Lot 44: 2 BOUTEILLES VIN JAUNE - A. PIROU 1990
November 17, 2012
Issy-les-Moulineaux, Ile de France, FranceLive Auction
2 BOUTEILLES VIN JAUNE - A.
French wine is produced in several regions throughout France, in quantities between 50 and 60 million hectolitres per year, or 7-8 billion bottles.
France has the world's second-largest total vineyard area, behind Spain, and is in the position of being the world's largest wine producer losing it once (in 2008) to Italy.
 French wine traces its history to the 6th century BC, with many of France's regions dating their wine-making history to Roman times.
The wines produced today range from expensive high-end wines sold internationally, to more modest wines usually only seen within France.
Two concepts central to higher end French wines are the notion of "terroir", which links the style of the wines to the specific locations where the grapes are grown and the wine is made, and the Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) system.
Appellation rules closely define which grape varieties and winemaking practices are approved for classification in each of France's several hundred geographically defined appellations, which can cover entire regions, individual villages or even specific vineyards.
France is the source of many grape varieties (such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc, and Syrah) that are now planted throughout the world, as well as wine-making practices and styles of wine that have been adopted in other producing countries.
Although some producers have benefited in recent years from rising prices and increased demand for some of the prestige wines fromBurgundy and Bordeaux, the French wine industry as a whole has been influenced by a slight decline in domestic consumption, as well as growing competition from both the New World and other European countries.
In order to maintain a distinction from Vin de Table, the producers have to submit the wine for analysis and tasting, and the wines have to be made from certain varieties or blends.
Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (VDQS, 0.
9%) - Less strict than AOC, usually used for smaller areas or as a "waiting room" for potential AOCs.
This category will be abolished at the end of 2011.
Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC, 53.
4%) - Wine from a particular area with many other restrictions, including grape varieties and winemaking methods.
The total French production for the 2005 vintage was 43.
9 million hl (plus an additional 9.
4 million hl destined for various brandies), of which 28.
3% was white and 71.
7% was red or rosé.
 The proportion of white wine is slightly higher for the higher categories, with 34.
3% of the AOC wine being white.
In years with less favourable vintage conditions than 2005, the proportion of AOC wine tends to be a little lower.
The proportion of Vin de table has decreased considerably over the last decades, while the proportion of AOC has increased somewhat and Vin de Pays has increased considerably.
In 2005 there were 472 different wine AOCs in France.
Since French appellation rules generally restrict wines from each region, district or appellation to a small number of allowed grape varieties, there are in principle no varieties that are commonly planted throughout all of France.
Most varieties of grape are primarily associated with a certain region, such as Cabernet Sauvignon in Bordeaux and Syrah in Rhône, although there are some varieties that are found in two or more regions, such as Chardonnay in Bourgogne (including Chablis) and Champagne, and Sauvignon Blanc in Loire and Bordeaux.
As an example of the rules, although climatic conditions would appear to be favourable, no Cabernet Sauvignon wines are produced in Rhône, Riesling wines in Loire, or Chardonnay wines in Bordeaux.
(If such wines were produced, they would have to be declassified to Vin de Pays or French table wine.
They would not be allowed to display any appellation name or even region of origin.
Traditionally, many French wines have been blended from several grape varieties.
Varietal white wines have been, and are still, more common than varietal red wines.
At the 2007 harvest, the most common grape varieties were the following:
The concept of Terroir, which refers to the unique combination of natural factors associated with any particular vineyard, is important to French vignerons.
 It includes such factors as soil, underlying rock, altitude, slope of hill or terrain, orientation toward the sun, and microclimate (typical rain, winds, humidity, temperature variations, etc.
Even in the same area, no two vineyards have exactly the same terroir, thus being the base of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) system that has been model for appellation and wine laws across the globe.
In other words: when the same grape variety is planted in different regions, it can produce wines that are significantly different from each other.
 In France the concept of terroir manifests itself most extremely in the Burgundy region.
 The amount of influence and the scope that falls under the description of terroir has been a controversial topic in the wine industry.
The amount of information included on French wine labels varies depending on which region the wine was made in, and what level of classification the wine carries.
As a minimum, labels will usually state that classification, as well as the name of the producer, and, for wines above the Vin De Table level, will also include the geographical area where the wine was made.
Sometimes that will simply be the wider region where the wine was made, but some labels, especially for higher quality wines, will also include details of the individual village or commune, and even the specific vineyard where the wine was sourced.
With the exception of wines from the Alsace region, France had no tradition of labelling wines with details of the grape varieties used.
Since New World wines made the names of individual grape varieties familiar to international consumers in the late 20th century, more French wineries started to use varietal labelling.
In general, varietal labelling is most common for the Vin de Pays category, although some AOC wines now also display varietal names.
For most AOC wines, if grape varieties are mentioned, they will be in small print on a back label.
Alsace is primarily a white-wine region, though some red, rosé, sparkling and sweet wines are also produced.
It is situated in eastern France on the river Rhine and borders Germany, a country with which it shares many grape varieties as well as a long tradition of varietal labelling.
Grapes grown in Alsace include Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Noir, and Muscat.
Beaujolais is primarily a red-wine region generally made from the Gamay grape, though some white and sparkling rosé are also produced.
It is situated in central East of France following the river Saone below Burgundy and above Lyon.
There are 12 appellations in Beaujolais including Beaujolais AOC and Beaujolais-Villages AOC and 10 Crus: Brouilly, Regnié, Chiroubles, Cote de Brouilly, Fleurie, Saint-Amour, Chénas, Juliénas, Morgon and Moulin-a-Vent.
The Beaujolais region is also notorious for the Beaujolais Nouveau, a popular vin de primeur which is released annually on the third Thursday of November.
Bordeaux is a large region on the Atlantic coast, which has a long history of exporting its wines overseas.
This is primarily a red wine region, famous for the wines Château Lafite-Rothschild, Château Latour, Château Mouton-Rothschild, Château Margaux and Château Haut-Brion from the Médoc sub-region; Château Cheval Blanc and Château Ausone in Saint-Émilion; and Château Pétrus and Château Le Pin in Pomerol.
The red wines produced are usually blended, from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and sometimes Cabernet Franc.
Bordeaux also makes dry and sweet white wines, including some of the world's most famous sweet wines from the Sauternes appellation, such as Château d'Yquem.
Burgundy or Bourgogne in eastern France is a region where red and white wines are equally important.
Probably more terroir-conscious than any other region, Burgundy is divided into the largest number of appellations of any French region.
The top wines from Burgundy's heartland in Côte d'Or command high prices.
The Burgundy region is divided in four main parts:
The Cote de Nuits (from Marsannay-La-Cote down to Nuits-Saint-Georges)
The Cote de Beaune (from north of Beaune to Santenay)
The Cote Chalonnaise
Two parts of Burgundy that are sometimes considered as separate regions are:
Beaujolais in the south, close to the Rhône Valley region, where mostly red wines are made in a fruity style that is usually consumed young.
"Beaujolais Nouveau" is the only wine that can be legally consumed in the year of its production (Third week end of November)
Chablis, halfway between Côte d'Or and Paris, where white wines are produced on chalky soil giving a more crisp and steely style than the rest of Burgundy.
There are two main grape varieties used in Burgundy - Chardonnay for white wines, and Pinot Noir for red.
White wines are also sometimes made from Aligoté, and other grape varieties will also be found occasionally.
Jura, a small region in the mountains close to Switzerland where some unique wine styles, notably Vin Jaune and Vin de Paille, are produced.
The region covers six appellations and is related to Burgundy through its extensive use of the Burgundian grapes Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, though other varieties are used.
It also shares cool climate with Burgundy.
Languedoc-Roussillon is the largest region in terms of vineyard surface, and the region in which much of France's cheap bulk wines have been produced.
While still the source of much of France's and Europe's overproduction, the so-called "wine lake", Languedoc-Roussillon is also the home of some innovative producers who combine traditional French wine and international styles while using lessons from the New World.
Much Languedoc-Roussillon wine is sold as Vin de Pays d'Oc.
Loire valley is a primarily white-wine region that stretches over a long distance along the Loire River in central and western France, and where grape varieties and wine styles vary along the river.
Four sub-regions are situated along the river:
Upper Loire is known for its Sauvignon Blanc, producing wines such as Sancerre AOC, but also consisting of several VDQS areas;
Touraine produces cold climate-styled white wines (dry, sweet or sparkling) from Chenin Blanc in Vouvray AOC and red wines from Cabernet Franc in Bourgueil AOC and Chinon AOC;
Anjou-Saumur is similar to the Tourain wines with respect to varieties, but the dry Savennières AOC and sweet Coteaux du Layon AOC are often more powerful than their upstream neighbours.
Saumur AOC and Saumur-Champigny AOC provides reds; and
Pays Nantais is situated closest to the Atlantic, and Muscadet AOC produces white wines from the Melon de Bourgogne grape.
Provence, in the south-east and close to the Mediterranean.
It is perhaps the warmest wine region of France and produces mainly rosé and red wine.
It covers eight major appellations led by the Provence flagship, Bandol.
 Some Provence wine can be compared with the Southern Rhône wines as they share both grapes and, to some degree, style and climate.
 Provence also has a classification of its most prestigious estates, much like Bordeaux.
Rhone Valley, primarily a red-wine region in south-eastern France, along the Rhône River.
The styles and varietal composition of northern and southern Rhône differ, but both parts compete with Bordeaux as traditional producers of red wines.
South West France
South West France or Sud-Ouest, a somewhat heterogeneous collection of wine areas inland or south of Bordeaux.
Some areas produce primarily red wines in a style reminiscent of red Bordeaux, while other produce dry or sweet white wines.
Areas within Sud-Ouest include among other:
Bergerac and other areas of upstream Dordogne;
Areas of upstream Garonne, including Cahors;
Areas in Gascony, also home to the production of Armagnac, Madiran, Côtes de Gascogne, Côtes de Saint-Mont, Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh and Tursan;
Béarn, such as Jurançon; and
Basque Country areas, such as Irouléguy.
There are also several smaller production areas situated outside these major regions.
Many of those are VDQS wines, and some, particularly those in more northern locations, are remnants of production areas that were once larger.
Alsace wine or Alsatian wine (in French: Vin d'Alsace) is produced in the Alsace region in France and is primarily white.
These wines, which for historical reasons have a strong Germanic influence, are produced under three different Appellations d'Origine Contrôlées (AOCs): Alsace AOC for white, rosé and red wines, Alsace Grand Cru AOC for white wines from certain classified vineyards and Crémant d'Alsace AOC for sparkling wines.
Both dry and sweet white wines are produced, and are often made from aromatic grapes varieties.
Along with Austria and Germany, it produces some of the most noted dry Rieslings in the world, but on the export market, Alsace is perhaps even more noted for highly aromatic Gewürztraminer wines.
Because of its Germanic influence, it is the only region in France to produce mostly varietal wines, typically from similar grapes as used in German wine.
In 2006, vines were grown on 15,298 hectares (37,800 acres) in 119 villages in Alsace, and 111.
3 million litres of wine was produced, corresponding to 148.
4 million bottles of 750 ml, generating 478.
8 million euro in revenue.
Of the vineyard surface, 78% was classified for the production of AOC Alsace wines, 4% for AOC Alsace Grand Cru and 18% for AOC Crémant d'Alsace.
 About 90% of the wine produced is white.
 25% of the production is exported, and the five largest export markets for still Alsace wine in terms of volume are Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark and the United States.
Beaujolais (French pronunciation: [boʒoˈlɛ]) is a French Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) wine generally made of the Gamay grape which has a thin skin and is low in tannins.
Like most AOC wines they are not labeled varietally.
Whites from the region, which make up only 1% of its production, are made mostly with Chardonnay grapes though Aligoté is also permitted.
Beaujolais tends to be a very light-bodied red wine, with relatively high amounts of acidity.
In some vintages, Beaujolais produces more wine than the Burgundy wine regions of Chablis, Côte d'Or, Côte Chalonnaise and Mâconnais put together.
The wine takes its name from the historical Beaujolais province and wine producing region.
It is located north of Lyon, and covers parts of the north of the Rhône département (Rhône-Alpes) and parts of the south of the Saône-et-Loire département (Burgundy).
While administratively considered part of the Burgundy wine region, the climate is closer to the Rhône and the wine is unique enough to be considered separately from Burgundy and Rhône.
The region is known internationally for its long tradition of winemaking, uniquely emphasized the use of carbonic maceration, and more recently for the popular Beaujolais nouveau.
A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of France.
Average vintages produce over 700 million bottles of Bordeaux wine, ranging from large quantities of everyday table wine, to some of the most expensive and prestigious wines in the world.
89% of wine produced in Bordeaux is red (called "claret" in Britain), with notable sweet white wines such as Chateau d'Yquem, dry whites, rosé and sparkling wines (Crémant de Bordeaux) all making up the remainder.
Bordeaux wine is made by more than 8,500 producers or châteaux.
There are 60 appellations of Bordeaux wine.
The history of wine production seems to have begun sometime after 48 AD, during the Roman occupation of St.
Émilion, when the Romans established vineyards to cultivate wine for the soldiers.
 However, it is only in 71 AD that Pliny recorded the first real evidence of vineyards in Bordeaux.
 France's first extensive vineyards were established by Rome in around 122 BC in today's Languedoc, the better part of two hundred years earlier.
Although domestically popular, French wine was seldom exported, as the area covered by vineyards and the volume of wine produced were low.
In the 12th century however, the popularity of Bordeaux wines increased dramatically following the marriage of Henry Plantagenet and Aliénor d'Aquitaine.
 The marriage made the province of Aquitaine English territory, and thenceforth the majority of Bordeaux was exported.
 This accounts for the ubiquity of claret in England.
As the popularity of Bordeaux wine increased, the vineyards expanded to accommodate the demands from abroad.
Being the land tax beneficiary, Henry II was in favor of this industry, and to increase it further, abolished export taxes to England from the Aquitaine region.
In the 13th and 14th century, a code of business practices called the police des vins emerged to give Bordeaux wine a distinct trade advantage over its neighboring regions.
The export of Bordeaux was effectively halted by the outbreak of The Hundred Years' War between France and England in 1337.
 By the end of the conflict in 1453 France had repossessed the province, thus taking control of wine production in the region.
In 1725, the spread of vineyards throughout Bordeaux was so vast that it was divided into specific areas so that the consumer could tell exactly where each wine was from.
The collection of districts was known as the Vignoble de Bordeaux, and bottles were labeled with both the region and the area from which they originated.
From 1875-1892 almost all Bordeaux vineyards were ruined by Phylloxera infestations.
 The region's wine industry was rescued by grafting native vines on to pest-resistant American rootstock and all Bordeaux vines that survive to this day are a product of this action.
 This is not to say that all contemporary Bordeaux wines are truly American wines, as rootstock does not affect the production of grapes.
Owing to the lucrative nature of this business, other areas in France began growing their own wines and labeling them as Bordeaux products.
As profits in the Aquitaine region declined, the vignerons demanded that the government impose a law declaring that only produce from Bordeaux could be labeled with this name.
The Institut National des Appellations d'Origine (INAO) was created for this purpose.
In 1936, the government responded to the appeals from the winemakers and stated that all regions in France had to name their wines by the place in which they had been produced.
Labeled with the AOC approved stamp, products were officially confirmed to be from the region that it stated.
This law later extended to other goods such as cheese, poultry and vegetables.
The economic problems in the 1970s, in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis marked a difficult period for Bordeaux.
A series of scandals coincided with a commercial crisis in Bordeaux.
The vintage of 1972 had been overpriced as was 1973 and 1974.
And when the market crashed the négociants were stuck with overpriced wine that they could not sell.
 The early 1980s saw a new trend.
Inheritance taxes were doubled in 1981 and on top of the crisis in the 1970s, many families found it increasingly difficult to hang on to their châteaux.
Enter domestic and foreign insurance companies, banks and other corporate giants.
Some of these companies were looking for a quick profit, others were in it as a long-term investment.
But the 1980s decade wasn't all bad.
It also saw more great vintages in a single decade than ever before and a new era in other respects.
First, wine critics (rather than just official classifications) started to have an influence on demand and prices.
Wine critic Robert M.
reviewed the 1982 Bordeaux vintage as the most sumptuous vintage in decades.
Not only was this a turning point for Bordeaux wine economically, it also represented the beginning of an American domination of the reviewing of wine, especially Bordeaux.
 The result was a broader appeal of Bordeaux wine where the presence of fruit became a much more important factor than previously.
This critical selection of grapes also resulted in many chateaux introducing second wines, so not to waste good but not optimum quality grapes.
It was also the introduction of the en primeur concept where traders alongside critics are invited to Bordeaux six months after harvest, to sample the new wine.
Bordeaux used to have a significant production of white wines, with Entre-deux-Mers, a primarily white wine area.
Unlike the style of dry white Bordeaux favoured today, with almost 100% Sauvignon Blanc and a heavy influence of new oak, the traditional Entre-deux-Mers whites had a high proportion of Semillion and were made in either old oak barrels or steel tanks.
Starting in the 1960s and 1970s, these vineyards were converted to red wine production (of Bordeaux AOC and Bordeaux Supérieur AOC), and the production of white wine has decreased ever since.
Today production of white wine has shrunk to about one tenth of Bordeaux's total production, with 11.
0% of the vineyard surface in 2007 used for white wines (7.
8% for dry, 3.
2% for sweet).
Red Bordeaux, which is traditionally known as claret in the United Kingdom, is generally made from a blend of grapes.
Permitted grapes are Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Malbec and Carménère.
 Today Malbec and Carmenere are rarely used, with Château Clerc Milon, a fifth growth Bordeaux, being one of the few to still retain Carménère vines.
As a very broad generalization, Cabernet Sauvignon (Bordeaux's second-most planted grape variety) dominates the blend in red wines produced in the Médoc and the rest of the left bank of the Gironde estuary.
Typical top-quality Chateaux blends are 70% Cabernet Sauvignon, 15% Cabernet Franc & 15% Merlot.
This is typically referred to as the "Bordeaux Blend.
" Merlot (Bordeaux's most-planted grape variety) and to a lesser extent Cabernet Franc (Third most planted variety) tend to predominate in Saint-Émilion, Pomerol and the other right bank appellations.
These Right Bank blends from top-quality Chateaux are typically 70% Merlot, 15% Cabernet Franc & 15% Cabernet Sauvignon.
White Bordeaux is predominantly, and exclusively in the case of the sweet Sauternes, made from Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadelle - Typical blends are usually 80% Sémillon, 20% Sauvignon Blanc.
As with the reds, white Bordeaux wines are usually blends, most commonly of Sémillon and a smaller proportion of Sauvignon Blanc.
Other permitted grape varieties are Ugni Blanc, Colombard, Merlot Blanc, Ondenc and Mauzac.
In the late 1960s Sémillon was the most planted grape in Bordeaux.
Since then it has been in constant decline although it still is the most common of Bordeaux's white grapes.
Sauvignon Blanc's popularity on the other hand has been rising, overtaking Ugni Blanc as the second most planted white Bordeaux grape in the late 1980s and now being grown in an area more than half the size of that of the lower yielding Sémillon.
Wineries all over the world aspire to making wines in a Bordeaux style.
In 1988, a group of American vintners formed The Meritage Association to identify wines made in this way.
Although most Meritage wines come from California, there are members of the Meritage Association in 18 states and five other countries, including Argentina, Australia, Canada, Israel, and Mexico.
Burgundy wine (French: Bourgogne or Vin de Bourgogne) is wine made in the Burgundy region in eastern France, in the valleys and slopes west of the Saône River, a tributary of the Rhône.
The most famous wines produced here - those commonly referred to as "Burgundies" - are red wines made from Pinot Noir grapes or white wines made from Chardonnay grapes.
Red and white wines are also made from other grape varieties, such as Gamay and Aligoté respectively.
Small amounts of rosé and sparkling wine are also produced in the region.
Chardonnay-dominated Chablis and Gamay-dominated Beaujolais are formally part of the Burgundy wine region, but wines from those subregions are usually referred to by their own names rather than as "Burgundy wines".
Burgundy has a higher number of appellations d'origine contrôlée (AOCs) than any other French region, and is often seen as the most terroir-conscious of the French wine regions.
The various Burgundy AOCs are classified from carefully delineated Grand Cru vineyards down to more non-specific regional appellations.
The main levels in the Burgundy classifications, in descending order of quality, are: Grand crus, Premier crus, village appellations, and finally regional appellations:
Grand Cru wines are produced from the small number of the best vineyard sites in the Côte d'Or, as strictly defined by the AOC laws.
Grand Cru wines make up 2% of the production at 35 hectoliters per hectare.
These wines are generally produced in a style meant for cellaring, and typically need to be aged a minimum of 5-7 years.
The best examples can be kept for more than 15 years.
Grand Cru wines will only list the name of the vineyard as the appellation - such as Corton or Montrachet - on the wine label, plus the Grand Cru term, but not the village name.
Premier Cru wines are produced from specific vineyard sites that are still considered to be of high quality, but not as well regarded as the Grand Cru sites.
Premier Cru wines make up 12% of production at 45 hectoliters/hectare.
These wines often should be aged 3-5 years, and again the best wines can keep for much longer.
Premier Cru wines are labelled with the name of the village of origin, the Premier cru status, and usually the vineyard name, for example, "Volnay 1er Cru Les Caillerets".
Some Premier Cru wines are produced from several Premier Cru vineyards in the same village, and do not carry the name of an individual vineyard.
Village appellation wines are produced from a blend of wines from supposedly lesser vineyard sites within the boundaries of one of 42 villages, or from one individual but non-classified vineyard.
Wines from each different village are considered to have their own specific qualities and characteristics, and not all Burgundy communes have a village appellation.
Village wines make up 36% of production at 50 hectoliters/hectare.
These wines can be consumed 2-4 years after the release date, although again some examples will keep for longer.
Village wines will show the village name on the wine label, such as "Pommard", and sometimes - if applicable - the name of the single vineyard or climat where it was sourced.
 Several villages in Burgundy have appended the names of their Grand Cru vineyards to the original village name - hence village names such as "Puligny-Montrachet" and "Aloxe-Corton".
Regional appellation wines are wines which are allowed to be produced over the entire region, or over an area significantly larger than that of an individual village.
 At the village, Premier Cru and Grand Cru level, only red and white wines are found, but some of the regional appellations also allow the production of rosé and sparkling wines as well as wines dominated by other grape varieties than Pinot Noir or Chardonnay.
 These appellations can be divided into three groups:
AOC Bourgogne, the standard or "generic" appellation for red or white wines made anywhere throughout the region, and represent simpler wines which are still similar to the village.
These wines may be produced at 55 hectoliters/hectare.
These wines are typically intended for immediate consumption, within 3 years after the vintage date.
Subregional (sous-régional) appellations cover a part of Burgundy larger than a village.
Examples are Bourgogne Hautes-Côtes de Beaune, Bourgogne Hautes-Côtes de Nuits and Mâcon-Villages.
 Typically, those communes which do not have a village appellation, do have access to at least one subregional appellation.
This level is sometimes described as intermediate between AOC Bourgogne and the village level.
Wines of specific styles or other grape varieties include white Bourgogne Aligoté (which is primarily made with the Aligoté grape), red Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains (which can contain up to two thirds Gamay) and sparkling Crémant de Bourgogne.
Chablis wines are labeled using a similar hierarchy of Grand Cru, Premier Cru and Village wines, plus Petit Chablis as a level below Village Chablis, whereas wines from Beaujolais are treated differently again.
In general, producers are always allowed to declassify their wine in steps to a lower ranked AOC if they wish to do so.
Thus, a wine from a Grand Cru vineyard may be sold as a Premier Cru from that vineyard's village, a Premier Cru wine may be sold as a Village wine and so on.
This practice will almost invariably mean that the declassified wine will have to be sold at a lower price, so this is only practiced when there is something to be gained overall in the process.
One motive may be to only include vines of a certain age in a Grand Cru wine, in order to improve its quality and raise its prestige and price, in which case the wine coming from younger vines may be sold as a Premier Cru at a lower price.
Overall, such a practice may allow a producer to keep a higher average price for the wine sold.
In total, there are around 150 separate AOCs in Burgundy, including those of Chablis and Beaujolais.
 While an impressive number, it does not include the several hundred named vineyards (lieux-dits) at the Village and Premier Cru level which may be displayed on the label, since at the Village and Premier Cru level, there is only one set of appellation rules per village.
The total number of vineyard-differentiated AOCs that may be displayed is well in excess of 500.