Uber den Zusammenhang des Abschlusses der Elektronengruppen im atom mit der Komplexstruktur der Spektren(111 views)
Description: FIRST EDITION of Pauli’s landmark discovery of a new law of nature: that no two electrons in an atom can be at the same time in the same state or configuration. The Pauli Exclusion Principle became essential in defining the characteristic properties of elements. ?Wolfgang Pauli made a decisive contribution through his discovery in 1925 of a new law of Nature, the exclusion principle or Pauli principle... Pauli based his investigation on a profound analysis of the experimental and theoretical knowledge in atomic physics at the time. He found that four quantum numbers are in general needed in order to define the energy state of an electron. He then pronounced his principle, which can be expressed by saying that there cannot be more than one electron in each energy state when this state is completely defined... Pauli showed himself that the electronic configuration is made fully intelligible by the exclusion principle, which is therefore essential for the elucidation of the characteristic physical and chemical properties of different elements. Among those important phenomena for the explanation of which the Pauli principle is indispensable, we mention the electric conductivity of metals and the magnetic properties of matter. "In 1925 and 1926 essential progress of another kind was made in the quantum theory, which is the foundation of atomic physics. New and revolutionary methods were developed for the description of the motion of particles. The fundamental importance of Pauli's discovery could now be seen more clearly. His principle proved to be an independent and necessary complement to the new quantum theory... During the last two decades atomic research has been more and more focused on the properties of the atomic nuclei. In this connection it has been even more fully confirmed than before that the Pauli principle must be characterized as a fundamental law of Nature. The principle, first discovered for electrons, has proved to be valid for the nuclei of hydrogen, called protons, and also for the neutrons which are formed in many nuclear reactions... The Pauli principle is therefore essential for the description of the properties of atomic nuclei? ( Professor I. Waller, Presentation Speech for the 1945 Nobel Prize in Physics). Pauli won the 1945 Noble Prize in Physics "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle". This volume also contains an earlier paper by Pauli (pp. 373-385), in which he critiques other scientists? attempts to explain electron behavior and serves as a prelude to the Exclusion Principle, and an important paper by Heisenberg and Kramers (pp. 681-708), dealing with the dispersion of light and providing the derivation of Kramers influential dispersion relation. Particle Physics, One Hundred Years of Discoveries: "Discovery of the exclusion principle- the Pauli principle." In Zeitschrift fur Physik, Vol 31, pp. 765-783. Berlin: Julius Springer, 1925. Octavo, modern half cloth over marbled boards. Bookplate on front pastedown; institutional stamps on volume title and a few stamps to text (one on Pauli article); minor creasing to a fraction of the bottom of text block (not affecting Pauli).
Artist or Maker: PAULI, WOLFGANG