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Auction Description for Auctionata: Three Centuries of Tibetan Art
Viewing Notes:
A preview at Auctionata on Oct 08/09 is only possible by prior appointment. Tel: +49 30 9832 0221, E-mail: sales@auctionata.com
Sale Notes:
One of the most exceptional pieces is a fire-gilded bronze figure of Vajradhara in union with his female counterpart Prajnaparamita. The uniqueness of this sculpture lies, besides the quality of the finely chased work, in the extraordinary position of Vajradhara's hand, who does not have his arms crossed behind the back of the female deity as usual. Alongside many exceptional objects in this auction an item of historical importance is the hat of a minister from the Tibetan government (Kashag) under the 13th Dalai Lama.' Religious artefacts, fire-gilded bronze sculptures and ritual objects such as prayer wheels and malas reflect the profound Buddhist faith in Tibet. Fine thangka paintings, sacrificial vessels but also incredibly ornate items from the mundane world such as medicine spoons, needle cases or opium pipes are part of this auction. A special category is dedicated to masks which were worn by monks performing the famous cham dances. In addition, beautiful pieces of jewellery such as pendants and earrings will go under the hammer.

Three Centuries of Tibetan Art

by Auctionata


120 lots with images

October 11, 2013

Live Auction
120 Lots
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Two Iron and Brass Vajra and Dorje, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 1: Two Iron and Brass Vajra and Dorje, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Iron, brass Tibet, late 19th C Four and eight prongs Partially darkly patinated Measurements: 7 x 25 x 6.5 cm and 8.5 x 26.5 x 8 cm (height x length x width) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection These two Tibetan thunderbolts, called dorje in Tibetan and vajrain Sanskrit, are made out of iron and darkly patinated brass. The vajra is a symbol of indestructibility and indivisibility, as well as the male principle and perfection. This vajra is made out of iron, has eight prongs and a faint chased middle part. The larger thunderbolt, made from brass, has four prongs. These are located at each end and their curved shape is reminiscent of is reminiscent of an animal head. The globe-shaped middle part is decorated with lotus leaves. Both vajra are in good condition with natural patina and usual signs of age and wear. There is evidence of corrosion, dents, scratches and minimal loss of material. The items are 7 and 8 cm tall, 25 and 26.5 cm long and 6.5 and 8 cm wide respectively. Dorje/Vajra This item is a Buddhist ritual object, written vajra in Sanskrit and dorje in Tibetan. It is the main symbol of the Vajrayana, a stream of Mahayana Buddhism. In Sanskrit, the word means "hard" or "powerful" and in Buddhist philosophy the vajra is a symbol of indestructability, indivisibility and male principle. The vajra is used both as a sceptre and a weapon, with three, five or nine prongs. In tantric Buddhism, the versions with five or nine prongs are most common.

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Rare Iron Phurbu with Vajra Handle, Tibet, 18th/19th C

Lot 2: Rare Iron Phurbu with Vajra Handle, Tibet, 18th/19th C

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Description: Iron Tibet, 18th/19th century Partly openworked Figurally decorated butt Measurements: 34.5 x 4 cm (length x width) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This rare bronze Bön phurbu was crafted from iron in Tibet during the 18υth/19υth century. The ritual knife has a three-sided blade protruding from the mouth of a mythical creature. Phurbus are used to banish evil spirits. The handle has the form of a vajra, the symbol of indestructibility. The vajra has nine prongs and is partly openworked. The butt is decorated with the faces of a deity on three sides. The Bön phurbu displays minor signs of age and wear. Corrosion marks and minor scratches are seen here and there. The phurbu measures 34.5 cm in length and approximately 4 cm in width. Bön Bön translates literally to "reality", "incantation" and "true teachings" and was the predominant religion in Tibet before the 8υth century. The religion was originally strongly characterised by shamanism. This was evidenced by various incantations and sacrificial ceremonies. The Tibetans attempted to influence the unpredictable nature for their own benefit. The increasingly widespread practice of Buddhism led to a mutual influencing and coexistence of both religions.Phurbu Phurbu is often written phur-bu or phur-pa in Tibetan and its original meaning translates to "needle" or "tent peg". The phurbu is a ritual, often triple-sided, knife. It can be made from iron, wood or stone and is divided into three components: the top of the butt with a depiction of the respective deity, a vajra-shaped handle and a triple-edged point.

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Two Gau Amulet Boxes with Silver Front, Tibet, 19th Century

Lot 3: Two Gau Amulet Boxes with Silver Front, Tibet, 19th Century

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Description: Silver, copper, brass Tibet, 19th century Each with an image of Buddha Finely chased decorations with symbols of good fortune on the front Mountings on the side Partly with original contents and inscription on the back Measurements (smaller Gau): 11.5 x 9 x 4 cm (height x width x depth) Measurements (larger Gau): 17 x 11.5 x 6.5 cm (height x width x depth) Good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria These two Tibetan amulet boxes, called ga'u, each consist of a richly decorated silver front and a copper back. A window-like opening reveals a devotional image of Buddha, a Tibetan so called Gzagil. The detailed front is finely decorated with Buddhist symbols of good fortune, such as lotus flowers - the symbol of purity - the eternal knot and the shankha or conch. Also seen are the two goldfish, symbolizing fearlessness of drowning in the Ocean of Suffering, as well as the banner of victory and the treasure vase, representing longevity, wealth, prosperity and wisdom. Both shrines are curved upwards and the smaller box shows an inscription on the back. These prayer boxes are used to store personal amulets and other objects. The smaller Gau has not been opened and is filled with its original contents, which is very rare.The two Gau amulet boxes are in good condition with common traces of age and wear, such as small dents and scratches. The Buddha images are in part considerably abraded. The larger Gau measures 17 cm in height, 11.5 cm in width and 6.5 cm in depth; the smaller Gau measures 11.5 cm in height, 9 cm in width and 4 cm in depth. Tibetan Gaus Tibetan Gaus, portable amulet containers or prayer boxes, are mostly made from metal. They can be worn with a chain around the neck or attached to a hair slide. Gaus usually consist of two parts: the front is made of copper or silver or gold plating, often with finely chased decorations and sometimes with set with gemstones. Images of Buddha, Buddhist symbols of good fortune and other deities are often seen. Larger Gaus often have a window-like opening in the centre and have an arched shape in the upper area. The back is often made from copper and sometimes shows fine engravings, symbols or inscriptions.

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Tibetan Bronze and Copper Gau Amulet Box, 19th Century

Lot 4: Tibetan Bronze and Copper Gau Amulet Box, 19th Century

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Description: Gilt bronze, copper Tibet, 19th century Finely chased decorations with Buddhist symbols of good fortune Partly openworked Handles on the side Devotional image of Buddha with Tibetan inscription on the back Measurements: 15.5 x 11.5 x 4 cm (height x width x depth) Good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria This Tibetan amulet box, called ga'u, consists of a gilt bronze front and a copper back. These boxes are worn across the chest or under the arms. A window-like opening reveals a devotional image of Buddha, with a Tibetan inscription on the back. The detailed front is partly openworked and finely chased with Buddhist symbols of good fortune, such as lotus flowers, the eternal knot, the shankha or white conch, the wish-fulfilling jewel Cintāmaṇi and other motifs. These prayer boxes are used to store personal amulets and other objects.The amulet box is in good condition with a natural patina and light traces of age and wear, such as small scratches, dents on the top and minimal notches. Solder marks on the handles and edge of the back plate. The Gau measures 15.5 cm in height, 11.5 cm in width and 4 cm in depth.Tibetan Gaus Tibetan Gaus, portable amulet containers or prayer boxes, are mostly made from metal. They can be worn with a chain around the neck or attached to a hair slide. Gaus usually consist of two parts: the front is made of copper or silver or gold plating, often with finely chased decorations and sometimes set with gemstones. Images of Buddha, Buddhist symbols of good fortune and other deities are often seen. Larger Gaus often have a window-like opening in the centre and have an arched shape in the upper area. The back is often made from copper and sometimes shows fine engravings, symbols or inscriptions.

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Gau Amulet Box with Chased Silver Front, Tibet, 1900

Lot 5: Gau Amulet Box with Chased Silver Front, Tibet, 1900

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Description: Silver, copper Tibet, around 1900 or slightly later Image of Buddha inside with Tibetan inscription on the back Finely chased decorations with symbols of good fortune on the front Mountings on the side Weight: 219.25 g Measurements: 13 x 11.5 x 5 cm (height x width x depth) Good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria This Tibetan amulet box, called ga'u, consists of a richly decorated silver front and a copper back. Gau amulet shrines are worn by Tibetan men across the chest or under the arms. A window-like opening reveals a devotional image of Buddha. In this case the image shows a Tibetan inscription on the back. The detailed front is finely decorated in relief with Buddhist symbols of good fortune, such as lotus flowers - the symbol of purity - the wish-fulfilling jewel Cintāmaṇi, the dharmacakra, the eternal knot and the shankha or conch. The casket is curved at the top and can be mounted with handles on the side. These prayer boxes are used to store personal amulets and other objects.The Gau amulet casket is in good condition with common traces of age and wear, such as small dents and scratches. The Buddha image is considerably abraded. The Gau measures 13 cm in height, 11.5 cm in width and 5 cm in depth.Tibetan Gaus Tibetan Gaus, portable amulet containers or prayer boxes, are mostly made from metal. They can be worn with a chain around the neck or attached to a hair slide. Gaus usually consist of two parts: the front is made of copper or silver or gold plating, often with finely chased decorations and sometimes with set with gemstones. Images of Buddha, Buddhist symbols of good fortune and other deities are often seen. Larger Gaus often have a window-like opening in the centre and have an arched shape in the upper area. The back is often made from copper and sometimes shows fine engravings, symbols or inscriptions.

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Rare Stone Carving showing Dharmapala Kubera, Tibet, 18th C

Lot 6: Rare Stone Carving showing Dharmapala Kubera, Tibet, 18th C

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Description: Stone, polychromed Tibet, 18th century - painting newer Embossing with Tibetan writing verso 13.5 x 9 x 3 cm (height x width x depth) Good condition Provenance: from a notable Austrian private collection This rare relief of the Dharmapala Kubera dates to the 18th century, Tibet. Dharmapala Kubera is the protector of the teachings of Buddha and is venerated as god of splendour in India. He is holding a mongoose playing with a gemstone in his right hand. This rendering of the Dharmapala Kubera was polychromed at a later date. The god is sitting on a lotus throne with white accentuations. He is wearing a garment with folds. The mongoose in his left hand has light blue fur and is holding a red jewel. The Dharmapala Kubera's head shows a crown and an indicated mandorla. His grim face shows coloured accentuations, creating a nice contrast with the dark skin tones. There is an immersion with Tibetan writing on the reverse. The stone carving is in good condition with age-related signs of wear; abrasion of colour and grooves. The piece measures 13.5 cm (height); 9 cm (width); 3 cm (depth). Dharmapala Dharmapala is the protector of teachings for Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism. The Dharmapala protects believers from obstacles along their way to enlightenment. There are numerous Dharma protectors, possessing the aura of Buddha, Bodhisattva or another holy figure.

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Clay Figures of Amitābha and Khyung, Bhutan & Tibet, 1900

Lot 7: Clay Figures of Amitābha and Khyung, Bhutan & Tibet, 1900

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Description: Clay, hand-painted in polychrome Bhutan and Tibet, around 1900 or slightly later Colourful figure of Khyung (Bön deity) as a tsa-tsa (sacrificial offering) Clay figure of Amitābha is in its originally closed condition Measurements of Amitābha: 15 x 9 x 6.5 cm (height x width x depth) Measurements of Khyung: 15 x 12 x 3.5 cm (height x width x depth) Good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria This lot, comprising a figure of the Buddha Amitābha, often referred to as "The Buddha of Infinite Light", and a figure of the Bön deity Khyung, was crafted from clay in Bhutan and Tibet, respectively. The figure of Amitābha is hand-painted in polychrome, which is quite rare, and in its originally closed condition. Amitābha is sitting in Padmasana, the lotus position. His hands form the Bhumisparsa mudrā, the gesture of touching the earth, and he is holding a round bowl in his left hand. The richly decorated figure of Khyung served as a tsa-tsa, a sacrificial offering placed in holy places to purify negatives and create positive energy. Khyung is a protective deity similar to the Garuda, depicted here with spread wings. It is surrounded by a gold mandorla and stands on a stylised lotus base. A rectangular indentation is seen on the orange-coloured back.The figures are in good condition with common traces of age and wear. The tsa-tsa figure displays some loss of material around the edges and on the beak. The paint on both figures is slightly abraded in some areas. The figure of Amitābha measures 15 cm in height, 9 cm in width and 6.5 cm in depth. The figure of Khyung measures 15 cm in height, 12 cm in width and 6.5 cm in depth. Bön Bön was the predominant religion in Tibet before the 8υth century, when Buddhism became the official religion of the state. This indigenous religion was initially characterised by shamanic practices in the form of different healing and sacrificial rituals. The rise of Buddhism in Tibet led to both religions influencing each other, so that today Bön is generally seen as a type of Tibetan Buddhism.Tsa-Tsa Tsa-tsas are small figures traditionally made from clay used as sacrificial offerings in Mahayana Buddhist. Most often the Buddha or other deities are depicted on plates, which are placed inside a stupa, shrine or other place of importance. Tsa-tsas are also made for holidays and special occasions, such as a visit from the Lama.

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Fire-gilt Bronze Figure of Bodhisattva Amitāyus, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 8: Fire-gilt Bronze Figure of Bodhisattva Amitāyus, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Fire-gilt bronze Tibet, late 19th century Chased decorations Abundant jewellery and five-leaf crown Ambrosia vase with amrita and Ashoka-tree branch Measurements: 22.5 x 15 x 9 cm (height x width x depth) Good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria This fire-gilt bronze figure of Amitāyus was made in Tibet during the late 19υth century. The bodhisattva Amitāyus is a form of the Buddha Amitābha, but there is one difference: Amitāyus is the Buddha of Infinite Life and Amitābha is the Buddha of Infinite Light. They are reflective images of each other and symbolise longevity and wisdom. This figure shows Amitāyus sitting on a lotus pedestal in Padmasana with the soles of his feet turned upwards. His hands form the Dhyāna mudra, the gesture of meditation. He is holding an ambrosia vase filled with amrita, the nectar of immortality. An Ashoka-tree branch, the tree of life, is seen on top.The bodhisattva is adorned with opulent jewellery and wears a five-leaf crown on his head, which symbolizes the reign of the five elements. Amitāyus has a faint smile on his face. The lower portion of his body is surrounded by the curved ribbons of his garment. The figure is sealed with a copper plate on the underside and shows an inventory number and the double Vajra symbol.The bronze figure is in good condition with a natural patina and merely light traces of age and wear, such as gold abrasion in some areas and minor scratches in the chest area. The figure measures 22.5 cm in height, 15 cm in width and 9 cm in depth.

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Magnificent Gold-Painted Bronze Green Tara, Tibet, 19th/20th C

Lot 9: Magnificent Gold-Painted Bronze Green Tara, Tibet, 19th/20th C

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Description: Bronze, partially painted gold Tibet, late 19th century/early 20th Century Decorated with coral and turquoise gemstones Detailed and partly openworked figure Base with double vajra symbol Dimensions: 21.5 x 15 x 12 cm (height x width x depth) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This depiction of Green Tara was crafted in Tibet from partially gold-painted bronze. The Green Tara is a symbol of compassion and deemed the protector from all danger. The goddess is also often referred to as Syamatara or Dolma. Here, she is shown sitting on a gold accented lotus throne in the relaxed lalitâsana position, with the right foot supported by a further lotus pedestal. Her right hand is resting on her knee and holds a vase-shaped receptacle. The raised left hand is performing theprithvi mudra, by holding a lotus stalk between the thumb and index finger. This stretches up to the shoulder. Another attribute can be made out on the lotus blossom. The goddess' body is covered with precious jewellery featuring coral and turquoise stone inlays. The five-leaved crown displays her mastery of the five elements, behind which a topknot of hair protrudes. Her body is surrounded by the ribbons of her robe and her face is forming a slight smile, called theîshat-prahasita. The Green Tara's upper torso, arms, feet, crown and topknot, as well as the lotus bud, are all accented with golden colours. A copper panel sealed with a double vajra symbol is located on the underside of the base. This Green Tara is in good condition with natural patina and slight signs of age and wear. Gold abrasion and slight scratches are visible. The object is 21.5 cm high, 15 cm wide and 12 cm deep.

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Fire-Gilded Bronze Vajravarahi Dakini, Tibet, 20th C

Lot 10: Fire-Gilded Bronze Vajravarahi Dakini, Tibet, 20th C

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Description: Copper bronze, fire-gilded Tibet, 20th Century Detachable flame mandorla and staff Detailed and partly openworked depiction Copper plate sealed with double vajra symbol Dimensions: 19.5 x 13 x 5.5 cm (height x width x depth) Very good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This fire-gilded bronze figure is a detailed and partly openworked depiction of the Vajravarahi dakini. Dakini translates as "sky dancer" and transports the souls of the dead into the other world. Here, the dakini is depicted in a slightly dancing pose with her left foot placed on a human figure. The right leg is lifted. She is also holding various attributes. A filled oval kapala bowl is in her left hand. A gri-gug, a crescent-shaped dagger with a vajra handle, is held between the thumb, middle and ring fingers of her right hand. Twirling ribbons, precious jewellery and a staff in the crook of the left arm are also shown. The hair, pointing skywards, is exceptionally delicately chased. A boar's head can be observed on the right hand side and a crown with five skulls emblazons the dakini's head. The crown distinguishes her as ruler of the five elements. A flame mandorla, attached to the reverse side of the base, surrounds the goddess. The tendril decorated base is sealed underneath with a copper plate marked with a double vajra symbol. The Vajravarahi dakini is in good condition with natural patina and usual signs of age and wear. Gold abrasion, slight paint residue and small scratches are visible. The object is 19.5 cm tall, 13 cm wide and 5.5. cm deep. Vajravarahi dakini The dakini is a figure in Tibetan Buddhism who transports the souls of the dead into the sky. She is a spirit being and is often called "sky dancer", "air" or "sky walker". The dakini is a female spirit with a volatile temperament. She is often presented as being peaceful, wrathful or both simultaneously. Dakinis watch over spiritual growth of the faithful and also act as muse for spiritual practice.

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Fire-Gilded Bronze Dharmaraja Yama, Tibet, 1st H 20th C

Lot 11: Fire-Gilded Bronze Dharmaraja Yama, Tibet, 1st H 20th C

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Description: Bronze, fire-gilded Tibet, First half of the 20th Century Detachable flame mandorla Detailed depiction Fine chased ornaments Copper plate sealed with double vajra symbol Dimensions: 19 x 13 x 6.5 cm (height x width x depth) Very good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This Dharmaraja Yama was crafted in Tibet from fire-gilded bronze. This deity is the ruler of the bardo and the embodiment of death and justice. In this case, two human figures can be observed under his claw-like feet. The Dharmaraja Yama is presented in an energetic pose and a flowing, ornate robe. His hands contain various attributes. His right hand, for example, contains a gri-gug, a crescent shaped dagger with a vajra handle, up to the sky. The god's terrifying face displays powerful fangs and piercing eyes. A crown with five skulls emblazons his head and symbolises the mastery of the five elements. On the reverse side is a removable flame mandorla and the base is sealed with a copper base bearing the mark of a double vajra symbol. This Dharmaraja Yama is in very good condition with natural patina and usual signs of age and wear. Gold abrasion and a few indentations are visible. The object is 19 cm tall, 13 cm wide and 6.5 cm deep. Dharmaraja Yama The Dharmaraja Yama is the master of justice, with Yama being the embodiment of the Hindu god of death and Dharma being a term for law, justice and morals, as well as ethic and religious responsibilities. Yama originates from a god who ruled the underworld and united life and death. In the underworld, Yama informs the dead of their path of fate, determined by the sum of their good and bad deeds. Yama is often depicted with his accompanying animal, a black buffalo (Mahisha) or with terrifying dogs. Bardo The Tibetan word bardo literally means "intermediate state", "inclusion", "transfer" or the "intrinsic reality of the spirit". Bardo is the term for the state of existence intermediate between two lives on earth and in the other world.

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Gorgeous Tantric Rock Crystal Kapala, Tibet, 20th C

Lot 12: Gorgeous Tantric Rock Crystal Kapala, Tibet, 20th C

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Description: Rock crystal, silver, gilt and silver-plated copper, emeralds and rubies Tibet, 20th century Impressive cover decorations in high relief Tendrils in silver and gemstone inserts on the sides Three curved feet Measurements: 18.5 x 17.5 x 12 cm (height x length x width) Very good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria This tantric ritual cup, a kapala, is made from rock crystal and silver. It was made in Tibet during the 20υth century. The cover is made from gilt and silver-plated copper. Floral tendrils and buds are seen in relief. Also seen are two dragons with the wish-fulfilling jewel Cintāmaṇi. The cover has a knob in the form of a vajra with a depiction of a vajra underneath. The rim of the cover harmonises beautifully with the upper rim of the cup. The rock crystal has a fine lustre. The natural inclusions show a vivid pattern. The outer rim of the kapala is decorated with tendrils and gemstone inserts. The cup stands on three curved feet.The kapala is in very good condition with merely light traces of age and wear, such as small scratches, minimal dents inside and a missing gemstone. The kapala measures 18.5 cm in height including the cover, 17.5 cm in length and 12 cm in width.Kapala / Thod pa Kapala is Sanskrit for "skull". In Tibetan, these cups are called Thod pa, which also translates to "skull". They are ritual cups and are used in both Hindu and Buddhist Tantra. Especially in Tibet, these cups are elaborately decorated with precious metals and jewels or ornately carved by hand.

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Detailed Tantric Kapala Ritual Cup, Tibet, 19th Century

Lot 13: Detailed Tantric Kapala Ritual Cup, Tibet, 19th Century

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Description: Hand-carved skullcap, metal Tibet, 19th century Ashtamangala - Eight Auspicious Symbols Double vajra symbol in the centre Skull representations on the sides Measurements: 17.5 x 6 cm (length x height) Very good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria This tantric ritual cup is called Kapala in Sanskrit and thod pa in Tibetan. It consists of a hand-carved skullcap and shows the Eight Auspicious Symbols or Ashtamangala. These are comprised of the dharmacakra, Sacred Umbrella, eternal knot, the Dhvaja or Victory Banner, two goldfish, a lotus flower, the treasure vase and the right-turning white conch shell. A double vajra symbol is seen in the centre. The cup is lined with silver-coloured metal on the inside and decorated with skulls in relief along the rim.The kapala is in very good condition with hardly any traces of age and wear. Merely a few scratches are seen on the inside. The kapala measures 17.5 cm in length and 6 cm in height.Kapala / Thod pa Kapala is Sanskrit for "skull". In Tibetan, these cups are called Thod pa, which also translates to "skull". They are ritual cups and are used in both Hindu and Buddhist Tantra. Especially in Tibet, these cups are elaborately decorated with precious metals and jewels or ornately carved by hand.

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Tantric Damaru Drum with Silver Mounting, Tibet, 20th C

Lot 14: Tantric Damaru Drum with Silver Mounting, Tibet, 20th C

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Description: Skullcaps, silver, leather, turquoises and glass Fabric and leather cords, plastic beads, imitation shell (added later) Tibet, 20th century Fine floral decorations and animal representation in relief Colourful silk tassles (added later) Overall measurements: 62 x 7 x 11 cm (length x width x diameter) Good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria This Tibetan skull damaru is a tantric two-headed drum made from skullcaps, silver and leather. The Damaru is shaped like an hourglass and was used for different rituals. The drum is sometimes, like in this case, made from skullcaps with leather drum heads, which are struck by two wool beads attached to the sides. The two sides of this damaru drum are connected by a silver mounting with floral decorations and animal representations in relief as well as drop-shaped and round inserts in the centre. The colourful silk tassles are attached to the drum through an eyelet.The skull damaru is in good condition with common traces of age and wear, such as natural inclusions, scratches and small dents. The drum measures 62 cm in overall length, 7 cm in width and 11 cm in diameter.Damaru A damaru is a two-headed drum shaped like an hourglass used in Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism. In Tibet the drum is often made from skullcaps and connected with a piece of wood. The drum heads are made from leather; in smaller drums they are often stuck on. Two small strikers, mostly clay balls, are attached to the end of a string. The drum is a symbol of life and death, entering into Tibetan Buddhist mythology as part of the Bön religion.

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Wooden and Snakeskin Chöd Rattle Drum, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 15: Wooden and Snakeskin Chöd Rattle Drum, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Wood, snakeskin, cloth ribbon, brass ring Tibet, 19th century Colourful drumhead Dimensions: 19.5 x 10 cm (diameter x width) Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This Chöd rattle drum with wooden body dates back to 19υth century Tibet. The drum was used at religious ceremonies and has a clear sound. The drumhead, made out of dyed snakeskin, is sounded by rotating the body of the drum, which in turn moves small cloth balls contained inside it. The centre of the hourglass-shaped drum was crafted from cloth and further cloth ribbons are fastened to it via a brass ring. The rattle drum shows signs of age and wear. The skin has small holes in it and dryness cracks are visible in the wood. The cloth ribbons are damaged and discoloured in places. The item has a diameter of 19.5 cm and a width of 10 cm.

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Tibetan Dung-chen Copper Horn with Mountings, 20th Century

Lot 16: Tibetan Dung-chen Copper Horn with Mountings, 20th Century

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Description: Darkly patinated copper, metal Tibet, 20th century Floral mountings Threefold Extensible Two eyelets in the form of flowers Measurements: 177 x 22 cm (height x diameter) Good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria This Tibetan horn, called dung-chen, was crafted from darkly patinated copper in Tibet during the 20υth century. These horns can be up to four metres long. The monchs used them to summon the people for prayers or to signify the climax of a religious ceremony. This particular dung-chen horn is decorated with florally chased metal mountings. The two upper parts of the horn can be extended to an overall length of 177 cm. The two eyelets allow a strap to be attached to the instrument.The Tibetan horn is in good condition with light traces of age and wear, such as small dents, scratches and patina. The overall length of the horn measures 177 cm and the diameter is 22 cm.

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Nomad Leather and Bamboo Prayer Wheel, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 17: Nomad Leather and Bamboo Prayer Wheel, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Bamboo, leather, iron Bronze, copper, metal, imitation turquoise and coral inlays Tibet, 19th century Partially openwork fittings Buddhist symbols of luck Measurements: 46.5 x 12.5 cm (length x diameter) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This nomad prayer wheel was crafted in 19υth century Tibet and consists of a bamboo handle, a leather-covered body and adornments made using various metals. Spinning the wheel should bring about positive reactions, such as the accumulation of good karma. The wheel is decorated with openwork bronze pieces on the top and bottom side of the round body. Floral ornaments and the wheel of life can be seen. Imitation turquoise and coral inlays can be found on the side of the body, as well as a weight attached by a leather string. The wheel is crowned with a stylized lotus flower and the end of the handle is coated with a smooth iron fitting. The prayer wheel is in good condition with usual signs of age and wear. Corrosion, indentations and scratches can be made out. It is 46.5 cm long and the diameter of the wheel is 12.5 cm. Prayer wheel The prayer wheel is often also called a Mani wheel due to its shape. In some cases it contains imprinted prayers or mantras and is also decorated with them. The use of prayer wheels in Tibetan Buddhism is connected to mental and physical activity and is supposed to create spiritual thoughts. Through this, all daily life activities should be integrated into the path to enlightenment. Good karma should be accumulated. The desire for happiness and the eradication of pain is another reason for turning the wheel.

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Colourful Prayer Wheel with Bamboo Handle, Tibet, c. 1900

Lot 18: Colourful Prayer Wheel with Bamboo Handle, Tibet, c. 1900

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Description: Hand-painted copper, iron, bamboo Tibet, c. 1900 or later Richly decorated with enamel paint Buddhist symbols of luck in relief Dimensions: 43 x 10.5 cm (height x diameter) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This handheld prayer wheel was crafted in Tibet and is spun using a bamboo handle. The hand-painted body is attached via an inner iron rod. Different coloured Buddhist symbols of luck can be seen in heavy relief on all sides of the wheel. A closed yellow lotus bud is also found on top of the wheel. The prayer wheel is brought into motion via a weight that is attached to the round body via a chain. Copper fittings adorn both ends of the red handle. This handheld prayer wheel is in good condition with usual signs of age and wear. Paint abrasion, indentations, scratched and small holes in the bamboo stick are visible. The item is 43 cm tall and has a diameter of 10.5 cm. Prayer wheel The prayer wheel is often also called a Mani wheel due to its shape. In some cases it contains imprinted prayers or mantras and is also decorated with them. The use of prayer wheels in Tibetan Buddhism is connected to mental and physical activity and is supposed to create spiritual thoughts. Through this, all daily life activities should be integrated into the path to enlightenment. Good karma should be accumulated. The desire for happiness and the eradication of pain is another reason for turning the wheel.

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Throne Carpet of an Abbot with Floral Motifs, Tibet, 1900

Lot 19: Throne Carpet of an Abbot with Floral Motifs, Tibet, 1900

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Description: Wool Tibet, around 1900 Motif with different flowers Sino-Tibetan symbols of good fortune Measurements: 140 x 71 cm (length x width) Good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria This Tibetan carpet used to be in the possession of an abbot and dates to around 1900. Flower motifs are seen on a yellow background on the seat and backrest area. These flowers form a circle in the centre, surrounded by more floral ornaments. The flowers are framed by dot and meander bordures. The bluish colour of the bordures makes the central part stand out all the more.The throne carpet is in good condition with only light traces of age and wear. The fringes show a small blemish on one edge, where they are slightly thinned out. The length measures 140 cm and the width is 71 cm.

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Fine Thangka with Tara, Tibet, 19th Century

Lot 20: Fine Thangka with Tara, Tibet, 19th Century

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Description: Linen, silk, brocade Tibet, 19th century /around 1900 Several figural Tara depictions, rich in colour and detail Mounted on brocade frame Tibetan writing verso White stamp on silk frame with date '1918' 118 x 71 cm (height x length) Good condition Provenance: An important Austrian private collection This Thangka was painted on linen and it is framed by a brocade frame. The Tara is rich in detail and colour. Taras are symbols of empathy and purity. The main Tara figure at the centre is seated on alalitâsana, a lotus throne. Her right hand is pointed downwards; she is holding a vessel with her middle finger, ring finger and thumb. In her left hand she is holding a lotus branch - it curves upward behind her right shoulder. An aureola surrounds her head, and another envelops her entire figure. Her clothes are draped on her body and ribbons playfully surround her figure. There are a total of 21 Tara with different skin tones and facial features on the thangka. A landscape with blue sky that shows just a few clouds dominates the background. The brocade frame shows floral decorations. The thangka can be covered with the red and blue silk protector. The protector can be fastened by two strings. The painting shows Tibetan writing verso and a white stamp on the frame, verso, where it is also dated '1918'. The thangka is in good condition with slight age-related signs of wear and use. The painting shows slight abrasion and scattered folds and water stains. The silk protector shows a few small holes and sun bleaching. The piece measures 118 cm (height); 71 cm (length). The image measures 61 cm (height); 44 cm (width). Thangka A Thangka (Tibetan: ka thang, thang ga) is a scroll painting of Tantric Buddhism. It is used by meditation in temples or at home shrines and processions. Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, guardian deities, Arhats, various lamas, ascetics and Pandits was portrayed in scenes of her life in various incarnations. Often there are mandalas with the wheel of life schools and traditions. Thangkas are created by well-defined iconographic rules (in terms of body shape, dress and attitude of the sitter), and are particularly common in Tibet.

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Medicinal Thangka 'Minerals and Gemstones', 1st Half 20th C

Lot 21: Medicinal Thangka 'Minerals and Gemstones', 1st Half 20th C

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Description: Hand painted linen Tibet, first half of the 20th century Detailed and coloured depiction on the preparation of medicine Tibetan writing recto and verso Buddha and chorten verso Framed in a matte 56 x 40 cm (height by length) Good condition Provenance: from a notable Austrian private collection This medicinal thangka was painted by hand on linen in the first half of the 20υth century. It was made in Tibet and shows clear forms and colours, following the strict guidelines of iconographic art. The thangka shows eleven rows of minerals and gemstones to be used as bases for numerous medicines. The first row shows the different flavours and their effects on the human body. The other rows show minerals, organic materials, seashells, corals, gemstones and gzi stones. The images are highly detailed and show strong colours - each labelled in black Tibetan writing. The reverse shows a row of five Buddha figures situated underneath a chorten, surrounded by black ink inscription. The medicinal thangka is in good condition with slight age-related signs of wear; minimal abrasion of colour can be seen as well as water stains on the reverse. The piece is matted and measures 101.5 x 71 cm. The image measures 56 cm (height); 40 cm (length). Tibetan Medicine Tibetan medicine is closely tied to Buddhist teachings. It follows the principle that ignorance is the basis of illness. The philosophy includes three poisons of the mind: hatred, ignorance and greed. These poisons are negative manifestations of the three bodily energies Tripa, Bekan and rLung, which form the basis of illness. The energies are balanced in the healthy individual, and must be re-balanced in the ill. The vitality of the body depends on the elements: earth, water, fire, air and space - the balance provides the basis for a healthy mind and body. Thangka A Thangka (Tibetan: ka thang, thang ga) is a scroll painting of Tantric Buddhism. It is used by meditation in temples or at home shrines and processions. Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, guardian deities, Arhats, various lamas, ascetics and Pandits was portrayed in scenes of her life in various incarnations. Often there are mandalas with the wheel of life schools and traditions. Thangkas are created by well-defined iconographic rules (in terms of body shape, dress and attitude of the sitter), and are particularly common in Tibet.

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Medical Thangka '100 Medicinal Herbs', Tibet, 1st Half 20th C

Lot 22: Medical Thangka '100 Medicinal Herbs', Tibet, 1st Half 20th C

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Description: Hand painted linen Tibet, first half of the 20th century Instructional image with 100 medicinal herbs for mixing medicine Detailed and colourful depiction Tibetan writing on the front Framed in a matte 64 x 45.5 cm (height x length) Good condition Provenance: from a notable Austrian private collection This finely painted Tibetan medical thangka on linen dates to the first half of the 20υth century. The thangka is an educational piece showing 100 medicinal herbs to be used for the making of medicine. The herbs are shown high in detail and in colour. Among them for example mouse-ear, fenugreek, henbane, oriental fruit and the Tulsi plant - an anti-inflammatory. Each fruit, herb and bush is labelled in Tibetan. A red frame surrounds the image as a whole. Thangkas have clearly defined form and colours following the strict principles of religious icons. The quality of the execution is very important in a thangka. The thangka is in good condition with age-related signs of wear; small folds and slight abrasion of colour; water stains. The piece is matted and measures 64 x 45 cm (image); 101.5 x 71 cm (total). Tibetan Medicine Tibetan medicine is closely tied to Buddhist teachings. It follows the principle that ignorance is the basis of illness. The philosophy includes three poisons of the mind: hatred, ignorance and greed. These poisons are negative manifestations of the three bodily energies Tripa, Bekan and rLung, which form the basis of illness. The energies are balanced in the healthy individual, and must be re-balanced in the ill. The vitality of the body depends on the elements: earth, water, fire, air and space - the balance provides the basis for a healthy mind and body. Thangka A Thangka (Tibetan: ka thang, thang ga) is a scroll painting of Tantric Buddhism. It is used by meditation in temples or at home shrines and processions. Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, guardian deities, Arhats, various lamas, ascetics and Pandits was portrayed in scenes of her life in various incarnations. Often there are mandalas with the wheel of life schools and traditions. Thangkas are created by well-defined iconographic rules (in terms of body shape, dress and attitude of the sitter), and are particularly common in Tibet.

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Medicinal Thangka 'Prophylaxis Diagnosis Therapy', Early 20th C

Lot 23: Medicinal Thangka 'Prophylaxis Diagnosis Therapy', Early 20th C

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Description: Painting on linen Tibet, first half of the 20th century High in detail and strong colours Tibetan writing recto and verso Buddha and chorten, further symbols verso Framed in a matte 56 x 39.5 cm (height x length) Very good condition Provenance: from a notable Austrian collection This medicinal thangka from Tibet was painted on linen. It shows prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to various illnesses. The first row shows medicaments that help to prevent illnesses according to the Tibetan system of beliefs. The following row shows diagnostic methods and ways of treating illnesses - among the methods, the exorcism of demons. There is Tibetan writing along the lower edge. The scenes are framed in red and the reverse shows a row of five Buddha figures situated underneath a chorten, surrounded by black ink inscription. The thangka has clearly defined forms and colours, following the strict guidelines of iconographic art. All images are based on patterns. The Quality of the execution of a thangka is of utmost importance. The medicinal thangka is in very good condition with slight age-related signs of wear; minimal abrasion of colour, small folds. The piece is matted and measures 101.5 x 71 cm (total); 55.5 x 39 cm (image). Tibetan Medicine Tibetan medicine is closely tied to Buddhist teachings. It follows the principle that ignorance is the basis of illness. The philosophy includes three poisons of the mind: hatred, ignorance and greed. These poisons are negative manifestations of the three bodily energies Tripa, Bekan and rLung, which form the basis of illness. The energies are balanced in the healthy individual, and must be re-balanced in the ill. The vitality of the body depends on the elements: earth, water, fire, air and space - the balance of these provides the basis for a healthy mind and body. Thangka A Thangka (Tibetan: ka thang, thang ga) is a scroll painting of Tantric Buddhism. It is used by meditation in temples or at home shrines and processions. Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, guardian deities, Arhats, various lamas, ascetics and Pandits was portrayed in scenes of her life in various incarnations. Often there are mandalas with the wheel of life schools and traditions. Thangkas are created by well-defined iconographic rules (in terms of body shape, dress and attitude of the sitter), and are particularly common in Tibet.

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Medicinal Thangka 'Energy Flows and Vessels', 1st Half 20th C

Lot 24: Medicinal Thangka 'Energy Flows and Vessels', 1st Half 20th C

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Description: Painting on linen Tibet, first half of the 20th century Detailed and colourful rendering Tibetan writing recto and verso Images of gods verso Framed in a matte 48 x 405 cm (height x length) Very good condition Provenance: from a notable Austrian private collection This Tibetan medicinal thangka dates to the first half of the 20υth century. The fine painting on linen shows schematic depictions of energy flows, calledrtsa, which are an important part of Tibetan medicine. The flows combine to form three energy centres, or chakras, which are also used in treatment. Blood vessels and capillaries of the human body are also shown, as well as the human spine, which is shown schematically. There are various gods along the upper edge, Tibetan writing along the lower edge as well as further gods and inscriptions on the reverse. The images on a thangka are always based on patters. Forms and colours follow the strict guidelines of Tibetan iconographic art, requiring particularly high quality in their execution. The medicinal thangka is in very good condition with slight age-related signs of wear; minimal abrasion of colour, water stains along the edge. The work is matted and measures 101.5 x 71 cm (total); 48 x 40.5 cm (image). Tibetan Medicine Tibetan medicine is closely tied to Buddhist teachings. It follows the principle that ignorance is the basis of illness. The philosophy includes three poisons of the mind: hatred, ignorance and greed. These poisons are negative manifestations of the three bodily energies Tripa, Bekan and rLung, which form the basis of illness. The energies are balanced in the healthy individual, and must be re-balanced in the ill. The vitality of the body depends on the elements: earth, water, fire, air and space - the balance provides the basis for a healthy mind and body. Thangka A Thangka (Tibetan: ka thang, thang ga) is a scroll painting of Tantric Buddhism. It is used by meditation in temples or at home shrines and processions. Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, guardian deities, Arhats, various lamas, ascetics and Pandits was portrayed in scenes of her life in various incarnations. Often there are mandalas with the wheel of life schools and traditions. Thangkas are created by well-defined iconographic rules (in terms of body shape, dress and attitude of the sitter), and are particularly common in Tibet.

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Fire-Gilded Bronze Medicine Buddha, Tibet, 20th C

Lot 25: Fire-Gilded Bronze Medicine Buddha, Tibet, 20th C

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Description: Bronze, fire-gilded Tibet, 20th century Peaceful facial features Opulent adorned robe Copper plate sealed with double vajra symbol Dimensions: 20 x 14 x 9 cm (height x width x depth) Very good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This Tibetan Medicine Buddha, often also called Bhaisajyaguru, is made from fire-gilded bronze. He is sitting on a lotus pedestal in thepadmâsana, the lotus position. His left hand contains a bowl filled with healing nectar and is placed on the upwards-facing sole of his right foot. A myrobalan branch,Arura in Tibetan, is held between the thumb and index finger of the right hand. The detailed, intricately chased robe covers both shoulders whilst leaving the chest area exposed. The Medicine Buddha has a peaceful facial expression with half-closed eyes. The characteristic topknot is darkly patinated and extends above the rest of the figure. The ears are accented red on the reverse side. This Medicine Buddha is in very good condition with slight signs of age and wear. Gold abrasion, scratches and tiny indentations are visible in places. The object is 20 cm tall, 14 cm wide and 9 cm deep. The base is sealed with a double vajra symbol. Medicine Buddha The Dharma, Buddha's own teachings, claim that the cause of all illnesses are mental in nature. The three mental poisons, ignorance, hate and greed, must be overcome in order to find the path to enlightenment. Buddha Shakyamuni is therefore often also called Bhaisajyaguru, the Buddha of healing. The Dharma, the teachings of Buddha, were later named Buddhism and play an especially important role in Tibet and Japan.

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Mixed Lot of Three Ornate Medicine Spoons, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 26: Mixed Lot of Three Ornate Medicine Spoons, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Bronze, brass, turquoise Tibet, 19th century Fine chasing Two dragon figures With eyelets on the underside and side Length: 13 cm, 13.5 cm and 24 cm Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This mixed-lot consists of three Tibetan medicine spoons made out of brass and bronze. The long-handled spoon is decorated with two dragon figures, each facing opposite ends of the spoon. In between them is a bordered turquoise stone. According to Tibetan beliefs, turquoise protects the mind and soul. The handle is fine chased and a ring is located on the underside. The bowls of the two smaller spoons are bent upwards slightly and partially chased. The handle of one of the spoons has a thumb-rest and one of the ends is decorated with four circles. Between the ladle and the thumb-rest is a ring. The medicine spoons are in good condition with natural patina and normal signs of age and wear. In parts, earlier paint residues, scratches and dents are visible. The spoons have a length of 13 cm, 13.5 cm and 24 cm.

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Mixed Lot of 10 Different Medical Utensils, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 27: Mixed Lot of 10 Different Medical Utensils, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Leather, brass, copper Copper bronze, iron, wood, berries, drawstring Tibet, 19th C Five spoons, one container, one pair of forceps One small sack Two bowls Measurements: Spoon: 10-20.5 cm (length), Container: 14 cm (length), Forceps: 8.5 cm (length) Measurements of the sack: 12 x 13 cm (height x length) Measurements of the bowls: 1.5 x 7.5 cm (height x diameter) and 3 x 8.5 (height x length) Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This mixed lot is comprised of ten different medical utensils from Tibet. The little sack is made of leather and is fastened shut using a drawstring. The side is encrusted with berries. The five spoons were made out of brass, copper bronze and iron. They are fine chased in parts and are adorned with a floral pattern on the handle. The brass container consists of two parts, has a round wooden stick inside it and can be sealed via the rings located on the side. Both bowls are made out of copper and brass and have a long spout and side-handles. The forceps are also brass and are chased with a subtle circle pattern. This mixed lot is in generally good condition with natural patina and signs of wear, corrosion, dents and scratches. The drawstring is no longer functional. The spoons are 10 to 20.5 cm long, the container is 14 cm long and the forceps are 8.5 cm long. The sack measures 12 x 13 cm (height x length). The bowls are 1.5 cm tall with a diameter of 7.5 cm and 3 cm tall with a length of 8.5 cm. Tibetan medicine Tibetan medicine is closely related to Buddhism and is based upon the following assertion: "A lack of knowledge is the source of all illness". According to this philosophy, there are three so-called mental poisons: hate, ignorance and greed. These poisons are negative manifestations within the three bodily energies, Tripa, Beken, andrLung, and create a breeding ground for illnesses. These energies are balanced within healthy people and need to be brought back into balance amongst those that are sick. According to Tibetan beliefs, the elements earth, water, fire, air and space are responsible for the vitality of the body and the equilibrium of these powers ensures a healthy body and mind.

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2 Iron Firesteels and Yak Leather Purse, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 28: 2 Iron Firesteels and Yak Leather Purse, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Yak leather, silver, iron, bronze, cloth, coral, turquoise Tibet, 19th century Floral decoration Ornate handle, one with a coin on the eyelet Measurements: 21 to 27 cm x 10.5 to 12 cm (length x width) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection These two Tibetan firesteels are made out of iron and attached to a yak leather purse. The front side of the small purse is decorated with fine chased silver fittings with a floral pattern. It has been fitted with a round coral stone and is fixed to a small purse, drawing the gaze to the crescent-shaped iron below. The firesteel can be attached via a leather handle encrusted with gemstones and silver knobs. One handle has a coin attached to it via a ring. In Tibet the materials chosen to make these two firesteels have symbolic meanings. Silver is supposed to protect against evil, coral ensures good physical health and turquoise safeguards the soul. Both firesteels are in good condition with signs of age and wear. Natural patina, corrosion, dents and small cracks on the leather handle are visible in parts. The total length of the firesteels, including the handle, is between 21 and 27 cm and the width is between 10.5 and 12 cm.

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Root Wood and Silver Snuff Bottles, Tibet, around 1900

Lot 29: Root Wood and Silver Snuff Bottles, Tibet, around 1900

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Description: Root wood, silver fittings Small parts made from copper, leather string and an imitation coral insert Tibet, around 1900 Decorated with tendrils and animals Each with one mandala Larger bottle has a second opening on the front side Measurements: 17 x 10 cm and 9.5 x 7 cm (height x diameter) Good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria These two Tibetan snuff bottles are made from root wood decorated with silver fittings. The spoon of the larger bottle is made from copper and is attached to the bottle with a leather string and two eyelets. The bottle has a stopper in the form of a lotus flower on top as well as another copper stopper with a red imitation coral insert and floral silver decorations in the centre of the front side. More decorations in the form of animals, small circles and tendrils are also seen. A mandala and chased tendril ornaments are seen on the back. The second snuff bottle shows a mandala in the centre of the front side. It is more plain in appearance than the other snuff bottle and shows the fine grain of the wood. The spoon of this snuff bottle is replaced by a brass stopper.The snuff bottles are in good condition with natural patinas and light traces of age and wear, such as minor dents and scratches. The larger snuff bottle measures 17 cm in height and 10 cm in diameter, the smaller one measures 9.5 cm in height and 7 cm in diameter. Mandala The word Mandala translates to circle. Mandalas are geometric symbols in Hinduism and Buddhism, representing the entire Universe. Mandalas have a central image and branch out in round or square segments. They are used as an aid to meditation, helping to visualise Buddhist teachings as well as deities and symbols.

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Silver Snuff Bottle with Turquoises and Corals, Tibet, 1900

Lot 30: Silver Snuff Bottle with Turquoises and Corals, Tibet, 1900

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Description: Silver, turquoises, corals Tibet, around 1900 Decoratively chased Stylised lotus leaves, filigree work Small spoon attached to the stopper; chain and eyelet on the back for mounting Distinct foot with inventory number on the underside Overall weight: 144.55 g Measurements: 8 x 6.5 x 4 cm (height x width x depth) Very good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria This snuff bottle was made in Tibet around 1900 and is made from decoratively chased silver. The snuff bottle is set with corals and turquoises in the centre of both sides as well as the edge on the sides. The distinct foot of the snuff bottle, which shows an inventory number on the underside, is decorated with stylised lotus leaves, which also form an outer circle on both sides. The cover is also decorated with lotus leaves and crowned by a knob resembling the form of a spinning top. The chain connecting the stopper with the bottle allows for the bottle to be attached and worn.The materials used have symbolic meaning in Tibet. Silver is meant to protect from negative energy while turquoises preserve the psyche and soul and corals ensure physical health.The snuff bottle is in good condition with minimal traces of age and wear, such as minor dents and scratches on the gemstone inserts. The overall weight is 144.55 g; the snuff bottle measures 8 cm in height, 6.5 cm in width and 4 cm in depth.

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Tibetan Headdress and Silver Earrings, 19th Century

Lot 31: Tibetan Headdress and Silver Earrings, 19th Century

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Description: ilver, copper, brass, turquoises, coral Tibet, 19th century Finely chased work Headdress with large turquoise in the centre Traditional jewellery with symbolic meaning Overall weight: 258 g Measurements of headdress: 12 x 10 cm (length x width) Measurements of earrings: 9 x 2 cm (length x width) Good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria This Tibetan jewellery set was crafted from silver, copper and brass during the 19υth century. The headdress is decorated with a large turquoise in the centre as well as smaller turquoises and corals. A pin on the back allows for it to be attached to one's head. The silver drop earrings are also set with turquoises at the top as well as two round corals and one turquoise.Tibetan jewellery has a symbolic nature. Silver is meant to protect from negative energy while turquoises preserve the psyche and soul and corals ensure physical health. The jewellery can indicate both regional origin and social status. Wearing a certain piece of jewellery can express one's marriage status and even the ranks of high officials and ministers. Jewellery also served as a safe investment, as dowry upon marriage and as a valuable bequest. As Tibetan's believe the soul is located in the head region, protective jewellery was most often worn on the head.The jewellery set is in good condition with common traces of age and wear, such as minor breakages around the gemstones and minor loss of material in the copper on the back. The overall weight is 258 g. The headdress measures 12 cm in length and 10 cm in width. The earrings measure 9 cm in length and 2 cm in width.

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Khampa Pleated Ring and Silver Nomad Ring, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 32: Khampa Pleated Ring and Silver Nomad Ring, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Silver, coral, turquoise, cloth Tibet, late 19th century Decorated with small silver balls on the side Total weight: 67.5 g Ring size: 63 Pleated ring measurements: 4 x 6 cm (height x length) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This Khampa jewellery was made in Tibet and dates back to the late 19υth century. The Khampa people live in the highlands of east Tibet and prefer to use materials with symbolic meanings. In Tibet, silver is supposed to protect against evil, whilst turquoise safeguards the soul and coral ensures physical health. This ring consists of three encrusted coral pink gemstones bordered by small silver balls. The pleated ring is adorned with two coral stones and a medium sized turquoise gemstone. These are also framed by small decorative silver balls. The Khampa jewellery is in good condition with usual signs of age and wear. Dents and scratches are visible. The total weight is 67.5g. The nomad ring is size 63 and the pleated ring is 4 cm tall and 6 cm long.

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Silver, Turquoise and Coral Ear Pendants, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 33: Silver, Turquoise and Coral Ear Pendants, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Silver, turquoise and coral gemstones, glass Tibet, 19th C Traditional jewellery with symbolic importance Total weight: 62.75 g Dimensions: 11.5 x 2 cm (length x width) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection These Tibetan ear pendants date back to the 19υth century and are made from silver. The top section features a round, drop-shaped turquoise stone, crowned by a further three turquoise stones. The lower part is adorned with one turquoise and two small coral gemstones, as well as a pointed glass stone. Tibetan jewellery has symbolic character and a protective function. Silver is supposed to protect from evil, turquoise should safeguard the soul and psyche and coral ensures physical health. By wearing certain items of jewellery, various dignitaries and ministers could express their status or rank. Jewellery was an investment, used as dowry for marriage and often served as a valuable inheritance. Since Tibetans believed the soul is located within the head area, this is where they primarily wore their jewellery. These ear pendants are in good condition with usual sign of age and wear. Small chips to the stones and glass and slight scratches are visible. The total weight is 62.75 grams. The earrings are 11 cm long and have a width of 2 cm.

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Perak Headdress with Silver Trinket, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 34: Perak Headdress with Silver Trinket, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Partially gilded silver, turquoise, fabric, felt Zanskar, Tibet, 19th century Precious headdress for women Silver trinket with small turquoises 75 x 30 cm (length x width) Good condition Provenance: from a notable Austrian private collection This Tibetan headdress was made in Zanskar and dates to the 19th century. Perak headdress is worn by Tibetan women. This particular piece consists of a piece of felt and fabric, adorned with countless smaller and larger turquoises. The colour spectrum ranges from light blue to dark green; there is a small ornamental 'gau' - a trinket made of partially gilded silver. It was used to store personal items or lucky charms. Tibetan jewellery has a decorative as well as a symbolic function; silver is supposed to protect the wearer from evil, turquoises protect the psyche and the soul. The jewellery demonstrates the wearer's regional background and social position. Jewellery was often used a symbol of rank for high officials, ministers and dignitaries. Tibetan culture sees the head as focal point of consciousness and the seat of the soul. It is thus the point of possibility for enlightenment - this is why Tibetan jewellery comes mostly in the form of protective headdress. The Perak headdress is in good condition with age-related signs of wear; partial soiling on the side; the fabric shows wear and discolouration. The piece measures 75 cm x 30 cm.

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Yak Leather Belt Pouch with Turquoises and Corals, 19th C

Lot 35: Yak Leather Belt Pouch with Turquoises and Corals, 19th C

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Description: Yak leather, metal, copper, brass, iron, turquoises, corals Tibet, 19th century Fine chasing Filigree work Turquoise and coral inserts Measurements: 25 x 17 cm (length x width) Good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria This elegant yak leather pouch was made in 19υth century Tibet. The pouch can be carried or attached to your belt with the leather strap and the chain. Filigree work in copper, brass or metal is seen throughout. Floral ornaments and vine patterns are also seen. Round turquoise and coral inserts create colourful accentuations on both sides.The belt pouch is in good condition with a natural patina and light traces of age and wear. Here and there small inclusions are seen in the gemstones, as well as corrosion marks on the iron. The pouch has a tear on the side and the leather is slightly abraded. It measures 25 cm in length and 17 cm in width.

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Two Tibetan Fire-Steels made from Iron and Yak Leather, 19th C

Lot 36: Two Tibetan Fire-Steels made from Iron and Yak Leather, 19th C

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Description: Yak leather, iron, brass, copper, silver, coral Tibet, 19th century Floral decorations Partly openworked Mounting or leather handle on top Measurements: 6 x 10.5 cm and 6 x 14 cm (height x length) Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria These two Tibetan fire-steels are made from iron and each one is attached to a yak leather pouch. The larger fire-steel can be carried with an iron handle on the pouch. It is decorated on the front side with partly open worked brass with a floral pattern and framed on the sides by copper edges. The second fire-steel has a long leather handle and has a silver fitting on the front with floral tendrils in relief and a round decorative coral in the centre. The pouches each have an inner compartment for storing small possessions.The fire-steels are in generally good condition with traces of age and wear, such as corrosion, scratches, dents and minor loss of material on the silver fitting. The lower iron element of one fire-steel is broken on the side but held in place by the leather. The larger fire-steel measures 6 cm in height and 14 cm in length, the other measures 6 cm in height and 10.5 cm in length.

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Bronze Butter Lamp and Chhaang Jug, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 37: Bronze Butter Lamp and Chhaang Jug, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Bronze, copper, brass Tibet, 19th century Engraved with Tibetan inscription and inventory number on the underside of the jug Hammer blow décor on the body of the jug Measurements (butter lamp): 11 x 9.5 cm (height x diameter) Measurements (jug): 21 x 19.5 cm (width x height) Good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria This lot comprises a bronze butter lamp and a chhaang jug with a brass and copper body made in Tibet during the 19υth century. Chhaang is a Tibetan beer brewed from barley, millet or rice grains. It has a relatively low alcohol content and is said to ease the harsh cold of the Himalayan Mountains. The jugs are used to serve the drink to guests. This particular jug shows a hammer blow décor and is decorated with brass fittings. The small Tibetan butter lamp is often found in temples and was traditionally used to burn clarified yak butter (now often ghee or vegetable oil), focusing the mind and banishing darkness. The lamps are also often used as incense burners.The lamp and jug are in good condition with natural patinas and common traces of age and wear, such as minor dents and scratches on the surface. The jug is engraved with a Tibetan inscription and bears an inventory number on the underside. The jug measures 21 cm in width and 19.5 cm in height. The butter lamp measures 11 cm in height and 9.5 cm in diameter.

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Brass and Copper Tea Strainer and Tea Scoop, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 38: Brass and Copper Tea Strainer and Tea Scoop, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Brass, copper Tibet, 19th century Handles with small hooks and curved on the sides Measurements: 7 x 25.5 x 10 cm and 6.5 x 32 x 10 cm (height x length x diameter) Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria This antique set from Tibet comprises a brass tea strainer and a copper tea scoop. The strainer tapers downwards and has a slightly stepped shape. The handle of the strainer is curbed on the sides and slightly bent upwards in the centre. The strainer would retain the loose tea while water would flow through the holes and - if used in conjunction - into the tea scoop, ready to be served. The scoop also has a handle curved on the sides and a plain body. The strainer can be placed inside the scoop and small hooks on the ends of the handles allow them to be hung on a wall.The set is in age-related condition with natural patina and traces of wear, such as dents, scratches and cracks on the back of the handle and in the strainer. The strainer measures 7 cm in height, 25.5 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter; the scoop measures 6.5 cm in height, 32 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter.

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Noble Three Part Silver Jade Tea Bowl, Tibet, around 1900

Lot 39: Noble Three Part Silver Jade Tea Bowl, Tibet, around 1900

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Description: Jade, partly gilded silver, coral Tibet, around 1900 Detailed decorations with Buddhist symbols of good fortune Amber-coloured jade Knob with coral Consists of three parts Silver weight: 203.3 g Measurements: 17 x 13 cm (height x diameter) Good condition Provenance: from an important private collection in Austria This Tibetan jade tea bowl has a standing foot rim as well as a cover made from richly decorated silver. The jade bowl has an elegant amber colour and is slightly opaque with natural inclusions. The silver is partly gilded and decorated with Buddhist symbols of good fortune. The foot rim has the shape of a flower with petals turned upwards. The symbols are surrounded by fine lotus tendrils. In Buddhism, lotus represents purity and spiritual clarity. The tendrils are also found on the lower rim of the cover. The cover is crowned by a coral knob and decorated with meander bordures and more Buddhist lucky symbols. This elegant tea bowl probably used to be owned by a Tibetan nobleman.The tea bowl is in good condition with light traces of age and wear. The silver parts have barely visible dents. The jade bowl has a dent on the upper rim as well as hairline scratches. The silver weight is 203.3 g. When assembled, the piece measures 17 cm in height and 13 cm in diameter.

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Two Silver, Iron and Wood Tsampa Containers, Tibet, 1900

Lot 40: Two Silver, Iron and Wood Tsampa Containers, Tibet, 1900

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Description: Iron, brass, wood, silver, coral, turquoise Tibet, c. 1900 or later Decorative fittings with Buddhist symbols of luck Charming noble man's container with silver fittings Partially openwork Measurements: 10 to 16 x 14.5 to 15 cm (height x diameter) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection Both of these tsampa containers originate from Tibet and have an iron and wood body. They were used to store tsampa, the staple food of Tibet. Tsampa containers were also a symbol of status and prestige. The containers were often turned from wood. They were seldom hand-painted, decorated with silver fittings or fitted with gemstones. The tsampa container offered here made out of iron with brass fittings was originally only used by monks in monasteries. The wall is adorned with Buddhist symbols of luck, such as the wheel of life or the endless lucky knots in the medallion. The brass lid also has a rich ridged décor and a floral relief pattern. The wooden container originally belonged to a noble man. The lid is fitted with coral and turquoise stones. Animals and floral decorations are visible on the silver fittings. Stylised lotus leaves embellish the underside lip of the lid and edges of the container, whilst a dragon can be seen on the silver fitting on the underside of the bowl. Both tsampa containers are in good condition with natural patina and usual signs of age and wear. The wood has slight dryness cracks, partial traces of moisture, small scratches, dents and corrosion is evident in parts of the wall. The containers have a height of 10 to 16 cm and a diameter of 14.5 to 15 cm. Tsampa Tsampa is a staple food in Tibet. The corn is obtained from roasted barley and prepared fresh daily. This resilient cereal ripens quickly and is cured by roasting it over an open fire.

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Ebony Cutlery & Holder with Tsampa Spoon, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 41: Ebony Cutlery & Holder with Tsampa Spoon, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Bamboo, ebony, silver Iron, brass, copper, leather, coral Tibet, 19th century/ around 1900 Partially open worked Fine chasing and floral pattern Inventory number on the underside of the spoon Silver spoon weight: 52.30 g Spoon measurements: 13 x 3.5 cm (length x width) Cutlery measurements: 29 x 3 x 4 cm(length x width x depth) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This ebony cutlery set with its case and a silver tsampa spoon is from Tibet. The cutlery is stored within a bamboo quiver. This is partially adorned with openwork brass fittings. Curved tendrils, floral patterns and mask-shaped facers are visible. The side-handle is decorated with ribbons, making it possible to wear the belt. The quiver holds a pair of ebony chopsticks, a knife with an iron blade, as well as an ebony handle with brass fittings. The double-sided tsampa spoon is fine chased and fitted with a coral stone in the middle. This is reminiscent of a flower due to the chased pattern surrounding it. An inventory number with a ring to attach it is located on the underside of the spoon. This set consists of cutlery and a spoon is in good condition with natural patina and usual signs of age and wear. Small dents and dryness cracks in the wood are visible. The silver spoon weighs 52.3g and is 13 cm long and 3.5 cm wide. The cutlery in the quiver is 29 cm long, 3 cm wide and 4 cm deep. Tsampa Tsampa is a staple food in Tibet. The corn is obtained from roasted barley and prepared fresh daily. This resilient cereal ripens quickly and is cured by roasting it over an open fire.

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Large Wooden Frame Drum with Iron Pendants, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 42: Large Wooden Frame Drum with Iron Pendants, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Wood, leather skin, iron pendants, twine Tibet, 19th century Wooden rods on the reverse side as holder Numerous ornaments on the underside Dimensions: 42 x 16 cm (diameter x height) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This wooden frame drum from Tibet has a leather skin that ensures a deep sound. Numerous iron pendants can be found on the lower area, intended to ward off evil. The drum was used at ritual ceremonies and can be carried using the wooden rods on the reverse side. The edge of the round drum is covered with rattan. Twine borders the inside of the drum, attaching the body to the drumhead. The leather on the inside of the drum has been dyed through visible brushwork. This frame drum is in good condition with signs of age and wear. Some loss of material on one of the rods on the reverse side and the side decorations, as well as partial corrosion of the ornaments, is visible. The item has a diameter of 42 cm and is 16 cm tall.

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Yak Cham Dance Mask with Brocade Costume and Boots, 20th C

Lot 43: Yak Cham Dance Mask with Brocade Costume and Boots, 20th C

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Description: Hand-painted papier-mâché, silk brocade, leather Cotton, velvet, flannel, felt, brass buttons, iron eyelets Tibet, 20th century Crown with five skulls Measurements (mask): 43,5 x 38 x 41 cm (height x width x depth) Measurements (boots): 44 x 28.5 cm (height x length); shoe size 43 (US: 10) Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This Chitipati cham dance costume was made in Tibet and consists of three parts: a hand-painted yak mask, a colourful silk brocade costume and a pair of black velvet boots. The yak head has a pink-coloured open mouth with sharp teeth and a rolled up tongue. The large eyes wide open are underlined by the creatures golden eyebrows. The eyebrows direct the viewer's eyes onto the curved horns. The colourful dress is decorated with lotus tendrils and gold coloured dragons. The costume can be tied at the back through two eyelets. An extensive blue and red collar with the same decoration can be attached worn around the neck. The boots have a brown felt and leather sole, a leather shoe and a velvet bootleg The mask displays signs of age and wear, such as repaired breakages on the crown skulls, loss of material on the back, minor dents here and there and some traces of wax on the inside. The mask measures 39 cm in height, 40 cm in width and 12 cm in depth. Cham dance Cham is a lively masked costumed dance. It can vary according to the region it is performed in and often portrays different themes. The Tibetan wordcham translates literally to "border" or "wave". In pre-Buddhist times, Cham dances were formally fertility rites, used to ward off evil demons, particularly during the turn of the year. Notions of protection and defence play an important role in the Buddhist form of the dance. Protective gods and demons deemed by the laity as being forces of nature and outer enemies are embodied through spectacular masks and robes. They depict spiritual obstacles for the consecrated that must be overcome on the way to salvation.

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Hand Painted

Lot 44: Hand Painted "Dharmapala" Cham Dance Mask, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Papier-mâché, hand-painted, fabric Tibet, 19th century Impressive object Partly openwork Crown with five skulls Detailed design Mounting holes in the edges Measurements: 33 x 35 x 21 cm (height x length x width) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This Cham dance mask, made out of hand-painted papier-mâché and fabric, depicts the Dharmapala and dates back to 19υth century Tibet. Dharmapala is the protector of the Buddhist teachings and protects people from various obstacles. This mask was used in ritual masked dances, during which forces of nature were originally conjured. The deity has a red face, whilst his beard and eyebrows are painted gold. The mouth is open and his pointed fangs and twisted tongue can be seen. The hypnotic eyes are fixed straight ahead and the crown with five skulls on it is a sign of the mastery of the five elements. The mask can be worn by fastening it with a string through the mounting holes. The mask is in good condition with usual signs of age and wear. Small notches are on the front side and edges, while paint abrasion and scratches are visible in other places. The mask is 33 cm high, 35 cm long and 21 cm wide. Dharmapala Dharmapala translates to "Dharma-defender" and is the name given to deities in Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism that protect the Buddhist teachings. The Dharmapala is supposed to protect believers from inner and outer obstacles, so that they can achieve spiritual enlightenment. There are many Dharma-defenders and they can be an emanation of a Buddha, Bodhisattva or another healing being. Cham dance Cham is a lively masked costumed dance. It can vary according to the region it is performed in and often portrays different themes. The Tibetan wordcham translates literally to "border" or "wave". In pre-Buddhist times, Cham dances were formally fertility rites, used to ward off evil demons, particularly during the turn of the year. Notions of protection and defence play an important role in the Buddhist form of the dance. Protective gods and demons deemed by the laity as being forces of nature and outer enemies are embodied through spectacular masks and robes. They depict spiritual obstacles for the consecrated that must be overcome on the way to salvation.

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Cham Dance Mask of a Chitipati, Tibet, 20th Century

Lot 45: Cham Dance Mask of a Chitipati, Tibet, 20th Century

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Description: Hand-painted papier-mâché, wire, fabric Tibet, 19th century Crown with five skulls Gold-coloured accentuations Measurements: 39 x 40 x 12 cm (height x width x depth) Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This Chitipati cham dance mask, made out of hand-painted papier-mâché and fabric, dates back to 20υth century Tibet. Chitipati are dancing skeletons meant to remind us of the impermanence of life. The death dance is practiced in all tantric traditions and also during the Monlam or Great Prayer Festival. The dance is meant to purify negativities. This mask shows a wide grin, hollow red eyes and a third eye on the forehead with a black and yellow iris. The mask has a crown with five skulls. Gold accentuations are seen throughout. The mask displays signs of age and wear, such as repaired breakages on the crown skulls, loss of material on the back, minor dents here and there and some traces of wax on the inside. The mask measures 39 cm in height, 40 cm in width and 12 cm in depth. Cham dance Cham is a lively masked costumed dance. It can vary according to the region it is performed in and often portrays different themes. The Tibetan wordcham translates literally to "border" or "wave". In pre-Buddhist times, Cham dances were formally fertility rites, used to ward off evil demons, particularly during the turn of the year. Notions of protection and defence play an important role in the Buddhist form of the dance. Protective gods and demons deemed by the laity as being forces of nature and outer enemies are embodied through spectacular masks and robes. They depict spiritual obstacles for the consecrated that must be overcome on the way to salvation.

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Wooden Bön

Lot 46: Wooden Bön "Khyung" Eagle Cham Dance Mask, Tibet, c. 1900

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Description: Wood, hand-painted Tibet, c. 1900 or later Golden accents Top, bent horns and skull on the forehead are all detachable Partially openwork Mounting holes in the edges Measurements: 46 x 23 x 29 cm (height x length x width) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This hand-painted Cham dance mask depicts the Bön Khyung eagle and was crafted in Tibet. In this case, the horned protective god is shown with an upwards-bent, open beak. The piercing eyes are emphasised through golden eyebrows and small flames. This can also be observed at the side of the beak and on the cheekbones. A skull is located on the forehead of the mask, framed by detachable horns. The mounting holes are located on the border of the mask and enable the mask to be fastened in place using string. This dance mask was originally used during various ritual masked dances for the conjuring of forces of nature. The mask is in good condition with usual signs of age and wear. Colour abrasion, scratches and small indentations are visible. It is 46 cm high, 23 cm long and 29 cm wide. Cham dance Cham is a lively masked costumed dance. It can vary according to the region it is performed in and often portrays different themes. The Tibetan wordcham translates literally to "border" or "wave". In pre-Buddhist times, Cham dances were formally fertility rites, used to ward off evil demons, particularly during the turn of the year. Notions of protection and defence play an important role in the Buddhist form of the dance. Protective gods and demons deemed by the laity as being forces of nature and outer enemies are embodied through spectacular masks and robes. They depict spiritual obstacles for the consecrated that must be overcome on the way to salvation.

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Btsan Mountain Deity Cham Dance Mask, Papier-Mâché, 20th C

Lot 47: Btsan Mountain Deity Cham Dance Mask, Papier-Mâché, 20th C

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Description: Hand-painted papier-mâché Tibet, 20th century Impressive depiction Inventory number inside Dimensions: 31 x 24.5 cm (height x width) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This impressive Tibetan papier-mâché cham dance mask depicts a btsan mountain deity. The btsan are especially powerful deities. They live between the sky and earth, but can also appear in natural surroundings. The btsan are portrayed as riding hunters with red skin. The fierce face reveals white pointed fangs, piercing eyes, gold accented eyebrows and a side-beard. The broad nose is slightly curled and is flanked by large ears. The hair is formed in locks and mounting holes are located on the edge of the mask so that it can be worn by fastening it with string. The inside of the mask is decorated with orange colours and marked with an inventory number. The mask displays signs of age and wear. Slight cracks on one of the eyebrows and brown colour flaking on the nose and chin are visible. The bottom edge is somewhat damaged. The object is 31 cm tall and 24.5 cm wide. Cham dance Cham is a lively masked costumed dance. It can vary according to the region it is performed in and often portrays different themes. The Tibetan wordcham translates literally to "border" or "wave". In pre-Buddhist times, Cham dances were formally fertility rites, used to ward off evil demons, particularly during the turn of the year. Notions of protection and defence play an important role in the Buddhist form of the dance. Protective gods and demons deemed by the laity as being forces of nature and outer enemies are embodied through spectacular masks and robes. They depict spiritual obstacles for the consecrated that must be overcome on the way to salvation.

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Hand Painted Clay Relief with Palden Lhamo, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 48: Hand Painted Clay Relief with Palden Lhamo, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Hand painted clay relief Tibet, 19th century Polychrome coloured - repainted Detailed rendering 10.5 x 7 x 3 cm (height x width x depth) Provenance: from a notable Austrian private collection This clay relief shows the goddess palden lhamo. The relief is polychromed and hand painted. It dates to 19υth century Tibet. The awesome goddess is riding a horse in dynamic pose. She is holding a sceptre in her right hand. Her left hand is placed in front of her chest. Her feet form the lalitâsana, a relaxed position. The head of a human can be seen under her left foot. She is wearing precious jewellery and clothes covering her black body. Her expression is grim and her hair stands up from behind her crown. The relief of Palden Lhamo shows age-related signs of wear; restored cracks, grooves verso, abrasion of colour; slight loss of material on the figure and horse. The piece measures 10.5 cm (height); 7 cm (width); 3 cm (depth). Palden Lhamo Palden Lhamo is a Tibetan goddess, protector of the teachings of Buddha. The first mention of her dates to the 11υth century. As part of the Buddhist-Tibetan pantheon, she is venerated in the Bön. As protector of the Dalai Lama, she has an important place in the Gelug school. Palden Lhamo is also the protector of the city of Lhasa and of the Tibetan government. Iconographically, Palden Lhamo is tied to the taras and the sarasvati; her appearance in thangka paintings is usually uncanny and intimidating.

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Ceramic Relief of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara, post-1900

Lot 49: Ceramic Relief of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara, post-1900

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Description: Ceramic, painted silver Tibet, post-1900 Detailed finish Standing depiction on a lotus pedestal Numerous attributes in hands Inventory number on reverse side Measurements: 24.5 x 16.5 x 2 cm (height x length x width) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This detailed ceramic relief from Tibet shows the "Avalokiteśvara with one thousand arms and eleven heads", the Bodhisattva of compassion. He is in an upright position, thesamabhanga, on a lotus pedestal. Two other figures are visible next to each of his feet. He is holding a jewel as a sign of wisdom in the two hands clasped in front of his chest. His other, outstretched hands, are holding up various attributes to the sky. The heads of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara become narrower as they extend upwards, invoking the image of a tall crown. The deity is surrounded by the mandorla of his numerous hands and the border of the relief depicts stylised twining flowers. The relief is in good condition with slight signs of age and wear. Some paint abrasion, scratches and indentations are visible, as well as flaws caused during production on the reverse side. A inventory number is also located on the reverse of the object. The relief is 24.5 cm tall, 16.5 cm long and 2 cm wide. Avalokiteśvara In Mahayana Buddhism, Avalokiteśvara is known as the Bodhisattva of compassion. Literally translated his name roughly means "The Lord looking at the world with compassion". Already at a young age Avalokiteśvara resolved to support all living creatures and help them to salvation. He swore an oath never to ease his efforts, otherwise he should shatter into a thousand pieces. According to legend he then ranged the world. As he paused to look at his work, he noticed that the suffering of the people had not diminished. This moment let him doubt, so he broke into a thousand pieces. Countless Buddhas immediately came to him to put him together again. But this time they gave him a thousand arms and eleven heads, so that he could better fulfil his vow.

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Large Tsa Tsa Bronze Modell with Clay Negative, Tibet, 19th C

Lot 50: Large Tsa Tsa Bronze Modell with Clay Negative, Tibet, 19th C

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Description: Clay, bronze Tibet, 19th century Depiction of a deity Finely worked details Inventory number on reverse side Model measurements: 14.5 x 12 x 7.5 cm (height x length x width) Good condition Provenance: From a significant Austrian private collection This Tsa-Tsa model dates back to 19th century Tibet and was crafted from bronze. This model is exceptional, as the clay negative has been supplied with it, which is particularly unusual. A deity is depicted on a lotus pedestal. The deity is adorned with precious jewellery, surrounded by a vine mandorla and holding various attributes. The finer details are more visible in the bronze imprint and have been delicately elaborated. The model's reverse side features a handle and bears, along with the negative, an inventory number. The model and imprint are in good condition with natural patina and slight signs of age and wear. Small scratches, dents and flaws on the reverse side, caused during production, are visible. The clay figure has small chips in places. The model is 14.5 cm tall, 12 cm long and 7.5 cm deep. Tsa-Tsa Tsa-Tsa, or Tsatsa, are small tablets used as a sacrificial offering within Mahayana Buddhism that are supposed to be provide salvage in a time of emergency. They usually depict Buddha or deities and are placed in important places, such as in a stupa. Tsa-Tsas are also produced for public holidays and important occasions, such as a visit from the lama.

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