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Charles Fairfax Murray Auction Price Results

Charles Fairfax Murray (1849-1919)  Please Register/Login to access your Invaluable Alerts

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CHARLES FAIRFAX MURRAY, English, 1849-1919,

Lot 722: CHARLES FAIRFAX MURRAY, English, 1849-1919, "The Blind Beggar",, Oil on canvas, 20.5" x 18". Unframed.

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Description: CHARLES FAIRFAX MURRAY English, 1849-1919 "The Blind Beggar", an allegorical copy of Josephus Laurentius Dyckmans' "The Blind Beggar". Models are John Ruskin and Annie Miller. Provenance: Private Collection, Massachusetts. Oil on canvas, 20.5" x 18". Unframed.

Condition Report: The absence of a condition report does NOT imply that an an object is free of defects or restoration. Please contact Eldred's before bidding with any questions as to condition. Condition reports are provided as a complimentary service and only reflect the opinion of Eldred's and should not be taken as a statement of fact. Condition reports only detail flaws or restorations and do not take into account wear, fading, or other issues consistent with an object's age.

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Lot 4: MURRAY, CHARLES FAIRFAX (1849-1919)

Description: Classical maiden playing a lyre/Studies of seated women Pencil 10x7 inches (26x17.2 cm).

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Lot 5: MURRAY, CHARLES FAIRFAX ()

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Description: Study of a young woman with her hair tied back, c.1890, 1849-1919 Pencil 11.5x9.8 in (29.2x24.9 cm) Init. D With 2 others by differents artists.

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Lot 5: THOMAS AQUINAS (Saint, ca. 1225-1274). Summa theologiae. Pars secunda: Pars secunda. [Strassburg: Johann Mentelin, before Advent 1463].

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Description: Royal 2 o (392 x 293 mm). Collation: [1 8; 2-5 1 2 6 1 0 7-15 1 2 16 8 17 6(1+1) 18-21 1 2 22 1 0] (1/1r table, 1/6r, 1/7-1/8 blank; 2/1r Quaestio i, 7/1r Quaestio xliv, 12/1r Quaestiones xcii, 18/1r Quaestio cliv, 22/10 blank). 244 leaves (of 247, without the blanks). 59 lines, double column. Type 3:92 aG. Two- to seven-line initial spaces. One seven-line initial supplied in green modelled with dark green and yellow, on a mauve ground with liquid gold tracery, within a square blue frame, with foliage extensions into the margin. Quaestiones introduced by three- to six-line blue Lombard initials with red pen-flourishing, or red Lombards with brown flourishing, some including drawings of faces, articuli introduced by two-line red Lombards, the table with alternating red and blue two-line Lombards, capitals slashed in red, red underlines and paragraph marks. Section titles and headlines supplied in red (brown in the table), summaries of chapter contents entered by the rubricator in the margins of the table. Contemporary manuscript quiring in arabic numerals at lower inner corners of first rectos, contemporary manuscript catchwords at lower inner corners of last versos. Pinholes visible in upper and lower margins of most leaves. (Printing flaw to 20/2v from creased paper, 1/1 rehinged, dampstain to upper outer corner of first ca. 75 leaves, one small wormhole through blank margin of first ca. 50 leaves and last ca. 10 leaves, a few marginal slits or tears, some discreetly repaired, occasional smudges.) Binding : contemporary German blind-tooled calf over wooden boards, the covers panelled with double blind fillets, the inner panel with a central row of small rosettes alternating round and quatrefoil shapes, the central panel on each cover tooled with double blind fillets to an over-all saltire pattern, the intersections marked with the small round rosette, in the center of each compartment a lozenge-shaped tool patterned with cross-hatching resembling a cross of Jerusalem, on the front cover each corner of this tool extended with a narrow blade- or leaf-shaped tool, the same tool used in grouped impressions to mark the ends of the raised bands and on three sides of the outer panel to form a semi-circular sunburst pattern, the tools not in Kyriss, Schwenke-Sammlung ; two brass clasps with white leather straps, the catches engraved differently with patterns suggestive of armorial devices, contemporary paper label on front cover, vellum sewing guards cut from 14th- or 15th-century manuscripts (without the ten bosses, some wear including a few losses of leather mostly on back cover, rebacked, joints splitting, endleaves renewed); new cloth folding case. Provenance : Conrad V„ssler, of Mindelheim (Swabia), who was also the rubricator, purchased in 1465: inscription on 21/10v ( Comparatus est hic liber a Magistro Conrado V„ssler de Mindelhaim Anno domini M cccc lxv ) -- a few contemporary annotations and corrections, some in red ink by the rubricator -- scattered 15th- or 16th century marginalia -- Charles Fairfax Murray (1849-1919); sale, Christie's, 10 December 1917, lot 40, purchased by Quaritch (collation mark dated 27.xii.17) -- C.S. Ascherson: bookplate -- Albert Ehrman, Broxbourne Library: bookplate and markings; laid in: one letter from Quaritch and and two autograph postcards signed ("V.S.") from Victor Scholderer addressed to A. Ehrman, dated 28.xii.45 and 2.i.46; sale, Sotheby's, 8 May 1978, lot 586, to Lathrop C. Harper. FIRST EDITION of any part of the Summa theologica, and THE SECOND BOOK PRINTED IN STRASSBURG. Although there has been much discussion of the nature of Gutenberg's secret work when he lived in Strassburg in the 1430s and 1440s, there is no evidence that printing was introduced into the city before Johann Mentelin established a press there ca. 1458 and produced a Vulgate Bible, datable to not after 1460 (Goff B-528). The date assigned to the present edition of Thomas Aquinas is derived from a purchase inscription in the S‚lestat copy, which names Mentelin as the printer and is dated Advent 1463. The type used in the Aquinas, conventionally referred to as Mentelin 3, was in fact his second type and was first used in this book. The edition also shows other evidence of early production, in that Mentelin's compositors were having difficulty with copy-fitting. At three points in the text, 6/10v, 11/12v, and 17/6v, a blank space was left at the foot of the last column of a quire, with the printed notice "Hic nullus est deffectus. Sequitur distinccio". The extra leaf in quire 17 also represents an effort to make a section of text come out even with the end of the quire. The greatly influential Summa theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, composed ca. 1266-1272, was divided into three parts, of which the first treated God, the second man, and the third Christ. The second part was itself subdivided into a first part, concerning the last end of man and human actions in general, and a second part, in which Aquinas discussed the virtues and vices and the states and kinds of life. The usefulness of the Secunda secundae as a guide to Christian morals and ethics meant that from an early date it was consulted and copied separately, a practice that was reflected in the early printed tradition. Before the end of the fifteenth century there were eleven separate editions of the Secunda secundae. Part I of the Summa theologica was first printed ca. 1468 in Cologne (H 1419), Part II/1 in 1471 in Mainz (Goff T-203), and Part III ca. 1474 in Basel (Goff T-185). The first complete edition of the Summa appeared in Basel in 1485 (Goff T-194); two more complete editions were published before the end of the century. The original pastedowns of the present volume consisted of two complete and originally conjugate leaves (sheet 2.5) from the rubrication table for the 36-line Bible, printed in a late state of Gutenberg's DK type and now attributed to Albrecht Pfister in Bamberg, ca. 1459-1460 (not after 1461). These leaves were removed by Charles Fairfax Murray when the book was in his possession and were given by him in 1918 to Cambridge University Library (Fairfax Murray German 460; Oates 17; The Liverpool Copy of the 36-line Bible, Christie's London, 27 November 1991, p. 63). The text in this copy of Aquinas begins "Ost communem considerationem", with a space left for the initial P to be supplied by the illuminator, whereas in the British Library copy the "P" was printed. Victor Scholderer remarked in his annotations to BMC that the present copy shows six pinholes, one each at the upper corners and two each at the lower corners, whereas the British Library copy is recorded as having four pinholes only. The date of the inscription in the present copy, 1465, is the second earliest recorded for this edition, after that of the S‚lestat copy cited above; inscriptions in several other copies are dated 1466, 1467 or 1468. VERY FINE, CRISP AND FRESH COPY, WITH SHARP TYPE IMPRESSIONS. HC 1454*; BMC I, 51 (IC. 508); CIBN T-174; Doheny I, 13; Fairfax Murray German 453; Harvard/Walsh 49; Schorbach Mentelin 5; Pr 199; Goff T-208.

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Lot 7: (i) Charles Fairfax Murray (British, 1849- 1919) FIGURES

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Description: IN A GARDEN WITH A FOUNTAIN brown ink on paper. 5 1/4 by 8 1/4 in.13.3 by 21cm. A fragment of a drawing of a similar theme and also in brown ink is on the verso. Provenance: The Drawing Shop, New York (ii) British School, 18/19th Century LANDSCAPE WITH A BRIDGE AND FISHERMEN brown ink and inkwash on paper. 4 7/8 by 6 3/8 in. 12.5 by 16.2 cm. (2).

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THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI, miniature on a leaf from a Prayerbook, ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPT ON VELLUM

Lot 8: THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI, miniature on a leaf from a Prayerbook, ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPT ON VELLUM

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Description: [Genoa, c.1600] 145 x 169 mm. In a rectangular frame of liquid gold patterned on blue, the Magi offer their gifts to the Christ Child, seated on the Virgin's lap; their intricate costumes and offerings, as well as the star and its rays, are detailed in liquid gold; their retinue stretches back from the train bearers to the camel drivers who complete the circle of figures behind St Joseph. On the verso, six lines of text written in a humanistic hand with a prayer for the Virgin's intercession Deus qui salutis aeternae (paint loss from frame, slight losses within miniature). Mounted in a double-sided gilt wood frame. The miniature is attributable to Giovanni Battista Castello, called il Genovese (c.1548-1637) and so was produced in Genoa, probably around 1600. Castello was much in demand, chiefly as an illuminator: between 1583 and 1585 he was working in Spain for Philip II on choirbooks for the Escorial. Otherwise he seems mainly to have painted independent illuminated pictures, with the notable exception of a leaf from a Carthusian choirbook (Genoa, Galleria di Palazzo Bianco). This Adoration of the Magi, the text on the verso showing that it came from a prayerbook, is a rare example of his work in a manuscript. Castello signed and dated many of his independent illuminations, such as the Adoration of the Magi of 1599 (formerly Genoa, Amelotti Collection), which shows the same fusion of Raphaelesque and northern elements (see C. di Fabio, Giov. Battista Castello, il Genovese, and nos 34, 17 cited above). Castello owned many prints, including a volume of D쳌rer, and this Adoration draws on the earlier traditions accessible through D쳌rer and Schongauer. The composition is especially close to the Adoration of the Magi sold in these rooms, 19 April 1988 lot 42 (di Fabio, no 11, dated to c.1600), where the northern influences are more contemporary and mannerist. Both miniatures, however, show Castello working at his most colourful and with an exceptionally meticulous and refined technique. This miniature was owned by Charles Fairfax Murray (1849-1919): to the current owner by descent.

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THE AENEID MANUSCRIPT

Lot 10: THE AENEID MANUSCRIPT

Description: Technical Description William Morris (1834-1896) with the assistance of Sir Edward Burne-Jones, A.R.A., R.W.S. (1833-1898) and Charles Fairfax Murray (1849-1919); later work by Graily Hewitt (1864-1953) and Louise Powell (1882-1956) An Illuminated Manuscript of Virgil's Aeneid Generally regarded as Morris's calligraphic masterpiece, the Aeneid marks the climax of his attempt to revive the art of the illuminated manuscript in the early 1870s. The writing was begun by Morris and completed by Graily Hewitt. The illustration and decoration were begun by Morris and continued (but not completed) by Fairfax Murray and Mrs Powell. The miniatures and historiated initials were designed by Burne-Jones. 335-320 x 240mm. vi + 185 + vi vellum leaves including two endleaves stained purple, the text block mostly in gatherings of four, paginated 1-370, 28 lines written in black ink in roman minuscule between two verticals and 29 or 28 horizontals ruled in pencil, ruled area approx. 230 x 135mm, running headings throughout in capitals of blue on versos and burnished gold on rectos, some text capitals of gold, blue or occasionally silver up to p.72, guide letters for all others in pencil TWENTY-EIGHT ILLUMINATED FOLIATE INITIALS three- to eight-lines-high in bodycolour and burnished gold between p.43 and p.72, four unfinished, a further four drawn in pen-and-ink, FOUR LARGE HISTORIATED INITIALS in watercolour and one in grey wash, occasional pencil sketches, tracings and instructions for others up to p.166, HALF-PAGE MARGINAL MINIATURE, the opening folios of the twelve Books with HALF-PAGE MINIATURES C.140 X 135MM OR 135 X 140MM ABOVE ELEVEN LINES OF BURNISHED GOLD CAPITALS SURROUNDED BY FULL-PAGE FOLIATE BORDERS, the miniatures in watercolour, bodycolour and liquid gold, one border of gold leaf, three painted in bodycolour and eight drawn in pen-and-ink, one miniature not supplied (flaking to gold of foliate initial p.57 and unfinished initials on pp.57, 61 & 63). Contemporary renaissance-inspired panelled brown morocco by Leighton, ruled and stamped in blind with outer borders of rosettes and grouped annular dots within triple fillets, inner border with diaper interlace, the central panel with semicircles containing knotwork above and below a roundel with winged-dragon tools radiating from a central rosette, gilt turn-ins and board-edges, spine in six compartments top and bottom ruled and stamped in blind with rosettes in diaper (very slight rubbing at bands top and bottom of spine-joint, three tiny losses of surface at bottom corner of outer edge of upper cover), matching brown morocco box (box slightly scuffed at corners). The miniatures are as follows: p.1 Venus meets Aeneas on the shores of Libya and clothes him in mist to prevent his being hindered on the way to Carthage (Book I); with a full-page border of burnished gold grape-vines against a ground of unburnished gold leaf (Fig. 10) p.2 Juno in her chariot drawn by peacocks, before the city of Carthage (marginal miniature 152 x 60mm) (Fig. 17) p.29 Aeneas holds his son's hand and carries his father Anchises on his shoulders as they flee the ruins of Troy, Venus leading the way; behind them Aeneas's wife, Creusa, is engulfed by flames in the gateway of the city; to the right, Venus leads Aeneas by the hand (Book II); with a full-page acanthus and floral border in pen-and-ink p.86 Dido, maddened with grief at the departure of Aeneas, falls on his sword on the bed they shared, his breastplate still beside her; ribbons of flame from her pyre in the background (Book IV); with a full-page acanthus border in pen-and-ink (Fig. 11) p.113 The goddess Iris in disguise incites the women of Troy to burn the ships (Book V); with a full-page acanthus border in pen-and-ink (Fig. 13) p.146 Aeneas and the Cumaean Sibyl, armed with the golden bough, journey down to the Underworld and the banks of the river Styx (Book VI); with a full-page acanthus border in pen-and-ink p.181 Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus, stands in the courtyard of his palace, her hair ablaze as a portent of her own fame and the terrible war that will befall her people (Book VII); with a full-page painted border with two types of green foliage and berries against a dark red ground (Fig. 31) p.211 Venus presents Aeneas with a gift of arms fashioned by Vulcan (Book VIII); with a full-page border of white acanthus around blue foliage and white flowers against a dark red ground, each side with a central quatrefoil of pointill‚ -patterned burnished gold (Fig. 16) p.238 Turnus is visited by the goddess Iris, who instructs him to make a surprise attack on the Trojan camp (Book IX); with a full-page border of green vine leaves on plaited tendrils surrounded by curling tendrils with red berries and while flowers on a dark blue ground (Fig. 26) p.268 Aeneas, protected by his shield, strikes Mezentius in the thriat as he is thrown from his fallen horse (Book X); with a full-page acanthus border in pen-and-ink (Fig. 25) p.302 Aeneas displays the armour of Mezentius as a trophy of war (Book XI); with a full-page acanthus border in pen and ink p.336 Aeneas, having wounded Turnus, plunges his spear into his breast (Book XII); with a full page acanthus border in pen and ink The historiated initials are: p.26 Q, with Cupid in the form of Ascanius embracing Dido ( Quum venit aulaeis... Bk I, l.697) 100 x 110mm (fig. 15) p.44 H, with Cassandra chained and dragged from the temple of Minerva during the fall if Troy ( Heu mihi invitis... Bk II, l.402) 90 x 60mm (Fig. 18) p.48 E, with Polites, having been pursued by Pyrrhus, dying in the arms of his father Priam ( Ecce autem elapsus Pyrrhi... Bk II, l.526) 88 x 60mm (Fig. 20) p.50 J, with Helen hiding at the doors of the temple of Vesta ( Jamque adeo super unus... Bk II, l.567) 93 x 52mm (Fig. 27) p.154 T, with Venus watching over her two doves, which reveal the tree with the golden bough ( Talis erat spacies... BK VI, l.208) 150 x 65mm (fig. 29) Provenance, Exhibition History and Literature 5. PROVENANCE, EXHIBITION HISTORY AND LITERATURE PROVENANCE Sold by William Morris to Charles Fairfax Murray, c. 1890. By descent to Fairfax Murray's son Arthur; anonymous sale, Sotheby's, 18 July 1928, lot 2, /P 1,750 to Gregory. Mrs George W. Millard, from whom purchased by Mrs Estelle Doheny, 24 June 1932. The Estelle Doheny Collection, The Edward Laurence Doheny Memorial Library, St John's Seminary, Camarillo, California; sold The Estelle Doheny Collection, Part VI: Printed Books and Manuscripts concerning William Morris and his Circle, Christie's, New York, 19 May 1989, lot 2370. Lord Lloyd-Webber Charles Fairfax Murray (1849-1919)(fig. 9) not only owned the manuscript but played a crucial part in its decoration. Born in Bow, the son of a draper, he began his career as a shopboy with the famous firm of contractors Peto and Betts. In 1866, eager to become an artist, he approached John Ruskin for advice, and by the end of the year (aged seventeen) he was acting as Burne-Jones's first studio assistant. Before long he was also working for D.G. Rossetti and William Morris, with whom he struck up a close friendship. In the early 1870s he was Morris's principal painter of stained glass and much involved with the decoration of his illuminated manuscripts. In 1871 Murray paid his first visit to Italy and in 1873 he settled there, copying paintings for Ruskin and acquiring an exhaustive knowledge of the old masters. The rest of his life was spent between London and Italy, in both of which he established families. Although he continued to paint and, like Burne-Jones, exhibited regularly at the Grosvenor and New Galleries, his energies were increasingly devoted to collecting and dealing. By the 1880s he had established a formidable reputation as a connoisseur, and in 1893 Morris and Burne-Jones recommended him (unsuccessfully) for the directorship of the National Gallery. By the turn of the century he was in partnership with Agnew's, and his services as a marchand amateur were being sought internationally by such major collectors as Wilhelm von Bode, J.P. Morgan and H.C. Frick. Yet he remained intensely public-spirited, giving generously to the National Gallery, the Dulwich Art Gallery and the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, as well as selling large numbers of Pre-Raphaelite drawings to the Birmingham Art Gallery for less than their market value. A short, thickset man, fiercely independent in character, Murray died at Chiswick after a series of strokes in January 1919. Carrie Estelle Betzold Doheny (1875-1958) married the prominent Californian oilman Edward Laurence Doheny in 1900; she was an operator working for the Sunset Telephone and Telegraph Company, and they met as a result of her placing his calls to wealthy investors. When Doheny died in 1935, he left her a large fortune, which she used to support Roman Catholic charities (Pope Pius XII made her a Countess in 1939, the first title of its kind to be granted in Southern California) and to create a magnificent library. With the help of the legendary bookseller A.S.W. Rosenbach, she bought extensively in such varied fields as illuminated manuscripts, incunabla, post-incunable Bibles and works of theology, material relating to William Morris, American literature and Presidential autographs. The Edward Laurence Doheny Memorial Library, which she established at St John's Seminary, Camarillo, California, was sold by Christie's in New York in six sales between October 1987 and May 1989, realising a total of $38 million, still a record for any library sold at auction. A further sale of the smaller library which she donated to the Mission Church of St Mary's of the Barrens, Perryville, Missouri, was sold by Christie's in New York on 14 December 2001. Lord Lloyd-Webber (born 1948) needs no introduction as a composer of popular musicals and an enthusiast for Pre-Raphaelite painting. LITERATURE Burne-Jones's autograph work record (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge), under 1873 and 1875. Malcolm Bell, Sir Edward Burne-Jones: A Record and Review, 4th ed., London, 1898, p. 51. J.W. Mackail, The Life of William Morris, London, 1899, vol. 1, pp. 276-80, 319-20. G(eorgiana) B(urne)-J(ones), Memorials of Edward Burne-Jones, London, 1904, vol. 2, p. 56. Fortun‚e De Lisle, Burne-Jones, London, 1904, pp.116, 189. May Morris (ed.), The Collected Works of William Morris, vol. 11, London, 1911, pp. XXI-XXVII. Anna Cox Brinton, A Pre-Raphaelite Aeneid of Virgil in the Collection of Mrs Edward Laurence Doheny of Los Angeles; being an Essay in Honor of the William Morris Centenary, Los Angeles, 1934. Philip Henderson, William Morris: His Life, Work and Friends, London, 1967, pp. 160-1. Janet Blackhouse, 'Pioneers of Modern Calligraphy and Illumination', British Museum Quarterly, vol. 33, 1968-9, pp. 72,75. Penelope Fitzgerald, Edward Burne-Jones: A Biography, London, 1975, pp. 154, 261. Norman Kelvin (ed.), The Collected Letters of William Morris, Princeton, vol. 1, 1984, pp. 254. The Earthly Paradise, exh. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, and other Canadian venues, 1993-4, cat. pp. 74-5, under no. A: 26. Fiona MacCarthy, William Morris: A Life for Our Time, London, 1994, pp. 267, 354. Christopher Wood, Burne-Jones, London, 1998, pp. 70, 94, illus. p. 55. The Wormsley Library: A Personal Selection, exh. The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, 1999, cat. p. 194. David Elliott, Charles Fairfax Murray: The Unknown Pre-Raphaelite, Lewes, 2000, p. 58. Manuscript Illumination in the Modern Age, exh. Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 2001, cat. p. 171. EXHIBITION New York, The Pierpont Morgan Library, William Morris and the Art of the Book, 1976, no. 63. London, Victoria and Albert Museum, William Morris, 1996, no. N.14. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Birmingham, Museums and Art Gallery; and Paris, Mus‚e d'Orsay, Edward Burne-Jones: Victorian Artist-Dreamer, 1998-9, no. 66 (exhibited in New York only). NOTES Text and Script The supreme quality of Virgil's poetry was recognised in his lifetime and images inspired by his work soon became an established element of the Roman artistic tradition: the two earliest surviving illuminated manuscripts, both in the Vatican (Cod. Vat. Lat. 3867 and 3225), date from the first quarter of the 5th century and are extensively illustrated. His popularity lasted, in part because of the Christian interpretation given to some aspects of his work, and his poems were copied and read throughout the Middle Ages. Only rarely, however, were these copies illustrated and it was not until the Italian Renaissance that there was once again a significant production of illuminated manuscripts. In addition to the recognised poetic excellence and classical pedigree of the texts, the Aeneid, the tale of the travels of Aeneas and the Trojans until their arrival in Italy, had by then been accepted as the national epic. What could have had greater appeal to a humanist or his patrons? Characteristically a 15th-century Italian manuscript of Virgil was written in a humanistic script and decorated with 'white-vine initials', both script and decoration conscious revivals of what were thought to be classical styles. It was exactly these styles of writing and initial that were Morris's starting point when he resumed making illuminated manuscripts around 1870. It was a change of direction from his earlier efforts: the three surviving manuscripts that he wrote and painted in 1856-7 were based on gothic script and decoration and can be seen as part of the widespread enthusiasm for medieval manuscripts in the middle of the 19th century. In contrast the scripts that Morris developed for his calligraphic manuscripts from 1870 were all based on formal humanistic bookhands, whether upright or italic, and the roman minuscule of the Aeneid represents the culmination of his research and practice. At times writers have been encouraged to identify a model for this hand in manuscripts he could have seen in the British Museum, but straight copying of a script would have been counter to Morris's approach. He sought to analyse and follow the best scribal technique rather than slavishly imitate the appearance of someone else's work. As part of his return to first principles he acquired renaissance writing manuals. One of these, in addition to showing a range of humanistic styles, included instructions on the preparation of quills: his daughter May later wrote of his pens 'from a goose quill to a crow quill' and specified that he used a swan's feather for the Aeneid. Yet, whatever debt the script of the Aeneid owed to historic precedent his hand remained entirely idiosyncratic, vigorous and lively. As the scribe-calligrapher William Graily Hewitt recalled about his continuation of Morris's work: 'One day watching me at work, Charles Fairfax Murray and I burst out laughing; we had both had the same thought 'Yes your writing is better than Morris's, and your caps are better, and your gold is better - but you don't get there'. Morris's individuality of approach and divergence from any renaissance precedent is particularly evident in the page lay-out. With capitals of gold and blue sprinkling the text, and large illuminated initials in the left margin, the completed manuscript would have had much more the appearance of a medieval prose work than a humanistic copy of classical poetry. It was to allow this profusion of gold and colour that he not only abandoned the capitals that customarily began each line of verse but also adopted the paragraph divisions of his printed exemplar by marking them with large illuminated initials. He had entirely turned his back on the restraint of renaissance examples. This fresh and inventive response was typical of Morris's idealised revival of medieval arts. Idea and Execution Regarded as his calligraphic masterpiece, the Aeneid was the latest and most ambitious of the twenty-one illuminated manuscripts undertaken by Morris in the five years from 1870. It was to be a sumptuous work: the opening page of each of the twelve books was to have a full border around a half-page miniature and panel of text in golden capitals, all other pages would have capital letters of blue and burnished gold and paragraph divisions marked by large foliate or historiated initials. Describing the scope of their project Burne-Jones light-heartedly wrote 'it is to be a wonderful thing and put an end to printing' The original intention was for Morris to carry out both writing and illumination, but all the illustrative elements, miniatures and historiated initials, were to be designed by Burne-Jones. The two friends spent Sunday mornings from 1873 to 1875 engaged on the enterprise: Burne-Jones described how while he drew Morris would read aloud to him. For a variety of reasons - not least Morris's enthusiastic interest and experimentation with textile dyeing, which not only occupied his time but left his hands stained blue - the work was never finished. Although his first biographer - Burne-Jones's son-in-law J.W. Mackail -- recalled Morris turning over the sheets some 15 years later and talking of finishing it, the pair seem not to have worked on the book beyond 1875. Morris had written up to page 177, 33 lines from the end of Book VI; he had gilded text capitals on pages between 43 and 72 and had drawn or painted some of the large illuminated initials on these pages. Burne-Jones had drawn at least the twenty-nine designs for miniatures and initials that are now in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. The intimacy of the collaboration is shown by Burne-Jones's annotations in the margins of the manuscript to show where his designs should be placed, and by the addition to some of Burne-Jones's initial designs of Morris's characteristic ink drawings for foliage staves. To some extent the friends must have progressed in tandem, for all of Burne-Jones's seventeen drawings for marginal miniatures and initials belong to the six Books written by Morris. Six of these designs correspond to the executed historiated initials and marginal miniature, and all but one of the others can be matched with the artist's instructional notes in the margins of the manuscript (pp.6, 38, 52, 70, 78, 80, 92, 94, 104, 110). Five further notes in Burne-Jones's hand suggest that there may have been other completed designs that didn't find their way to the Fitzwilliam (pp.4, 38, 40, 66, 76). Morris had started to transfer Burne-Jones's designs into the manuscript in 1875. He immediately realised that he would need assistance to bring the illumination to completion. On 27 May he wrote to Charles Fairfax Murray in Rome 'I have begun one of the Master's pictures for the Virgil: I make but a sorry hand at it till (at the worst) I am wholly discomforted. Meantime whether I succeed or not in the end 'twill be a long job: so I am asking you if you would do some of them, & what it would be worth your while to do them for: I think I should have to see you before you would get to work on them; but if you don't come over here this summer, as I suppose you won't by your letter, I shall like enough be coming to Italy next year & we can talk about it then'. He was apparently referring to the miniature on p.1. Fairfax Murray would already have been familiar with the project - not only was he buying the vellum for it in Italy, but in September 1874 Burne-Jones had agreed to a visit from him when 'I shall be engaged with Mr Morris designing for his Virgil'. According to later accounts Fairfax Murray almost entirely repainted the first miniature at Morris's request, and all the other painting that would transfer Burne-Jones's designs into the manuscript was left to him. The miniatures and initials in the book remain at various stages of achievement and give a clear account of the processes involved. The outer margins of four versos have traced sketches transferring the contours of Burne-Jones's designs for historiated initials (pp.52, 70, 78 and 94), they are positioned over Burne-Jones' faint identifying notes: for example, p.52 'Troy burning' and p.70 'Andromache'. Fairfax Murray then worked up these sketches with a grey wash (p.48) that was a prelude to his gradual, successive application of colour. Initially the compositions were laid in with broad impressionistic brushstrokes, with subsequent layers these became ever more refined and detailed until the finished illustration was a svelte and accomplished translation of Burne-Jones's pencil originals into plushly coloured and textured paintings. Mackail believed that Fairfax Murray had done most of his work on the Aeneid after his return to live in England in 1886. The manuscript remained unfinished when Morris sold it to him around 1890, but the historiated initials and the miniatures opening Books I, II, IV and V could have been completed during Morris's ownership of the volume. It was not until June 1904, six years after Morris's death, that Fairfax Murray commissioned an overjoyed Graily Hewitt to write the remainder of the text (pp.15 and 16 are also Hewitt's work). This pioneer of modern calligraphy was a proteg‚ of Sir Sydney Cockerell, who appears to have introduced him to Fairfax Murray. Graily Hewitt was already familiar with examples of Morris's calligraphy in Cockerell's collection; he was an admirer of Morris and, like him, drew inspiration from Italian renaissance manuscripts. In 1905 he was asked to name a price for providing the golden capital letters of text and headings for the Aeneid ; he wrote to Cockerell 'I quoted as low as I possibly could because I value the honour of the job so'. The recovery of medieval methods of gilding on vellum was Graily Hewitt's greatest practical achievement and he undertook this work in the Morris Virgil in 1909. Fairfax Murray recruited the decorative artist Louise Lessore, later Mrs Alfred Powell to draw and paint the full-page borders around the miniatures that open each Book. In 1907 these same collaborators completed the decoration of another unfinished Morris manuscript that Fairfax Murray owned, The Story of Frithiof the Bold (Wormsley Library). The team may have been working on both manuscripts at the same time. The miniatures for Books VI-XII of the Aeneid were certainly painted by Fairfax Murray after he was joined by Hewitt and Mrs Powell: whereas the early miniatures are rectangular, the scene of Aeneas and the Cumaean Sybil (Book VI) and those on the pages written by Graily Hewitt extend right up to the leaf-edges of Mrs Powell's borders. The scale ofu0his vast and ambitious undertaking once again militated against its completion. Graily Hewitt completed the text including the lines of golden capitals on the opening page of each Book: Morris had got no further than laying the bole ground for those on the first page. Morris had provided the gilt heading of p.47 and Graily Hewitt completed the running headings throughout the rest of the volume and the text capitals of gold and blue in Book I and blue capitals in Book II. Mrs Powell drew foliate borders for the openings of every Book but only four were completed: the magnificent golden vine derived from the Kelmscott Chaucer (p.1) that was gilded by Graily Hewitt, and the lavish, richly coloured painted surrounds of pp.181, 211 and 238, Mrs Powell's most accomplished achievement. All of the introductory miniatures, except for Aeneas and the Harpies for Book III, were started by Fairfax Murray but those of the final Books were left at a preliminary level of painting. Variations from Burne-Jones's designs suggest that between tracing for transfer and applying colour the original drawings may have ceased to be available to him. In the illustration for Book XI, for example, the contour for the line of huddled figures ranged behind Aeneas in Burne-Jones's composition was accurately traced to the manuscript (p.302), but when Fairfax Murray applied pigment to it the figures became an amorphous row of bushes. Similarly Mezentius's shield and coat of mail is left uncoloured, the grey wash over the traced outline having obscured Burne-Jones's original intent. Burne-Jones's Contribution Although the 1860s were a fallow period in Morris's calligraphic career, they did see one major collaboration with Burne-Jones in the field of book-production; in fact so substantial was it that it remained unrivalled until work began on the Kelmscott Chaucer in 1891. Morris originally intended to publish the Earthly Paradise, the great cycle of stories in verse that was to make his name as a poet, in a folio edition lavishly illustrated with woodcuts. Burne-Jones produced literally hundreds of sketches and finished drawings, mainly for 'The Story of Cupid and Psyche' (seventy subjects, 1865), 'The Hill of Venus' (twenty subjects, 1866) and 'Pygmalion and the Image' (twelve subjects, 1867). In the end, the project proved too ambitious and the book appeared without illustrations in 1868-70, although the designs provided Burne-Jones with compositional ideas for pictures until the very end of his life. The Earthly Paradise anticipates the Aeneid manuscript in two notable respects. First, it gave Burne-Jones immense experience in choosing which subjects to illustrate in a given text - those which are not only dramatic and represent salient incidents, but which lend themselves to pictorial expression and enable the artist to provide a sort of parallel narrative. He would have known Rossetti's famous claim that in illustrating a text an artist should 'allegorise on his own hook', that is to say he should not feel constrained to stick slavishly to what the author has written but should use his imagination to create a design that has independent life and meaning. Rossetti had sometimes taken this theory to extremes, notably in his designs for the famous Moxon Tennyson (1857). Burne-Jones was less of an egotist, but he did have a remarkable ablility to choose subjects which 'told' well as images and had an autonomous existence. Nowhere is this ability more vividly demonstrated that in his illustrations to the Aeneid. The other comparison to be drawn with The Earthly Paradise relates to technique. Although Burne-Jones made so many drawings for the poem's illustrations, he never actually cut one on wood, leaving this to Morris and others. When he attempted to etch a couple of designs, in other words to make the very plate from which the image would be printed, the results were disappointing and the experiment was abandoned. Time after time he distanced himself from an art form this way. He drew hundreds of stained-glass cartoons but never actually made a window. He designed many tapestries and needlework panels, but would never have dreamt of touching a loom or needle. He claimed that he had 'often' thought of taking up sculpture, deeming it superior to painting. But although he designed reliefs which were carried out by Sir J.E. Boehm and others, there is no concrete evidence that he made any himself. It is true that his involvement with Morris's manuscripts did not always follow this pattern. To A Book of Verse (fig. 8) he contributed a miniature illustrating the poem 'The Two Sides of the River', while no fewer than six miniatures adorn the second of Morris's three manuscripts of the Rubaiyat . Morris gave this manuscript to Burne-Jones, decorated only with some foliated ornament. Burne-Jones added the miniatures before passing it on to Frances Graham, the daughter of the India merchant and Liberal MP William Graham who was his staunchest and most sympathetic patron. None of this was accidental. 'The Two Sides of the River' is a love poem, and A Book of Verse was given to Georgiana Burne-Jones. One of the illustrations to the Rubaiyat was a minature version of a love subject, Love among the Ruins (private collection), that was currently on Burne-Jones's easel, and he gave the book to a young woman he idolised and delighted to shower with presents of his own making. There is an obvious parallel with the miniature version of Le Chant d'Amour that appears in the portrait of Maria Zambaco (fig. 6) - a picture exactly contemporary with A Book of Verse and only two years earlier than the Rubaiyat . It is almost as if the two manuscripts are physical incarnations of the book seen in the picture. But this is a side issue. The main point here is the connection between the subjects of the miniatures and the recipients of the manuscripts on the one hand, and the fact that Burne-Jones painted the miniatures in the manuscripts himself on the other. He was clearly motivated not so much by a desire to embellish a Morris manuscript per se as by a sense of wishing to pay homage to a loved one, whether she was his wife or an adored Egeria. When this strong personal element was lacking, Burne-Jones was happy to revert to the practice he had adopted with The Earthly Paradise, and prepare drawings for translation by another hand into the images seen on the page. For the Odes of Horace he designed the heads which appear in the elaborate border on the opening page of the first of the four Books, while for the contemporary Aeneid he was responisble for all the miniatures and historiated initials. Despite the very different medium, exactly the same proceedure was adhered to when he came to design illustrations for the Kelmscott Press in the 1890s. According to Sydney Cockerell, Burne-Jones's drawings for the Aeneid were 'perhaps the finest things he ever did'. This may be a little too sweeping, but they are certainly exquisite examples of his draughtsmanship, showing it at its most sophisticated and refined. Few preparatory sketches seem to have been made. One is recorded in a Canadian private collections (illustrated in the Earthly Paradise exhibition catalogue listed under 'Literature' above), but most of the finished drawings must have been done 'out of his head' ('the place', he once observed, 'where I think pictures ought to come from') during the Sunday morning s‚ances with Morris. In the 1860s, when the chief influences on his work had been Pheideian and Venetian, Burne-Jones had cultivated a soft, atmospheric drawing style, with soft pencil or red or white chalk as his preferred media. This approach changed dramatically in the early 1870s, following his last two visits to Italy in 1871 and 1873. Botticelli, Mantegna and Michelangelo were now his chosen masters, and he developed a more 'Florentine' manner, working with hard pencil and indulging to the full his love of linear rythm. It is this idiom that we see so brilliantly displayed in the Virgil compositions. Anyone seeking to show how Burne-Jones foreshadowed Art Noveau need look no further than the figure of Lavinia on fire in her father's palace, or the serpentine flames that rise from Dido's pyre. It is fascinating to note the differences between the drawings and Fairfax Murray's translations of them on the vellum page. Murray, of course, had long been involved with Morris's illuminated manuscripts, having contributed extensively to the Book of Verse (fig. 8) as well as to the British Library Rubaiyat (fig. 9), the Odes of Horace, and others. Nor was he a stranger to copying Burne-Jones's designs. He had done so in the case of the heads in the Horace, but this was only a minor example. As the artist's studio assistant in the late 1860s he had often been employed to make replicas of his master's works or to develop his pictorial ideas. When working as Morris's chief stained glass painter in the early 1870s he had again had to translate Burne-Jones's compositions. The Vyner memorial window in the Lady Chapel at Christ Church, Oxford (1872-3), is one for which we know he was responsible. It has already been noted that occasionally Murray seems to have misunderstood Burne-Jones's intentions, and that possibly there came a point when the drawings were no longer available to him. Burne-Jones retained them until they were included in the exhibition of his drawings held at the Fine Art Society, New Bond Street, in April 1896. There they were bought by the Wolverhampton brewer Laurence Hodson, a keen collector in this field, and from 1906 they belonged to the Birmingham solicitor J.R. Holliday, an equally fanatical enthusiast, who gave them to the Fitzwilliam Museum in 1927. However, since Hodson and Holliday belonged to a circle of conoisseurs which also included Murray and the ubiquitous Sydney Cockerell, the Aeneid drawings did not necessarily go beyond Murray's reach. Whatever caused Murray's occasional misreadings of Burne-Jones, they pale into insignificance beside the triumphant success of other translations. Not for nothing did Ruskin, thinking of the records of old master paintings that Murray made for him in Italy, call him a 'heaven-born copyist'. An outstanding example of this skill is the miniature showing the goddess Iris inciting the Trojan women to burn their enemies' ships. This very Botticellian conception is one of Burne-Jones's finest designs for the Virgil (as well, incidentally, as the one for which we have a preliminary sketch), but equally impressive is the way Murray realises it in watercolour. The effect is very different but no less authentic in terms of the alternative medium. The most obvious difference, of course, is that Murray is using colour while Burne-Jones is working in black and white. In his lifetime, Burne-Jones had a great reputation as a colourist, yet he often chose to eschew colour in favour of monochrome. The most striking example is his stained glass cartoons, which are nearly always drawn in pencil or charcoal, the colour of the glass being decided by Morris. In the case of the Aeneid miniatures the choice of colour was presumably Murray's, although it is possible that Morris offered suggestions. In any case, Murray's experience of painting stained-glass windows from Burne-Jones's designs under Morris's supervision must have given him some insight into how to proceed with the Aeneid. There is a parallel to be drawn between Burne-Jones 'Florentine' mode of drawing and Morris's use of a humanistic bookhand for his manuscripts of the early 1870s. Correspondences of this kind were not uncommon in the work of the two close friends. In the 1850s they were both thoroughgoing medievalists, while in the 1860s they developed a style characterised by a spring-like freshness of mood and imagery. This note, so typical of the early Aesthetic Movement, is struck in Burne-Jones's paintings, in the decorative schemes of the firm, and in Morris's Earthly Paradise. The same spirit pervades most of Morris's manuscripts of the early 1870s, both in terms of their elegant italic script and their decoration. Delicate sprays of foliage and powderings of flowers predominate, while even Murray's figure subjects in the Book of Verse and the British Library Rubaiyat have an enchanting spontaneity. In the Aeneid, on the other hand, the approach changes, whether in response to the much graver and more sonorous subject matter or Morris's conciousness of producing a masterpiece. The book's physical scale increases dramatically, and, as already noted (see 'Text and Script'), not only does the script gain in weight, changing to a roman minuscule in which the letters acquire a new breadth and substance, but the page is laid out in such a way that it resembles a medieval prose work rather than a humanistic copy of classical poetry. Burne-Jones's designs reinforce this effect, having none of the lightness of touch so characteristic of the miniatures and free-standing figures found in the other, slightly earlier manuscripts. Whereas in these the almost evanescent figure-work blends imperceptibly with the foliate decoration and even the text, the Virgil miniatures insist aggressively on their individual identity. Burne-Jones enhances their sense of autonomy by cramming his figures into the designs, pushing them to the very edges and often making them stoop to fit into the picture space at all. This majestic, doomed world of gods and heroes is also curiously claustrophobic. Perhaps it was simply that the friends were moving on, reaching out already to ideals that would only find full expression in the work of the Kelmscott Press twenty years later. The massive borders that Morris planned but never executed were yet another sign of this development. Somehow it was fitting that Graily Hewitt and Louise Powell should go to the Kelmscott Chaucer for inspiration when they renewed work on these sections (which in Mrs Powell's case anticipate the later work as a decorator of pottery for which she best known). Certainly both Morris and Burne-Jones made statements at the Kelmscott Press period which seem to relate retrospectively to the Aeneid. In the light of the manuscript's resemblance, its humanistic script notwithstanding, to a piece of medieval prose, it is interesting to read Lady Burne-Jones's account of a discussion between the two friends about whether 'an illustrated book of the Hill of Venus' should be in prose or verse. The book was to incorporate illustrations made long ago by Burne-Jones for the Earthly Paradise, and have ornamental borders specially designed by Morris. The dispute about prose or verse was decided by Morris saying that 'prose looks blacker on the page and fills up better - so it's to be prose'. But perhaps the most significant connection between the Aeneid and its Kelmscott successors was hinted at by Joseph Dunlap when he wrote of the manuscript that it 'conveys the impression of well-constructed masonry'. This is surely true of the way the component parts fit snugly together, and it was precisely in such architectural terms that the friends expressed their aims during the Kelmscott years. Morris, for instance, delivering a paper on 'The Ideal Book' to the Bibliographical Society on 19 June 1893, observed that ornament 'must form as much a part of the page as the type itself..., and in order to succeed...must submit to certain limitations and become architectural'. Only when this principle was firmly adhered to would a book 'become a work of art second to none, save a fine building duly decorated.' Burne-Jones made the same point more whimsically when he gave a copy of the Kelmscott Chaucer to his daughter. He did not mind confessing that it was beautiful, he said, because 'my share in it is (only) that of the carver of the images at Amiens', whereas Morris's was that of 'the Architect and Magister Lapicida'. SALESROOM NOTICE Please note that the lot number should read 10 in the catalogue, not 1 as stated.

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Lot 10: Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, Bt., A.R.A.

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Description: 1833-1898 and/or Charles Fairfax Murray 1849-1919 the expulsion from eden watercolour and bodycolour over a photograph of a pencil drawing; bears exhibition label on backboard 36 by 24 cm., 14 by 9 1/4 in. This drawing relates to one of the two woodcut illustrations that Burne-Jones designed for the Kelmscott Press edition of The Golden Legend, published in 1892. The text of the book, originally translated by William Caxton from Jacobus de Voraigne's Legendes Aurea, was edited for the 1892 edition by Burne-Jones's friend F.S. Ellis. The present drawing is an interesting example of Burne-Jones's working method in the last years of his life. Touches of graphite and white bodycolour have been applied to a photograph of Burne-Jones's own sketch. Sydney Cockerell, in a letter to Ellis dated 22 February 1898, stated that the re-touchings were by Burne-Jones himself, although Burne-Jones's son-in-law J.W. Mackail, in his Life of William Morris (1899), suggested that the re-touching was by Charles Fairfax-Murray. Provenance: F.S. Ellis. Exhibited: London, Hayward Gallery; Southampton, Birmingham, Burne-Jones, 1975, no.282.

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Lot 11: THE SANCT-BLASIEN PSALTER, IN LATIN WITH A FEW WORDS IN GERMAN, ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPT ON VELLUM

Description: [THE BLACK FOREST (PROBABLY BERAU ABBEY), C.1236-45] 156 leaves, plus 9 leaves added in the sixteenth century, 225mm. by 160mm., lacking a gathering after fol.10, the quire signatures call for a further gathering at the beginning but nothing is identifiably lacking, else complete, collation: i6, ii2 [4 full-page miniatures] iii0 [a whole gathering lacking after fol.10], iv-vii8, viii4, ix2 [2 full-page miniatures], x-xiii8, xiv8+1 [fol.81 is an added sheet], xv2+1 [fol.91 is an added sheet], xvi2 [2 full-page miniatures], xvii-xx8, xxi6, xxii4, xxiii8, xxiv6+9 [last of original leaves pasted down, 9 leaves added in the sixteenth century], single column, 20 lines, beginning above top ruled line, ruled in blind, written-space 143mm. by 96mm., written in dark brown ink in a slightly sloping early Germanic gothic liturgical hand with many archaic features (such as the cedilla on the 'ae' contraction), versal initials throughout in alternately (a) gold infilled with dark blue and outlined in flourished red penwork, and (b) divided red with red flourishing (much of which seems to have been lightly drawn first in brown ink), LARGE AND SMALL ILLUMINATED INITIALS THROUGHOUT (approximately 170 altogether) in bright colours and burnished gold and silver on elaborate panelled grounds, of which APPROXIMATELY 50 ENCLOSE OR ARE FORMED FROM PICTURES such as the face of a bearded man (fols.16v, 36r, 37v, 41v, 50v, 56v, 69r, 87r and 128r), a bearded man sticking out his tongue (fol.31v), a woman with her hands raised (fol.65v), animal heads (fols.17v, 18v, 20v, 24v and 32r), various birds (fol.43r, 53v, 62r, 84r and 127v), lions (fol.18v, 40v, 42r, 42v, 65v, 108v, 112v and 132r), a stag on its hind legs (fols.22r and 39r), and various exotic animals and dragons (fols.56r, 58v, 69v, 80v, 82r, 91v, 114v, 118r, 118v, 120v, 123r, 124v, 130v, 134v, 140r, 145r, 146v and 154r), SIXTEEN LARGE HISTORIATED INITIALS, up to full-page in height (fols.22v, 25v, 27r, 28r, 30r, 35r, 38r, 49r, 50r, 65r, 76v, 79v, 86r, 95r, 116v and 137r), NINETEEN FULL-PAGE DECORATIVE SCHEMES ENCLOSING SIXTY-SIX SMALL MINIATURES (12 pages in the Calendar, fols.1r-6v, and 7 pages in the Litany, fols.150r-153r), TWO VERY LARGE MINIATURES (one half-page, fol.92r and one three-quarter-page, fol.46v), SEVENTEEN FULL-PAGE MINIATURES in three clusters (after fols.6, 46 and 92, see below) and TWO FULL-PAGE MINIATURES ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE BINDING, the manuscript much used, the green pigment especially damaged by rubbing, many edges of pages thumbed (affecting some illumination in the Calendar), some pages creased, other stains and wear, despite all of which the manuscript was still justly described in the Firmin-Didot catalogue as "la conservation de ce volume est etonnante, et l'argent lui-meme, employe dans les peintures, a resiste a l'action du temps", BOUND IN AUGSBURG C.1470-80 BY JORG SCHAPF in wooden boards sewn onto three thongs and covered with tanned leather, the spine blind-stamped with cusped patterns, incorporating elements of the original binding including upper cover fitted with a contemporary FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF THE RESURRECTION, on vellum, with Christ standing on a hill holding the banner on a cross and watched by the twelve Apostles whose diminutive faces gaze up on either side, lower cover fitted with a contemporary FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF CHRIST ENTHRONED, on vellum, raising a hand in blessing (until the early 1960s these two miniatures had been attached to the covers by eight broad bands of thirteenth-century copper gilt, as illustrated in Bober, pl.XV e-f, with a narrower central horizontal strip across the centre, but by 1962 the miniature on the lower cover had been lifted off and was inserted into the manuscript facing fol.82r and since then it has been restored back onto the cover but all the original strips of medieval copper gilt have been replaced by modern narrow bands of engraved silver in medieval style, made to match the central horizontal strip from the upper cover, and the miniatures have been covered over with transparent imitation horn now held in place by the nailed bands of silver), binding battered but sound, the cover miniatures rubbed but still reasonably clear, clasps and catches replaced, in an orange-brown morocco fitted case gilt THE CELEBRATED SANCT-BLASIEN PSALTER, ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT GERMAN GOTHIC MANUSCRIPTS IN EXISTENCE, HAS A TOTAL OF 21 FULL-PAGE MINIATURES, 16 LARGE OR VERY LARGE MINIATURES, AND APPROXIMATELY 166 SMALLER MINIATURES. PROVENANCE (1) The manuscript was made in the Black Forest within the diocese of Constance, on the German rather than on the Swiss side of the Lake. It was made for Benedictine use, since the Calendar includes the octave of the Translation of St.Benedict (18 July), a feast unique to the Benedictine Order, and it must presumably have been made for a house of the Hirsau Reform, because of the miniature of St.William of Hirsau who appears beside St.Benedict on fol.46v. Professor Bober's monograph on the manuscript, published in 1963, attributed the book to the Benedictine abbey of St.Blasien, a house of the Hirsau congregation in the Black Forest to the west of Constance, but, although St.Blasien appears in the Calendar (3 February), his feast is not singled out in any way, and Dr.Irtenkauf and other recent scholars ascribe the more likely origin of the book to the nearby Hirsau abbey at Berau, suppressed in 1806. The manuscript has been previously dated to before 1236 because the entry for St.Elizabeth on 19 November in the Calendar (fol.6r), "has obviously been added" (Bober, p.18); on the contrary, all indications are that it is in the original hand in red ink and the book must therefore be re-dated to not earlier than the canonisation of St.Elizabeth in 1236. The volume was assembled in two quite distinct stages within the thirteenth century. In the first phase the book comprised a Calendar, a Psalter and a Litany. The Psalms were at this first stage divided into three sections, Psalms 1-50, Psalms 51-100, and Psalms 101-150. There were doubtless some kind of dedication miniatures before Psalm 1, but these are now lost with the missing gathering before fol.11r. Psalm 50 opened with a rare miniature of figures on a great wheel (fol.49r), then facing the half-page miniature on fol.46v showing St.Benedict and William of Hirsau before the Virgin and Child. Psalm 100 opened with a miniature of Christ in Majesty with a kneeling figure kissing his feet (fol.95r), then following the half-page miniature on fol.92r showing three warrior saints before the Trinity. All these belong to stage 1 in making the book, and the Calendar and Litany point to Berau. If the kneeling figure on fol.95r could be identified, we might have the patron of the core of the manuscript. At a very early date and certainly within the middle third of the thirteenth century, the book was greatly extended in luxury. Seventeen further full-page miniatures were added, one on a blank page (fol.92v) and sixteen on inserted sheets (fols. 7r-10v, 47r-49v, 93r-94v), in three clusters, breaking up the pairs of scenes just described. All miniatures throughout the book were then given captions in red ink, some improbably and mostly not necessarily correctly identified, including the extraordinary identification of the figure on the wheel on fol.49r as St.George, a remarkable elevation of this saint to full-page status. Possibly the book had already left Berau, if it was kept there after it was made, and was now at yet another house of the Hirsau Reform at St.Georgen in Schwarzenwald, in the diocese of Constance. Possibly this modification of the manuscript was finally completed in 1279, to judge from the enigmatic note inside the lower cover, "completus est liber iste per [lukam] debolonia 1279 In die belii". (2) By the late fifteenth century the manuscript was in Augsburg, about 90 miles east of St.Georgen. There is a little drawing of a chair in red ink on fol.149r, dated 1452. The 'Kopfstempel' stamp on the spine belonged to the Augsburg bookbinder, Jorg Schapf, recorded 1478-1516, though most of his work dates from the 1470s-80s (E. Kyriss, Verzierte Gotische Einbande im Alten Deutschen Sprachgebiet, I, Tafelband, 1953, pl.129, fig.3; P. Needham, Twelve Centuries of Bookbindings, 400-1600, 1979, p.119, n.1). (3) Added on the last page, fol.155r, are two sixteenth-century coats-of-arms with the name "HANS MULICH", almost certainly Hans Mulich or Mielich (1515-1572), court painter to Albrecht, duke of Bavaria. Fols.156-164 were added in the sixteenth century, with entries in German relating to the family history of Lucas Walther and his descendants from his marriage to Appollonia Miellich in 1503, extended down to 1667. Presumably the book was the possession of the Walther family, probably still in Augsburg, until at least 1667. There is a signature in the upper outer corner of fol.115r, of which the first name might be Walther and of which the second is Joseph. (4) Ambroise Firmin-Didot (1790-1879); his sale, V, Catalogue des Livres Precieux, Manuscrits et Imprimes, Paris, 11 June 1883, lot 2, pp.3-6 of the catalogue, sold for 7100 francs, by far the highest price in that sale. (5) Charles Fairfax Murray (d.1919), bought at or soon after the Firmin-Didot sale. (6) Charles William Dyson Perrins (1864-1958), bought privately from Fairfax Murray in 1906, his no.74 (blue label inside back cover), re-numbered 127 (black label inside upper cover); his sale in these rooms, 29 November 1960, lot 6, with colour plate, to H.P. Kraus; subsequently Kraus cat.100 (1962), no.6, and Manuscript Treasures, Masterworks of Mediaeval and Renaissance Painting and Illumination, 1970, p.2, no.11. (7) Beck MS.11. TEXT AND DECORATION (1) Calendar, fols.1r-6v, in Latin with a few one-word captions to miniatures in German, ungraded, with names in black including St.Walpurga (25 February), St.Gertrude (17 March), St.Benedict (21 March, in capitals, with his translation, 11 July, with octave), St.Genesius, martyr (21 April, of Reichenau), SS.George and Adelbert (23 April), St.Boniface (5 June), St.Liberius (7 June, of Le Mans, relics at Paderborn), St.Alban (21 June, of Mainz), St.Ulric (4 July), St.Kylian and his companions (8 July), Oswald (5 August, relics at Weingarten), Afra (7 August), Pelagius (28 August, of Constance), St.Verena (1 September, martyred at Zurzach, near Zurich), St.Magnus (6 September, abbot of Fussen), SS.Felix and Regula (11 September, martyred near Zurich, with octave), SS.Ursus and Victor (30 September, venerated at Solothurn in Switzerland), St.Aurelius (15 October, venerated at Strassburg), Gall (16 October), St.Pirminius (3 November, abbot of Reichenau), St.Otmar (16 November, of St.Gall), St.Columbanus (23 November) and St.Conrad (26 November, bishop of Constance), with additions in red ink including St.Policarp (28 January, venerated at St.Moritz) and St.Lucius (5 December, patron saint of Chur); EACH PAGE OF THE CALENDAR WITHIN A FULL-PAGE DECORATIVE SCHEME ENCLOSING TWO TO FIVE MINIATURES EACH within two tall arched compartments on architectural pillars with every possible blank space around the text and sometimes even between the lines infilled with elaborate scrollwork in black ink or in pale green or pale blue covered with tracery in darker green or blue, with miniatures on fol.1r, January, (i) upper right, A BEARDED MAN WARMING HIMSELF BY A FIRE, leaning on a crutch, a basket on the mantlepiece, 56mm. by 33mm., (ii) right-hand margin, A BOY WITH BELLOWS, in a red hat, 45mm. by 24mm., and (iii) lower right, AQUARIUS, a seated figure naked to the waist pouring green water from a vase, circular, 41mm. in diameter; fol.1v, February, (iv) upper margin, ST.MATTHEW WRITING, seated at a sloping desk, 33mm. by 30mm., (v) left-hand margin, A MAN CARRYING WOOD, plants on the ground, with his name "isak" in red, 38mm. by 27mm., (vi) upper right, A MAN CHOPPING A TREE, the tree already pruned of its branches, 56mm. by 31mm., and (vii) lower right, PISCES, a brown fish and a grey fish, circular, 43mm. in diameter; fol.2r, March, (viii) upper margin, HABAKKUK WRITING, holding a pen and gazing upwards, with his name "Abakok" in red, 37mm. by 27mm., (ix) upper right, TWO MEN CARRYING A HAND-BARROW ON THEIR SHOULDERS, 56mm. by 38mm., (x) right-hand margin, A MAN CARRYING A BASKET ON HIS SHOULDER, with his name in red ("norik" ?), and (xi) lower right, ARIES, a blue-grey ram looking over its shoulder, circular, 42mm. in diameter; fol.2v, April, (xii) upper margin, A HUNCHED-UP MAN LEANING ON A CRUTCH, his red-brown cloak emblazoned with gold bezants, 36mm. by 24mm., (xiii) left-hand margin, A MAN DIGGING THE EARTH at the foot of a plant, with his name or what he is digging (a root) "Rut" in red, 30mm. by 24mm., (xiv) upper right, A MAN PLUCKING BRANCHES OFF A BUSH, wearing a pibald tunic, 55mm. by 33mm., and (xv) lower right, TAURUS, a boney bull, circular, 40mm. in diameter; fol.3r, May, (xvi) upper margin, A PRANCING DEER with its tongue out, 40mm. by 24mm., (xvii) upper right, A GRACEFUL GIRL WITH A FRUIT IN EACH HAND, elegantly dressed, perhaps a princess, 60mm. by 33mm., (xviii) right-hand margin, A BOY WITH A BAT AND BALL, with his name in red ("Rod't" ?, and "vir bottin" in brown), 37mm. by 25mm., and (xix) lower right, GEMINI, two boys side by side with their arms folded doing what looks like a Russian dance, circular, 40mm. in diameter; fol.3v, June, a dragon and a bird in the upper margin, (xx) left-hand margin, A BOY (OR GIRL) HOEING, a bird fluttering above a peck up seeds, 56mm. by 28mm., (xxi) upper right, A MAN DRIVING CATTLE TO MARKET, his money-belt around his waist, 55mm. by 32mm., and (xxii) lower right, CANCER, an orange crustacean, circular, 41mm. in diameter; fol.4r, July, a bird and a lion in the upper margin, (xxiii), upper right, A WOMAN RAKING, wearing a long dress, 63mm. by 40mm., (xxiv) right-hand margin, A BOY APPARENTLY TAKING A THORN OUT OF HIS FOOT, seated on the ground, 33mm. by 26mm., and (xxv) lower right, LEO, a lion curled up, circular, 40mm. in diameter; fol.4v, August, (xxvi) upper margin, A SCRIBE ASLEEP, leaning on his desk, his name "Morosus" above in red, 44mm. by 33mm., (xxvii) upper margin, A MINOTAUR, reaching out into the page, 48mm. by 46mm., (xxviii) left-hand margin, A WOMAN CARRYING A SHEAF OF CORN ON HER HEAD, apparently the reaper's wife with "coniunx" in red ink, 50mm. by 23mm., (xxix), upper right, A MAN CUTTING CORN with a sickle, 61mm. by 32mm., and (xxx) lower right, VIRGO, a girl in a green and gold dress, circular, 43mm. in diameter; fol.5r, September, a goat reaching up to nibble the foliage in the upper margin, (xxxi) upper margin, A MAN BLESSING, apparently seated on a rainbow with a hand raised in benediction, 53mm. by 30mm., (xxxii) upper right, THE GRAPE HARVEST, a boy up a vine and a man lying on the ground apparently drunk, 60mm. by 32mm., (xxxiii), right-hand margin, A MAN SEATED, TASTING GRAPES, with his tunic hitched up to show his underwear, 43mm. by 25mm., and (xxxiv), lower right, LIBRA, a woman with a pair of scales, circular, 42mm. in diameter; fol.5v, October, (xxxv) upper margin, A SCRIBE SEATED AT A DESK, probably St.Luke writing his Gospel, turning away from the page, 48mm. by 34mm., (xxxvi) left-hand margin, A MAN GETTING UNDRESSED pulling a cloak off over his head, his name "schoffo" in red, 32mm. by 27mm., (xxxvii), upper right, A MAN PICKING FRUIT and tasting one, 61mm. by 34mm., and (xxxviii), lower right, SCORPIO, a crustacean with a disc on its back, circular, 42mm. in diameter; fol.6r, November, a bird-headed animal in the upper margin, (xxxix), upper margin, A SCRIBE WRITING A MANUSCRIPT, with his left hand on his chin, 59mm. by 38mm., (xl) upper right, A MAN TAKING WINE FROM BARREL INTO A TUB, another tub on a shelf, 60mm. by 35mm., (xli), outer margin, A MAN DRINKING FROM A CUP, seated on a cushion, 52mm. by 31mm., and (xlii) lower right, SAGITTARIUS, a centaur, circular, 40mm. in diameter, shooting an arrow into a standing deer in the outer margin; and fol.6v, December, a bird in the upper margin, (xliii), upper margin, ST.NICHOLAS ENTHRONED as a bishop, his name above, 60mm. by 38mm., (xliv) left-hand margin, A BOY KILLING A PIG, the pig bright red, traces of the boy's name above, 40mm. by 25mm., (xlv), upper right, TWO BUTCHERS KILLING AN OX, 62mm. by 35mm., and (xlvi), lower right, CAPRICORN, a goat, circular, 42mm. in diameter. (2) First cycle of inserted full-page miniatures, fols.7r-10v; fol.7r, (i) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF THE ANNUNCIATION, 156mm. by 120mm., inscribed at top "Annunt' Sce. Marie", with the Virgin standing full-face on the right and Gabriel approaching from the left apparently with a scroll in his left hand, set within an elaborate architectural setting; fol.7v, (ii) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF THE NATIVITY OF CHRIST, 152mm. by 120mm., inscribed at top "Nat' dni", with the Child in a manger at the upper right watched by the ox and ass, the Virgin in the foreground, Joseph hunched up asleep, and an angel at the upper left; fol.8r, (iii) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF THE BAPTISM OF CHRIST, 159mm. by 122mm., inscribed at top "Baptismus xpi", with Christ standing naked in the Jordan (which is itself symbolised by a semi-naked man in the lower foreground emptying an urn), with St.John the Baptist at the upper right, two angels on the left holding Christ's robes, and the hand of God appearing above; fol.8v, (iv) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF THE PURIFICATION OF THE VIRGIN, 161mm. by 120mm., inscribed at top "Purificat' S. Marie", showing the priest in the centre holding the Child who blesses his mother on the right and with Joseph on the left holding two doves in the fold of his robe; fol.9r, (v) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF CHRIST AMONG THE DOCTORS, 155mm. by 117mm., inscribed at top "In medio doctorum sedit", showing Christ full-grown and bearded enthroned in the centre with four bearded doctors on the left and three on the right, within an elaborate architectural setting; fol.9v, (vi) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF THE TRANSFIGURATION, 159mm. by 121mm., inscribed at top "Transfiguratio dni", with Christ hovering in the centre within a saltire pattern of rays of light, with Moses and Elias standing full-length on either side and the apostles falling to the ground in the foreground; fol.10r, (vii) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF THE ARREST OF CHRIST, 156mm. by 123mm., inscribed at top "Comprehensio dni", with Christ on the left being seized by three men approaching from the right, in an elaborate architectural setting; fol.10v, (viii) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF CHRIST LED BEFORE THE HIGH PRIEST, 155mm. by 120mm., inscribed at top "Ductus est ante presidem", with Christ on the left being thrust forwards by his captors before Pilate who sits enthroned on the right, in an elaborate architectural setting. (3) Psalms 12-50, fols.11r-46v, opening on fol.11r, "[ob]dormiam in morte..." (Psalm 12:4), all psalms opening with large illuminated initials, including a face of a bearded man (Psalm 18, fol.16v), a lion on its hind legs (Psalm 21, fol.18v), a face of a bearded man (Psalm 23, fol.20v), a deer jumping up (Psalm 25, fol.22r); fol.22v, "Dominus illuminatio mea..." (Psalm 26), with LARGE HISTORIATED INITIAL SHOWING FRONT VIEW OF A MAN ON A HORSE which is collapsing under him, 9 lines, 74mm. by 75mm., followed by Psalms 27-28; fol.25v, "In te domine speravi..." (Psalm 30), with LARGE HISTORIATED INITIAL SHOWING A SOLDIER IN CHAIN MAILwith a sword, inscribed "S. Vitalis m", 11 lines, 83mm. by 35mm.; fol.27r, "Beati quorum..." (Psalm 31), with LARGE HISTORIATED INITIAL SHOWING A SEATED SAINT hunched up with his hand in his hair, inscribed "S. Paulus", full border of penwork; fol.28r, "Exultate iusti..." (Psalm 32), with LARGE HISTORIATED INITIAL SHOWING A MAN BLOWING A HORN, inscribed "Enoch", 6 lines, 65mm. by 40mm., full border of penwork infilled with yellow, followed by Psalm 33; fol.30r, "Iudica domine..." (Psalm 34), with LARGE HISTORIATED INITIAL SHOWING A MAN LEANING ON A CRUTCH, inscribed "S. Gervasius", 8 lines, 68mm. by 18mm., followed by Psalms 35 (with a face of a bearded man with his tongue out, fol.31v) and 36-37; fol.35r, "Dixi custodiam..." (Psalm 38), with LARGE HISTORIATED INITIALshowing a seated saint leaning with his hand on his chin, inscribed "S. Andree", 6 lines (but extending into lower margin), 80mm. by 70mm., followed by Psalms 39 (with a face of a grotesque wildman, fol.36r) and 40 (with another bearded man, fol.37v); fol.38r, "Quemadmodum..." (Psalm 41), with LARGE HISTORIATED INITIAL showing a seated grey-bearded saint with a man prostrate below his feet, inscribed "Abraham", 9 lines (extending further into lower margin), 109mm. by 90mm., followed by Psalms 42 (with a goat on its hind legs, fol.39r), 43, 44 (with a lion among foliage, fol.40v), 45 (with a face of a bearded man, fol.41v), 46 (with the head of a lion, fol.42r), 47 (with a lion on its hind legs, fol.48v) and 48-50; fol.46v with THREE-QUARTER-PAGE MINIATURE OF THE VIRGIN AND CHILD, inscribed "Maria cum filio", adored by two angels and two kneeling monks, the latter inscribed "S. Willihelmus" and "S. Benedictus", a lion's face below, 125mm. by 136mm. (4) Second cycle of inserted full-page miniatures, fols.47r-48v; fol.47r, (ix) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF THE BETRAYAL OF CHRIST, 155mm. by 124mm., inscribed at top "Tradtio xpi", with Christ in the centre being kissed by Judas as the soldiers crowd around and St.Peter at the upper right cuts off the ear of Malchus; fol.47v, (x) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF THE DERISION OF CHRIST, 155mm. by 126mm., inscribed at top "Illusio xpi", with Christ in the centre facing to the right with at least three figures behind him and a bald-headed man before him turning towards him with upraised hands; fol.48r, (xi) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF THE FLAGELLATION OF CHRIST, 153mm. by 116mm., inscribed at top "xps flagellatur", with Christ stripped to the waist and tied to a central pillar as smaller men wield scourges on either side; fol.48v, (xii) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF THE MOCKING OF CHRIST, 155mm. by 123mm., inscribed at top "ave rex iudeorum", with Christ robed in the centre receiving the mock homage of two kneeling figures. (5) Psalms 50-100, fols.49r-92r, opening on fol.49r, which originally faced fol.46v, "Quid gloriaris..." (Psalm 51), with FULL-PAGE HISTORIATED INITIAL OF A NAKED MAN BEING TURNED ON A WHEEL, 162mm. by 145mm., inscribed at top "S. Gerius", showing large and small figures, some naked and some clothed, all caught up in a huge spoked wheel which raises them up as it turns and casts them down again, with the opening words of text after the initial in gold letters on coloured panels to the right; fol.50r, "Dixit insipiens..." (Psalm 52), with LARGE HISTORIATED INITIAL SHOWING A FIGURE OF A SEATED MAN APPARENTLY HOLDING A CANDLE AND THROWING DICE, 9 lines, 72mm. by 65mm., followed by Psalms 53 (with a face of a bearded man, fol.50v), 54-56, 57 (with a eagle preening, fol.53v), 58-60, 61 (with a dragon, fol.56r), 62 (with the face of a bearded man (fol.56v), 63-64, 65 (with a goat on its hind legs nibbling foliage, fol.58v), 66-67, A FULL-WIDTH ILLUMINATED LINE-FILLER WITH A LION AMONG BEZANTS (fol.61v), 68 (with a huge eagle, fol.62r) and 69-70; fol.65v, "Deus iudicium..." (Psalm 71), with LARGE HISTORIATED INITIAL OF A DANCING GIRL running a hand through her long hair, 8 lines, 103mm. by 80mm., the initial enclosing a lion, followed by Psalms 72-73, 74 (with a bearded face, fol.69r), 75 (with a dragon, fol.69v) and 76-79; fol.76v, "Exultate deo..." (Psalm 80), with LARGE HISTORIATED INITIAL SHOWING A KNEELING MAN BLOWING A HORN, inscribed "S. Elyas", 9 lines, 81mm. by 77mm., followed by 81-84; fol.79v, "Inclina domine..." (Psalm 85), with LARGE HISTORIATED INITIAL SHOWING A TALL NAKED FIGURE HOLDING A TRIDENT, 14 lines, 120mm. by 38mm., followed by Psalms 86 (with a dragon and a full-width line-filler, fol.80v), 87, 88 (with a bird, fol.82r), 89 (with a peacock, fol.84r) and 90; fol.86r, "Bonum est...", Psalm 91, with LARGE HISTORIATED INITIAL SHOWING A BEARDED MAN PRAYING in among the foliage, 9 lines, 67mm. by 66mm., followed by Psalms 92 (with a face, fol.87r), 93-99 and 100 (with a dragon, fol.91v); fol.92r, HALF-PAGE MINIATURE OF THREE SAINTS, 88mm. by 110mm., two with swords, one with lance and shield, perhaps originally intended as archangels but now inscribed as "S. Sebastianus", "S. Pantaleon" and "S. Christoforus". (6) Third cycle of inserted full-page miniatures, fols.92v-94v; fol.92v (which must originally have been blank, facing fol.95r), (xiii) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF THE TRINITY ENTHRONED, 152mm. by 122mm., inscribed as top "Pater & filius & spiritus sanctus", showing God the Father seated on a throne raising one hand in blessing, the Crucifixion held between his knees, and the Holy Dove descending towards Christ's left ear; fol.93r, (xiv) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF THE CRUCIFIXION, 156mm. by 125mm., inscribed at top "Crucifixus", with the Virgin standing on the left and St.John standing on the right; fol.93v, (xv) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF THE DESCENT FROM THE CROSS, 158mm. by 120mm., inscribed at top "Deponitur d' sepulchro" [sic, though "de cruce" is meant], with St.Joseph of Arimathea standing before the Cross holding the Body of Christ around its waist as the Virgin supports the head and as St.John watches from the right; fol.94r, (xvi) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF ST..MATTHEW 156mm. by 124mm., inscribed at top "S.Matheus", with the evangelist turning back from a sloping desk to receive inspiration from a descending angel; and fol.94v, (xvii) FULL-PAGE MINIATURE OF ST. LUKE 155mm. by 124mm., inscribed at top "S.Lucas", with the evangelist seated before a tall flowering lectern and looking up at a bull holding a scroll in its feet. (7) Psalms 101-150, and the Canticles, fols.95r-149v, opening on fol.95r, which originally faced blank fol.92v, "Domine exaudi..." (Psalm 101), with FULL-PAGE HISTORIATED INITIAL OF CHRIST IN MAJESTY, 169mm. by 133mm., inscribed at top "Maiestas", showing Christ enthroned, holding a book in his left hand and raising his right hand in blessing, with a kneeling figure embracing his feet, the opening words of the psalm in silver letters to the right; followed by Psalms 102-110, 111 (with a lion in the foliage, fol.108v), 112-117, 118 (with a lion in the foliage, fol.112v, the psalm in 22 sections as if it were 22 different psalms, including dragons on fols.114v, 118r-118v and 120v, and on fol.116v, "In eternum...", Psalm 118:89, with LARGE HISTORIATED INITIAL SHOWING A TALL FIGURE OF A WOMAN REACHING UPWARDS, 19 lines, 138mm. by 35mm., inscribed "S. Margareta v.",); followed by Psalms 119-122, 123 (with a dragon, fol.123r), 124-130, 131 (with a dragon, fol.124v), 132-135, 136 (with a dragon, fol.127v), 137 (with a face, fol.128r), 138-142, 143 (with a lion on its hind legs, fol.132r) and 144-150; followed on fol.136v by "Alma redemptoris mater que peruia celi...", in verse (Chevalier, Repertorium Hymnologicum, 1897, no.861); fol.137r, "Confitebor tibi domine..." (canticle, Isaiah 12:1), with LARGE HISTORIATED INITIAL SHOWING A KNEELING FIGURE IN THE FOLIAGE, perhaps a king, inscribed "Cant. Esaye", 9 lines, 86mm. by 73mm.; continuing with other canticles, followed by the Pater Noster (fol.147r), the Apostles' Creed (fol.147v) and the Athanasian Creed (fol.147v), concluding with a decorative panel on fol.149v. (8) Litany and prayers, fols.150r-155r, including SS. Felix, George, Pelagius, Pancras and Oswald among the martyrs, SS. Odalric and Conrad among the confessors, SS. Columbanus, Gall, Magnus and Otmar among the monks and hermits, and SS. Afra, Regula, Verena and Walpurga among the virgins; EACH PAGE OF THE LITANY WITHIN A FULL-PAGE DECORATIVE SCHEME OF DOUBLE ARCHES ENCLOSING TWO TO FOUR MINIATURES EACH within two tall arched compartments on architectural pillars surrounded by elaborate foliage and other decoration, with miniatures on fol.150r, including A BIRD and A LION; fol.150v, a LION RAMPANT and A BIRD; fol.151r, A BIRD and a FULL-LENGTH FIGURE OF A SOLDIER IN ARMOUR, 108mm. by 30mm., inscribed "S. Albanus M." in red; fol.151v, A BIRD and a SEATED SCRIBE WRITING AT A DESK, 53mm. by 40mm., inscribed "S. Matheus" in red ; fol.152r, a running animal, a NAKED BOY WITH A TAIL, 40mm. by 20mm., inscribed "Laseros" in red (Lazarus), and a FULL-LENGTH FIGURE OF A MAN, 105mm. by 27mm., inscribed "S. Philippus" in red ; fol.152v, a BALD SCRIBE WRITING AT A DESK, 70mm. by 47mm., inscribed "S. Lucas" in red, a SEATED BOY RAISING A HAND IN BENEDICTION, 42mm. by 30mm., inscribed "S. Marcus" in red, a FULL-LENGTH STANDING GREY-BEARDED MAN with a staff and travelling wallet, 100mm. by 32mm., inscribed "S. Alexius" in red, and a BIRD and a LARGE LION; fol.153r, a LITTLE LION, a LITTLE MONK WITH A TAU-STAFF, 38mm. by 25mm., inscribed "S. Polycarpus pr." in red, a HUNCHED-UP SOLDIER ASLEEP with his head resting on his arm, 48mm. by 32mm., a KNEELING FIGURE with his arms outstretched, 48mm. by 35mm., inscribed "S. Iohannes Eleymon", and a FULL-LENGTH STANDING FIGURE OF A MONK with a tau-staff, 102mm. by 30mm., inscribed "S. Antonius" in red. COMMENTARY This is the most spectacular manuscript in the collection, and is probably the most important and certainly the most famous German gothic manuscript in private hands. By any standards, it is an extraordinary artefact, with page after page of illumination thick with gold and silver and colours. It is the most complex work of art in the collection. It is a haunting and frustrating book, which reveals so much about itself and yet supplies few absolute answers. It is related to dozens of other manuscripts but is identical to none of them. All attempts to localise it with precision lead only to near approximations. It has probably not been realised before that it was made in two distinct stages, as described above, but if anything this complicates rather than simplifies the problems of the origin of this manuscript. It is historically likely that at this date the book would have been was made in a monastery and the text points certainly to a Benedictine house, which the illumination tells us belonged to the league of the Hirsau reform. This too makes good historical sense, for the ancient Benedictine houses of the Black Forest and around Lake Constance were at this time were wealthy and stable and many joined the Hirsau reform movement. But it is important to remember that this book, despite its weight and richness, is still a portable Psalter and that, like lots 8 and 9 above, it may very well have been commissioned by a private individual or family and that, even if made in a monastery, was not necessarily made for ownership by monks. Professor Bober's convenient and enduringly memorable name for it, the 'St.Blasien Psalter', is perhaps misleading in two ways, not only because it suggests it was made for a monastery from which the manuscript very probably does not actually come, but also because subsequent scholars have therefore felt the obligation to begin by asserting the claims of alternative monasteries as the place of origin. It is even possible (perhaps improbable) that it was not made in a monastery at all, but commissioned by a noble family and worked on in their castle, with extensive advice from one or several local Hirsau monasteries, or that it was made in one monastery and given by the patron to another, as lot 8 above certainly was, although over a longer period, or that it was illuminated by itinerant painters who had worked in several different monasteries. The style of illumination has been compared with a significant group of south German and Swiss manuscripts of high quality. Within a wide circle of comparisons, the style is related to that of the Berthold Missal (New York, Pierpont Morgan Library M.710) and the liturgical manuscripts of Weingarten Abbey during the abbacy there of Berthold, 1200-35. More closely it has close links with Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttembergische Landesbibliothek, MS.Brev.4o 125 (a Psalter probably from Waldkirch, cf. F. Heinzer in Mittelalterliche Andachtsbucher, exhib., Karlsruhe, 1992, no.3, with bibliography); Paris, B.N. ms.nouv.acq.lat.187 (a Psalter, probably from St.Blasien, cf. Leroquais, Psautiers, Ii, 1940-41, pp.133-4, no.362); and Liverpool Museum, M.12004 (a Psalter, probably from Ochsenhausen, cf. Palmer, 'Parzival Fragments', as below, with bibliography). The three late romanesque or early gothic German Psalters in the collection differ from each other remarkably. Lot 8 is a stately book in archaic romanesque style which stands firmly in the European context of twelfth-century monumental art and architecture. Lot 9 is a sophisticated and highly finished manuscript which points to a knowledge of the new professional gothic style of France and western Europe. But the present Psalter, lot 11 is extravagantly primitive and untamed. Hans Kraus describes his first encounter with it in 1960 (Rare Book Saga, pp.265-66): "The book was everything and more than I expected, the kind that causes a manuscript lover's fingers to tremble as he touches the pages". Here are major thirteenth-century artists still retaining stylistic links with barbarian Germany, hardly even in contact with the Romans. The region in the forests around Lake Constance was evangelised early but in its manuscripts it continued to look back to Irish and even pre-Christian art. The St-Blasien Psalter shows complex debts to Byzantine and French iconography (Bober compares the sleeping figure in the corner of fol.153r with a sketch by Villard de Honnecourt, for example), but the technique is like ancient Frankish metalwork inset with coloured stones, with wild staring and contorted figures, gnarled stems, brilliant colours clashing with the palest of chalky blues and lime-greens, and precious metals so thick they seem three-dimensional. The prehistoric magic of the Black Forest seems only just out of sight. It is a marvellous manuscript, and quite unique. It seems not to stand as a link between romanesque and gothic but to jump from ancient pagan Alemannia into Christian gothic Germany. literature S.C. Cockerell, Exhibition of Illuminated Manuscripts, Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1908, no.77, pl.66. G.F. Warner, A Descriptive Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts in the Library of C.W. Dyson Perrins, D.C.L., F.S.A., 1920, no.127, pp.298-301, pl.CXIII. H. Swarzenski, Die Lateinischen Illuminierten Handschriften des XIII. Jahrhunderts in den Landern an Rhein, Main und Donau, 1936, pp.45, 85 and 112. H. Swarzenski, The Berthold Missal, The Pierpont Morgan Library MS.710, and the Scriptorium of Weingarten Abbey, 1943, pp.42 (n.45), 58, 61, 62 and 64, figs.92-3. H. Bober, The St.Blasien Psalter (H.P. Kraus Rare Books Monongraphs, ser.iii), 1963, passim. W. Irtenkauf, 'Uber die Herkunft des sogenannten St.-Blasien-Psalters', Bibliothek und Wissenschaft, I, 1964, pp.23-49. W. Irtenkauf, 'Noch Einmal: Uber die Herkunft des sogenannten St.-Blasien-Psalters', Bibliothek und Wissenschaft, II, 1965, pp.59-84. F. Deuchler, Der Ingeborg-Psalter, 1967, pp.55 and 144 (n.220). New Catholic Encyclopaedia, VII, 1967, p.937, fig.2, illustrating the article on 'Jesus Christ'. The Year 1200, exhibition, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1970, pp.284-5, no.278. F. Mutterich, Sueva Sacra, Fruhe Kunst in Schwaben, exhibition, Augsburg, 1973, pp.190-91, no.199, fig.187a. W. Sauerlander, 'Sueva Sacra, Fruhe Kunst in Schwaben: Zur Ausstellung und zum Colloquium in Augsburg, Sommer 1973', Kunstchronik, XXVI, 1973, p.358. H.P. Kraus, In Retrospect, A Hundred Outstanding Manuscripts Sold in the Last Four Decades, 1978, no.25, pp.72-77, with 5 plates. R. Kroos, 'Notizien zum St.-Blasien Psalter', Die Zeit der Staufer, V, Vortrage und Forschungen, 1979, pp.353-87, figs.228-43. H. Houben, St.Blasianer Handschriften des 11. und 12.Jahrhundert (Munchener Beitrage zur Mediavistik und Renaissance-Forschung, XXX), 1979, pp.3 and 69-70. H.P. Kraus, A Rare Book Saga, 1979, pp.265-67. N.R. Ker, Medieval Manuscripts in British Libraries, III, 1983, p.217. H. Engelhart, Die Wurzburger Buchmalerei im Hohen Mittelalter, 1987 (Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte des Bistums und Hochstifts Wurzburg, XXXIV), pp.64, 129, 141, 188, 195 and 331, and pls.211 and 264. J.M. Plotzek, Andachtsbucher des Mittelalters aus Privatsbesitz, exhibition, Schnutgen-Museum, Cologne, 1987, no.5, pp.76-80, and pl.on p.16. N.F. Palmer, 'Parzival Fragments from the Binding of a Latin Psalter in Liverpool', Joseph Mayer of Liverpool, 1803-1886 (Society of Antiquaries of London, Occasional Papers, n.s., XI), ed. M. Gibson and S.M. Wright, 1988, p.150, n.12-13. S. Kramer, Handschriftenerbe des Deutschen Mittelalters (Mittelalterliche Bibliothekskataloge Deutschlands und der Schweiz, Erganzungsband I), 1989, p.80, as "Privatbesitz". F. Avril, C. Rabel and I Delauney, Manuscrits enlumines d'origine germanique, I, 1995, pp.154-5. Estimate: Refer Department.

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Lot 14: MURRAY, CHARLES FAIRFAX (1849-1919)

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Description: Study of a young girl o book, 1883, 1883 Pencil 12.5x9.3 in (31.7x23.6 cm) Init. D Inscr. verso.

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Lot 17: CHARLES FAIRFAX MURRAY AMERICAN 1849-1919

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Description: DRAPED CLASSICAL FIGURE PLAYING THE VIOLIN Unsigned. Graphite drawing; 12 x 7 1/2 (sight). framed. CONDITION appears very good.

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Lot 17: Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, Bt., A.R.A.

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Description: 1833-1898 and Charles Fairfax Murray 1849-1919 the princess sabra signed with initials, l.r.: EBJ; inscribed on a hand-written label attached to the backing Princess Sabia (sic) By Sir E. Burne-Jones, Bart. One of a series of Drawings in illustration of St George & the Dragon watercolour and bodycolour on linen 37.5 by 20 cm., 14 3/4 by 8 in. This is a gouache version of Burne-Jones's oil painting showing Princess Sabra walking in a garden holding in her hand a prayer book or missal. The image was devised as the opening scene in the sequence of murals that the artist painted in 1865-7 to tell the story of St George and his rescue of the Princess Sabra from the dragon to which she was to be sacrificed by the people of her father's kingdom. The complete cycle of oil paintings was made in response to a commission from the watercolour painter Myles Birket Foster, and was installed in Foster's house at Witley in Surrey. The present gouache version corresponds closely to the pencil drawing that Burne-Jones made of the subject (now in the British Museum). The entire cycle of St George paintings was sold by Foster in 1897. They were then retouched by Burne-Jones, exhibited as a series in Munich, and then dispersed. The oil version of The Princess Sabra is now in the Musee d'Orsay, Paris. The present watercolour bears all the hallmarks of Burne-Jones's own rich, ornate and highly characteristic method of painting in bodycolour of the second half of the 1860s. Burne-Jones frequently made second versions of his subjects, to experiment with different scales or to translate the image into another medium. It is possible however that Charles Fairfax Murray, who from 1866 onwards was employed by Burne-Jones as a studio assistant, played some part in the preparation of the present watercolour. Fairfax Murray worked on the oil versions of the St George series - indeed the later paintings in the cycle are largely by him. The early history of the present watercolour is not known. However, it seems likely that it remained in Burne-Jones's possession until the last few years of his life, and that it was sold through Agnew's some time in the mid-1890s. The handwritten label on the backing - where the artist is referred to as 'Sir Edward' (indicating that it was attached after 1894 which was the date of his being raised to the baronetcy) - presumably datesfrom the time of its sale. It is possible that further touches were made to the watercolour then, and it is likely that the inscribed initials EBJ were also applied in the last years of Burne-Jones's life. Provenance: The artist's studio, until c.1894-8; Thos Agnew & Son.

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Lot 19A: Charles Murray Padday (fl. 1889 - c. 1947)

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Description: Dividing the spoil signed '-C.M. PADDAY-' (lower left) oil on canvas 36 x 501/4 in. (91.5 x 128 cm.) LITERATURE Colour Magazine, October 1919, vol. II, no. 3, p. 63 (illustrated in colour). EXHIBITION London, Royal Academy, 1919, no. 253. NOTES Paddy exhibited a work entitled Birds of Prey at the Royal Academy in 1911 depicting the pirates sailing towards land which also measured 36 x 50 in. and is illustrated in Royal Academy Pictures, 1911, p. 49.

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Study of hands and drapery

Lot 29: Study of hands and drapery

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Description: Charles Fairfax Murray (1849-1919) Study of hands and drapery inscribed 'ANGELICA' (lower left) pencil 9½ x 6¾ in. (24 x 17 cm.)

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Lot 30: Charles Fairfax Murray

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Description: 1849-1919 guilia signed with initials u.l.: CFM; signed and inscribed with title and artist's address on a label attached to the frame oil on canvas 52 by 40 cm., 20 1/2 by 15 3/4 in. Exhibited: Liverpool, Autumn Exhibition of Pictures, 1879.

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Lot 35: COBDEN-SANDERSON Eight autograph letters signed and one typed letter signed to Thomas James

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Description: Cobden-Sanderson, plus one ALS from him, 1889-1924, together 16 pages, 12mo-4to, comprising: 1. C. HENRY DANIEL. ALS. Worcester College, Oxford, 27 February 1889, 3 pages, small 8vo, sending 2 copies of Bridges's Poems. 2. CHARLES FAIRFAX MURRAY. ALS, Holland Park Rd., 5 June 1889, 3 pages, small 8vo, discussing his opinions of several of Cobden-Sanderson's bindings (Tidcombe 18, 19, 26a, and 29): "No doubt you did what you considered best for the Bonaventura, I recognized this at the time but did not like the result, I well remember referring to it at the time & am glad that I did so in such a manner that it has not remained in your memory. I expressed to you on the other hand [a?] particular satisfaction with the Christina Rossetti poems which you were kind enough to present me with... I always show [the Rappresentatione] as an example of what similar bindings should be & only regret that it did not & does not pay for you to undertake similar work." This letter is the continuation of a letter of 3 June 1889, cited in full in Tidcombe 19, in which Fairfax Murray, who was one of Cobden-Sanderson's most enthusiastic early patrons, "categorically denies" having made certain negative remarks about some of the latter's bindings. 3. LUCIEN PISSARRO. ALS, 62 Bath Rd., Bedford Park, 30 June 1901, one page, 12mo, "Your little book arrived safely yesterday --I think it is so beautiful that I feel I must write & tell you --The impression seems so very perfect & your paper makes me quite envious it is the most perfect I ever seen [sic]." 4. WALTER CRANE. ALS, 13 Holland St., Kensington, 30 December 1901, one page, small 8vo, accepting C.-S.'s request that he take the chair at a lecture given by a member of the Labour party. 5. T. J. COBDEN-SANDERSON. ALS to an unidentified correspondent, Doves Press, Hammersmith, 19 April 1910, one page, 8vo, sending Doves Press publications. 6. LAURENCE BINYON. ALS, Department of Prints and Drawings, British Museum, 18 March 1911, one page, small 8vo, thanking C.-S. for "the compliment implied in your wish to print my lectures in the beautiful Doves type..." 7. STEPHEN GASELEE. ALS, Magdalene College, Cambridge, 22 October 1915, 2 pages, small 8vo, subscribing for a second copy of Goethe's Gedichte; "I am sorry to hear that the Doves Press is so near its final number". 8. BRUCE ROGERS. ALS, Cambridge University Press, 14 April 1919, 2 pages, oblong 8vo, confirming that the Cambridge University Press takes printing commissions from other publishers, and elucidating his own functions at the Press as "printing-advisor to the Manager". 9. EMERY WALKER. TLS, 16 Clifford's Inn, Fleet Street, 21 August 1924, 2 pages, 8vo, thanking him for sending a periodical, and praising the latest productions of the Ashendene Press; with a photograph of Walker. And with 3 items of ephemera: a Doves Press invoice dated 1910, with a manuscript note from Cobden-Sanderson, 2 pages, 8vo and oblong 8vo; an autograph receipt from Agnes Richardson for a design, one page, 4to; and a placecard for a luncheon held by Mrs. Annie Cobden-Sanderson on 9 February 1926, signed by the guests; together 12 items. (2).

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Lot 40: Circle of Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882)

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Description: 'Golden head by golden head'; and 'The long hours go and come and go' inscribed 'Golden head by golden head' (lower centre, in the margin) with further inscription 'Pen + Ink drawings/from Christina/Rossetti's Poems (Macmillan)/D.G. Rossetti' (on the old backboard, attached to the reverse) pen and black ink, red chalk and pink wash 21/2 x 2 7/8 in. (6.4 x 7.3 cm.) (2) NOTES These drawings are faithful copies of Rossetti's designs for the title-pages of two volumes of his sister Christina's poetry: Goblin Market and Other Poems and The Prince's Progress and Other Poems, published by Macmillan respectively in 1862 and 1866. The copy after the Goblin Market illustration is not, however, taken from the design as it appeared in the first edition but from the slightly altered version prepared for the second edition of 1865. As Professor W.E. Fredeman was the first to observe, Rossetti had a portion of the block re-cut to obviate the double chin which the figure on the right (one of the poem's protagonists, the sisters Laura and Lizzie) has in the original design. The re-cutting was done by Kate Faulkner, a sister of Charles Faulkner, one of the partners of the Morris firm (see Gail Lynn Goldberg, 'Dante Gabriel Rossetti's "Revising Hand": His Illustrations for Christina Rossetti's Poems, Victorian Poetry, West Virginia University, vol. 20, nos. 3 and 4, pp. 158-9 and pls. 28-9). The identity of the copyist is unknown, but the most likely candidate is Charles Fairfax Murray (1849 - 1919), who assisted Rossetti intermittently from the late 1860s, had the greatest admiration for the man and his work, and saw himself as the guardian of his reputation and heritage. Murray, as Ruskin put it, was a 'heaven-born copyist', and he often exercised his skill in relation to Rossetti, beginning by making a copy of the artist's Sibylla Palmifera (Lady Lever Art Gallery, Port Sunlight) at Rossetti's own request in 1869. We know, moreover, that Murray took a keen interest in Rossetti's illustrations to his sister's poems. 'Mr Murray', wrote H.C. Marillier in his standard monograph on Rossetti (1899) 'has a number of... drawings (for these illustrations), and may, for all I know, have all'. Certainly Murray went to great lengths to gather together the studies for the Prince's Progress title-page. Having been acquired by Charles Augustus Howell, the Anglo-Portuguese adventurer who was at one time Rossetti's agent, the drawings were divided between two important collections, those of Rossetti's solicitor James Anderson Rose and the Liverpool shipowner F.R. Leyland, whose mansion in Prince's Gate, Knightsbridge, was one of the Aesthetic wonders of the age. These collections both came under the hammer at Christie's in the early 1890s, and Murray took the trouble to buy the two groups of studies for the Prince's Progress design. Then, having re-united them, he ensured that they found a permanent home in the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery in 1903. (See Virginia Surtees, The Paintings and Drawings of Dante Gabriel Rossetti: A Catalogue Raisonn‚, Oxford, 1971, vol. I, pp. 109-10, nos. 186-186 H; vol. 2, pls. 276-8.) We are grateful to Virginia Surtees and Paul Goldman for their help in preparing this catalogue entry.

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Lot 43: Leaves from an Antiphoner with vast illuminated initials, manuscript in Latin on vellum

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Description: [Perugia, early fourteenth century] 2 separate leaves, 610mm. by 427mm. and 597mm. by 412mm., 5 lines each of text in a very large rounded gothic hand and of music on a 4-line red stave, rubrics in red, capitals touched in red, verso of second leaf with initial in bright red with good red and blue penwork, first leaf (foliated '58' in old ink) with very large illuminated initial 'L' (260mm. by 157mm., plus extensions, ''Locutus est ad me...'', Apocalypse 21:9, response on a Tuesday), the initial in multicolours and burnished gold in extremely elaborate design of lush prickly leaves including a dragon and a human face in the foliage all infilled with extensive white penwork tracery, extensions continuing the full height of the page and into upper margin, the second leaf (foliated '96' in old ink) with very large illuminated initial 'S' (170mm. by 192mm., ''Si enim non abiero paraclito...'), the initial in multicolours and burnished gold in a similar extremely elaborate design with extensions continuing the full height of the page, some minor marks and creasing, in card mounts These were folios 58 and 96 from a lost volume of a set of Antiphoners illuminated for the Dominican church in Perugia. The complete set of 14 volumes was recorded in the inventory of the sacristy in 1430, ''Antiphonaria pro officio diurno et nocturno quatuordecim'' and minutely described in 1458. Thirteen volumes still survive in the Biblioteca Comunale Augusta in Perugia, but the present manuscript, which was volume V, is untraced. Its single leaves, doubtless including the present leaf, belonged to Charles Fairfax Murray (d.1919). One was later in a Hoepli sale, 7th April 1927, lot 336, with plate, and four were in Hoepli's own collection, now in the Cini Foundation (Toesca, Collezione di Ulrico Hoepli, 1930, nos.LXXII-LXXV, pls. LXIII-VII, and note the folio number in the same hand in fig.48, p.78; and esp. F. Todini, 'Gli antifonari di San Domenico e la miniatura a Perugia nel primo Trecento', Francesco d'Assisi, 1982, esp. pp.234-6, with many further references). One more, fol.20, was sold in these rooms, 22 June 1993, lot 51 (afterwards Maggs, cat.1175, 1994, no.2, at £5200, with colour plate). Another was Christie's, 29 June 1994, lot 3, with colour plate on front of catalogue. For purely decorative effect, these vast and splendid initials would be hard to exceed.

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Lot 49: MURRAY, CHARLES FAIRFAX (1849-1919)

Description: Portrait of John Dalton Murray, 1870 Watercolour 9x8 inches (22x20 cm) Initials March 1870.

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Lot 56: Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, Bt., A.R.A. (1833-1898)

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Description: Music signed with initials, inscribed and dated 'EBJ P/76' (lower left) oil on canvas 27.1/8 x 173/4 in. (68.9 x 45.1 cm.) PROVENANCE Sold by the artist to a Mr Benjamin, 1876. R.H. Benson and his wife, Evelyn, by 1898; his posthumous sale, Christie's, 21 June 1929, lot 94 (105 gns. to Croal Thomson). With Barbizon House, London, 1929. With Mortimer Brandt Gallery, New York, by 1950, when purchased by Mrs Amalie Nelson for 600 dollars. By descent to her daughter, Mrs Molly Williams, of Morrilton, Arkansas, to 1996. LITERATURE Burne-Jones's autograph work-record (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge), under 1875 and 1876. Malcolm Bell, Sir Edward Burne-Jones: A Record and Review, 1898 ed., pp.52, 130 (listed as 'Two Girls with Viol and Music'). The Work of Edward Burne-Jones: Ninety-one Photogravures Directly Reproduced from the Original Paintings, London: Berlin Photgraphic Co., 1901, no. 3 (as an oil belonging to Mrs R.H. Benson). Fortun‚e de Lisle, Burne-Jones, 1904, p.184 (as a watercolour belonging to R.H. Benson). Algernon Graves, A Century of Loan Exhibitions 1813-1912, 1913, p.125 (incorrectly described as a drawing). Barbizon House 1929: An Illustrated Record, 1929, no. 16, illustrated. EXHIBITION London, New Gallery, Exhibition of the Works of Sir Edward Burne-Jones, Bart., 1898-9, no. 75 (as an oil, lent by Mrs R.H. Benson). On loan to the Arkansas Art Center 1994-1996. NOTES This attractive example of Burne-Jones's middle period is an important rediscovery. Though mentioned in his autograph work-record, included in his memorial exhibition at the New Gallery in 1898-9, and illustrated in the magnificent elephant-folio volume of photogravures of his work published in a limited edition by the Berlin Photographic Company in 1901, it has eluded all the more recent literature and has not been reproduced since it belonged to the dealer David Croal Thomson in 1929. It was sold in New York in 1950, and remained in an American private collection until last year. There are two references in Burne-Jones's own work-record, now in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. In 1875 he notes that he has 'worked...at a small picture of two girls with a viol and a scroll of music'; and the following year he adds: 'two girls with viol and scroll, in red and green dresses. Sold to aforesaid Benjamin'. The picture was clearly started in 1875 and completed in 1876, the date still just discernible in its lower left corner. The 'aforesaid Benjamin' is identified as 'one Benjamin an Israelite' who also bought in 1875-6 the small triptych of Pyramus and Thisbe, painted in watercolour on vellum, which is now in the Williamson Art Gallery, Birkenhead. There are no other references to this patron in the record, and it is possible that he was a dealer. Certainly both Music (the name given to our picture by the time it appeared in the memorial exhibition in 1898) and Pyramus and Thisbe had changed hands, possibly more than once, by the turn of the century. In 1877 Burne-Jones painted another verison of Music, virtually identical in size to the original. He entered it in his work-record for this year as follows: 'finished replica of two girls with viol and scroll. Graham'. This means that it was executed for William Graham, the wealthy India merchant and Liberal member for Glasgow who was his most important patron, and who would often commission a version of a composition he particularly admired. The picture was not among the thirty-four examples of Burne-Jones's work which appeared in the five-day sale of the Graham collection at Christie's in April 1886, but by 1895 it belonged to Stephen T. Gooden, possibly of the firm of picture dealers Gooden and Fox, who lent it to the annual exhibition of pictures at the Guildhall in the City of London that year. The catalogue description shows how it both duplicated and differed from the original. 'A seated figure, myrtle-wreathed, and clad in purple, is holding an open scroll of music from which another standing by, robed in crimson, and playing a stringed instrument, is reading. From the low balcony a rich landscape is seen, with hills, and a castle, the warm evening light suffusing the scene.' Clearly the main difference lay in the girl holding the scroll, who had acquired a wreath in her hair while her dress had been changed from green to purple. It is possible that these alterations were requested by Graham. When the second version is next heard of it was in the collection of Joseph Beausire of Wethersfield, Noctorum, Birkenhead, who lent it to the International Exhibition at Glasgow in 1901 (Fine Art Section: Deceased British Artists (Oil), no. 301). Following Beausire's death, it was sold at Christie's on 13 April 1934 (lot 33) and bought for œ147 by Gooden and Fox, not because they had owned it before (if indeed they had) but because they had been commisssioned by Kerrison Preston. A Bournemouth solicitor, Preston was one of a group of connoisseurs who, against the current of fashion, maintained an interest in the Pre-Raphaelites, their associates and followers, during the interwar period. He formed a large collection of pictures of which the best known is Choosing, G.F. Watts's portrait of his child wife Ellen Terry, now in the National Portrait Gallery. Music has been the subject of a good deal of confusion. Our version was described as a watercolour when it was listed by De Lisle in 1904, although it had been correctly identified as an oil in Malcolm Bell's earlier monograph and when exhibited at the New Gallery in 1898-9. Still more mysteriously, Algernon Graves called it a 'drawing' when he recorded its appearance in the memorial exhibition. Its provenance has also been misunderstood. Croal Thomson, publishing it in his Illustrated Record for 1929, the year he acquired it at the Benson sale at Christie's and exhibited it at Barbizon House, his gallery in Henrietta Street off Cavendish Square, wrote that it was 'painted in 1875 for Mrs R.H. Benson'. He was clearly jumping to conclusions, having probably read the entry in the memorial exhibition catalogue ('Painted in 1875. Lent by Mrs R.H. Benson') and being unaware that Burne-Jones had sold it to the 'aforesaid Benjamin'. Inevitably there has been some confusion between the two versions. They would be easier to identify if they had differed in size, but all the references suggest that they were very similar in format, as well as both being an oil. When Kerrison Preston bought his version in 1934, the acquisition naturally interested his friend Graham Robertson, who had known Burne-Jones well and watched with dismay as his reputation declined. On 16 June 1934, three days after the Beausire sale at Christie's, Robertson 'vetted' the picture for Preston at Gooden and Fox's gallery and declared it to be 'a quite straightforward oil painting'; but he subsequently mentioned it to Margaret and J. W. Mackail, Burne-Jones's daughter and son-in-law, who 'could add nothing to the Mrs R. H. Benson story except that they were sure it was a watercolour' (Kerrison Preston (ed.), Letters from Graham Robertson, 1953, pp. 310, 312). Perhaps they had looked the picture up in De Lisle, seen our version described as a watercolour with a Benson provenance, and assumed that this was Preston's purchase. No-one seems to have realised that there were two versions. True, the work-record, mentioning them both, had been in the Fitzwilliam since 1921, given by Margaret herself and Sir Philip Burne-Jones, her brother; but it was only five years since the original version had gone through Christie's and been bought by Croal Thomson, a dealer much patronised by the circle of collectors to which Preston belonged. Indeed Preston himself bought Choosing from Thomson only two months after he secured the second version of Music at Christie's. In one thing Croal Thomson was right: Mrs Benson's 'husband was a personal friend of [Burne-Jones] and one who at various times was the owner of many fine pictures, both of the Pre-Raphaelite and of the old Italian schools'. Robert Henry Benson (1850-1929), or Robin Benson as he was always known, was the son-in-law of Robert Stayner Holford (1808-1892), marrying his daughter Evelyn in 1887. Holford needs no introduction as one of the greatest connoisseurs of his day. A multimillionaire from an early age, due to the late fruition of an old family investment and the romantic discovery of bullion on the estate of an uncle in the Isle of Wight, he built up a magnificent collection which Waagen, writing in 1853, described as second only to that of the Marquis of Hertford and displaying 'a far greater universality of taste.' It included superb paintings of the Italian, Dutch, Flemish, Spanish, French and English schools, the choicest illuminated manuscripts, an unrivalled collection of Rembrandt etchings, and many other works of art. Holford was as much a builder as a collector. In the 1840s he acquired Dorchester House in Park Lane, and began to remodel it as an Italian palazzo to designs by Lewis Vulliamy. By a similar process he subsequently transformed Westonbirt, the family's Cotswold country seat. The two houses provided the background to their owner's princely collection, much of which was dispersed at Christie's in 1927, following the death of Sir George Holford, Robert Holford's eldest son. Robert and Evelyn Benson, who collected very much in tandem, were in the same tradition. By profession Benson was a successful merchant banker. Going into partnership with George Eliot's husband, John Cross, he built up a flourishing firm by astute financing of railways and electrical projects; long after his death it was to merge with a rival bank to form Kleinwort Benson in 1961 (see Jehanne Wake, Kleinwort Benson: The history of two families in banking, 1997). In London Benson lived for many years at 16 South Street, a stone's throw from Dorchester House, but towards the end of his life he moved to Walpole House, Chiswick Mall, where he died. Buckhurst Park at Withyham, Sussex, was his country retreat. As a collector, he was interested in modern pictures and Chinese porcelain, but he was best known for his Italian Old Masters. These were indeed remarkable, including examples of many of the greatest artists of the early and high Renaissance which today are among the most prized possessions of museums, particularly in America. Four panels from Duccio's celebrated Maest…, completed for Siena Cathedral in 1311 (National Gallery, Washington, Frick Collection, New York, and elsewhere), were only one of his greatest treasures. Benson was a pillar of the art establishment, a Trustee of the National Gallery and the Tate, a member of the council of the Victoria and Albert Museum, a leading light in the Burlington Fine Arts Club, and treasurer of the fledgling National Art-Collections Fund. He also ventured into print as an art-historian. His first publication was a catalogue of an exhibition of Ferrarese paintings organised by the BFAC in 1894. This was followed by catalogues of the Wantage collection, which belonged to another relation by marriage (1905), his own Italian pictures (1914), a selection of the Holford manuscripts and pictures from Westonbirt (1924), and finally, in a magnificent two-volume publication, the pictures at Dorchester House (1927). In 1927 he sold his Italian pictures for œ500,000 to Sir Joseph Duveen, who took them to America for dispersal. Some of his modern pictures were sold at Christie's on 21 June 1929, two months after his death on 7 April; this was the sale at which Croal Thomson bought Music. His enormous collections of Chinese porcelain, tapestries, carpets and other objets d'art were dispersed in a two-day sale at Christie's in July 1924 and a further three-day sale in June 1929. In the catalogue of his Italian paintings Benson acknowledged his debt to 'two great collectors of the past generation.' One was his father-in-law, Robert Holford, who had already combined an interest in the Old Masters with a keen appreciation of the work of living artists. When visiting Florence in 1847, Holford had met the young G. F. Watts, who put him on the track of a Giorgione. As a result, Watts was offered a studio in Dorchester House when he returned to London that year, retaining it until plans for the house's development forced him to leave in 1849. In 1855 Alfred Stevens was commissioned by Holford to decorate several rooms at Dorchester House, a scheme that dragged on until the artist's death twenty years later. In 1854 Holford had married Mary Anne Lindsay, the younger sister of Sir Coutts Lindsay, who was to found the Grosvenor Gallery in 1877 as a liberal, avant-garde alternative to the Royal Academy. This was probably how Burne-Jones entered the circle, since he was to make his name at the Grosvenor and reign for a decade as its undisputed star. Details of Robert Benson's friendship with Burne-Jones are lacking in the form of letters or biographical references, but we know that he bought pictures from Charles Fairfax Murray, Burne-Jones's former assistant turned picture dealer. An example is Correggio's Christ taking Leave of His Mother, which Duveen gave to the National Gallery, London, in 1927. Benson's intimacy with the Burne-Jones circle is also suggested by a reference in J. W. Mackail's biography of the artist's lifelong friend William Morris. When Morris lay dying at Hammersmith in September 1896, it was Benson who took him manuscripts from Dorchester House to beguile his final days. Holford himself apparently never bought a Burne-Jones. True, there are three examples in Benson's catalogue of the Dorchester House pictures, but although Benson fails to make the point, they were actually bought after Holford's death by his son, George, when Burne-Jones's studio was sold up at Christie's in July 1898. The most important is the unfinished Sirens, now at Sarasota. They were almost certainly acquired at the suggestion of Benson himself, who is known to have advised his brother-in-law on his collection. In fact the man who inspired Benson to buy Burne-Jones as well as the Italians was the second of the 'two great collectors' whose influence he ackowledged, namely William Graham, the owner of the second version of Music . They knew each other well, Benson being a contemporary of Graham's son Rutherford at Balliol, and on 5 December 1884 we find Graham taking Benson to Christie's to show him how to bid for Burne-Jones's early watercolour The Forge of Cupid (see Wake, op. cit., p.177). In addition to being a devoted patron of Burne-Jones and Rossetti, Graham was an ardent devotee of the early Italian schools. It was in recognition of this that, shortly before Graham's death in 1885, Gladstone made him a Trustee of the National Gallery, a post that Benson in turn was to hold less than thirty years later. Benson was proud of the fact that no fewer than fifteen of the 114 pictures in his Italian catalogue had belonged to Graham. They included a Bellini altarpiece of The Madonna and Child with Saints, Ghirlandaio's Portrait of Francesco Sassetti and his Son, Cosimo Tura's Flight into Egypt (all Metropolitan Museum, New York), Piero di Cosimo's Hylas and the Nymphs (Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticutt), and Dosso Dossi's Circe (National Gallery, Washington). These were some of the most desirable things in the collection. In 1927 Charles Ricketts, in his capacity as adviser to the National Gallery of Canada, wanted to secure the Piero di Cosimo or the Dosso Dossi, but he found they had already been sold. Benson owned examples of other English artists, including Gainsborough, Cotman, Watts and Sargent, who made charcoal portraits of all the Benson family. For nearly twenty years (1887-1906) he was the proud possessor of Millais' Sir Isumbras (Port Sunlight). But it was Burne-Jones to whom he was most attracted, clearly being drawn, like Graham before him, to the Italianate character of the artist's work. The sale at Christie's in June 1929 included three paintings by Burne-Jones and many watercolours and drawings, among them not only Music but versions of Cupid and Psyche (Yale University Art Gallery), Pan and Psyche (private collection), and Dana‰ and the Brazen Tower (Fogg Art Museum, Harvard). Nor was this the limit of Benson's Burne-Jones holdings. The sale did not, for instance, include the coloured cartoon for King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid (Birmingham) or The Depths of the Sea (private collection, Germany), both of which he owned. Again, he had examples that had formerly belonged to Graham, such as the Cophetua cartoon and the Dana‰, and it would be interesting to know if he acquired Music in the knowledge that Graham had once owned the second version. How or when the picture entered his collection after it had left the hands of Mr Benjamin is unclear; the only certainty is that he and his wife had it by 1898. Music was painted during the period immediately preceding that watershed in Burne-Jones's life, the opening of the Grosvenor Gallery in 1877. Seven years earlier, at the age of thirty-six, he had resigned from the Old Water-Colour Society when objections were raised to the nude male figure in Phyllis and Demopho”n (Birmingham). There followed a period of withdrawal and isolated development. He hardly exhibited, relying for income on such loyal patrons as Graham and the Liverpool shipownwer F. R. Leyland, but it was now that he perfected his mature style, painting a series of masterpieces - The Beguiling of Merlin (Port Sunlight), The Mirror of Venus (Gulbenkian Collection, Lisbon), The Angels of Creation (Fogg Art Museum, Harvard) and others - which were to burst upon an astonished world in 1877, bringing him fame overnight. In these and subsequent works which he showed at the Grosvenor until 1887 and thereafter at its successor, the New Gallery, he made his unique contribution to the Aesthetic Movement, emphasising formal values as forcefully as Whistler or Albert Moore, but also seeking to explore the spiritual and literary dimension in a way that would soon establish him as a central figure in European symbolism. Nothing did more to foster this aspect of his art than his love of Italian painting. His resignation from the OWCS in 1870 was only one of a series of professional and personal setbacks that shook his confidence and made him question the direction his art was taking. A weakening of old ties with Rossetti, Ruskin, and even Morris, not to mention the emotional turmoil of his affair with Mary Zambaco, must also be weighed in the balance. Seeking reassurance, he paid his last two visits to Italy in 1871 and 1873, and it was with a profound sense of rediscovering his spiritual roots that he diligently studied the masters of the quattrocentro and the early high Renaissance - Botticelli, Mantegna, Signorelli, Michelangelo and others. The results were immediately apparent in his work, which was never more Italianate than in the 1870s. Music encapsulates these developments. It is clearly an exercise in formal values, a decorative ensemble in the 'aesthetic' style. There is no real narrative content and the colour scheme is paramount, the red and green of the figures' dresses being echoed throughout the composition. As for the theme of music, it could hardly be more significant. Music, being the most abstract of the arts, was widely regarded as a test of 'aesthetic' probity. 'It is the art of music', Walter Pater wrote in his essay on 'The School of Giorgione' in The Renaissance (1873), 'which most completely realises this artistic ideal, this perfect identification of form and matter...therefore, to the condition of its perfect moments, all the arts may be supposed constantly to tend and aspire.' Artists varied in their attempt to put this theory into practice. Whistler took immense trouble over the colour harmonies of his pictures, then rammed the point home by giving them musical titles - 'harmonies', 'symphonies' or 'nocturnes'. Burne-Jones, who in fact knew much more about music than the American, was well aware of this approach. Of his picture The Hours (Fig.3), in which the principal colour of each figure's dress is taken up in the accessories of her neighbour, he observed tongue-in-cheek that 'Mr Whistler could, if he liked, call it a fugue.' For that matter, he might have said of Music that 'Mr Whistler could, if he liked, call it a harmony in pink and green.' But while his interest in colour harmony was, in its way, every bit as obsessive as Whistler's, Burne-Jones preferred to emphasise the musical analogy by making so many of his figures sing or play musical instruments. This dual interpretation of the Paterian ideal is epitomised by our picture. It would be interesting in this context to know more about the mysterious Mr Benjamin. Obviously Jewish and possibly a dealer, he reminds us of Murray Marks, the marchand amateur who did so much to determine the course of the Aesthetic Movement. It was Marks who helped Rossetti to form his collection of blue-and-white Chinese porcelain, the prototype of many others of the kind, and it was he who advised F.R. Leyland when this Maecenas was creating his great 'aesthetic' interior at 49 Prince's Gate, full of works by Rossetti, Burne-Jones, Whistler, Albert Moore and others. About 1870 Murray conceived the idea of an 'art firm', in which the artists he knew and admired would be partners. Possessing 'exclusive rights to sell the pictures executed by Watts, Burne-Jones and Rossetti, and the etchings produced by Whistler', it would 'make a point of recommending these pictures to the various art patrons of the day... [and] providing pictures which [were] really objects of beauty' (G.C. Williamson, Murray Marks and his Friends, 1919, pp. 98-9). Alexander Ionides, himself the creator of a great 'aesthetic' house in Holland Park, offered to put up capital, and although the project eventually fell through, etchings by Whistler were purchased and several paintings by Burne-Jones commissioned and painted. An example is a Sleeping Beauty of 1871 (Manchester), which has a flat linear quality and a subtle colour harmony which make it ideal as a piece of interior decoration. Such values are also found in paintings like The Wine of Circe and The Seasons (private collections), which were destined for Leyland's mansion and may well have had Marks's critical eye cast over them. It is tempting to wonder if Mr Benjamin was a business associate of Marks, or at least working along similar lines. If so, Music would have suited his purpose to perfection. The Italian influence which Burne-Jones felt so strongly at this period is also very evident. The picture's general conception suggests some Bellinesque design of the Virgin and Child in a landscape, while the girl reading a scroll faintly echoes certain figures on the Sistine ceiling, such as the Prophet Joel or the Delphic Sibyl. Certainly Burne-Jones had studied the ceiling closely in 1871, lying on the floor and looking up through opera glasses. There are further hints of Italy in the marble bench and its drapery, which in form appears to be inspired by curtains he had seen looped up over doorways in Genoa and made studies of in a sketchbook which he kept on the journey. But perhaps the most Italianate element in the picture is the landscape background, with two towns perched on hills. Again there are many sketches of these towns in the sketchbook, evidently made as he travelled from one centre to another by carriage or train, and Lady Burne-Jones emphasises his fondness for them in her account of the visit. 'The landscape of Italy was his lasting delight, especially in the volcanic regions where hills rose suddenly from the plain and cities grew out of the hills' ( Memorials of Edward Burne-Jones, 1904, II, p. 26). It was obviously these references to Italy and Italian art that recommended the picture to William Graham, who, as R. H. Benson wrote, 'could hardly resist any Early Italian picture, sacred or profane, provided it was reverent or true in feeling'; and no doubt it appealed to Benson himself a generation later, whether or not he knew that Graham, his mentor, had owned the second version. Burne-Jones also treated the theme of music in two designs for needlework, but one, much earlier, is lost, and the other, slightly later, bears no relation to the present picture. We are grateful to Charles Sebag-Montefiore and Stephen Wildman for help in preparing this entry.

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Lot 56: SIR EDWARD COLEY BURNE-JONES, BT., A.R.A. (1833-1898)

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Description: MUSIC signed with initials, inscribed and dated "EBJ P/76" (lower left) oil on canvas 27 1/8 x 17 3/4 in. (68.9 x 45.1 cm.) PROVENANCE Sold by the artist to a Mr Benjamin, 1876. R.H. Benson and his wife, Evelyn, by 1898; his posthumous sale, Christie's, 21 June 1929, lot 94 (105 gns. to Croal Thomson). With Barbizon House, London, 1929. With Mortimer Brandt Gallery, New York, by 1950, when purchased by Mrs Amalie Nelson for 600 dollars. By descent to her daughter, Mrs Molly Williams, of Morrilton, Arkansas, to 1996 EXHIBITED London, New Gallery, Exhibition of the Works of Sir Edward Burne-Jones, Bart., 1898-9, no. 75 (as an oil, lent by Mrs R.H. Benson) On loan to the Arkansas Art Center, 1994-1996 LITERATURE Burne-Jones's autograph work-record (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge), under 1875 and 1876 Malcolm Bell, Sir Edward Burne-Jones: A Record and Review, 1898 ed., pp.52, 130 (listed as "Two Girls with Viol and Music"). The Work of Edward Burne-Jones: Ninety-one Photogravures Directly Reproduced from the Original Paintings, London: Berlin Photgraphic Co., 1901, no. 3 (as an oil belonging to Mrs R.H. Benson) Fortunee de Lisle, Burne-Jones, 1904, p. 184 (as a watercolour belonging to R.H. Benson) Algernon Graves, A Century of Loan Exhibitions 1813-1912, 1913, p. 125 (incorrectly described as a drawing) Barbizon House 1929: An Illustrated Record, 1929, no. 16, illustrated This attractive example of Burne-Jones's middle period is an important rediscovery. Though mentioned in his autograph work-record, included in his memorial exhibition at the New Gallery in 1898-9, and illustrated in the magnificent elephant-folio volume of photogravures of his work published in a limited edition by the Berlin Photographic Company in 1901, it has eluded all the more recent literature and has not been reproduced since it belonged to the dealer David Croal Thomson in 1929. It was sold in New York in 1950, and remained in an American private collection until last year. There are two references in Burne-Jones's own work-record, now in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. In 1875 he notes that he has "worked...at a small picture of two girls with a viol and a scroll of music"; and the following year he adds: "two girls with viol and scroll, in red and green dresses. Sold to aforesaid Benjamin". The picture was clearly started in 1875 and completed in 1876, the date still just discernible in its lower left corner. The "aforesaid Benjamin" is identified as "one Benjamin an Israelite" who also bought in 1875-6 the small triptych of Pyramus and Thisbe, painted in watercolour on vellum, which is now in the Williamson Art Gallery, Birkenhead. There are no other references to this patron in the record, and it is possible that he was a dealer. Certainly both Music (the name given to our picture by the time it appeared in the memorial exhibition in 1898) and Pyramus and Thisbe had changed hands, possibly more than once, by the turn of the century. In 1877 Burne-Jones painted another verson of Music, virtually identical in size to the original. He entered it in his work-record for this year as follows: "finished replica of two girls with viol and scroll. Graham". This means that it was executed for William Graham, the wealthy India merchant and Liberal member for Glasgow who was his most important patron, and who would often commission a version of a composition he particularly admired. The picture was not among the thirty-four examples of Burne-Jones's work which appeared in the five-day sale of the Graham collection at Christie's in April 1886, but by 1895 it belonged to Stephen T. Gooden, possibly of the firm of picture dealers Gooden and Fox, who lent it to the annual exhibition of pictures at the Guildhall in the City of London that year. The catalogue description shows how it both duplicated and differed from the original. "A seated figure, myrtle-wreathed, and clad in purple, is holding an open scroll of music from which another standing by, robed in crimson, and playing a stringed instrument, is reading. From the low balcony a rich landscape is seen, with hills, and a castle, the warm evening light suffusing the scene." Clearly the main difference lay in the girl holding the scroll, who had acquired a wreath in her hair while her dress had been changed from green to purple. It is possible that these alterations were requested by Graham. When the second version is next heard of it was in the collection of Joseph Beausire of Wethersfield, Noctorum, Birkenhead, who lent it to the International Exhibition at Glasgow in 1901 (Fine Art Section: Deceased British Artists (Oil), no. 301). Following Beausire's death, it was sold at Christie's on 13 April 1934 (lot 33) and bought for L147 by Gooden and Fox, not because they had owned it before (if indeed they had) but because they had been commissioned by Kerrison Preston. A Bournemouth solicitor, Preston was one of a group of connoisseurs who, against the current of fashion, maintained an interest in the Pre-Raphaelites, their associates and followers, during the interwar period. He formed a large collection of pictures of which the best known is Choosing, G.F. Watts's portrait of his child wife Ellen Terry, now in the National Portrait Gallery. Music has been the subject of a good deal of confusion. Our version was described as a watercolour when it was listed by De Lisle in 1904, although it had been correctly identified as an oil in Malcolm Bell's earlier monograph and when exhibited at the New Gallery in 1898-9. Still more mysteriously, Algernon Graves called it a "drawing" when he recorded its appearance in the memorial exhibition. Its provenance has also been misunderstood. Croal Thomson, publishing it in his Illustrated Record for 1929, the year he acquired it at the Benson sale at Christie's and exhibited it at Barbizon House, his gallery in Henrietta Street off Cavendish Square, wrote that it was "painted in 1875 for Mrs. R.H. Benson". He was clearly jumping to conclusions, having probably read the entry in the memorial exhibition catalogue ("Painted in 1875. Lent by Mrs R.H. Benson") and being unaware that Burne-Jones had sold it to the "aforesaid Benjamin". Inevitably there has been some confusion between the two versions. They would be easier to identify if they had differed in size, but all the references suggest that they were very similar in format, as well as both being an oil. When Kerrison Preston bought his version in 1934, the acquisition naturally interested his friend Graham Robertson, who had known Burne-Jones well and watched with dismay as his reputation declined. On 16 June 1934, three days after the Beausire sale at Christie's, Robertson "vetted" the picture for Preston at Gooden and Fox's gallery and declared it to be "a quite straightforward oil painting"; but he subsequently mentioned it to Margaret and J. W. Mackail, Burne-Jones's daughter and son-in-law, who "could add nothing to the Mrs R. H. Benson story except that they were sure it was a watercolour" (Kerrison Preston (ed.), Letters from Graham Robertson, 1953, pp. 310, 312). Perhaps they had looked the picture up in De Lisle, seen our version described as a watercolour with a Benson provenance, and assumed that this was Preston's purchase. No-one seems to have realised that there were two versions. True, the work-record, mentioning them both, had been in the Fitzwilliam since 1921, given by Margaret herself and Sir Philip Burne-Jones, her brother; but it was only five years since the original version had gone through Christie's and been bought by Croal Thomson, a dealer much patronised by the circle of collectors to which Preston belonged. Indeed Preston himself bought Choosing from Thomson only two months after he secured the second version of Music at Christie's. In one thing Croal Thomson was right: Mrs Benson's "husband was a personal friend of [Burne-Jones] and one who at various times was the owner of many fine pictures, both of the Pre-Raphaelite and of the old Italian schools". Robert Henry Benson (1850-1929), or Robin Benson as he was always known, was the son-in-law of Robert Stayner Holford (1808-1892), marrying his daughter Evelyn in 1887. Holford needs no introduction as one of the greatest connoisseurs of his day. A multimillionaire from an early age, due to the late fruition of an old family investment and the romantic discovery of bullion on the estate of an uncle in the Isle of Wight, he built up a magnificent collection which Waagen, writing in 1853, described as second only to that of the Marquis of Hertford and displaying "a far greater universality of taste". It included superb paintings of the Italian, Dutch, Flemish, Spanish, French and English schools, the choicest illuminated manuscripts, an unrivalled collection of Rembrandt etchings, and many other works of art. Holford was as much a builder as a collector. In the 1840s he acquired Dorchester House in Park Lane, and began to remodel it as an Italian palazzo to designs by Lewis Vulliamy. By a similar process he subsequently transformed Westonbirt, the family's Cotswold country seat. The two houses provided the background to their owner's princely collection, much of which was dispersed at Christie's in 1927, following the death of Sir George Holford, Robert Holford's eldest son. Robert and Evelyn Benson, who collected very much in tandem, were in the same tradition. By profession Benson was a successful merchant banker. Going into partnership with George Eliot's husband, John Cross, he built up a flourishing firm by astute financing of railways and electrical projects; long after his death it was to merge with a rival bank to form Kleinwort Benson in 1961 (see Jehanne Wake, Kleinwort Benson: The history of two families in banking, 1997). In London Benson lived for many years at 16 South Street, a stone's throw from Dorchester House, but towards the end of his life he moved to Walpole House, Chiswick Mall, where he died. Buckhurst Park at Withyham, Sussex, was his country retreat. As a collector, he was interested in modern pictures and Chinese porcelain, but he was best known for his Italian Old Masters. These were indeed remarkable, including examples of many of the greatest artists of the early and high Renaissance which today are among the most prized possessions of museums, particularly in America. Four panels from Duccio's celebrated Maesta, completed for Siena Cathedral in 1311 (National Gallery, Washington, Frick Collection, New York, and elsewhere), were only one of his greatest treasures. Benson was a pillar of the art establishment, a Trustee of the National Gallery and the Tate, a member of the council of the Victoria and Albert Museum, a leading light in the Burlington Fine Arts Club, and treasurer of the fledgling National Art-Collections Fund. He also ventured into print as an art-historian. His first publication was a catalogue of an exhibition of Ferrarese paintings organised by the BFAC in 1894. This was followed by catalogues of the Wantage collection, which belonged to another relation by marriage (1905), his own Italian pictures (1914), a selection of the Holford manuscripts and pictures from Westonbirt (1924), and finally, in a magnificent two-volume publication, the pictures at Dorchester House (1927). In 1927 he sold his Italian pictures for L500,000 to Sir Joseph Duveen, who took them to America for dispersal. Some of his modern pictures were sold at Christie's on 21 June 1929, two months after his death on 7 April; this was the sale at which Croal Thomson bought Music. His enormous collections of Chinese porcelain, tapestries, carpets and other objets d'art were dispersed in a two-day sale at Christie's in July 1924 and a further three-day sale in June 1929. In the catalogue of his Italian paintings Benson acknowledged his debt to "two great collectors of the past generation." One was his father-in-law, Robert Holford, who had already combined an interest in the Old Masters with a keen appreciation of the work of living artists. When visiting Florence in 1847, Holford had met the young G. F. Watts, who put him on the track of a Giorgione. As a result, Watts was offered a studio in Dorchester House when he returned to London that year, retaining it until plans for the house's development forced him to leave in 1849. In 1855 Alfred Stevens was commissioned by Holford to decorate several rooms at Dorchester House, a scheme that dragged on until the artist's death twenty years later. In 1854 Holford had married Mary Anne Lindsay, the younger sister of Sir Coutts Lindsay, who was to found the Grosvenor Gallery in 1877 as a liberal, avant-garde alternative to the Royal Academy. This was probably how Burne-Jones entered the circle, since he was to make his name at the Grosvenor and reign for a decade as its undisputed star. Details of Robert Benson's friendship with Burne-Jones are lacking in the form of letters or biographical references, but we know that he bought pictures from Charles Fairfax Murray, Burne-Jones's former assistant turned picture dealer. An example is Correggio's Christ taking Leave of His Mother, which Duveen gave to the National Gallery. London, in 1927. Benson's intimacy with the Burne-Jones circle is also suggested by a reference in J. W. Mackail's biography of the artist's lifelong friend William Morris. When Morris lay dying at Hammersmith in September 1896, it was Benson who took him manuscripts from Dorchester House to beguile his final days. Holford himself apparently never bought a Burne-Jones. True, there are three examples in Benson's catalogue of the Dorchester House pictures, but although Benson fails to make the point, they were actually bought after Holford's death by his son, George, when Burne-Jones's studio was sold up at Christie's in July 1898. The most important is the unfinished Sirens, now at Sarasota. They were almost certainly acquired at the suggestion of Benson himself, who is known to have advised his brother-in-law on his collection. In fact the man who inspired Benson to buy Burne-Jones as well as the Italians was the second of the "two great collectors" whose influence he acknowledged, namely William Graham, the owner of the second version of Music. They knew each other well, Benson being a contemporary of Graham's son Rutherford at Balliol, and on 5 December 1884 we find Graham taking Benson to Christie's to show him how to bid for Burne-Jones's early watercolour The Forge of Cupid (see Wake, op. cit., p.177). In addition to being a devoted patron of Burne-Jones and Rossetti, Graham was an ardent devotee of the early Italian schools. It was in recognition of this that, shortly before Graham's death in 1885, Gladstone made him a Trustee of the National Gallery, a post that Benson in turn was to hold less than thirty years later. Benson was proud of the fact that no fewer than fifteen of the 114 pictures in his Italian catalogue had belonged to Graham. They included a Bellini altarpiece of The Madonna and Child with Saints, Ghirlandaio's Portrait of Francesco Sassetti and his Son, Cosimo Tura's Flight into Egypt (all Metropolitan Museum, New York), Piero di Cosimo's Hylas and the Nymphs (Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticutt), and Dosso Dossi's Circe (National Gallery, Washington). These were some of the most desirable things in the collection. In 1927 Charles Ricketts, in his capacity as adviser to the National Gallery of Canada, wanted to secure the Piero di Cosimo or the Dosso Dossi, but he found they had already been sold. Benson owned examples of other English artists, including Gainsborough, Cotman, Watts and Sargent, who made charcoal portraits of all the Benson family. For nearly twenty years (1887-1906) he was the proud possessor of Millais' Sir Isumbras (Port Sunlight). But it was Burne-Jones to whom he was most attracted, clearly being drawn, like Graham before him, to the Italianate character of the artist's work. The sale at Christie's in June 1929 included three paintings by Burne-Jones and many watercolours and drawings, among them not only Music but versions of Cupid and Psyche (Yale University Art Gallery), Pan and Psyche (private collection), and Danae and the Brazen Tower (Fogg Art Museum, Harvard). Nor was this the limit of Benson's Burne-Jones holdings. The sale did not, for instance, include the coloured cartoon for King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid (Birmingham) or The Depths of the Sea (private collection, Germany), both of which he owned. Again, he had examples that had formerly belonged to Graham, such as the Cophetua cartoon and the Danae, and it would be interesting to know if he acquired Music in the knowledge that Graham had once owned the second version. How or when the picture entered his collection after it had left the hands of Mr Benjamin is unclear; the only certainty is that he and his wife had it by 1898. Music was painted during the period immediately preceding that watershed in Burne-Jones's life, the opening of the Grosvenor Gallery in 1877. Seven years earlier, at the age of thirty-six, he had resigned from the Old Water-Colour Society when objections were raised to the nude male figure in Phyllis and Demophoon (Birmingham). There followed a period of withdrawal and isolated development. He hardly exhibited, relying for income on such loyal patrons as Graham and the Liverpool shipownwer F. R. Leyland, but it was now that he perfected his mature style, painting a series of masterpieces - The Beguiling of Merlin (Port Sunlight), The Mirror of Venus (Gulbenkian Collection, Lisbon), The Angels of Creation (Fogg Art Museum, Harvard) and others - which were to burst upon an astonished world in 1877, bringing him fame overnight. In these and subsequent works which he showed at the Grosvenor until 1887 and thereafter at its successor, the New Gallery, he made his unique contribution to the Aesthetic Movement, emphasising formal values as forcefully as Whistler or Albert Moore, but also seeking to explore the spiritual and literary dimension in a way that would soon establish him as a central figure in European symbolism. Nothing did more to foster this aspect of his art than his love of Italian painting. His resignation from the OWCS in 1870 was only one of a series of professional and personal setbacks that shook his confidence and made him question the direction his art was taking. A weakening of old ties with Rossetti, Ruskin, and even Morris, not to mention the emotional turmoil of his affair with Mary Zambaco, must also be weighed in the balance. Seeking reassurance, he paid his last two visits to Italy in 1871 and 1873, and it was with a profound sense of rediscovering his spiritual roots that he diligently studied the masters of the quattrocentro and the early high Renaissance - Botticelli, Mantegna, Signorelli, Michelangelo and others. The results were immediately apparent in his work, which was never more Italianate than in the 1870s. Music encapsulates these developments. It is clearly an exercise in formal values, a decorative ensemble in the "aesthetic" style. There is no real narrative content and the colour scheme is paramount, the red and green of the figures' dresses being echoed throughout the composition. As for the theme of music, it could hardly be more significant. Music, being the most abstract of the arts, was widely regarded as a test of "aesthetic" probity. "It is the art of music", Walter Pater wrote in his essay on "The School of Giorgione" in The Renaissance (1873), "which most completely realises this artistic ideal, this perfect identification of form and matter...therefore, to the condition of its perfect moments, all the arts may be supposed constantly to tend and aspire." Artists varied in their attempt to put this theory into practice. Whistler took immense trouble over the colour harmonies of his pictures, then rammed the point home by giving them musical titles - "harmonies", "symphonies" or "nocturnes". Burne-Jones, who in fact knew much more about music than the American, was well aware of this approach. Of his picture The Hours (Fig.3), in which the principal colour of each figure's dress is taken up in the accessories of her neighbour, he observed tongue-in-cheek that "Mr Whistler could, if he liked, call it a fugue." For that matter, he might have said of Music that "Mr Whistler could, if he liked, call it a harmony in pink and green". But while his interest in colour harmony was, in its way, every bit as obsessive as Whistler's, Burne-Jones preferred to emphasise the musical analogy by making so many of his figures sing or play musical instruments. This dual interpretation of the Paterian ideal is epitomised by our picture. It would be interesting in this context to know more about the mysterious Mr Benjamin. Obviously Jewish and possibly a dealer, he reminds us of Murray Marks, the marchand amateur who did so much to determine the course of the Aesthetic Movement. It was Marks who helped Rossetti to form his collection of blue-and-white Chinese porcelain, the prototype of many others of the kind, and it was he who advised F.R. Leyland when this Maecenas was creating his great "aesthetic" interior at 49 Prince's Gate, full of works by Rossetti, Burne-Jones, Whistler, Albert Moore and others. About 1870 Murray conceived the idea of an "art firm", in which the artists he knew and admired would be partners. Possessing "exclusive rights to sell the pictures executed by Watts, Burne-Jones and Rossetti, and the etchings produced by Whistler", it would "make a point of recommending these pictures to the various art patrons of the day... [and] providing pictures which [were] really objects of beauty" (G.C. Williamson, Murray Marks and his Friends, 1919, pp. 98-9). Alexander Ionides, himself the crator of a great "aesthetic" house in Holland Park, offered to put up capital, and although the project eventually fell through, etchings by Whistler were purchased and several paintings by Burne-Jones commissioned and painted. An example is a Sleeping Beauty of 1871 (Manchester), which has a flat linear quality and a subtle colour harmony which make it ideal as a piece of interior decoration. Such values are also found in paintings like The Wine of Circe and The Seasons (private collections), which were destined for Leyland's mansion and may well have had Marks's critical eye cast over them. It is tempting to wonder if Mr Benjamin was a business associate of Marks, or at least working along similar lines. If so, Music would have suited his purpose to perfection. The Italian influence which Burne-Jones felt so strongly at this period is also very evident. The picture's general conception suggests some Bellinesque design of the Virgin and Child in a landscape, while the girl reading a scroll faintly echoes certain figures on the Sistine ceiling, such as the Prophet Joel or the Delphic Sibyl. Certainly Burne-Jones had studied the ceiling closely in 1871, lying on the floor and looking up through opera glasses. There are further hints of Italy in the marble bench and its drapery, which in form appears to be inspired by curtains he had seen looped up over doorways in Genoa and made studies of in a sketchbook which he kept on the journey. But perhaps the most Italianate element in the picture is the landscape background, with two towns perched on hills. Again there are many sketches of these towns in the sketchbook, evidently made as he travelled from one centre to another by carriage or train, and Lady Burne-Jones emphasises his fondness for them in her account of the visit. "The landscape of Italy was his lasting delight, especially in the volcanic regions where hills rose suddently from the plain and cities grew out of the hills" (Memorials of Edward Burne-Jones, 1904, II, p. 26). It was obviously these references to Italy and Italian art that recommended the picture to William Graham, who, as R. H. Benson wrote, "could hardly resist any Early Italian picture, sacred or profane, provided it was reverent or true in feeling"; and no doubt it appealed to Benson himself a generation later, whether or not he knew that Graham, his mentor, had owned the second version. Burne-Jones also treated the theme of music in two designs for needlework, but one, much earlier, is lost, and the other, slightly later, bears no relation to the present picture. We are grateful to Charles Sebag-Montefiore and Stephen Wildman for help in preparing this entry.

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Lot 59: Cent nouvelles nouvelles. Paris: [Pierre Levet for] Antoine Verard, (Sunday) 24 December 1486

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Description: Chancery Folio (270 x 198 mm). Levet types 3:101B (text), 2:113G (headline); Verard device (Renouard 1087). Initial spaces with guides (this copy unrubricated). Double column, 36 lines + headline. illustration: one (of 2) text-width woodcut with separable sidepieces, 98 column-width woodcuts (41 blocks, 57 repeats). collation: a10 b-d8 e6 f-s8 t10: 152 (of 154) leaves, lacking sheet a1.10, the first of which blank, the second of which with presentation woodcut and dedication to the Duke of Burgundy. binding: Crimson crushed morocco janseniste (Trautz-Bauzonnet), gilt dentelle turn-ins, marbled endleaves, edges marbled under gilt. provenance: Armand Bertin (Paris, 4 May 1854) -- Sir Richard Tufton, Bart. (Paris, 7 April 1873) --Charles Fairfax Murray (Sotheby's, 18 July 1919, lot 42) - Martin Bodmer - Dr. Otto Schafer first edition, of highest rarity: one of only five surviving copies. The Cent nouvelles nouvelles was Verard's sixth publication, his first with extensive illustration, and the first to contain his device. A 1491 document shows that the financier (and perhaps editor) of this edition was the French royal secretary and treasury official Nicole Gilles. When his association with Verard was closed that year, he received in part a still-unsold "box of unbound paper copies" of the work. Apparently the only other copies now located are those at the Bibliotheque Nationale (formerly Charles d'Angouleme's), Bibliotheque de l'Arsenal, Pierpont Morgan Library (imperfect), Rosenwald / Library of Congress (the Solar - Clinchamp - Double copy, lacking 2 leaves), and Yale (Bordes - Montgermont - Rahir - Cortlandt F. Bishop - Maus). The Cent nouvelles nouvelles, modelled on Boccaccio's Decameron, is an anonymous collection of sexual burlesques, dedicated to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, in 1462. Captions in this edition attribute the tales to a Burgundian circle of high nobility, including the French dauphin, the future Louis XI. A number of the stories are based on Poggio's Facetiae, and others are very much in the free manner of French fabliaux. The small cuts represent the first extensive illustration cycle of Verard's publishing career. The French version of the Decameron, which Verard published a year before (known from only two copies, one of which fragmentary), contains only a single, much-repeated cut. Verard's ambition for the Cent nouvelles nouvelles was considerably greater, but could not be carried to completion. The first twenty-four nouvelles each have an original illustration. Thereafter, the majority of illustrations are repetitions, with seventeen additional cuts gradually introduced later from Nouvelle XXXVIII onward. The "bedroom" cut of Nouvelle IX, for example, was eventually repeated nine more times. Goff N-277; Pellechet 3473; Claudin I 428; Macfarlane 4; Arnim 253. See also Mary Beth Winn, Anthoine Verard Parisian Publisher 1485-1512 (Geneva, 1997), 17-18; Rene Scheurer, "Nicole Gilles et Antoine Verard," Bibliotheque de l'Ecole des chartes 128 (1970), 415-19. Lacking leaf a10 as noted (supplied in careful pen facsimile); a2 remargined at top, with slight loss to woodcut and to one or two words; two early stamps deleted, foot of a2 and b1; repaired tear, b2. Despite the missing leaf, this copy was described in Gustave Brunet's Supplement (1878), 232, as "peut-etre le plus beau gothique francais qui soit dans une bibliotheque particuliere.".

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Lot 59: Charles Fairfax Murray (British, 1849-1919)

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Description: Suffer the children unto me pen and ink and wash on paper laid to canvas57.8 x 43.5cm (22 3/4 x 17 1/8in).

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SIR EDWARD COLEY BURNE-JONES, BT., A.R.A. (1833-1898) AND CHARLES FAIRFAX MURRAY (1849-1919)

Lot 66: SIR EDWARD COLEY BURNE-JONES, BT., A.R.A. (1833-1898) AND CHARLES FAIRFAX MURRAY (1849-1919)

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Description: PROPERTY OF AN INSTITUTION ST THEOPHILUS AND THE ANGEL: A LEGEND OF THE MARTYRDOM OF ST DOROTHEA signed and dated l.c.: E.B.J. 1863 watercolour and bodycolour 67 by 88cm., 26 by 34 1/2 in.

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Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882)

Lot 79: Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882)

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Description: Cat's Cradle pencil, pen and black and brown ink, unframed 10 5/8 x 8 3/8 in. (27 x 21.3 cm.) PROVENANCE The artist's studio sale; Christie's, London, 12 May 1883, lot 60, (14 gns to Scammell). Probably bought in by William Michael Rossetti, who referred to it as belonging to him in D.G. Rossetti as Designer and Writer, 1889 (see below). J.P. Heseltine (+); Sotheby's, London, 29 May 1935 (3rd day), lot 446, bought by William Rothenstein on behalf of a group of W.B. Yeats's friends, who gave it to him on his seventieth birthday in June 1935. By descent to Anne Yeats, the poet's daughter. LITERATURE William Michael Rossetti, D.G. Rossetti as Designer and Writer, London, 1889, p. 274, no. 88. H.C. Marillier, Dante Gabriel Rossetti: An Illustrated Memorial of his Art and Life, London, 1899, p. 237, no. 48. William Rothenstein, 'Yeats as a Painter saw Him', in Stephen Gwynn (ed.), Scattering Branches: Tributes to the Memory of W.B. Yeats, London, 1940, pp. 49-50. Allan Wade (ed.), The Letters of W.B. Yeats, London, 1954, p. 837. Virginia Surtees, The Paintings and Drawings of Dante Gabriel Rossetti: A Catalogue Raisonn‚, Oxford, 1971, vol. I, p. 40, no. 77, 'present whereabouts unknown'. NOTES This drawing is an important and fascinating rediscovery. It appeared in Rossetti's studio sale, was listed by Marillier in his early monograph, and records of it up until the 1930s showed that it had a particularly interesting provenance; but it was missing when Virginia Surtees published her catalogue raisonn‚ in 1971, nor had it ever been reproduced in the Rossetti literature. In fact it is illustrated here for the first time. The subject could hardly be more characteristic. In the studio sale catalogue it was described as 'two lovers occupied with 'cat's cradle', seated close together on the grass; a boy approaches on tiptoe, seeming to warn them of imminent danger'. The lovers are indeed 'close together', the youth in particuar being unable to restrain his ardour. They recall Rossetti's comment on the illustration that Ford Madox Brown was to make for his poem 'Down Stream' in 1871, showing two rustic lovers embracing in a boat. 'You have certainly not minced the demonstrative matter', he told Brown, just as he himself has not 'minced it' here. Unlike Brown, Rossetti introduces a strong element of symbolism into his design, making the game of cat's cradle a metaphor for the lovers' emotional entanglement. This was typical of his approach. The calf on its way to market in Found (begun 1854) is another striking example, although a closer parallel would be the game of dice being played by the two men in Hesterna Rosa (1853) (see Surtees, nos. 64 and 57, both illustrated). But there is clearly some other dimension to the drawing that remains elusive. The child, so strangely standing on tiptoe, seems at first sight to be playing the role of Cupid, but the way in which he points to an unidentified object in his right hand, and the alarmed expressions of the lovers as they glance towards him, suggest a more complex and troubling narrative. He may indeed, as the studio sale catalogue puts it, be 'warning them of imminent danger', but there is surely more to it than that. In due course Rossetti scholars may elucidate this problem, although it should be noted that neither William Michael Rossetti, the artist's brother, nor A.C. Marillier could offer a solution. Marillier, moreover, was being advised and assisted by Charles Fairfax Murray, whose knowledge of Rossetti was second to none. Marillier merely states that the drawing was 'probably (a) design for a picture', which may well be true, although so far as we know no painting based on it was ever undertaken. Both Marillier and William Michael Rossetti dated the drawing to c.1855, and Virginia Surtees, with no first-hand knowledge of it in 1971, could only follow their lead. She now agrees, however, that this is a few years too early. The drawing is no longer in the medieval or 'Froissartian' style that Rossetti adopted in the mid-1850s, partly in response to studying John Ruskin's collection of illuminated manuscripts, partly under the influence of his two new-found acolytes, William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones, who were ardent medievalists long before they met Rossetti in 1856. Rather we have here a delightful expression of the more 'Venetian' idiom that had emerged in this circle by the end of the decade. Charles Ricketts once wrote that he was 'convinced that Rossetti will seem a sort of Giorgione in the time to come', and Giorgione is certainly the artist we think of when we look at this scene of two lovers seated on the ground in an open-air setting. No less Giorgionesque is the pencil sketch at upper right of two girls reclining, one listening to the other playing a musical instrument. As early as 1849 Rossetti had written a sonnet on the famous Concert Champˆtre, long given to Giorgione but now accepted as by Titian, in the Louvre; but it was not until the late 1850s, after he had outgrown his Dantesque and 'Froissartian' phases, that Venetian sources had an appreciable impact on his style. The key image is Bocca Baciata of 1859 (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston), which Rossetti himself admitted had 'a rather Venetian aspect'. A female half-length painted in oils instead of his usual watercolour, it marked a radical new departure both in style and mood, evoking a spirit of sensuousness, worldliness and hedonism that was to colour his work well into the 1860s. The flamboyant Monna Vanna of 1866 (Tate Gallery), originally called Venus Veneta and intended to represent 'the Venetian ideal of female beauty', may be said to represent the climax of this trend. The Venetian style was complex in origin. It owed something to G.F. Watts, who had inherited a love of Titian as part of the legacy of the grand manner, and much to the atmosphere of opulent indolence cultivated at Little Holland House, of which so many Pre-Raphaelites were habitu‚s by the late 1850s. (The portrait Watts painted of Mrs Prinsep at this period was actually entitled In the Time of Giorgione.) Equally important were a dramatic shift in Ruskin's aesthetic and moral values, and a series of foreign visits. Rossetti, back in Paris in 1860 for his honeymoon, took the opportunity to study Veronese in the Louvre. Burne-Jones visited Venice in 1859 and 1862, his steps on each occasion being directed by Ruskin. No-one in the circle remained immune to the style. Although Rossetti was one of the leading exponents, it found rich expression in the work of Watts, Burne-Jones, Val Prinsep (Watts's pupil and Burne-Jones's travelling companion in 1859), Frederic Leighton, Holman Hunt, Simeon Solomon, and others. Julia Margaret Cameron's photographs provide some superb examples. Cat's Cradle must be more or less contemporary with Bocca Baciata. The female figure has a look of Fanny Cornforth, the handsome country girl of easy virtue who probably became Rossetti's mistress even before his marriage to Lizzie Siddal in 1860, and certainly moved into 16 Cheyne Walk as his housekeeper following Lizzie's death two years later. Changes of style and mood in Rossetti's work were nearly always connected with some emotional upheaval, and for him at least the advent of Fanny, with her coarse good looks and golden hair, was probably the catalyst for his adoption of an overtly Venetian mode. She was the model for Bocca Baciata and remained the muse of his Venetian phase, just as the virginal Lizzie had been that of his Dantesque period in the early fifties. The dress worn by the girl in Cat's Cradle is recognisable as one that Rossetti used elsewhere. It is worn by the dying woman in Bonifazio's Mistress (Surtees 121), a watercolour of 1860 of which the title alone speaks volumes in the 'Venetian' context, and by Lucretia Borgia in a group of watercolours dating from 1858-68 (Surtees 48, 48. R.I. and 124). A similar dress is also worn by Marie Spartali in Hypatia, a photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron of 1867. The characteristic design of the dress, laced with ribbon and dotted with bows at regular intervals, seems to have been taken from Bernardino Luini's painting of Ippolita Sforza at prayer in the church of S. Maurizio, Milan. Burne-Jones saw this when he visited Milan with Ruskin in 1862; indeed he copied other figures from this very cycle of frescoes, working by candle-light in the dark church. But Rossetti, who never visited Italy, must have known of the painting earlier from a print or photograph. The drawing is not only of great intrinsic interest but has an amazing provenance. At the Rossetti studio sale it was probably bought in by William Michael Rossetti, who recorded owning it in 1889. It is next heard of in the collection of J.P. Heseltine, appearing at his posthumous sale at Sotheby's in May 1935. Heseltine was one of the most respected connoisseurs of his day, and served as a trustee of the National Gallery for nearly forty years. Himself a talented draughtsman and etcher, he was a friend of many artists, notably Charles Keene. E.J. Poynter painted his wife, and his house in Queen's Gate, Kensington, was built by Norman Shaw. His enormous collection of old master and modern paintings, drawings, prints, coins and medals, took six days to disperse. A picture by Millais from Heseltine's collection, The Farmer's Daughter (c.1863), was sold in these Rooms on 14 March 1997 (lot 57). It was his only Millais painting, but it was typical of his taste in that it represented an attractive female model. The collection was rich in works of this kind - by Boucher, Fragonard, Liotard, Boilly, Ingres, Corot, Birket Foster and others; and perhaps in the present drawing Fanny worked her charms for Heseltine just as she had for Rossetti himself. At Heseltine's sale the drawing was bought by the artist William Rothenstein as a present for W.B. Yeats on his seventieth birthday. Rothenstein was acting on behalf of a group of the poet's admirers, one of whom, John Masefield, the Poet Laureate, took the drawing to Dublin and presented it to Yeats the following month. 'Hearing that his seventieth birthday was approaching', Rothenstein recalled in an essay entitled 'Yeats as a Painter saw Him', 'I consulted Masefield, and together we issued an appeal among Yeats's friends for a tribute to his eminence as a poet. It happened at this time that a sale of J.P. Heseltine's drawings was held at Sotheby's. Among these were some early ones by Rossetti, and I managed to secure the very drawing which would appeal to Yeats. Masefield, ever generous with his time, went to Dublin to attend the birthday dinner and presented the drawing on behalf of his English admirers'. Rothenstein was right in thinking that the drawing would give Yeats pleasure. Yeats had been fascinated by Rossetti since boyhood, when, as he wrote in his autogiography, 'I was in all things Pre-Raphaelite'. 'I thank you for the generous gifts, from you and others, brought by Masefield', he wrote to H.J.C. Grierson on 7 July 1935. 'The Rossetti delights me because of its beauty and becuase of its subject. Lucretia Borgia has always filled me with wonder. The woman of infamous reputation described by Bayard as his ideal woman'. It is interesting that Yeats immediately identified the female figure in the drawing as Lucretia Borgia. Having been acquainted for so long with Rossetti's work, he would have recognised that the figure's dress was the same that the artist had given to Lucretia in his watercolours illustrating the Borgia story. In fact two of these had belonged to members of his circle, which included many Rossetti enthusiasts. The first version of Borgia (Carlisle Art Gallery) had been bought by Charles Hazelwood Shannon at the Boyce sale in 1897, and having passed through the hands of W.L. Hacon, his partner in the Vale Press, and his patron Sir Edmund Davis, was now in the possession of another friend, the poet Gordon Bottomley. As for Lucretia Borgia (Tate Gallery), this had been given by Charles Ricketts, Shannon's lifelong companion, to the Tate Gallery in 1916 in memory of Katherine Bradley and Edith Cooper, the two women poets who wrote under the name of Michael Field. All this would probably have brought these images to Yeats's attention, but was he right in his assumption vis-…-vis the present drawing? Could it be a sketch for yet another Borgia subject? It is worth noting in passing that it was described in the Heseltine sale catalogue as a 'study for (a) historical composition', just a hint that someone else was thinking along these lines. And there was, after all, a cult of Lucretia Borgia in Pre-Raphaelite circles from the late 1850s. Closely associated with the Venetian style, not least because Lucretia had the golden hair that was suddenly so much in favour, it would perhaps be truer to call it a cult of the evil femme fatale, since Meinhold's Sidonia von Bork was a heroine who captured the set's imagination with equal force. A.C. Swinburne, always so alert to any hint of sadism, was the cult's chief devotee, but Rossetti's Borgia watercolours and Burne-Jones's two well-known illustrations of Meinhold's bloodcurdling romance (1860; Tate Gallery) were also important expressions of this curious craze. Moreover, there is another feature of the drawing that lends weight to Yeats's thesis. The male figure could be Cesare Borgia, Lucretia's brother, with whom she was accused of having incestuous relations. In fact she was said to have had such relations not only with Cesare but with her father, Pope Alexander VI, and Rossetti touches on this theme in Borgia, in which Lucretia is seen seated, playing a lute, while her father and brother lean lecherously over her shoulders. To find Yeats totally convincing, we would need to explain the presence of the tiptoe boy and identify the tantalisingly obscure object to which he is pointing. But it is just possible that a reading of the Borgia literature would shed light on these matters, and finally solve the riddle of the drawing's subject. We are grateful to Virginia Surtees for her help in preparing this entry.

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Lot 81: Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, Bt., A.R.A. (British, 1833-98),

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Description: possibly with the assistance of Charles Fairfax Murray (British, 1849-1919) ST. CECILIA watercolor with bodycolor on paper laid down on canvas 641/4 by 223/4 in. 163.2 by 57.8 cm. In 1874 Burne-Jones designed a stained-glass window dedicated to St. Cecilia for the St. George's Chapel in the Cathedral at Christ Church, Oxford. The present work is a watercolor cartoon for this commission's central glass panel. The St. Cecilia window, dedicated to the patron saint of music, was appropriately a gift to the Cathedral by its organist, C.W. Corfe. The final stained-glass window was executed by Morris & Co. Provenance: Estate of the artist (sale, Christies, July 16, 1898, Lot 56) Gooden and Fox (acquired at the above sale) Oliver Vernon Watney Charles and Lavinia Handley-Read The Fine Art Society, Ltd., London (1974) Exhibited: London, Royal Academy, Victorian and Edwardian Decorative Art: The Handley-Read Collection, 1972, No. D132 London, The Fine Art Society, Drawings from the Handley-Read Collection, 1974, No. 20 Tokyo, Tokyo Shimbun, Victorian Dreamers, 1989, No. 29 Literature: Possibly the artist's autograph work-record (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge), under the year 1881 Malcolm Bell, Sir Edward Burne-Jones: A Record and Review, 1894, p. 106 (for stained-glass cartoon) Fortunee de Lisle, Burne-Jones, 1904, pp. 112, 196 (for discussion of stained-glass cartoon) A.C. Sewter, The Stained Glass of William Morris and His Circle, 1975, Vol. II, p. 146.

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Charles Fairfax Murray (British, 1849-1919)

Lot 97: Charles Fairfax Murray (British, 1849-1919)

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Description: Suffer the children unto me pen and ink and wash on paper laid to canvas57.8 x 43.5cm (22 3/4 x 17 1/8in).

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Charles Fairfax Murray (British, 1849-1919)

Lot 102: Charles Fairfax Murray (British, 1849-1919)

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Description: Suffer the children unto me pen and ink and wash on paper laid to canvas57.8 x 43.5cm (22 3/4 x 17 1/8in).

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Lot 107: RODERICUS ZAMORENSIS (1404-1470). Speculum vitae humanae. [Paris]: Ulrich [Gering], Martin [Crantz] and Michael [Friburger], [not after 22 April 1472].

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Description: Chancery 2 o (283 x 204 mm). Collation: [1-5 1 0 6-7 8 8 1 0; 9-14 1 0 15 6] author's dedication to Pope Paul II, 1/2v preface, 1/4v table of contents, 1/9r Book I, 8/9v blank; Book II, colophon, 15/2r alphabetical subject index, 15/5v-15/6 blank). 140 leaves (of 142, without the two blanks). 32 lines. Type: 1:115R. Spaces for initials. Three 6-line divided Lombard initials in red and blue, large paragraph mark and initial on first page with fine penwork decoration in blue and red, 3-line initials alternately red and blue, paragraph marks in red, capitals highlighted in yellow. Contemporary manuscript catchwords visible on final verso of most quires. (A few small wormholes in first two quires, occasional marginal wormholes elsewhere, narrow marginal dampstain to short closed tear in upper margin of fol. 9/8, slight smudging to initials from erasure of marginalia in quire 11, some very light discoloration in quire 12.) 18th-century red morocco, sides panelled with triple gilt fillet, spine lettered and gilt with floral tools, gilt edges (quite worn, inner hinges cracked). Provenance : a few contemporary marginal notes, contemporary manuscript correction on 2/9r -- occasional 17th or 18th-century marginal notes (erased in quire 11), corrections, underlines and pointing fingers -- Albi, Jesuit College: erased 18th-century inscription on -- George Dunn (1865-1912), of Woolley Hall, Maidenhead: bookplate; sale, Sotheby's, Part II, 6 February 1914, lot 1553 -- Charles Fairfax Murray (1849-1919): sale, Christie's, 21 March 1918, lot 673 (to Quaritch, collation mark dated 22.iii.18) -- C. S. Ascherson (d. 1945): bookplate; collection sold to Bernard Quaritch in 1944/45 -- Albert Ehrman (1890-1969), Broxbourne Library: bookplates and markings; sale, Sotheby's London, 8 May 1978, lot 422 (to Lathrop Harper). FROM THE FIRST PRESS ESTABLISHED IN FRANCE. Third edition, the first printed in France, of this popular moral treatise on the obligations, advantages and disadvantages of the various secular and religious professions, by Rodriguez Sanchez de Arevalo, Commander of the Castel San'Angelo and bishop successively of Zamora, Calahorra and Palencia. France's prototypographers Gering, Crantz and Friburger, all natives of the Upper Rhine valley, established a press in 1470 on the premises of the Sorbonne at the behest of two prominent sorbonnistes, Guillaume Fichet and Johann Heynlin, both former rectors. Fichet, who served at the time as the Sorbonne librarian, provided financial backing for the enterprise, while Heynlin oversaw production and edited the texts. For three years the press produced Latin classical texts, guides to Latin grammar and style, and a few contemporary humanist texts for the use of the students and professors of the University. These first productions of the first French press, totalling just over 20 editions, were printed in roman type, probably commissioned by Heynlin from Germany (cf. Jeanne Veyrin-Forrer, "L'Atelier de la Sorbonne et ses m‚cŠnes", La lettre et le texte, Paris 1987, p. 167). The editions were apparently quite small and partly intended for private distribution by Fichet to his friends and patrons (cf. Scholderer, BMC VIII, xix). Thanks to Fichet's unusual decision to print individual dedications for presentation copies to various royal and influential personnages, it is possible to date the majority of these early undated editions. After Heynlin's return to full-time teaching and Fichet's departure for Rome in the fall of 1472, the press moved to the rue St. Jacques at the sign of the Soleil d'Or, acquiring at the same time a supplemental semi-gothic type, more familiar to French readers than the antiqua roman. Without Fichet's patronage commercial considerations took the upper hand, and the original humanist publishing agenda was virtually abandoned in favor of scholastic, liturgical, juridical and medical texts. A copy of this edition at the British Library uniquely includes three extra printed leaves containing dedications from the printers to Robert d'Estouteville, provost of Paris; Jean II, duc de Bourbon, who had "honored this first Parisian press with a visit" (Claudin I, 49); and Louis XI (a second copy of this letter is preserved in the Huntington Library copy). The letter to Louis XI gives the printers' first names as above and is dated 22 April 1472, providing a terminus ante quem for the edition. A statement in the dedication to d'Estouteville indicates that the first edition, printed by Sweynheym and Pannartz in 1468, served as copy-text for this edition. Gering, Crantz and Friburger reprinted the text in 1475, using their second gothic type. HC 13935; BMC VIII, 5 (IB. 39018); CIBN R-138; Claudin, I, pp. 45-50; Goff R-216.

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Lot 109: MURRAY, CHARLES FAIRFAX (1849-1919)

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Description: Portrait of a lady wearing a blue dress, 1887, 1887 Watercolour, oil/paper/canvas 11.5x9 in (29.2x22.8 cm) Init. D.

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Charles Fairfax Murray (British, 1849-1919)

Lot 110: Charles Fairfax Murray (British, 1849-1919)

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Description: A Garden by the Seawatercolour28.5 x 57.5 cm. (11 1/4 x 22 1/2 in.)

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Lot 121: Statuta communis Veronae. Vicenza: Hermannus Liechtenstein for Antonio, Gerardo, Giovanni, Pietro, and Bartolomeo da Verona, 20 December 1475.

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Description: Median 2 o (326 x 229 mm). Collation: A-D 1 0 E-F 8 G-H 1 0 I 8 K 6; a-e 1 0 f-g 8 h-i 1 0 k 8 l 6 (A1 blank, A2r proemium, dated "in cancellaria communis Veronae," 14 September 1450, A4v book I, E7v two rescripts of Doge Malipiero, dated 3 February 1457 and 28 March 1458, E8r book II; a1r book III De criminalibus causis, c3r additional (unnumbered) statutes [ reformationes ], dated 1458, 1468, 1469 and 1466, c7r Book IV, g7r Book V, l2r various privileges, l5v colophon, l6 blank). 190 leaves. 39-40 lines and headline (book numbers), section numbers printed in margins. Type: 2:114R. 9-, 8-, 7-, 4- and 3-line initial spaces. Unrubricated. Quire E misbound between quires I and K. (A few small wormholes, discreetly repaired hole in b7 affecting 2 letters, a few small marginal repairs or short tears, some marginal foxing, small stain to F3-5.) Green morocco gilt, gilt edges, by Leighton (a few small scratches). Provenance : Sebastian de Gregorius, notary of S. Benedictus: contemporary inscriptions at beginning (washed) and at end ( Iste liber statutorum communis Veronae est mei Sebastiani de gregorii notarius de S. Benedicto ), marginal notes and a few corrections -- a few other early marginalia -- Charles Fairfax Murray (1849-1919): sale, Christie's, 18 March 1918, lot 469 (to Quaritch) -- The London Library: blindstamps and cancelled inkstamp; sale, Sotheby's, 14 June 1966, lot 23 -- Eric Sexton (1902-1980): bookplate; sale, Christie's New York, 8 April 1981, lot 202 (to Lathrop Harper). FIRST EDITION. The prologue contains a historical sketch of the city, an enumeration of her most important monuments, and a panegyric on her beauties and the rectitude of her citizens. Hermannus Liechtenstein, a native of Cologne, who learned printing in Venice, maintained his links with the Venetian book trade after setting up the second press at Vicenza (1475-80), moving subsequently to Treviso (1474-78). After returning to Venice in 1482, he worked as agent for the powerful publishing syndicate of Johannes de Colonia and Jenson (Scholderer, Fifty Essays, p.119), and continued printing until his death in 1494, producing over 20 substantial editions of theological and philosophical works. This edition of the statutes of Verona, commissioned by the five brothers named in the colophon as citizens of that city, was the fourth and most important of the dozen books issued from Liechtenstein's Vicenza press. A LARGE COPY. HC 10000; MC VII, 1036 (IB. 31754); CIBN S-412; Harvard/Walsh 3492; IGI 10247; Goff S-726.

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Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, BT., A.R.A., R.W.S. (1833-1898)

Lot 136: Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, BT., A.R.A., R.W.S. (1833-1898)

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Description: St Dominic with a false Rossetti monogram (lower right) watercolour with bodycolour 391/4 x 221/4 in. (99.7 x 56.5 cm.) NOTES In his monumental catalogue of William Morris's stained glass, The Stained Glass of William Morris and his Circle, 1974-5, the late A.C. Sewter listed a design of St Dominic by Burne-Jones as follows: 'DOMINIC, ST; with lily in book, and dog with torch and globe. Not identified BJ 576' (vol. 2, p. 290). The present watercolour clearly represents this image; the saint himself, the 'lily in book', the 'dog with torch' and the 'globe' (the large sphere cut off at the left-hand edge) are all present. The handling and technique are not typical of Burne-Jones's stained- glass cartoons, and it has been suggested that the executant might be Charles Fairfax Murray (1849-1919), who acted as Burne-Jones's studio assistant in the late 1860s and as William Morris's principal painter of stained glass in the early 1870s. However, there was a moment, also in the early 1870s, when Burne-Jones did use gouache in this way for his stained-glass cartoons. Compare, for example, the emblems of the four Evangelists designed in 1872 for the chapel at Castle Howard, the cartoons for which are in the Victoria and Albert Museum (illustrated in Sewter, vol. 1, pls. 364-7). Particularly striking is the similarity between the handling of the dewlap of the dog in our picture and that of the bull, the emblem of St Luke, in the Castle Howard cartoons. The hand responsible for these passages must surely have been one and the same. The false Rossetti monogram at lower right must have been added to deceive at a later date.

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Lot 140: MURRAY, Charles Fairfax (1849-1919)

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Description: Portait of Maria Aris, 1897 Coloured chalks 11,0 x 7,9 inches (28.0 x 20.0cm) Signed & Dated July 231897.

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Lot 141: Charles Fairfax Murray (1849-1919)

Description: Designs from an Italian Churchindistinctly inscribedpencil and watercolour9 3/4 x 7 in. (24.7 x 17.8 cm.)

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Lot 141: MURRAY, Charles Fairfax (1849-1919)

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Description: A woman seated/A woman reading Drawing & (2).

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Lot 160: SAVONAROLA, Hieronymus (1452-98). Operetta sopra i dieci comandamenti. Florence: Lorenzo Morgiani and Johannes Petri [c. 1495-96].

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Description: Chancery 4o (199 x 133mm). Collation: a-c 8 d 4 (a1r title, woodcut, text, d4v woodcut, colophon). 28 leaves. 38 lines. Type: 4:85R. Two woodcuts: nuns kneeling to receive a book from 2 friars; a friar exhorting nuns, 2 Antiqua initials. (Small marginal paper flaw in one leaf.) 19th-century black morocco, spine lettered in gilt, gilt turn-ins, gilt edges. Provenance : Marquese Gerolamo d'Adda (1815-1881, bookplate, his library bought en bloc by:) -- [Charles Fairfax Murray (1849-1919)]. First or second edition, and the FIRST APPEARANCE OF THESE WOODCUTS. Libri printed an edition dated 24 October 1495, re-using earlier cuts, whereas the ones illustrating the Morgiani and Petri edition were cut specifically for it. Von Arnim describes the cuts as depicting Savonarola himself, presenting his tractate to the nuns of Murate in the first one and blessing them in the second. HR 14442; BMC VI, 684 (IA. 27952); Giovannozzi 149; IGI 8749; Kristeller Early Florentine Woodcuts 377a; Sander 6804; Goff S-225.

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Lot 180: CHARLES FAIRFAX MURRAY (1849-1919)

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Description: THREE DRAPED FIGURES; AND A GIRL WITH A PITCHER painted roundels, oil on panel 10 1/8 x 10 1/8 in. (25.7 x 25.7 cm.) a pair (2) These panels were almost certainly painted to decorate a piece of "art furniture" by the London firm of Collinson and Lock, for whom Murray carried out a number of such commissions. A corner-cupboard incorporating his painting of Lucretia, made by the firm to designs by William Godwin in 1873, is in the Detroit Institute of Arts (see In Pursuit of Beauty: Americans and the Aesthetic Movement, Metropolitan Museum, New York, 1986-7, p. 151, fig. 5.9; and Jeremy Cooper, Victorian and Edwardian Furniture and Interiors, 1987, pl. 330). An Aesthetic Movement music cabinet with a panel of Orpheus and Euridice, which was sold in these Rooms on 16 February 1994, lot 32, is another example of the type of piece from which the present paintings may derive. The cabinet was attributed to Daniel Cottier and the painting to Francis Lathrop, an American artist who, like Fairfax Murray, worked as a studio assistant to Burne-Jones.

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Lot 196: MURRAY, Charles Fairfax (1849-1919) -- Catalogo dei libri posseduti da Charles Fairfax

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Description: MURRAY, Charles Fairfax (1849-1919) -- Catalogo dei libri posseduti da Charles Fairfax Murray. London: privately printed [by the Officina Poligrafica Romana, Rome], 1899.Two parts in one, 4 o (275 x 193 mm). Original grey boards, morocco lettering piece on spine.LIMITED TO 50 COPIES. The private library catalogue of the Italian books collected by Charles Fairfax Murray. Murray "succeeded, although without any large means of his own, in accumulating collections which had cost him something like half a million sterling, paintings, drawings (which he sold en bloc to the late J. Pierpont Morgan), illuminated manuscripts (mostly donated to the Fitzwilliam Museum or sold to Mr. C.W. Dyson Perrins) and, above all, books of every description. A friend of William Morris and Burne Jones, he owned the finest set of Kelmscott books in any library. His collections of early German, French, and especially Italian books, were among the largest and choicest in private hands" (De Ricci, pp. 177-80). Murray printed a third part which described the Adda library of Milan, which he purchased in its entirety, Parte terza...biblioteca del Marchese Girolamo d'Adda (London, 1902).

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Lot 197: MURRAY, Charles Fairfax (1849-1919) -- A List of Printed Books in the Library of Charles

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Description: MURRAY, Charles Fairfax (1849-1919) -- A List of Printed Books in the Library of Charles Fairfax Murray. [Florence:] Privately printed, 1907.4 o (282 x 220 mm). Interleaved as issued. Original white buckram-backed pale blue boards, uncut (spine darkened, a little wear to extremities). Provenance: J.R. Abbey (bookplate); E.P. Goldschmidt (book label).LIMITED TO 35 COPIES, this catalogue lists the entire collection of over 4,100 books which Murray owned at the time. It is the only comprehensive list of his books, which were dispersed through various public and private sales. De Marinis suggests that the catalogue was intended to serve him on his book-buying travels.

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Lot 198: MURRAY, Charles Fairfax (1849-1919) -- Hugh William DAVIES. Catalogue of a Collection of Early

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Description: MURRAY, Charles Fairfax (1849-1919) -- Hugh William DAVIES. Catalogue of a Collection of Early French Books in the Library of C. Fairfax Murray, compiled by Hugh Wm. Davies. London: Privately Printed, 1910.2 volumes, 4 o. Numerous illustrations throughout. Half brown levant morocco, spines gilt, t.e.g., others uncut (rubbed at joints, some light scuffing to covers, cover of vol. 1 becoming loose). Provenance: Possibly Sidney Cockerell's copy (see correspondence below).LIMITED TO 100 COPIES, printed on heavy handmade paper. It is an important work on early French illustrated books and on early French printing. The numerous reproductions in the text range from single lines of type and decorated initials to full-page woodcuts.[Laid-in:]MURRAY. Two autograph letters signed ("C.F. Murray") to Sidney Cockerell, West Kensington and Paris, 20 October 1906 and 21 June 1915, discussing the calligraphic manuscript of Virgil being completed by Graily Hewitt and other matters. Together 6 1/2 pages, 8vo. The manuscript of Virgil's Aeneid was begun by Morris, but completed by Hewitt some time before 1919. The manuscript was sold by Morris to C.F. Murray, whose son inherited it following his death. It was sold anonymously in 1928 and was later puchrased by Mrs. Doheny from Mrs. George W. Millard in 1932. It was sold as the final lot of the historic series of Doheny Library sales to a private collector (Christie's New York, 19 May 1989, lot 2370). (4)

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Attributed to Charles Fairfax Murray (British, 1849-1919) A portrait study of a young girl, Muriel E. Heseltine, aged 3 (oval)

Lot 198: Attributed to Charles Fairfax Murray (British, 1849-1919) A portrait study of a young girl, Muriel E. Heseltine, aged 3 (oval)

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Description: A portrait study of a young girl, Muriel E. Heseltine, aged 3 signed with monogram 'CFM' (lower left) and inscribed (upper right)red chalk drawing31 x 24.5cm (12 1/4 x 9 1/2in).(oval)

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Lot 199: MURRAY, Charles Fairfax (1849-1919) -- Hugh William DAVIES. Catalogue of a Collection of Early

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Description: MURRAY, Charles Fairfax (1849-1919) -- Hugh William DAVIES. Catalogue of a Collection of Early German Books in the Library of Charles Fairfax Murray. London: Privately Printed, 1913.2 volumes, large 4 o (330 x 255 mm). 30 collotype plates, including 2 frontispieces, reproductions in the text, many full-page. Original blue boards, blue buckram spines, printed labels on spine, uncut (spine labels largely perished).Printed on heavy handmade paper, and limited to 100 copies. "Owing to the extremely detailed bibliographical descriptions and critical notes by Davies, successively cataloguer and owner of the London bookselling firm of J. & J. Leighton, from whom many of the books were acquired, the catalogues of the Fairfax Murray Collection of French and German fifteenth- and sixteenth-century illustrated books (including a few of a later date), may be considered selective bibliographies of their subject and belong indeed to the best reference works on it" (Breslauer & Folter). "The term 'German' will be found somewhat comprehensive, including many of the productions of the presses in Holland, Belgium, and Switzerland, and a few of Austria-Hungary" (Davies's preface). With its 30 fine collotype plates, many of them reproducing bindings, and the 750 reproductions taken from 495 mainly illustrated works, this is no doubt one of the most luxuriously produced catalogues of its kind. Breslauer & Folter 147. (2)

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Lot 212: MURRAY, CHARLES FAIRFAX.

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Description: Original watercolor scene from Shakespeare's "Two Gentlemen of Verona," depicting Valentine, Sylvia, Proteus, Julia (disguised as the page Sebastian), the Duke of Milan, and Thurio. No date. 145 x 227 mm. (5 x 9 in.) sight size; matted and framed. Signed by Murray at lower left ("C.F.M."). Unexamined out of frame.

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Charles Fairfax Murray (British, 1849-1919)

Lot 223: Charles Fairfax Murray (British, 1849-1919)

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Description: Suffer the children unto me pen and ink and wash on paper laid to canvas57.8 x 43.5cm (22 3/4 x 17 1/8in).

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Lot 243: MURRAY, CHARLES FAIRFAX (1849-1919)

Description: A gathering of Dutch officers, after Hals Watercolour 7x14 inches (16.5x35.5 cm).

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Lot 244: MURRAY, CHARLES FAIRFAX (1849-1919)

Description: > Watercolour 8x13 inches (20x33 cm).

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Lot 244: Charles Fairfax Murray (1849-1919)

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Description: Three draped Figures; and A Girl with a Pitcher oil on panel, painted roundels 10.1/8in. (25.7cm.) diameter a pair (2) NOTES These panels were almost certainly painted to decorate a piece of `art furniture' by the London firm of Collinson and Lock, for whom Murray carried out a number of such commissions. A corner-cupboard incorporating his painting of Lucretia, made by the firm to designs by William Godwin in 1873, is in the Detroit Institute of Arts (see In Pursuit of Beauty: Americans and the Aesthetic Movement, Metropolitan Museum, New York, 1987-7, p. 151, fig. 5.9; and Jeremy Cooper, Victorian and Edwardian Furniture and Interiors, 1987, pl. 330). An Aesthetic Movement music cabinet with a panel of Orpheus and Euridice, which was sold at Christie's King Street on 16 February 1994, lot 32, is another example of the type of piece from which the present paintings derive. The cabinet was attributed to Daniel Cottier and the painting to Francis Lathrop, an American artist who, like Fairfax Murray, worked as a studio assistant to Burne-Jones.

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Lot 268: MURRAY, Charles Fairfax (1849-1919, British)

Description: Three draped figures. Girl with pitcher, panel painted roundels pair Oil Painting (10in circular).

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Lot 268: Charles Fairfax Murray (1849-1919)

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Description: Three draped Figures; and A Girl with a Pitcher oil on panel, painted roundels 10.1/8in. (25.7cm.) diameter a pair (2) NOTES These panels were almost certainly painted to decorate a piece of `art furniture' by the London firm of Collinson and Lock, for whom Murray carried out a number of such commissions. A corner-cupboard incorporating his painting of Lucretia, made by the firm to designs by William Godwin in 1873, is in the Detroit Institute of Arts (see In Pursuit of Beauty: Americans and the Aesthetic Movement, Metropolitan Museum, New York, 1987-7, p. 151, fig. 5.9; and Jeremy Cooper, Victorian and Edwardian Furniture and Interiors, 1987, pl. 330). An Aesthetic Movement music cabinet with a panel of Orpheus and Euridice, which was sold at Christie's King Street on 16 February 1994, lot 32, is another example of the type of piece from which the present paintings derive. The cabinet was attributed to Daniel Cottier and the painting to Francis Lathrop, an American artist who, like Fairfax Murray, worked as a studio assistant to Burne-Jones.

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