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Be-hold 58 Session 1, Indians and the West

by Be-Hold


152 lots with images

March 19, 2013

Live Auction

78 Rockland Avenue

Yonkers, NY, 10705 USA

Phone: +1 914 423 5806

Fax: +1 914 423 5802

Email: behold@be-hold.com

152 Lots
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Otoe-Missouri Delegation, by John K. Hillers, Washington, D.C., January 1880.

Lot 1: Otoe-Missouri Delegation, by John K. Hillers, Washington, D.C., January 1880.

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Description: SESSION 1: AMERICAN INDIANS AND THE WEST (Lot 1 through to Lot 155) Most of the Indian photographs by Hillers, Barry, Rinehart, Gill, Ormsby, and Curtis and some unknowns come from a large collection assembled many years ago. They were carefully stored for a future use that didn't materialize. Almost all are in original fine condition. The information and captions are almost entirely the work of Mike Cowdrey. Aside from his great knowledge of the history of the photographic representation of the Indians, Mike is knowledgeable about the history of the Indians themselves. He understands the material culture of these people, and provides great insight into their dress and other details that are revealed in the photographs. Most importantly he has a uniquely sensitive appreciation of the people and scenes depicted, as well as of those who made the photographs. Appropriate for the presentation of this material in a Be-hold auction, he sees the photographs as works of art as well as documentation. Otoe-Missouri Delegation, by John K. Hillers, Washington, D.C., January 1881. The original glass negative for this image is in the National Museum of the American Indian, #322397. Comparison photos of the individual delegates are in the National Anthropological Archives, #gn_03852a; #gn_03851a; #gn_03845a1; #gn_03819. 9 7/8 x 13 7/8 platinum print. "4621" written in pencil on verso, "OTOE DELEGATION JAN 1881" in neg.The original glass negative for this image is in the National Archives, # 523831. In the 1870s, the Oto-Missouri tribe resided on the Big Blue Reservation, Nebraska, on a large, beautiful tract south of the Platte River junction with the Missouri River. By the late-1870s, they were being harassed by immigrant White settlers who coveted the land. In 1879, half of the tribe moved south to Indian Territory, where they squatted on the reservation of their Sac & Fox allies. The delegation seen here, representing the balance of the joint-tribe in Nebraska, went to Washington in late-1880 to negotiate a sale of the Big Blue Reserve, in order to buy new tribal lands in Indian Territory. This was approved by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, President Garfield and the Congress. The lands selected by the tribe were in the Cherokee Outlet, and comprise present Noble and Pawnee Counties, Oklahoma, with the tribal headquarters located at Red Rock. Members of the delegation seen here are, standing left: Crawfish Maker (Man'shka Ka'ghe); seated left: Standing Eating (Waruche Na Yin); seated center: Little Iowa (Pah-ho-cha-inga), also called Baptiste Deroin, mixed-blood interpreter; standing right: James Arkeketah; and seated right: Buck Standing Far Away, also called Black Elk (Har-ri-gar-ra). All are dressed in the meticulously beaded clothing, otter fur turbans and grizzly bear claw necklaces for which the Oto-Missouri are justly famed. A brilliant print. Most of the large Hillers prints I have seen are albumen. These platinum prints are very rare. A very brief tear near the right margin, at the level ot the knees. [D4]

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PUEBLO ELDERS, Possibly Zuni,  by John K. Hillers

Lot 2: PUEBLO ELDERS, Possibly Zuni, by John K. Hillers

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Description: PUEBLO ELDERS, Possibly Zuni, by John K. Hillers, 10 x 13 7/8 platinotype (platinum print). "4543" written in pencil on verso, ca. 1879. Hillers was in the Southwest photographing for the Bureau of American Ethnology in 1879-1880, at Walpi, Zuni and other pueblos. It is likely that one of these elders was the local Governor. The rich image is a contact print from the full glass negative. It has been trimmed at the top to the picture. [4]

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PUEBLO ZUNI by John K. Hillers

Lot 3: PUEBLO ZUNI by John K. Hillers

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Description: PUEBLO ZUNI by John K. Hillers. 9 15/16 x 14 1/8 platinotype. Ca. 1879. In the short planting season, families would move to personal farming plots within reasonable distance from a spring, to plant their crops. Commonly, small stone and adobe shelters were constructed nearby, which were occupied until the harvest was gathered. This pattern had been followed for more than a thousand years; and there are hundreds of such temporary "ranchos" abandoned all over the Southwest. In the foreground may be seen a planting of pumpkin or other squash. An axe and other tools lean against the wall. Upside down to drain at left is the self-made-pottery "bucket" being used to water these crops. Today, that jar would have a value in the tens of thousands of dollars. The family's drinking and washing water is in the jar seen cooling on the roof. Slight indent in left margin. Print trimmed at top and bottom to the image. [D4]

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CROW KING (Kangi Itanchan), by D.F. Barry, at Fort Buford, D.T.-early-1881

Lot 4: CROW KING (Kangi Itanchan), by D.F. Barry, at Fort Buford, D.T.-early-1881

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Description: CROW KING (Kangi Itanchan), by D.F. Barry, at Fort Buford, D.T.-early-1881. 10 1/8 x 6 1/16 gelatin silver print, mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a 16 7/8 x 10 7/16 board with gray-green border. Stamped "Copyright by D.F Barry" in picture and "BARRY" on mount. Barry's Superior, Wis. label on verso, with pencil inscription. An inscription on the mount below reads: "....Mrs. M.H.Jewell / Best Wishes / D.H. Barry." M.H. Jewell was the editor and publisher of the Bismarck Tribune. An article in the Bismarck Daily Tribune, Jan. 26, 1915, notes Barry's donation to her of a few more of his photographs. It called her Barry collection "the finest in the west," second only to Barry's own. Crow King was a Hunkpapa Lakota War Chief. He played a major role in the Battle of Little Big Horn against Custer and was a band leader among the Lakota exile camp at Wood Mountain, Saskatchewan, 1876-1881. The image is a copy of an earlier photograph, and is a cropped version. [3]

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CROW KING (Kangi Itanchan), by D.F. Barry, at Fort Buford, D.T.-early-1881

Lot 5: CROW KING (Kangi Itanchan), by D.F. Barry, at Fort Buford, D.T.-early-1881

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Description: CROW KING (Kangi Itanchan), by D.F. Barry, at Fort Buford, D.T.-early-1881. 13 7/16 x 7 1/16 photograph mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy 21 ¾ x 11 14/16 board with gray-green border. "Copyright D.F.BARRY" stamped into picture. Blue ink-stamp below on mount. "BARRY" embossed on mount. Superior Wis. label on verso. Same image as previous lot, but shows full feather at top. Rich clean print. [4]

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SITTING BULL AND BUFFALO BILL by William Notman, Montreal, 1885.

Lot 6: SITTING BULL AND BUFFALO BILL by William Notman, Montreal, 1885.

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Description: SITTING BULL AND BUFFALO BILL by William Notman, Montreal, 1885. 10 1/8 x 6 1/16 gelatin silver (POP) print, mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy16 7/8 x 10 7/16 board. Copy print stamped "Copyright by D.F Barry" in picture and "BARRY" in gray-green border of mount. "Buffalo Bill" written in pencil in bottom right. Ink stamp "SITTING BULL" bottom left border, and pen inscription "To / Mrs. M.H. Jewell. / Compliments / D.H. Barry." [See Lot 4] Superior Wis. label on verso. This was taken when Sitting Bull toured the eastern US and Canada as headliner for the Buffalo Bill Wild West Show. [4-]

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SITTING BULL (Tatanka Iyotanka), Hunkpapa Lakota, by D. F. Barry at Fort Yates, D.T., ca. 1883.

Lot 7: SITTING BULL (Tatanka Iyotanka), Hunkpapa Lakota, by D. F. Barry at Fort Yates, D.T., ca. 1883.

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Description: SITTING BULL (Tatanka Iyotanka), Hunkpapa Lakota, by D. F. Barry at Fort Yates, D.T., ca. 1883. 13 7/16 x 7 1/16 POP print mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy 21 ¾ x 11 14/16 board with gray-green border. "Copyright D.F.BARRY" stamped into picture. Blue ink-stamp below on mount: "SITTING BULL" and "BARRY" embossed on mount. Superior Wis label on verso. Rich close view is cropped, cutting off top of feather. [4]

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Thunder Traveling in the Mountains (Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt), called CHIEF JOSEPH, by Orlando Scott Goff, at Bismarck, D.T., October 1877.

Lot 8: Thunder Traveling in the Mountains (Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt), called CHIEF JOSEPH, by Orlando Scott Goff, at Bismarck, D.T., October 1877.

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Description: Thunder Traveling in the Mountains (Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt), called CHIEF JOSEPH, by Orlando Scott Goff, at Bismarck, D.T., October 1877. 13 7/16 x 7 1/16 POP print mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy 21 ¾ x 11 14/16 dark brown-gray board with light-brown border. "BARRY" embossed on mount. Superior Wis label on verso and pencil inscription "Chief Joseph". Close vignette is a little grainy, as made. [3+] Goff was Barry's mentor and employer until the mid-1880s, when Goff moved to Montana, selling his Bismarck studio and many of his glass negatives to Barry, who sold the prints thereafter as his own. This portrait was made when the Nez Perce prisoners-of-war were moved down the Missouri river by steamboat to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where they were held over the winter before being deported further, into Indian Territory. [4-]

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RAIN-IN-THE-FACE (Ite Omagu), Hunkpapa Lakota, by D F. Barry at Standing Rock, D.T.-late-1880s.

Lot 9: RAIN-IN-THE-FACE (Ite Omagu), Hunkpapa Lakota, by D F. Barry at Standing Rock, D.T.-late-1880s.

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Description: RAIN-IN-THE-FACE (Ite Omagu), Hunkpapa Lakota, by D F. Barry at Standing Rock, D.T.-late-1880s. 13 7/16 x 7 1/16 POP print mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy 21 3/4 x 11 14/16 board with gray-green border. "Copyright D.F.BARRY" stamped into picture. Blue ink-stamp on mount: "RAIN-IN-THE-FACE" and "BARRY" embossed on mount. Superior Wis. label on verso. Very rich print of cropped image. [4] A close friend of the photographer and one of his favorite subjects, Rain-in-the-Face was badly wounded during the Battle of Little Bighorn by a bullet which shattered one hip. [4]

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RED CLOUD (Mahpiya Luta), Oglala Lakota, by D. F. Barry at New York City, 1887.

Lot 10: RED CLOUD (Mahpiya Luta), Oglala Lakota, by D. F. Barry at New York City, 1887.

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Description: RED CLOUD (Mahpiya Luta), Oglala Lakota, by D. F. Barry at New York City, 1887. 13 7/16 x 7 1/16 POP print mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy 21 ¾ x 11 14/16 board with gray-green border. "Copyright D.F.BARRY" stamped into picture. "RED CLOUD" stamped in blue below, " "BARRY" embossed on mount. Superior Wis. label on verso. Rich print, Barry has cropped his copy, like many of these, to make a dramatic close-up. On his return from a visit to Washington, D.C., Red Cloud and his son-in-law American Horse were brought to visit Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, then performing in the city, giving Barry a golden opportunity as he was there on the same day. [4]

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AMERICAN HORSE (Tashunka Wasichu)  by D.F. Barry.

Lot 11: AMERICAN HORSE (Tashunka Wasichu) by D.F. Barry.

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Description: AMERICAN HORSE (Tashunka Wasichu) by D.F. Barry. 13 7/16 x 7 1/16 POP print mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy 21 ¾ x 11 14/16 board with gray-green border. Blue ink-stamp below on mount: Barry has cropped the copy to make a strong sensitive profile. American Horse was a son-in-law of Red Cloud, and played a prominent role in the Fetterman Massacre near Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming Territory, in December, 1866. Along with Crazy Horse, Young Man Afraid of His Horses and Sword, American Horse was made a "Shirt Wearer," one of the four leading chiefs of the Oglala, in 1870.[4]

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CHIEF GALL (Pizi), Hunkpapa Lakota, by D. F. Barry, at Standing Rock, D.T., 1880s.

Lot 12: CHIEF GALL (Pizi), Hunkpapa Lakota, by D. F. Barry, at Standing Rock, D.T., 1880s.

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Description: CHIEF GALL (Pizi), Hunkpapa Lakota, by D. F. Barry, at Standing Rock, D.T., 1880s. 13 ½ x 7 - inch POP print mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy 16 ¾ x 9 -inch gray mount with roughened border, on a larger board mount. The image is not cropped, and includes a frame. "Chief Gall" printed below the print. A printed page about Gall is attached verso. It begins, "Chief Gall was the leader of the Sioux who swept down upon Custer's command at the Little Big Horn in June, 1876, and wiped it out of existence..." Gall's wife and three teen-age daughters, who had been picking berries in the brush of the river bottom, were all murdered in the early stages of the battle, by a volley fired toward the village by Major Reno's troops. [4]

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CHIEF GALL (Pizi), Hunkpapa Lakota, by D.F. Barry, at Standing Rock, D.T., 1880s.

Lot 13: CHIEF GALL (Pizi), Hunkpapa Lakota, by D.F. Barry, at Standing Rock, D.T., 1880s.

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Description: CHIEF GALL (Pizi), Hunkpapa Lakota, by D.F. Barry, at Standing Rock, D.T., 1880s. 13 7/16 x 7 1/16 POP print mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy 21 ¾ x 11 14/16 board with gray-green border. "Copyright D.F.BARRY" stamped into picture. "CHIEF GALL" stamped in blue, and "BARRY" embossed on mount. This is a rich print of Barry's signature image, that appears on many of his labels and other documents. [4]

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CURLEY (Ash-ish-i-she), Crow, by D.F. Barry, at Fort Custer, M.T., ca. 1883.

Lot 14: CURLEY (Ash-ish-i-she), Crow, by D.F. Barry, at Fort Custer, M.T., ca. 1883.

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Description: CURLEY (Ash-ish-i-she), Crow, by D.F. Barry, at Fort Custer, M.T., ca. 1883. 13 7/16 x 7 1/16 POP print mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy 21 ¾ x 11 14/16 board with gray-green border. "Copyright D.F.BARRY" stamped into picture. Blue ink-stamp below on mount: "CURLEY" and embossed "BARRY" on mount. "only survivor of Custer Fight / Custer's Scout" inscribed in pencil on verso. Head and shoulder vignette. Luther H. "Yellowstone" Kelly, Chief Scout for Col. Nelson A. Miles, who often scouted with Curley, recalled him in this period as "the most beautiful human being, woman or man, I ever saw." [4]

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SPOTTED TAIL (Sinte Gleshka), Brule Lakota Head Chief, by Charles M. Bell, Washington, D.C., 1878.

Lot 15: SPOTTED TAIL (Sinte Gleshka), Brule Lakota Head Chief, by Charles M. Bell, Washington, D.C., 1878.

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Description: SPOTTED TAIL (Sinte Gleshka), Brule Lakota Head Chief, by Charles M. Bell, Washington, D.C., 1878. 13 7/16 x 7 1/16 POP print mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy 21 ¾ x 11 14/16 board with gray-green border. Copy print marked "Copyright D.F.BARRY" stamped into picture, and "BARRY" embossed on mount. "Spotted Tail" inscribed in pencil on verso. Spotted Tail signed the Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868, and worked for Sioux rights and education. He was killed by a fellow tribesman Crow Dog in 1881. He is buried at Rosebud, S.D., where the tribal college is named in his honor. Barry has cropped his copy. Image is in excellent condition, but a bit grainy. [3+]

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CHARGING BEAR  (Mato Watakpe), called JOHN GRASS, Blackfeet Lakota Head Chief, by D.F. Barry at Standing Rock, D.T., 1880s.

Lot 16: CHARGING BEAR (Mato Watakpe), called JOHN GRASS, Blackfeet Lakota Head Chief, by D.F. Barry at Standing Rock, D.T., 1880s.

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Description: CHARGING BEAR (Mato Watakpe), called JOHN GRASS, Blackfeet Lakota Head Chief, by D.F. Barry at Standing Rock, D.T., 1880s. 13 7/16 x 7 1/16 POP print mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy 21 ¾ x 11 14/16 board with gray-green border. "Copyright D.F.BARRY" stamped into picture. Blue ink-stamp below on mount: "JOHN GRASS", "BARRY" embossed on mount. John Grass was chief justice of the Court of Indian Offenses at Standing Rock Agency. With Chief Gall, he worked for the education of his tribe. Another rich, cropped close portrait, dramatic in this large size. [4]

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RUNNING ANTELOPE (Tatoka Inyanka), Hunkpapa Lakota,  by D.F. Barry at Standing Rock, D.T., 1880s.

Lot 17: RUNNING ANTELOPE (Tatoka Inyanka), Hunkpapa Lakota, by D.F. Barry at Standing Rock, D.T., 1880s.

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Description: RUNNING ANTELOPE (Tatoka Inyanka), Hunkpapa Lakota, by D.F. Barry at Standing Rock, D.T., 1880s. 13 7/16 x 7 1/16 POP print mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy 21 ¾ x 11 14/16 board with gray-green border. Blue ink-stamp below on mount: "RUNNING ANTELOPE." "Copyright D.F.BARRY" stamped into picture. Blue ink-stamp below on mount, "BARRY" embossed on mount. Running Antelope was Head Chief of the eastern bands of Hunkpapa. As with Barry's other cropped copies, this puts great emphasis on his craggy face. [4]

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CHIEF GOOSE (Maga), by Orlando Scott Goff, at Bismarck, D.T., late-July 1881.

Lot 18: CHIEF GOOSE (Maga), by Orlando Scott Goff, at Bismarck, D.T., late-July 1881.

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Description: CHIEF GOOSE (Maga), by Orlando Scott Goff, at Bismarck, D.T., late-July 1881. 13 7/16 x 7 1/16 POP print mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy 21 ¾ x 11 14/16 board with gray-green border. "Copyright D.F.BARRY" stamped into picture., "BARRY" embossed on mount. "Chief Goose" inscribed beneath print.and "Chief Goose/ Sioux Indian" in pen verso. Superior Wis. label on verso. A band chief in Sitting Bull's camp of exiles in Canada, 1876-1881, this portrait was made when the surrendered expatriates stopped at Bismarck, on the steamboat trip from Fort Buford to Fort Yates. Barry's cropped copy is fine. [4]

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LOW DOG (Shunka Kuchela), Oglala Lakota, by D.F. Barry at Fort Buford, D.T., January 1881.

Lot 19: LOW DOG (Shunka Kuchela), Oglala Lakota, by D.F. Barry at Fort Buford, D.T., January 1881.

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Description: LOW DOG (Shunka Kuchela), Oglala Lakota, by D.F. Barry at Fort Buford, D.T., January 1881. 13 7/16 x 7 1/16 POP print mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy 21 ¾ x 11 14/16 board with gray-green border. "LOW DOG" stamped below the print. "Copyright D.F.BARRY" stamped into picture. Blue ink-stamp below on mount: "BARRY" embossed on mount. Superior Wis. label on verso. Low Dog was an Oglala Sioux war chief who fought at Little Big Horn, where he lost a brother. His newspaper interview remains one of the major accounts of the battle by a participant. He joined Sitting Bull in exile in Canada. With Crow King, he was one of the leaders dispatched to Fort Buford early in 1881, to "test the waters," before Sitting Bull's own surrender in July. This is another close cropped portrait. [4]

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NEBAGAMAN, Ojibwa, by D.F. Barry at Bismarck, D.T., 1880s.

Lot 20: NEBAGAMAN, Ojibwa, by D.F. Barry at Bismarck, D.T., 1880s.

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Description: NEBAGAMAN, Ojibwa, by D.F. Barry at Bismarck, D.T., 1880s. 13 7/16 x 7 1/16 POP print mounted on rough-edged gray paper, in turn mounted on a heavy 21 ¾ x 11 14/16 board with grey-green border. "BARRY"embossed on mount, "Nebagaman" in pencil on verso. The Ojibwa chief is seated with his long feather headdress topped by horns. Many other details. The negative of a standing portrait of Nebagaman from the same session is in the Barry collection of the Denver Public Library. [4]

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HUNKPAPA LAKOTA LEADERS , by D.F. Barry at Fort Yates, D.T.-Autumn 1881.

Lot 22: HUNKPAPA LAKOTA LEADERS , by D.F. Barry at Fort Yates, D.T.-Autumn 1881.

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Description: HUNKPAPA LAKOTA LEADERS , by D.F. Barry at Fort Yates, D.T.-Autumn 1881. 13 7/8 x 7 1/16 POP print, mounted on gray sheet with rough edge, in turn mounted to 21 ¾ x 12 board with gray-green border. BARRY stamp on gray sheet. "SLOW WHITE BUFFALO, FOOL THUNDER, IRON THUNDER, CROW EAGLE" written pencil verso. These men were among the exile leaders of Sitting Bull's camp in Canada, 1876-1881. While Sitting Bull's immediate family and closest adherents---the last hold-outs---were held as prisoners of war at Fort Randall for two years, most of the other expatriates were returned directly to Standing Rock Reservation, D.T. L. to r: Crow Eagle (Kangi Wanbli), with eagle feather headdress; Slow White Buffalo (Pte San Hunkesni), wearing an otter fur turban and two eagle feathers; Iron Thunder (Wakinyan Maza), with hairpipe breastplate; and Fool Thunder (Wakinyan Witko---the Thunder makes Him Crazy) at far right. Individual portraits of each man, identified with pasted labels, were made at the same sitting. Barry has cropped his copy at the sides. [4]

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BLACK BEAR, JR.  (Mato Sapa), Oglala Lakota, 1899.

Lot 23: BLACK BEAR, JR. (Mato Sapa), Oglala Lakota, 1899.

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Description: F. A. RINEHART AND ADOLPH MUHR (Lot 23 through to Lot 26) Impressed by the successful World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, business leaders in Omaha planned a similar "World's Fair" five years later, the Trans-Mississipi and International Exposition, June 1 - Oct. 31, 1898 One of the major attractions was an "Indian village" where members of more than a dozen tribes gave daily demonstrations of target shooting, sham battles, dancing and artistic crafts. The official photographer for the exposition was Frank A. Rinehart, who had trained with the noted William Henry Jackson in Denver during the 1880s. Rinehart specialized in architectural images of the Exposition and other outdoor events. He was assisted in the studio by a talented portraitist and colorist, Adolph F. Muhr. During the five months of the exposition, the Rinehart studio produced hundreds of elegant and artistic portraits of the Indian performers, in platinum print format, which were very popular souvenirs among the tens of thousands of visitors. Omaha businesses made so much money from the exposition, they were loath to see their investment end on schedule. After various legal difficulties during the following winter, a "new" Greater American Exposition opened on the same grounds, July 1, 1899, and ran through the end of October. The competing Omaha studio of Heyn & Matzen received the contract for the 1899 Expo, so Rinehart and Muhr went off to the Crow Reservation in Montana, then the Oglala Lakota Reservation in South Dakota, adding more than a hundred additional images to their inventory. Although made during the summer of 1899, most of these images were not submitted for copyright until the following year. While Adolph Muhr made many -- probably most -- of the "Rinehart" Indian portraits, Rinehart copyrighted the images in his name alone. In later court documents, Muhr alleged that he was the sole photographer and that Rinehart had breached their verbal contract to share credit for the work. The court, focused on contract legalisms of the period, found that as an employee, Muhr had no legal right to his own photographs and awarded sole title to Rinehart. Today, the Library of Congress recognizes Adolph Muhr as the photographer of all these works, while Rinehart is acknowledged as the publisher. After the images copyrighted in 1899-1900, Frank A. Rinehart is not known to have made any additional portraits of American Indian sitters. By significant contrast, Adolph Muhr was soon employed as the studio manager for Edward S. Curtis in Seattle, where Muhr was responsible for producing all of the thousands of elegant folio and "gold-tone" prints for the first ten volumes of Curtis' monumental project, The North American Indian. "If a face [photographed by Curtis] was particularly radiant, sad, lost, lovely or revealing in a fresh way, it was due in considerable measure to Muhr's hand in the studio. He had a mortician's touch for refinishing...and he was the link between old-school Indian pictures---done for...Frank A. Rinehart---and those that hang in art galleries" (Timothy Egan, "Short Nights of the Shadow Catcher: The Epic Life and Immortal Photographs of Edward Curtis. New York: Houghton, Mifflin, Harcourt, 2012: 233)." Muhr died suddenly of a heart attack in 1913, a loss which delayed the Curtis project for two years. Further information on the Muhr-Rinehart photographs may be found in Royal K. Sutton, "The Face of Courage: the Indian Photographs of Frank A. Rinehart" (Ft. Collins, CO: Old Army Press, 1972); and Simon J. Ortiz, "Beyond the Reach of Time and Change: Native American Reflections on the Frank A. Rinehart Photograph Collection" (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2005) A reference collection of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition series of 1898 is available Online, through the Omaha Public Library: www.omaha.lib.ne.us/transmiss 809 of the original Muhr-Rinehart glass negatives are curated by the Special Collections, Haskell Indian Nations University, Lawrence, Kansas: www.haskell.edu/cultural/pgs/_rinehart.html NOTE: With the exception of Lot 66, these platinum prints have a warm tone that differs from the gray/purple tonality of most of the Rinehart photographs that I've had or seen. They are among the earliest of these prints. They also have a finer "tooth" than the courser watercolor type paper of later prints. I believe this paper was chosen by Rinehart and Muhr to allow the finely detailed painting that we see in the examples Muhr colored. Muhr's painting is much more precise than that of later colorists. I think Rinehart continued to use this paper for a while after Muhr left, and then switched to the familiar later paper. As you will see, there are a number of examples where Rinehart tried to erase or cover over a credit to Muhr. - L.G. BLACK BEAR, Sr. (Mato Sapa), Oglala Lakota, 1899. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. "No1508".- Sioux / Chief Black Bear / Copyright 1900 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha." [in neg]In 1875, Black Bear was a member of a large Lakota delegation which traveled to Washington, D.C., in an attempt to stave off the conflict which resulted in war the following year. Here, he wears the beaded and hairlock-fringed shirt of a warrior society leader, together with a headdress of golden eagle feathers, his Council Pipe and a beaded tobacco bag. [4]

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BLACK BEAR  (Mato Sapa), Oglala Lakota, 1899.

Lot 24: BLACK BEAR (Mato Sapa), Oglala Lakota, 1899.

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Description: BLACK BEAR, JR. (Mato Sapa), Oglala Lakota, 1899. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. "Black Bear Jr. / -Arapahoe- No1608 Copyright 1900 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha" [in neg]A young man with a strong and classic profile, grasping a pipe-tomahawk. The faux "war paint" has been added by Muhr in the studio. A great rich portrait. [4]

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BLACK BIRD  (Zintkala Sapa), Oglala Lakota, at Pine Ridge, S.D., 1899.

Lot 25: BLACK BIRD (Zintkala Sapa), Oglala Lakota, at Pine Ridge, S.D., 1899.

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Description: BLACK BIRD (Zintkala Sapa), Oglala Lakota, at Pine Ridge, S.D., 1899. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. "No 1634 - Black Bird - Copyright 1900 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha." [in neg.]With a bone-hairpipe breastplate tied over his cotton shirt and wrapped in a wool blanket with beaded strip, Black Bird holds a pipe and beaded tobacco bag that features small American flag designs. Rinehart also made a profile portrait of Black Bird. [4]

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BROKEN ARM  (Isto Nawega), Oglala Lakota, 1898.

Lot 26: BROKEN ARM (Isto Nawega), Oglala Lakota, 1898.

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Description: BROKEN ARM (Isto Nawega), Oglala Lakota, 1898. 9 5/16 x 7 1/2 platinotype mounted on dark grey-brown board measuring 13 5/16 x 10 7/8. "Copyright 1899 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha. - Broken Arm, / -Ogalalla Sioux- No1448" [In neg]Another warrior society leader from Pine Ridge Reservation, Broken Arm wears his own hair-trimmed, leather shirt and eagle feather headdress. [4]

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BROKEN ARM (Isato Nawege), Oglala Lakota, 1898.

Lot 27: BROKEN ARM (Isato Nawege), Oglala Lakota, 1898.

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Description: BROKEN ARM (Isto Nawege), Oglala Lakota, 1898. 9 5/16 x 7 1/2 platinotype WITH APPLIED COLOR BY MUHR mounted on dark gray-brown board measuring 13 5/16 x 10 7/8. "Copyright 1899 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha. Broken Arm, / -Ogalalla Sioux- No1448" [in neg.] Muhr's rare talent for coloring rises almost to the level of a Kodachrome photograph. [4]

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BURIED FAR AWAY, Cocopah, 1899.

Lot 28: BURIED FAR AWAY, Cocopah, 1899.

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Description: BURIED FAR AWAY, Cocopah, 1899. Unmounted 9 1/4 x 7 3/8 platinotype. "Copyright 1899 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha.-Buried Far Away- / -Cocapah- No.550" [in neg]Surely one of the most evocative Indian names on record, it probably recalls the loss of an honored relative. The Cocopah are Arizona neighbors of the Pima and Maricopa. [4]

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CHIEF RED SHIRT (Ogle Sha), Oglala Lakota, 1899, by F.A. Rinehart.

Lot 29: CHIEF RED SHIRT (Ogle Sha), Oglala Lakota, 1899, by F.A. Rinehart.

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Description: CHIEF RED SHIRT (Ogle Sha), Oglala Lakota, 1899, by F.A. Rinehart. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. Illegible pencil mark on verso. "Cheyenne / Chief Red Shirt / Copyright 1900 / Rinehart, / Omaha No1013" [in neg]The identification, apparently added by Rinehart, himself, after the departure of Adolph Muhr, is typically inaccurate. Red Shirt was not "Cheyenne," but a leading chief of the Oyuhpe band of the Oglala Lakota at Pine Ridge Reservation, S.D. The Ulysses S. Grant peace medal he wears was presented to his father Red Dog when he first visited the president in 1870.During the initial, ground-breaking European tour of Buffalo Bill's Wild West, in 1887-88, Red Shirt was the "leading chief" and star of the production, co-billed on the advertisements with William F. Cody, himself. In London, Queen Victoria consented to end a quarter-century of mourning for her late consort Prince Albert, in order to attend a command performance of the Wild West. After two, rousing hours, Victoria asked to be introduced to Red Shirt. In her diary, the queen recorded that when the chief shook her hand he said that he had come thousands of miles to see her, and "now my heart is glad." To Cody, she remarked, "I know a real prince when I see one" (Col. William F. Cody. Life and Adventures of Buffalo Bill. Chicago: John R. Stanton Cp., 1917). Engraved depictions of the exchange between Red Shirt and the queen appeared in the Illustrated London News and other publications. Reporters followed the Indian cast members everywhere, like paparazzi of a later day. Studio photos of Red Shirt, his wife and their six-year-old daughter sold by the thousands.Here, a decade later, Muhr has convinced the chief to unbraid his hair and has draped it artfully over a Navajo saddle blanket used to cover a checkered shirt. It is likely the Lakota headdress was also offered from among the studio props, in order to "Indianize" the image. Although copyrighted after returning to Omaha, in 1900, the portrait was made at Pine Ridge during the summer of 1899. The high plateau of the Pine Ridge Reservation, Red Shirt Table, is named in his honor. [4]

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AMERICAN HORSE (Tashunka Wasicu), Oglala Lakota, 1898.

Lot 30: AMERICAN HORSE (Tashunka Wasicu), Oglala Lakota, 1898.

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Description: AMERICAN HORSE (Tashunka Wasicu), Oglala Lakota, 1898. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. "Copyright 1898 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha.- Chief American Horse / -Sioux- No1003" [in neg]One of the legendary chieftains of the Oglala, American Horse was a son-in-law of the famous Red Cloud. His hair-fringed shirt was painted with the top half blue, representing the over-arching power of the Sky, a Lakota deity, and the bottom half was yellow ocher, representing Rock, the other elemental principle in Lakota cosmology. Clothed in it, American Horse was literally wrapped in a nimbus of spiritual power. The garment survives in a German museum collection. His eagle feather headdress is unusually ornate, with a narrow strip of colored quillwork attached along the vane of each feather. [4]

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GOES TO WAR  (Zuya Ile), Brule Lakota, at Omaha, Nebraska, 1898.

Lot 31: GOES TO WAR (Zuya Ile), Brule Lakota, at Omaha, Nebraska, 1898.

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Description: GOES TO WAR (Zuya Ile), Brule Lakota, at Omaha, Nebraska, 1898. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. Negative notations read "Copyright 1898 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha.- Chief Goes to War / (Sioux)- No. 762." [in neg]A son of the mid-19th-century chief Iron Shell, and younger brother of Hollow Horn Bear, Goes to War wears a large, bone-hairpipe breastplate over a beaded leather shirt trimmed with locks of human hair. The eagle fluff tied in his hair, as described elsewhere in this section, marks him as being of the elite status of Hunka. [4]

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GRANT RICHARDS, Tonkawa, 1898.

Lot 32: GRANT RICHARDS, Tonkawa, 1898.

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Description: GRANT RICHARDS, Tonkawa, 1898. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. "Copyright 1898 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha. Chief Grant Richards / -Tonkawa -No1057" [in neg]Originally located near the Texas Gulf coast, the Tonkawa were among the earliest tribes north of the Rio Grande to obtain horses traded up from Mexico. They had scouted for the U.S. Army, against their Comanche and Kiowa enemies, during the 1860s and 1870s. Devastated by disease, the small number of survivors were resettled in Indian Territory among their Waco and Wichita allies. Grant Richards was their last Head Chief. His face heavily pitted by smallpox, he holds an eagle tail fan. His hair is bound by beaded straps trimmed with buillion braid from an army officer's epaulets. A hairpipe breastplate covers his white shirt and black-wool vest. Tied to his scalplock is a beaded tab with a trailing strap studded with silver buttons. [4]

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THUNDER TRAVELING IN THE MOUNTAINS (Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt), called CHIEF JOSEPH, Nez Perce.

Lot 33: THUNDER TRAVELING IN THE MOUNTAINS (Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt), called CHIEF JOSEPH, Nez Perce.

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Description: THUNDER TRAVELING IN THE MOUNTAINS (Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt), called CHIEF JOSEPH, Nez Perce. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. "Copied by / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha.- Chief Joseph / -Nez Perce- No1589" [in neg]Rinehart forthrightly noted that this was not an image he could claim as his own. It was cropped from a full-length portrait made by Charles M. Bell in Washington, D.C., January 1879. The great leader of the Nez Perce people had just been deported with his tribe to Indian Territory, in violation of the promises made when his people surrendered at the Bear Paw Mountains, Montana, in 1877. Seen here, he was then on his first trip to the Capitol, to try to get the presidential order rescinded. Within hours of arrival he and his companions were dinner guests at the White House, but President Garfield refused to lift the exile. It was not until a third of the Nez Perce prisoners-of-war had died in arid Oklahoma, that the survivors were allowed to return to their beloved Northwest in 1885. But their rich Wallowa Valley homeland had been taken by cattle ranchers. Joseph died in 1904, still an exile, on the Colville Reservation. Rinehart's copy image shows a slight softness compared to the brilliant, rich sharpness of his originals. [4-]

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THUNDER TRAVELING IN THE MOUNTAINS  (Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt), called Chief Joseph, Nez Perce.

Lot 34: THUNDER TRAVELING IN THE MOUNTAINS (Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt), called Chief Joseph, Nez Perce.

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Description: THUNDER TRAVELING IN THE MOUNTAINS (Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt), called Chief Joseph, Nez Perce. 10 x 8 - inch platinotype. "Copied by / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha.- Chief Joseph / -Nez Perce- No1589" [in neg.] Sealed in a 15 x 13 - inch brown window mat, BEAUTIFULLY COLORED BY MUHR. Tiny dig to right of his eye. [D4-]

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LITTLE WOUND  (Taopi Chik'ala), Oglala Lakota, 1899.

Lot 35: LITTLE WOUND (Taopi Chik'ala), Oglala Lakota, 1899.

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Description: LITTLE WOUND (Taopi Chik'ala), Oglala Lakota, 1899. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. "Copyright 1899 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha- Chief Little Wound / -Ogalalla Sioux- No1445" [in neg]Little Wound's uncle Bull Bear, the Head Chief of the Oglala, had been assassinated by the young Red Cloud in 1841, splitting the tribe. The Kiyuksa (Thrown Away) band seceded and moved far south into Kansas until 1870, when they were induced by government treaty to re-join their kinsmen in South Dakota. An uneasy "peace" was brokered and thereafter both Little Wound and Red Cloud were considered co-leaders on the Pine Ridge Reservation.Little Wound wears a single-trailer, eagle feather headdress and a beaded shirt trimmed with locks of human hair. A tobacco bag hangs from the stem of his pipe, at the crook of his left arm.A delegation of Oglala also attended the Omaha Exposition in the summer of 1899. Little Wound was photographed there by Heyn & Matzen. Apparently, Rinehart & Muhr were also able to photograph the Indian visitors that summer, after their return from the Pine Ridge expedition. The 1899 portraits on this dark, studio background were made in Omaha; while those dated either "1899" or "1900" on a stark, white background were made during the trip to Pine Ridge. Compare for example Revenger, Lot 38. . [4]

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RED SACK (Wojuha Luta), Oglala Lakota, at Pine Ridge, S.D.,1899.

Lot 37: RED SACK (Wojuha Luta), Oglala Lakota, at Pine Ridge, S.D.,1899.

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Description: RED SACK (Wojuha Luta), Oglala Lakota, at Pine Ridge, S.D.,1899. Unmounted 7 3/8 x 9 ¼ platinotype. "Chief Red Sack - No1638- Copyright 1900 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha." [in neg.]The eagle feather headdress may have been his own, as it does not appear in other portraits of the series. The beaded shirt was worn by Little Wound and others. At left, he holds elevated the stem and mouthpiece of a pipe; and on the right, the wing-tip of a golden eagle, used as a fan and eye shade. In order to accommodate the headdress, this is the only horizontal portrait in this large group. [4]

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REVENGER  (Lakota unknown), 1899.

Lot 38: REVENGER (Lakota unknown), 1899.

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Description: REVENGER (Lakota unknown), 1899. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. "No1634 -Chief Revenger. 'Crow' / Copyright 1900 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha." [in neg.]Called a "Crow," but photographed at Pine Ridge and posed in the beaded shirt of Chief Little Wound, he more likely was Oglala. Wonderful character of his face. [4]

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SITTING BULL (Tatanka Iyotanka), Hunkpapa Lakota, by William Notman, at Montreal, 1885.

Lot 39: SITTING BULL (Tatanka Iyotanka), Hunkpapa Lakota, by William Notman, at Montreal, 1885.

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Description: SITTING BULL (Tatanka Iyotanka), Hunkpapa Lakota, by William Notman, at Montreal, 1885. Unmounted 9 5/8 x 7 1/8 platinotype. "Copied by / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha- -Chief Sitting Bull / -Sioux - No1586" [in neg.]Rinehart acknowledges this as a "copied" image. The portrait was made while Sitting Bull toured in eastern Canada with the Buffalo Bill show. As a copy image, this is lighter and softer than most of the Rinehart prints, but still clean and undamaged. [3]

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SITTING BULL (Tatanka Iyotanka), Hunkpapa Lakota, by William Notman, at Montreal, 1885.

Lot 40: SITTING BULL (Tatanka Iyotanka), Hunkpapa Lakota, by William Notman, at Montreal, 1885.

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Description: SITTING BULL (Tatanka Iyotanka), Hunkpapa Lakota, by William Notman, at Montreal, 1885. Unmounted 9 5/8 x 7 1/8 platinotype. "Copied by / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha- -Chief Sitting Bull / -Sioux - No1586" [in neg.]This is a print of the previous lot, a unique print overpainted by Muhr. You can see details that he added or emphasized by comparing with previous lot. [4]

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SPOTTED ELK (Hehaka Gleska), Oglala Lakota, 1899.

Lot 41: SPOTTED ELK (Hehaka Gleska), Oglala Lakota, 1899.

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Description: SPOTTED ELK (Hehaka Gleska), Oglala Lakota, 1899. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 - inch platinotype. "-Chief- / Spotted Elk. Copyright 1900. / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha. - No1600 or 1690" [in neg]A member of Little Wound's band, Spotted Elk is posed in the same shirt and headdress in which the chief was photographed. Spotted Elk was a scout for Col. Nelson Miles at Fort Keogh, Montana Territory, in 1878-81, when he was photographed by both John H. Fouch and L.A. Huffman. [4]

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STRIKES PLENTY, Arapaho, 1899.

Lot 42: STRIKES PLENTY, Arapaho, 1899.

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Description: STRIKES PLENTY, Arapaho, 1899. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. "Copyright 1900 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha. - Chief Strikes / Plenty, / Arapahoe. - No. 1618." [in neg]Apparently visiting at Pine Ridge from the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming, the Arapaho had brought only "White" clothing. In order to present an "Indian" appearance, Muhr and Rinehart have draped him in a Pendleton blanket, with a Lakota woman's style of hairpipe breastplate. He holds a traditional Lakota pipe, with stone bowl and wooden stem decorated with quillwork. [4]

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WETS IT, Assiniboin, 1898. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype.

Lot 43: WETS IT, Assiniboin, 1898. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. "Copyright 1898 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha- Chief Wets-It / Assinaboine- No1120" [in neg]

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Description: WETS IT, Assiniboin, 1898. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. "Copyright 1898 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha- Chief Wets-It / Assinaboine- No1120" [in neg]Among his people a legendary warrior with particular power from the Thunderbird, Wets It was named for an occasion when his war party was surrounded by the enemy and in danger of annihilation. In answer to his prayer, a thunderstorm materialized out of a clear sky. The downpour slackened the sinew bowstrings of the enemy, effectively disarming them all and allowing the Assiniboin to fight their way through to freedom. He is posed in the headdress he wore during that event, with antelope horns, and red-dyed rooster hackles covering the cap. Unseen in this view, rattlesnake skins hang down his back. It survives, still in possession of his descendants. He wears the same wool, stripe-blanket capote seen in the S.W. Ormsby photos (Lots 115, 116) and carries the same shield, its cover painted with stars and hung with eagle feathers. Just a little lighter than most of the others in this section. [4-]

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WHITE MAN Kiowa-Apache, 1898.

Lot 44: WHITE MAN Kiowa-Apache, 1898.

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Description: WHITE MAN Kiowa-Apache, 1898. 9 5/16 x 7 1/2 platinotype mounted on dark grey-brown board measuring 13 5/16 x 10 7/8. "Copyright 1898 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha. Chief White Man / -Kiowa- No1041" [in neg]The Kiowa-Apache were a small band, very active among the first traders of horses in the 17th century. The first Spanish Governor of New Mexico, Don Juan de Oñate, lost a herd of about 600 horses on the headwaters of the Canadian River, in the Texas Panhandle in 1601. Within 25 years, these had produced thousands of offspring, easily available to the Kiowa-Apache who lived in the area. They captured and traded them north to the Pawnee, Ponca and Omaha in Nebraska; who bred and traded them further. By 1700, horses were crossing the Canadian line, and being traded to the tribes on Puget Sound. Allied with the Kiowa and Comanche during the 19th century, the Kiowa-Apache shared their reservation in Indian Territory when this photo was made. White Man was their last Head Chief. Brilliantly rich print. [4]

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WHITE MAN Kiowa-Apache, 1898.

Lot 45: WHITE MAN Kiowa-Apache, 1898.

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Description: WHITE MAN Kiowa-Apache, 1898. 5/16 x 7 1/2 platinotype mounted on dark grey-brown board measuring 13 5/16 x 10 7/8. "Copyright 1898 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha. Chief White Man / -Kiowa- No1041" [in neg] BEAUTIFULLY HAND-COLOREDThis is an outstanding example of Adolph Muhr's artistic skill in hand-coloring his own platinum prints. The delicacy and transparency of the colors is remarkable. Rinehart later sold prints which either he or a different technician had colored, usually with muddy and stacked paint. There really is no comparison with the images that Muhr produced. [4]

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WOLF ROBE (Honii Wotoma) Southern Cheyenne, 1898.

Lot 46: WOLF ROBE (Honii Wotoma) Southern Cheyenne, 1898.

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Description: WOLF ROBE (Honii Wotoma) Southern Cheyenne, 1898. 9 5/16 x 7 1/2 platinotype mounted on dark gray-brown board measuring 13 5/16 x 10 7/8. "Copyright 1898 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha- Chief Wolf Robe / Cheyenne -No1130" [in neg]This was the most-influential photograph of any Indian person made during the 19th century. Wolf Robe's craggy profile struck an emotional chord with Americans everywhere, so the image was pirated as soon as Rinehart first marketed his photos. A leading chief of the Dog Soldier Society, Wolf Robe was active during the 1860s in the valiant attempt to halt construction of the Central Pacific Railway across northern Nebraska, to protect the buffalo herds on which their families all relied. The Dog Soldiers succeeded for three years in delaying construction, but in July 1869, at Summit Springs, Colorado, they were attacked by the U.S. Army and their village destroyed. In later years, Wolf Robe was a Council Chief, who traveled to Washington, D.C., several times. Here, he wears a Benjamin Harrison peace medal presented to members of the delegation of 1891. [4]

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WOLF ROBE (Honii Wotama) Southern Cheyanne, 1908.

Lot 47: WOLF ROBE (Honii Wotama) Southern Cheyanne, 1908.

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Description: WOLF ROBE (Honii Wotama) Southern Cheyanne, 1908. Same as previous lot, but beautifully hand-colored by Muhr. This profile appeared on dozens of commercial products, from playing cards, to orange crate labels, to cigar boxes. It was reproduced literally tens of thousands of times, but never afterward with the phenomenal artistry of Adolph Muhr's earliest, hand-colored prints. [4]

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CRAZY BULL (Tatanka Witko), Oglala Lakota, 1899.

Lot 48: CRAZY BULL (Tatanka Witko), Oglala Lakota, 1899.

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Description: CRAZY BULL (Tatanka Witko), Oglala Lakota, 1899. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. "Copyright 1899 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha - Crazy Bull No. 527." [in neg]The young man's commercial pin-stripe shirt is worn with a beaded vest, quilled arm bands, a bone-hairpipe breastplate and a single-trailer, eagle feather headdress. The side-drops of striped, prairie falcon wing feathers have been carefully arranged by Muhr. [4]

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CURLEY (Ish-ish-i-she),

Lot 49: CURLEY (Ish-ish-i-she), "Survivor of Custer Battle," Crow, at Pryor, Montana, July 1899.

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Description: CURLEY (Ish-ish-i-she), "Survivor of Custer Battle," Crow, at Pryor, Montana, July 1899. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. "-Curley- / Sole Survivor / of / Custer Battle / -Crow-Copyright 1900 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha.- No1754" [in neg.]His hair is combed and tightly braided in tribal fashion. Wearing a white, pin-stripe shirt, Curley leans upon a Winchester carbine. This is a rare outdoor portrait, not in the studio. [4]

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DISTRIBUTING MEAT AT PRYOR, CROW RESERVATION, MONTANA, JULY, 1899.

Lot 50: DISTRIBUTING MEAT AT PRYOR, CROW RESERVATION, MONTANA, JULY, 1899.

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Description: DISTRIBUTING MEAT AT PRYOR, CROW RESERVATION, MONTANA, JULY, 1899.Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. "Copyright 1900 - / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha. -Distributing Meat- / -Crow -No1777" [in neg.]The Crow Head Chief Plenty Coups lived at Pryor, on the western side of the reservation. The Pryor community had announced a meeting of the Tobacco Society, a religious-social organization, probably in conjunction with the 4th of July, when the Department of the Interior permitted Indian assemblies in that period. It was a point of tribal honor that the host community would feed all guests. Here, members of the host committee have driven a steer to a section of the camp, killed it on the spot and are in the process of butchering and distributing the fresh meat and organs.In the background are seen the historic Arrow Buttes, believed inhabited by a race of supernatural dwarfs who may impart their hunting and battle prowess to those they deem worthy. It was an ancient tradition that members of a departing war party would each fire one arrow against a particular cliff, as an offering to the Little People. [4]

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EAGLE FEATHER  (Wanbli Shun) & Grandchild, Oglala Lakota, 1899.

Lot 51: EAGLE FEATHER (Wanbli Shun) & Grandchild, Oglala Lakota, 1899.

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Description: EAGLE FEATHER (Wanbli Shun) & Grandchild, Oglala Lakota, 1899. Unmounted 9 ¼ x 7 3/8 platinotype. "Eagle Feather & Papoose. / -Sioux- Copyright 1900. / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha No1674" [in neg]Young children traditionally were carried on a woman's back, held safely in position within the folds of her covering robe or blanket, and able to safely watch the world from over the shoulder of her mother, aunt or grandmother. Here, Muhr has simulated that tradition, for the child appears to be standing on something behind the woman. Her little dress is decorated with expensive elk's teeth, to indicate the family's love.Covering the fully-beaded cape of the woman's dress is folded a First-Phase chief's blanket made by the Navajo in Arizona and traded into the Northern Plains since the 1850s, at least. The Lakota valued these tight weavings as both beautiful and water-repellent. The blanket today would have a value of hundreds of thousands of dollars. [4]

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ELK WOMAN  (Unpan Win), Oglala Lakota, at Omaha, Nebraska, 1899.

Lot 52: ELK WOMAN (Unpan Win), Oglala Lakota, at Omaha, Nebraska, 1899.

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Description: ELK WOMAN (Unpan Win), Oglala Lakota, at Omaha, Nebraska, 1899. Unmounted 9 3/8 x 7 3/16 platinotype. "Elk Woman- No1642- / Copyright 1900 / F.A. Rinehart, / Omaha." [in neg.]The weight of glass seed beads sewn to the cape of her leather dress would have been close to ten pounds. The necklace of bone hairpipes, reaching perhaps to her knees, would have weighed nearly as much. Her hair has been cropped at jaw level during the previous year, in mourning for a close relative, and has not yet grown long enough to braid. Rinehart has attempted to obscure an earlier credit to Muhr. Fabulous print! . [4]

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