.0cm) Non Sign. upper left Illustrated.

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Lot 17: STANHOPE ALEXANDER FORBES, R.A. (1857-1947)

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Description: HAULIERS ON A COUNTRY ROAD, DARTMOOR signed and dated '03, oil on canvas 76 by 91.5 cm.; 30 by 36 in.

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes, R.A. (1857-1947)

Lot 17: Stanhope Alexander Forbes, R.A. (1857-1947)

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Description: Stanhope Alexander Forbes, R.A. (1857-1947) The fishermen's expedition signed and dated 'Stanhope A. Forbes./1923.' (lower right) oil on canvas 24 x 30½ in. (61 x 77.5 cm.)

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Lot 18: FORBES, STANHOPE ALEXANDER (1857-1947)

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Description: Chyenhall moor, 1920, 1920 Oil/canvas 20.9x21.3 in (53x54 cm) signed & dated (Lower Right) Title & inscr. verso.

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FORBES, Stanhope Alexander, (Irish, 1857-1948)

Lot 22: FORBES, Stanhope Alexander, (Irish, 1857-1948)

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Description: "Newlyn", Coastal landscape, O/C, 17" x 12", signed lower left, titled and dated 1890. Condition - Unstretched and unframed, several portions of paint missing.

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After a Day's Work

Lot 22: After a Day's Work

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Description: Stanhope Alexander Forbes, R.A. (1857-1947) After a Day's Work signed and dated 'Stanhope A. Forbes/1907' (lower right) oil on canvas 30¼ x 24 in. (76.8 x 61 cm.)

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes, R.A. (1857-1947)

Lot 23: Stanhope Alexander Forbes, R.A. (1857-1947)

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Description: The Great Fire of London, 1666indistinctly signed 'Stanhope A. Forbes' (lower right)oil on canvas, in an arch-top frame60 1/2 x 39 7/8 in. (153.7 x 101.3 cm.)

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Study for 'The Health of the Bride'

Lot 23: Study for 'The Health of the Bride'

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Description: Stanhope Alexander Forbes, R.A. (1857-1947) Study for 'The Health of the Bride' signed 'STANHOPE A. FORBES' (lower left) pen and black ink heightened with white, on grey tinted paper 7¼ x 9¼ in. (18.4 x 23.5 cm.)

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes, RA (British, 1857-1947) 'Chateaudun'

Lot 23: Stanhope Alexander Forbes, RA (British, 1857-1947) 'Chateaudun'

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Description: 'Chateaudun'signed and inscribed 'Stanhope A. Forbes/Chateaudun' (lower left), oil on canvas laid to board 34.5 x 52.2cm (13 9/16 x 20 9/16in).

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes R.A. (1857-1947) FORGING STEEL: THE STEEL MILLS oil on canvas

Lot 24: Stanhope Alexander Forbes R.A. (1857-1947) FORGING STEEL: THE STEEL MILLS oil on canvas

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Description: 75 x 101 cm. (29 x 39 in.) Although Forbes is most closely associated with the depiction of life in and around the Newlyn area of Cornwall, he did paint a number of works which take industry as their subject. His depiction of iron and steel working were particularly successful and allowed him to make full use of his abilities to render the curious light effects given off by the white-hot metal. The present work would seem to relate to a group of paintings which depict various stages of the process of making railway and tram rails. Indeed, the finished product also appears in a large oil, Laying Trams Lines Along The Embankment (Private Collection, U.K.), seen at night from a viewpoint above The Adelphi. This interest in metal working and the possibilities of dramatic light effects is first seen to full advantage on Forging The Anchor (Ipswich City Art Gallery) of 1892).

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes (1857-1947)

Lot 24: Stanhope Alexander Forbes (1857-1947)

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Description: Portrait of a Woman signed 'Stanhope A Forbes' (lower left) oil on canvas 18 x 14 in. (45.7 x 35.6 cm.).

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Lot 25: FORBES, STANHOPE ALEXANDER (1857-1947)

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Description: The daily bread, 1886, 1886 Oil/canvas 21.5x15.5 in (54.6x39.3 cm) signed & dated (Lower Left).

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Lot 25: Stanhope Alexander Forbes, R.A. (1857-1947)

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Description: A fishergirl, Newlyn signed and dated 'Stanhope Forbes./1894' (lower right) oil on canvas 25 x 18 in. (63.5 x 46 cm.) NOTES Stanhope Alexander Forbes was born in Dublin, the son of a railway manager and a French mother. He studied at Lambeth School of Art; the Royal Academy Schools between 1874-78; then for two years in Paris under Leon Bonnat. He was certainly influenced by the work of Jules Bastien-Lepage and painted in Brittany with H.H. La Thangue in the early 1880s, however, it was not until 1884 that he settled in Cornwall and became a leading member of the 'Newlyn School'. In January of that year, he wrote in a letter that Newlyn was 'a sort of English Concarneau', referring to the character of the place and to the artists that were already there. Walter Langley and Thomas Cooper Gotch he knew by reputation; Leghe Suthers had returned with him from Brittany in the previous year and Ralph Todd, who he had met in Quimperl‚. Forbes began exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1878, and was created an Associate in 1892. His election was greeted by one writer as proof of the liberality of the Academy, for it had taken in 'the youthful leader of so audacious a school as the Newlyn school of painting' and when in the same year, he exhibited Forging the Anchor (1892; Ipswich Borough Council) at the Academy, it received far wider press coverage than any other Newlyn painting. Dating from 1894, the present composition epitomises Forbes' subject matter and technique of this period. The artist, who championed plein-air painting wrote a few years later: 'To plant one's easel down in the full view of all, and work away in the midst of a large congregation needs a good deal of courage; but it takes even more to boldly ask some perfect stranger to pose for one under such very trying conditions. But our principles demanded it, and convinced of their virtue, I strove always to be consistent to them' (see an address by S.A. Forbes, A.R.A.: Cornwall from a painter's point of view, Falmouth, 1901, p. 8). He had written some years before that 'the great drawback to this place [Newlyn] is the girls will not pose in the streets. You know I like to paint almost always on the spot. There is only one I found who does not mind, a great big rather handsome woman. But all the pretty little ones are too shy' (see a letter from the artist, dated 10 February 1884, cited in C. Fox and F. Greenacre, Artists of the Newlyn School 1880-1900, Catalogue for the exhibition at the Newlyn Orion Galleries, 1979, p. 64). Forbes was upset that fashion had reached his picturesque fisher folk. As early as 1884 he remarked that the girls were quite pretty despite their rather ugly English costume adding that 'fringes ruined many a pretty face: 'All very well in a stylish London beauty, but appalling with these surroundings of sea, boats, fish, etc.'. Inevitably, Forbes was drawing comparisons between the Newlyners' dress and the distinctive Breton costumes that he had painted for three summers. Four years later, there was a small measure of change in his attitude when he could admire the women's 'charming instinct of dress' and their 'neat blouses and cotton aprons of every day wear' (see S.A. Forbes, A Newlyn Retrospect, The Cornish Magazine, I, 1898, p. 86). In his talk on The Treatment of Modern Life in Art, probably written in 1892 or 1894 Forbes argued that it is interpretation that will elevate any subjects into works of art: 'For a beauty lies as much in the light, the atmosphere which surrounds all things, as in their actual form and fashion. There is nothing which cannot be transformed by the effect under which it is seen [...] that which might seem awkward and rough, suited as it is to the conditions of its life, and in harmony with its surroundings, may be most beautiful [...] The hard lines which care and toil have left upon them, the awkwardness induced by the want of culture, the many signs of which tell of the hardships of poverty, all these are there and should be faithfully recorded; for without them the study is half told and its value lost. Seen and understood in manner, many things are to be found full of meaning'. Norman Garstin, a fellow Newlyn resident artist summed up Forbes' approach to painting and his influence: '... the Newlyn artists came to be a name, and the technique was copied and caricatured, and finally abandoned, and other methods rose and fell and reactions had their invariable rhythmic ebb and flow... but these sterling qualities that have gone to the making of A Fish sale on a Cornish Beach [1885; Plymouth City Museum and Art Gallery], The Village Philharmonic [1888; Corporation of Birmingham], The Health of the Bride [1889; Tate Gallery, London], The Forging of the Anchor [1892; Ipswich Borough Council], etc. these remain; to wit, keen observation, and vehement concentration, an artistic conscience always making for truth, an unerring eye, and a powerful grasp of the essentials; these remain, and leave their mark year by year on the art of England and the world' (see C. Fox and F. Greenacre, op. cit., pp. 53-68).

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes, RA (British, 1857-1947) Figures in an Italian courtyard, outside the studio of Luigi Tolomeo

Lot 25: Stanhope Alexander Forbes, RA (British, 1857-1947) Figures in an Italian courtyard, outside the studio of Luigi Tolomeo

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Description: Figures in an Italian courtyard, outside the studio of Luigi Tolomeo signed and dated 'Stanhope A. Forbes/1923' (lower right)oil on canvas56 x 67cm (22 1/16 x 26 3/8in).

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes, R.A. (1857-1947)

Lot 26: Stanhope Alexander Forbes, R.A. (1857-1947)

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Description: The Slip signed 'STANHOPE A. FORBES.' (lower right) oil on canvas 421/2 x 341/4 in. (108 x 87 in.) Painted in 1884 PROVENANCE with Richard Green, London, May 1983, where purchased by the present owner. LITERATURE Mrs Lionel Birch, Stanhope A. Forbes, A.R.A., and Elizabeth Stanhope Forbes, A.R.W.S., London, 1906, p. 32, illustrated on the frontispiece. C. Fox, Stanhope Forbes and the Newlyn School, London, 1993, p. 26, illustrated. NOTES Stanhope Forbes discovered the Cornish fishing village of Newlyn in January 1884, and immediately embarked upon a series of paintings that would secure his reputation and create a new artistic movement. Forbes's views on plein air painting are much quoted, 'it may seem somewhat of a paradox but I have often found the success of a picture to be in inverse ratio to the degree of comfort in which it has been produced. I scarcely like to advance the theory that painting is more successful when carried out in discomfort, and with everything conspiring to wreck it, for fear of rendering tenantless those comfortable studios the luxury of which my good friends in Melbury Road and St John's Wood enjoy' (see Mrs Birch, op. cit., p. 29). Forbes was not afraid to put his views into practice as The Slip, begun in the early part of 1884 and his first completed canvas in Newlyn, must have been painted from a rowing boat. Mrs Lionel Birch in her early monograph on Forbes and his wife, Elizabeth, illustrated the present work on the frontispiece and described the picture in the body of the text ( loc. cit. ), 'Stanhope Forbes's first picture in Newlyn was of 'The Slip' as the steep pathway to the beach is locally called. In it the silver tide laps gently up under a grey sky, warming to amber at the horizon; a rowing boat is drawn up alongside the footway; a girl, bending over the iron rail, hands down nets and other gear to the fisherman, who makes ready to put forth'. Mrs Birch's monograph is peppered with contemporary quotes, and as a personal friend of both painters, her assertion that the present work was Forbes's first at Newlyn can be accepted as a fact. The painting can easily be divided up into three distinct areas. The foreground incorporates the narrative element of the composition, and allows the painter to demonstrate his technical ability in capturing the colour and movement of the water. The middle ground depicts the 'slip' (or narrow causeway) of the title. This served to separate Newlyn Town from Street-an-Nowan, a small community to the east clustered around the mouth of the Coombe river, the beach providing the main means of communication between the two settlements. The 'slip' was negotiable only on foot and at low tide. In the far distance, Forbes includes the hustle and bustle of the town, depicting numerous figures hanging over the harbour wall looking out to sea. In this way, the work is an assertion of Newlyn's appeal to the artist, a fascination which lasted for the whole of his life. The busy fishing village, set against the beauty and majesty of the sea, provided countless subjects for his paintings, 'Here every corner was a picture, and, more important from the point of view of the figure-painter, the people seemed to fall naturally into their places, and to harmonise with their surroundings... [the fisherfolk] are obliged to don their quaint sou'-westers and duck frocks, and all the rest of the picturesque attire which one is always struck with in strolling through a fishing village... All these things delighted me from the first, for here seemed to be a spot where the figures did not clash with the sentiment of the place, making one sigh for the good old days of picturesque costume, but actually seemed appropriate and just. For not only the dress, but its wearers were alike weather-stained, and tanned into harmony by the sun and the salt wind, so that the whole scene was in keeping and of one piece. Nature has not lavished all her care on the landscape here about, but has built up a race of people well knit and comely, fit inhabitants of such a region. Models, that prime necessity of a figure-painter, were to be found here, as good as one could desire; and I think I can claim to have been one of the foremost in accustoming the good folk of the district to somewhat eccentric conduct which the out-of-door painter in his zeal affects' ( op. cit., p. 28). In the same year, Forbes undertook the monumental canvas, A Fish Sale on a Cornish Beach (fig. 1; Plymouth City Museum and Art Gallery) which was hung at the Royal Academy in 1885. This work was received with such acclaim that a group of artists, many of whom Forbes had studied with and painted alongside in France, were attracted to the village. This group became known as 'The Newlyn School', and as a contemporary critic, Wilfred Meynell, later remarked in 1892, a new era in British painting had begun.

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Lot 26: FORBES, STANHOPE ALEXANDER (1857-1947)

Description: A street harmony, 1921-1922 Oil/canvas 30x24 inches (76x61 cm) signed & dated (Lower Right) Inscr. SD/verso. Exhib.: Royal Academy, no.473, London 1922.

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