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Auction Description for Pundole's: Fine & Decorative Arts Sale
Viewing Notes:
Please contact auction house for further details.
Sale Notes:
Please note this is a 2 day sale held over 3rd & 4th September 2013.
Tuesday 3 September 2013 - Session I - 7:00 pm; Wednesday 4 September 2013 - Session II - 11:00 am; Session III - 4:30 pm


Fine & Decorative Arts Sale (315 Lots)

by Pundole's

315 lots with images

September 3, 2013

Mumbai, India


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Description: GANESHA The elephant-headed Lord of Plenty in four-armed form is seated on a low two-tiered pedestal. His trunk curls across his chest to his left and dips into a bowl of sweets held in his lower left hand. He holds a parasu and gada in his upper hands and his broken tusk in his remaining hand. His mount the rat is seen crouched at his feet. Ganesha is ornamented with necklaces an elaborate girdle and a multi-tiered crown. Despite his popularity the exact origins of Ganesha are unclear but during the Gupta period a consistent iconography emerges and has become prevalent by the 6th century. In the South Ganesha appears in the Chola period in the form of a lively dancing figure cast in bronze or sometimes in a more sedate standing posture. In stone his four-armed form is popular and appears in the South as early as the 12th century. The current form is similar to several larger sculptures depicting Ganesha found at sites across Karnataka especially those at Hampi that date to the 14th or 15th Century. Ganesha is one of the best-loved and most widely worshipped deities of the Hindu pantheon whose image is found in paintings and sculpture throughout India Nepal and many other regions of South-east Asia. He is widely revered as the Remover of Obstacles and more generally known as the Lord of Beginnings. He is also patron of the arts and the deva of intellect and wisdom. South India

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Description: BUDDHA The finely modelled image of the Buddha standing in gentlecontrapposto his finely pleatedsanghatidraped around his shoulders forming a scooped collar his head surrounded by a plain circular halo his oval face in calm repose with characteristic downcast eyes a raisedurna between long arched eyebrows slightly pursed bow-shaped lips his hair swept back in rippled strands radiating from the centre of his forehead and drawn over his low dome-shapedushnisha. In 530 BCE the Persian Emperor Darius I conquered the region of Gandhara and made it part of his Empire. Following that in 333 BCE Alexander the Great defeated the armies of Darius III and gained control of Persia and by 327 BCE he also took control of Gandhara. One of Alexander's successors Seleucus was forced to hand over large areas of his Eastern kingdom including Gandhara to Chandragupta the Emperor of the Indian Mauryan Empire. Chandragupta left the Mauryan Empire which included the territory of Gandhara to his son Bindusara who in turn left it to his son Ashoka. Ashoka originally a warrior prince known for his ruthlessness and cruelty famously converted to Buddhism and promoted its teachings throughout his extensive empire. Ashoka's patronage of Buddhism was instrumental in making Buddhism one of the most prominent religions of India. He built monasteries erected stupas and supported the work of Buddhist missionaries throughout his kingdom including the region of Gandhara. The Mauryan Empire declined after Ashoka's death and Gandhara once more came under control of its Western neighbour the Greek-Bactrian King Demetrius I but subsequent wars once again made Gandhara an Indo-Greek kingdom independent of Bactria. One of the most prominent of the Indo-Greek kings of Gandhara was Menander a devout Buddhist who ruled from about 160 to 130 BCE. After Menander's death Gandhara was invaded again first by Scythians and then Parthians. The invasions wiped out the Indo-Greek kingdom. The Kushans an Indo-European people came to Bactria in about 135 BCE. In the 1st century BCE the Kushans took control of Gandhara and established a capital near what is now Kabul. Eventually the Kushans extended their territory to include part of present-day Uzbekistan as well as Afghanistan and Pakistan. At its height the kingdom extended into Northern India as far as Benares. The unstable history of the region ensured that the Gandhara of the Kushans was a multi-ethnic blend of many cultures and religions including Buddhism. Gandhara's location and history created a melting pot of Greek Persian Indian and many other cultural influences. Furthermore the mercantile wealth that flowed through the region supported scholarship and allowed the fine arts to flourish. The earliest Kushan art reflected Greek and Roman prototypes incorporating many motifs and techniques from Classical Greco-Roman art including vine scrolls cherubs bearing garlands tritons and even centaurs. However as time went on Buddhist figures became dominant and a fusion of styles and iconographic conventions created a distinct Gandharan style. The basic iconography of the Buddha however remained essentially Indian in its representation. It rejected a naturalistic conception of the human form preferring instead to use a more idealised abstract image increasingly drawing upon the thirty-two sacred characteristics of the Buddha laid down in the early writings of the Pali Canon. Various materials were used for Gandharan sculpture but green phyllite and gray schist (like the current sculpture) are generally thought to belong to the earliest phase whilst stucco became increasingly common from the 3rd Century CE. By the 2nd century CE Buddhist monks from Gandhara were actively engaged in transmitting Buddhism into China and other parts of North Asia and so further cross-cultural influences occur. King Kanishka I (127-147) is documented as a great patron of Buddhism and his reign marks the peak of the Kushan era and of Gandhara art. It was during this period or the following century that the current sculpture was likely to have been commissioned. Gandhara

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Description: BRAHMA AND CONSORT A high relief stele depicting Brahma in his multi-headed and four-armed form seated in lalitasana with his consort Sarasvati on a low cushioned throne. Brahma holds in his upper left hand a pustaka or book in his lower right hand the kamandalu or water pot in his upper right hand the sruk or sacrificial ladle and a broken stem in his lower left hand. His left arms encircle his consort in gentle embrace his vahana the hamsa or sacred swan sits at their feet the throne flanked by two kneeling attendants each with both hands clasped in prayer. Shiva Vishnu and Brahma form the central trinity of the Hindu pantheon. Within this association Brahma is considered the god of creation. He is the seed the source of all that becomes manifest. He is the boundless immensity from which space time and causation originate. He is the Golden Embryo (Hiranyagarbha) the point from which the whole universe develops. In the Mahabharata and Puranas Brahma is said to have sprung from the lotus originating from the navel of Vishnu. The Vishnu Purana associates Brahma with the term vriha (to increase) because he is infinite spirit the cause by which all things including the Vedas are created. Accordingly his consort is Saraswati the goddess of knowledge who equips him with all knowledge by which to perform his creation. Every Hindu temple whether dedicated to Shiva or Vishnu should have a niche in the northern wall to house an image of Brahma and a daily puja is associated with the deity. In temples exclusively dedicated to Brahma which are very few his aspect as Visvakarma (the architect of the universe) is adopted. In this form he is shown as having four heads four arms holding the rosary the book the Kusa grass and the water pot and riding on his swan. Even in this form his consort may change depending on local tradition. The use of marble and the modeling of the figures in the current work suggest the Solanki period 10-12th centuries. Marble was a favoured medium during this period in Western India and prized it for its smooth white colour that was associated with ritual purity. Western India

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Description: A MANGO-SHAPED MUGHAL CELADON JADE FLASK the lobed surface with concentric lines tapering toward the lower tip with a carved neck in shallow relief with a ring of pendant leaves leading to a heavily carved stopper North India

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Description: A RARE MUGHAL CELADON JADE-HILTED DAGGER IN THE FORM OF AN ELEPHANT HEAD the pale celadon jade hilt delicately curved and finely carved with an elephant's head in profile at the terminal and foliate scrolls flanking a lotus flower at the base of the hilt the elephant with a curling trunk and finely combed incising on the ears and the trunk highlighted with the use of burnt orange part blade still attached to hilt North Inda

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