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Auction Description for Early American: Colonial America - Revolutionary War - War of 1812
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Colonial America - Revolutionary War - War of 1812

(395 Lots)

by Early American


395 lots with images

August 23, 2014

Live Auction

P. O. Box 3507

Rancho Santa Fe, CA, 92067 USA

Phone: 00 1 858 759 3290

Fax: 00 1 858 759 1439

Email: auctions@earlyamerican.com

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Autograph, LORD JEFFERY AMHERST. 1796-Dated, Manuscript Document Signed Twice

Lot 1: Autograph, LORD JEFFERY AMHERST. 1796-Dated, Manuscript Document Signed Twice

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Description: AutographsBritish Commander-in-Chief of North America and the British Army Lord Jeffrey AmherstLORD JEFFERY AMHERST. English soldier; British Commander-in-Chief of North America; Governor General of British North America, and Commander-in-Chief of the British Army. January 22, 1796-Dated, Manuscript Document Signed, "Amherst" twice, 4 pages, measuring a large size 13" x 18.75", Choice Very Fine. A Land transaction involving four parties. Amherst signs on page 3 next to a well preserved example of his red wax seal, and also Signs again on the verso. Some modest splits along horizontal folds, overall beautifully and boldly Handwritten is rich brown and nicely signed. Four bold red wax seals located at the main signatures add great color and eye appeal to this document.Jeffrey Amherst became know as the first military strategist to knowingly engage in biological warfare of the era. Most infamous was Amherst's use of smallpox-infected blankets to spread the deadly disease among Native Americans during the French and Indian War.Amherst is remembered foremost for victory against the French in the Seven Years' War, culminating in the surrender of Montreal-after which Amherst named his estate-and Canada by the French to the British in 1760. This triumph was matched in magnitude by the notoriety he gained through his mishandling of Indian affairs following the war. Amherst ignored British Superintendent of Indian Affairs Sir William Johnson's advice to continue the tradition of gift exchange with British-allied Indians following the surrender of Canada.Amherst believed in the efficacy of punishment for poor behavior instead of rewards for good behavior. Thus, he curtailed gift-giving and would eventually become the first military strategist to knowingly engage in biological warfare. Most infamous was Amherst's use of smallpox-infected blankets to spread the deadly disease among Native Americans.Western Indians had begun a series of frontier attacks known as Pontiac's Rebellion in the spring of 1763. After this pan-native uprising enjoyed some success, Amherst suggested to Colonel Henry Bouquet that the British might expose the rebelling Indians to smallpox.Bouquet suggested infected blankets as an effective means of achieving Amherst's goal, a supposition that proved correct when a smallpox epidemic engulfed Ohio Valley natives a few months later. Although exact numbers are difficult to ascertain, typically three-quarters of the population died in such outbreaks.Although Amherst became the governor of Virginia in 1759 as a reward for his military success, he never served in the role, returning to Britain in November 1763. He was later twice asked to return to North America to lead Britain's efforts to put down the Patriot rebellion, but he declined, first in 1775 and again in 1778.

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JOHN ARMSTRONG (1758-1843). President James Madison's Secretary of War

Lot 2: JOHN ARMSTRONG (1758-1843). President James Madison's Secretary of War

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Description: AutographsImportant Content War of 1812 Letter From Secretary of War John Armstrong to Brigadier General Burbeck at New YorkJOHN ARMSTRONG, (1758-1843. President James Madison's Secretary of War during the War of 1812 Period, Soldier in the Revolutionary War, Pennsylvania Delegate to the Continental Congress, a United States Senator, and Diplomat.February 8, 1813-Dated War of 1812, Autograph Military Letter Signed, "John Armstrong," War Department, Extremely Fine. This important one page letter, measuring 9.5" x 7.75" is to Brigadier General Henry Burbeck, at New York. Written on fine watermarked with "Phipps & Son - 1808" wove period paper in rich brown ink that is easily readable and having a bold 2.5" long signature "John Armstrong." Transcribed in full, it reads: " Sir, Herewith inclused you will receive a Communication from Mr. Wm. Cooper relative to Harbour defence - He has been advised to communicate with you on the subject, and a Copy of the Letter to him is transmitted for your information - Very Respectfully, Sir your obt. Hle. Servant - (Signed) John Armstrong". Ex: the Papers of General Henry Burbeck (no tag).

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JOHN ARMSTRONG (1758-1843). President James Madison's Secretary of War

Lot 3: JOHN ARMSTRONG (1758-1843). President James Madison's Secretary of War

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Description: AutographsWar of 1812 Letter Signed "John Armstrong" President James Madison's Secretary of WarJOHN ARMSTRONG, (1758-1843). President James Madison's Secretary of War during the War of 1812 Period, Soldier in the Revolutionary War, a Pennsylvania Delegate to the Continental Congress, a United States Senator, and American Diplomat.October 12, 1812-Dated, Letter Signed, "John Armstrong," Choice Very Fine. This historic War of 1812 content, original one page letter measures 10" x 8.25" being sent to Colonel Henry Burbeck, Commanding Governor's Island. Armstrong informs Burbeck about ordnance shortages (being low on ammo) at Newport, Rhode Island and notifies him of requests from the Commissary General of Ordnance, Colonel Decius Wadsworth, to transfer any supplies that can be spared to Newport. It is nicely written in dark brown ink on evenly toned wove period paper. This War of 1812 dated military letter is transcribed below, reading in full:"Sir, -- Col. Wadsworth by letter of the 10th ... states that 'the commanding offices at New-Port reports 400 bls. of powder deficient of a full supply, also 300 shot for 24 pounders & 1400 for 32 pounders and that there is also a deficiency of 50bls.of powder, 400 shot for 24 pounders and 200 for 18 pounders at New London.' He requests under these circumstances, that if one hundred barrels of powder can be spared from this port that it may be sent to New-Port.Whatever over-plus of either article, powder or that may be here after supplying ourselves with thirty rounds of musquet cartridges per man & thirty rounds of cannon cartridges per gun, may be forwarded to New-Port and New London agreeably to Col. Wadsworths' request. The estimate will be made upon the following Nos. -- 2900 men - 300 Guns of different calibers -- I am sir, with great respect, Your Most Obedient Servant - (Signed) John Armstrong." It is also Docketed on the reverse side: "Letter from G. Armstong, 12 Oct. respecting that for Col. Wadsworth." Ex: the Papers of General Henry Burbeck (no tag).

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JOHN ARMSTRONG (1758-1843). President James Madison's Secretary of War

Lot 4: JOHN ARMSTRONG (1758-1843). President James Madison's Secretary of War

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Description: AutographsSecretary of War John Armstrong Orders For His GeneralsJOHN ARMSTRONG (1758-1843. President James Madison's Secretary of War during the War of 1812 Period, Soldier in the Revolutionary War, a Pennsylvania Delegate to the Continental Congress, a United States Senator, and Diplomat.March 12, 1813-dated War of 1812 Period, Autograph Letter Signed, "John Armstrong," War Dept., Extremely Fine. A one page letter measuring 9.75" x 7.75" to Brigadier General Henry Burbeck, New York in which he is ordered to, in part: "proceed to Boston & relieve General Boyd in the command of that post." Nicely written, and a rare specific direct order for one General to replace another.

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JOHN ARMSTRONG (1758-1843). President James Madison's Secretary of War

Lot 5: JOHN ARMSTRONG (1758-1843). President James Madison's Secretary of War

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Description: AutographsSecretary of War "John Armstrong" Orders Brigadier General Henry Burbeck in New York to Prepare Communications at Fort Richmond and Nearby Forts and Posts in New York Harbor During the War of 1812 JOHN ARMSTRONG (1758-1843. President James Madison's Secretary of War during the War of 1812 Period, Soldier in the Revolutionary War, a Pennsylvania Delegate to the Continental Congress, a United States Senator, and Diplomat. March 9, 1813-Dated War of 1812 Period, Autograph Letter Signed, "John Armstrong," War Department, Extremely Fine. This boldly written one page letter measuring 9.75" x 7.75" is to Brigadier General Henry Burbeck in New York, directing him to erect a telegraph (to communicate a method of warning, such as waving a red flag, etc.) at Fort Richmond and supply nearby forts and posts in New York Harbor. Dark brown ink on bright fine parchment with a "dove with olive branch" watermark. Some toning at right edge and center reverse panel. To the point and in beautiful shape. This short letter transcribed in full reads:"Sir, -- You will authorize Mr. Christopher Colles to erect his Telegraph at fort Richmond & afford him the necessary facilities to put the same in operation - & you will immediately make the necessary distribution of Ammunition & other munitions to the several Forts & posts in the Harbour of New York. - Very Respectfully, I am Sir your most ob. Humble Servant - (Signed) John Armstrong". Docketed: "Letter from G. Armstrong 12 March"Ex: the Papers of General Henry Burbeck (no tag).

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(BENEDICT ARNOLD III) Famous Traitor Benedict Arnold's Father!

Lot 6: (BENEDICT ARNOLD III) Famous Traitor Benedict Arnold's Father!

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Description: Autographs1746 Legal Document Involving Benedict Arnold's Father!(BENEDICT ARNOLD III) (1683-1761). Father of American Revolutionary War General and Famous Traitor, Benedict Arnold V. June 30, 1746-Dated, Manuscript Document, measuring 3.25" x 4.5" from the Court of Justice Isaac Huntington of Norwich, Connecticut, regarding a Lawsuit between BENEDICT ARNOLD and Daniel Woodworth, Choice Extremely Fine. Here, the decision of Judge Huntington is boldly and well written, in deep brown ink upon period laid paper, that is fresh clean and choice in quality. It bears the name "Benedict Arnold" being written twice on this court document itself, and upon the reverse docket. Stated by a prior owner to have a pedigree to the papers of Justice Jabez Huntington.The BENEDICT ARNOLD in this case was the father of the infamous American military hero, and later Traitor of the American Revolution, GENERAL BENEDICT ARNOLD, himself a native of Norwich, Ct. A rare document, in superb quality, that directly involves Benedict Arnold III (the Traitor's father).The Traitor, American Revolutionary War General Benedict Arnold, was born the last of six children to Benedict Arnold III (1683-1761) and Hannah Waterman King in Norwich, Connecticut, in 1741. He was named after his great-grandfather Benedict Arnold, an early governor of the Colony of Rhode Island, and his brother Benedict IV, who died in infancy before Benedict Arnold V was born. Only Benedict and his sister Hannah survived to adulthood; his other siblings succumbed to yellow fever in childhood. Through his maternal grandmother, Arnold was a descendant of John Lothropp, an ancestor of at least four U.S. presidents.The Arnold family was well off until the future general's father made several bad business deals that plunged the family into debt, and became an alcoholic, forcing his son to withdraw from school at 14 because the family could not afford the expense.His father's alcoholism and ill-health prevented him from training Arnold in the family mercantile business, but his mother's family connections secured an apprenticeship for Arnold with two of her cousins, brothers Daniel and Joshua Lathrop, who operated a successful apothecary and general merchandise trade in Norwich.

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Commodore WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE Commander Frigate USS Constitution

Lot 7: Commodore WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE Commander Frigate USS Constitution

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Description: Autographs1830 Commodore William Bainbridge Navy Related Letter Commander of the 44-gun Frigate "USS Constitution" WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE (1774 - 1835). Commodore in the United States Navy, notable for his victory over the British Warship "HMS Java" during the War of 1812 while commanding the 44-gun Frigate "USS Constitution," in succession to Captain Isaac Hull.April 21st, 1830-Dated, Autograph Letter Signed, "Wm. Bainbridge," 4 pages, folded with one written page, Integral Postal Cover, Choice Extremely Fine. This original letter is dated 1830 from the Philadelphia Navy Yard. William Bainbridge's letter to Captain John Henly of the Portsmouth Naval Yard, regarding the number and size of shores (device to hold items up) at the yard, the number, order and size. Boldly Signed, "Wm Bainbridge" in rich deep brown ink on fine quality period wove paper. Red Postal manuscript "18" and round red cancel, "PHILA - 21 - APR." An impressive, clean fresh well written and very lovely, Naval letter.William Bainbridge (May 7, 1774 - July 27, 1833) was a Commodore in the United States Navy, notable for his victory over HMS Java during the War of 1812.When the War of 1812 broke out between the United Kingdom and the United States, Bainbridge was appointed to command the 44-gun frigate USS Constitution, in succession to Captain Isaac HullOn 29 December 1812 he fell in with the 38-gun HMS Java, a vessel of 1,083 tons, formerly the French frigate Renommée. She was on her way to the East Indies, carrying the newly appointed lieutenant-governor of Bombay. She had a very inexperienced crew, including very few trained seamen, and her men had only had one day's gunnery drill. The United States Navy paid great attention to its gunnery, which some captains in the British Navy had neglected, having grown accustomed to easy victories over the French or lacking the time and resources for gunnery practice. In these conditions, the fate of the Java was soon sealed. She was cut to pieces and forced to surrender, after suffering heavy losses, and inflicting very little damage to the Constitution, other than removing Constitution's helm with a well-aimed shot. During the action, Bainbridge was wounded twice, but maintained command throughout; even to replacing the missing helm on the Constitution with the one from the Java before she sank. To this day, the still-commissioned Constitution (anchored in Boston Harbor) sports the helm that Bainbridge salvaged from the Java.After the conclusion of the war with Britain, Bainbridge served against the Barbary pirates in the Second Barbary War.In 1820, Bainbridge served as second for Stephen Decatur in the duel that cost Decatur his life. Bainbridge had actually harbored a long-standing jealousy of Decatur.Between 1824 and 1827, he served on the Board of Navy Commissioners. He died in Philadelphia and was buried at the Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia.John D. Henley, brother of Captain Robert Henley, who was born in Williamsburg 25 February 1781. Commissioned midshipman 14 August 1799, Henley served in Chesapeake cruising in the West Indies until 1801. Departing Baltimore in the schooner Vixen 3 August 1803, he joined the Mediterranean Squadron for the AVar with Tripoli. An officer in Gunboat No. 6 under Lieutenant John Trippe, Henley participated in the attack on Tripoli 3 August 1804. Gunboat No. 6 ran alongside one of the enemy's large boats and nine men and two officers, Trippe and Henley, stormed the Tripolitan before the gunboat fell away from the enemy. Although outnumbered three to one, the Americans fought so fiercely that within a few minutes the enemy struck their colors. Fourteen of the enemy had been killed and 22 were taken prisoner. Both Trippe and Henley were highly commended for their bravery in this action. Following completion of his tour in the Mediterranean in 1805, Henley made a merchant voyage to distant ports and then in September 1807, assumed command of Gunboat No. 20. Henley then served a tour in Washington and with the outbreak of war against the British was ordered to Charleston in June 1813 to command schooner Carolina. His ship was destroyed 27 December 1814 off New Orleans during a fierce struggle in which the few small warships played a decisive role in delaying the powerful British attack and bringing victory. For his part in the victory at New Orleans 8 January 1815 Henley was highly commended by General Andrew Jackson. Promoted to Captain 5 March 1817, Henley commanded John Adams in the West Indies and Congress in the Indian Ocean before taking command of Macedonian in the struggle against West Indian pirates in 1822. Captain Henley served as commandant of the Charleston and Baltimore stations an dthe Portsmouth Navy Yard, New Hampshire, 1826 to 1832. On 16 August 1832 he was given command of the West India Squadron with Vandalia as his flagship. Captain Henley died on board Vandalia in Havana, Cuba, 23 May 1835.

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Nathaniel Barber - Boston Tea Party Participant

Lot 8: Nathaniel Barber - Boston Tea Party Participant

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Description: AutographsExccedingly Rare Form Signed By Nathaniel Barber Boston Tea Party ParticipantNATHANIEL BARBER (1728-87), Boston Tea Party participant, Revolutionary War Muster Master for Suffolk County, Commissary of Boston's military stores until 1781, and Massachusetts State Naval Officer.January 6, 1778-Dated, Partially-Printed Document Signed, "Nath Barber," 1 page, 6.5" x 8" grading Very Fine. This is an exceedingly rare Revolutionary War form, mustering two soldiers both with French surnames. It reads:"This may certify, that Lewis Baptist De Jayne & Louis Marie Deare belonging to Captain --- Company, in the Battalion commanded by Coltrane has been Mustered, and received the Bounty allowed by this state, viz. - (Signed) Nath(aniel) Barber Muster Master, County Suffolk - Boston Jan. 6, 1778."Quarterfolded with some minor fold edge splits, boldly printed in deep black on clean laid period paper, having a large partial British crown watermark. The first of this exceedingly rare Revolutionary War form we have seen.

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FRANCIS BERNARD, British Colonial Governor of MA. Payment Document Signed 1764

Lot 9: FRANCIS BERNARD, British Colonial Governor of MA. Payment Document Signed 1764

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Description: Autographs1764 Colonial Governor Francis Bernard Signed French and Indian War Soldiers Payment DocumentFRANCIS BERNARD (1712-1779). British Colonial Governor of Massachusetts, who was personally opposed to the 1765 Stamp Act, but his Royal position forced him to carry out this massively unpopular British policy.January 11, 1764-Dated French and Indian War era, Partly-Printed Document Signed, "Fra. Bernard," as Governor, 1 page, measuring 6.25" x 8" dated at Boston, Very Fine. The bold black printed text is impressive upon the clean laid period paper, also having strong manuscript portions and a bold deep brown ink signature. Some archival clear reinforcement to the reverse folds and toned on the upper reverse. Francis Bernard orders the payment to Richard Saltonstall, in part:"Rich'd Saltonstall, Esq. the several sums, as directed on ye back of this warrant for the use of ye several Persons there mentd. amounting whole to the sum of twelve pounds 16/s allowed for their not being made up in ye. Muster roll, from ye time they first inlisted as soldiers, origl. Pay of ye Province of 1762, which sum is to be paid out of the Appropriation for the Expedn. 1762."Boldly endorsed by Richard Saltonstall on the blank reverse (the son of Colonial Massachusetts Governor Sir Richard Saltonstall (1586-1661) who led a group of English settlers up the Charles River to settle in what is now Watertown, Massachusetts in 1630), along with appropriate documentation of six Soldiers with their respective amounts due, that he had paid, and a docket endorsement.

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Historic Rare DANIEL BOONE Signed Receipt for Wages as a Virginia Delegate

Lot 10: Historic Rare DANIEL BOONE Signed Receipt for Wages as a Virginia Delegate

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Description: AutographsDaniel Boone's Receipt for Wages as a Virginia DelegateDANIEL BOONE (1734-1820). Legendary American Pioneer, Explorer and Frontiersman whose exploits made him one of the First Folk Heroes of the United States.c. 1781 Revolutionary War Period, Excessively Rare Manuscript Document Signed, "Daniel Boone" as "Delegate", being a receipt for his wages as a Representative of Virginia, then known as "Kan-tuck-ee", in the Virginia Assembly, 1 page, measuring 7.5" x 1.75", no place or date, Fine. It is toned from being mounted upon a cardboard backing, measuring 8" x 2.5" yet the brown ink is dark and his full signature is bold and clear, measuring 2.5" long. It reads, in full:"Received forty four thousand pound my Wages as a Delegate the present Session --- (Signed) Daniel Boone".When Kentucky was divided into three Virginia counties in November of 1780, Daniel Boone was promoted to lieutenant colonel in the Fayette County militia. In April of 1781, he was elected as a Representative to the Virginia General Assembly, which was held in Richmond. . In 1781, Boone traveled to Richmond to take his seat in the legislature, but British dragoons under Banastre Tarleton captured him and several other legislators near Charlottesville. The British released Boone on parole several days later.During Boone's term, Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown in October 1781, but the fighting continued in Kentucky unabated. Despite having sworn an oath to desist from fighting the Crown in order to secure his parole, Boone returned to Kentucky, and in August 1782, fought in the Battle of Blue Licks, in which his son Israel was killed. In the Battle of Blue Licks he led a militia to Lower Blue Licks where he was decisively defeated by the Loyalists, being out manoeuvred and unprepared. At the battle, he gave a stray horse to his son Israel, but he was mortally wounded. Later Boone found his son dead and took the very horse he gave to his son to escape the battlefield.Daniel Boone (1734-1820) was an American pioneer, explorer, and frontiersman whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now Kentucky, which was then part of Virginia but on the other side of the mountains from the settled areas.Despite some resistance from American Indian tribes such as the Shawnee, in 1775 Boone blazed his Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap in the Appalachian Mountains from North Carolina and Tennessee into Kentucky. There he founded the village of Boonesborough, Kentucky, one of the first American settlements west of the Appalachians. Before the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 European people migrated to Kentucky/Virginia by following the route marked by Boone.Boone was a militia officer during the Revolutionary War (1775-83), which in Kentucky was fought primarily between the American settlers and the British-aided Native Americans. Boone was captured by Shawnee warriors in 1778, who after a while adopted him into their tribe. Later, he left the Indians and returned to Boonesborough to help defend the European settlements in Kentucky/Virginia.Boone was elected to the first of his three terms in the Virginia General Assembly during the Revolutionary War, and fought in the Battle of Blue Licks in 1782. Blue Licks, a Loyalist victory over the Patriots, was one of the last battles of the Revolutionary War, coming after the main fighting ended in October 1781.Following the war, Boone worked as a surveyor and merchant, but fell deeply into debt through failed Kentucky land speculation. Frustrated with the legal problems resulting from his land claims, in 1799 Boone immigrated to eastern Missouri, where he spent most of the last two decades of his life (1800-20). Boone remains an iconic figure in American history. He was a legend in his own lifetime, especially after an account of his adventures was published in 1784, making him famous in America and Europe.After his death, he was frequently the subject of heroic tall tales and works of fiction. His adventures, real and legendary, were influential in creating the archetypal Western Hero of American folklore. In American popular culture, he is remembered as one of the foremost early frontiersmen. The epic Daniel Boone mythology often overshadows the historical details of his life.(From Wikipedia)

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1726 New York Governor GEORGE CLARKE Rare Autograph Document Signed

Lot 11: 1726 New York Governor GEORGE CLARKE Rare Autograph Document Signed

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Description: Autographs1726 "Oath" By Future New York Governor George ClarkeGEORGE CLARKE, Colonial Royal Governor of New York.February 8, 1726-Dated, Rare Early Colonial Autograph Document Signed, "Geo. Clarke" as Secretary of the Colony, 1 page, measuring 6" by 8" at Queen's County, New York, Very Fine. By virtue of the power and authority vested in him by His Excellency the Governor, Clarke writes that he has, "administered the Oath of an Administratrix to Sarah Cornwall" for the estate of her deceased husband Richard.George Clarke (1676-1760) was also known as George Clarke of Hyde. He became Secretary of the Province of New York in 1703. Along with his wife, Anne Hyde, he purchased land in Hempstead, Long Island, New York and built an estate called Hyde Park.He subsequently became Acting Colonial Governor of New York starting in 1736, when William Cosby died, lasting until 1743 when George Clinton arrived to replace Cosby. Clarke then had the post of Lieutenant Governor until 1747.In 1741, Clarke was involved in putting down the "New York Conspiracy" of 1741, with African Slaves being responsible for a series of arsons in March 1741, trying to burn down the City of New York. On his return journey to England along with his fortune amassed whilst in America, he was captured by a French Ship. After a short time he was released. He died in Chester, England, on 12 January 1760, aged 84.

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JOHN BURGOYNE Original 1777 True Copy Letter, ETHAN ALLEN Prisoner Negociations

Lot 12: JOHN BURGOYNE Original 1777 True Copy Letter, ETHAN ALLEN Prisoner Negociations

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Description: Autographs1777 Ethan Allen Prisoner Negociations Revolutionary War Period "True Copy" General Burgoyne to General Gates(JOHN BURGOYNE) (1722-1792). British Army General during the American Revolutionary War. (ETHAN ALLEN) (1738-1789) was born at Litchfield, CT., as military leader of the Vermont "Green Mountain Boys," stormed Fort Ticonderoga, capturing its garrison, then captured Crown Point, Fort Ann, and Fort St. John.October 2, 1777-Dated Revolutionary War, Original True Copy (written as a copy of the original at that time) of a Signed Letter sent from British General John Burgoyne to American Major General Gates, at "Camp near Behmus's Heights," 1 page, measuring 8" x 13", Choice Very Fine. On September 24, 1775, during an ill-advised attack on Montreal, Allen was captured by the British. Initially considered a traitor, Allen was shipped to England and imprisoned at Pendennis Castle in Cornwall. He remained a prisoner of war until being exchanged for Colonel Archibald Campbell in May of 1778. There is actually an entire book entitled: "A Narrative of Colonel Ethan Allen's Captivity" by Ethan Allen. It is an autobiographical work, originally published in 1923. Allen describes his brief military career at the start of the American Revolution, his horrific two-year captivity by the British, and his final release and journey back to his beloved Vermont. Here, British Major General "Gentleman John" Burgoyne discusses the potential release of Ethan Allen which are in current active negotiations. Mentioned are Sir Henry Clinton, plus Sir William Howe and General George Washington! This truly remarkable, historic letter reads, in full:"Copy of a letter from Genl. Burgoyne to Genl. Gates dated Camp near Behmus's Heights - Octr. 2nd 1777. ------Sir --- As your letter of the 28th past did not require an immediate answer I deferred troubling you till the return of Cornet Graffe.I conceive that Mr. Ethan Allen is detained or a prisoner of State, but without entering into that consideration, I think it would be inconsistent with the powers or propriety of Sir Henry Clinton's Station or mine, to interfere in a matter which has already been under discussion between Sir William Howe and Genl. Washington.If you are inclined, Sir, to make any exchange of Officers or men taken by the Armies under our immediate respective commands, I shall be ready to treat with you. --- I am --- Sir, Your most obedient Serv't. --- (Signed) J. Burgoyne."(Addressed at lower left To) "M(ajor) Genl. Gates -"Docket upon the blank reverse side reads: "/Copy/ - Genl. Burgoyne to Genl. Gates - Oct. 2nd 1777".This Letter is written with great clarity upon fresh, clean high quality period laid paper bearing a large central seated British Royalty within a double oval. The handwriting is sharp being in rich brown and secretarially signed "J. Burgoyne" at bottom right. There are six prior early fold edge reinforcements upon the blank reverse with just some slight show-through. An extraordinary Revolutionary War Period "True Copy" Letter between General Burgoyne to General Gates.Elected Colonel-commandant of the local militia, better known as the "Green Mountain Boys." During the early months of the American Revolution, Ethan Allen held no official rank in the Continental Army. Upon his exchange and release by the British in 1778, Allen was given the rank of lieutenant colonel in the Continental Army, and Major General of militia. After returning to Vermont later that year, he was made a General in the Army of Vermont.

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Historic 1811 CHIEF CORNPLANTER, Autographed Manuscript Letter Signed

Lot 13: Historic 1811 CHIEF CORNPLANTER, Autographed Manuscript Letter Signed

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Description: AutographsCornplanter Township Autographed Manuscript Letter by "Jonathan Ames Interpreter for the Cornplanter" Signed by Both Chief Cornplanter and His Wife with Their "X" MarksCHIEF CORNPLANTER Gaiänt'wakê (Kaintwakon; generally known as Cornplanter) (c. 1750s - February 18, 1836). Historic Seneca War Chief during the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War, during which the Seneca and three other Iroquois Nations were allied with the British. After the American Revolutionary War Cornplanter known for his diplomacy, led negotiations with the United States and was a Signatory of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1784 and then he helped gain Iroquois neutrality during the Northwest Indian War.In the postwar years, he worked to learn more about European-American ways and invited Quakers to establish schools in Seneca territory. Disillusioned by poor treatment of his people by the Americans, he had the schools closed and renewed some Seneca ways. The United States government under President George Washington granted him about 1,500 acres of former Seneca territory in Pennsylvania in 1796 for "him and his heirs forever," which became known as the Cornplanter Tract, which was flooded in 1965 by the Kinzua Dam, and most remaining Seneca moved to Allegany Reservation.March 6th, 1811-Dated, Autographed Manuscript Letter Signed, "Jonathan Ames Interpreter for the Cornplanter" and below also Signed with "his "X" Mark (Seneca War Chief) "The Cornplanter" and "his wife her 'X' Mark," Cornplanter Township (Pennsylvania), Being Written on behalf of Chief Cornplanter, Fine. A historic, Signed Autographed Manuscript Letter, 3 written pages with Integral Mailing Cover. It measuring 6.5" x 7.75" (folded) and is addressed, "To one of the heirs of Wilkins, Esq. deceased - Pittsburgh." There are folds with tone and soiling to the outside Address Cover from handling, plus some scattered small wear holes to each page and has scattered tone spots. Overall, whole and solid being well written in dark brown upon period laid paper. This remarkable Letter was apparently Hand-delivered upon the arrival of the famous Seneca War Chief "Cornplanter" and his interpreter "Jonathan Ames," explaining the purpose of their visit, which was to see that a Title Transfer for Land that had been promised to Chief Cornplanter by his deceased friend be properly completed.In the letter, Cornplanter relates to the heirs of Wilkins, Esq., (a recently deceased friend who had granted him property on the Muskingum but then died before he completed the title transfer), to see if they could find some documentation amongst their father's belongings to be used as proof of his intention to transfer title, as Cornplanter's paperwork was lost. "He [Cornplanter] had an instrument of writing for it but it was lost by some bad people that broke open his chest not far from Pittsburgh in the year 1791 while he was in Philadelphia he now has nothing to show for it." This historic Letter reads, in full:"Cornplanter's town 6th M'c 10th 1811 - Respected Friends - this may Certify that I heard the Cornplanter, state that the white man now accompanying him to Pittsburgh, should have a talk as an Interpreter between the heirs of Wilkins, Esquire - deceased - & himself respecting some land that was granted to the Cornplanter on the Muskingum opposite to Fort Warner or near to it, the Cornplanter says that he requested your father in his life time to see to the business, which he agreed to do, after which time he did not see him to discourse on the subject, he now hopes that some information respecting it may be amongst your father's papers or some how come to your knowledge if so or any thing can be done in the business he wishes for the sons or one of them, of his Old deceased friend - Wilkins, Esq. to take upon them to act for him by way of enquiry first what can be done. He had an instrument of writing for it but it was lost by some bad people that broke open his chest not far from Pittsburgh in the year 1791 while he was in Philadelphia he now has nothing to show for it, he hopes by referring to the record, near the Muskingum or to those of the President, that some light may be had on the subject, if any can be had he request that one of you may get into the business, make sale of it for him when he will sign on (receiving of one half of what it will bring) all his right title to the same, the other half he says he will give to the undertaker for him or on his behalf as a present for his pain in so doing.The Cornplanter his wife being present when the foregoing was interpreted to him & the both agreed to sign the title to the land when he received the half that it might bring." (Signed) "Jonathan (appears to be) Ames Interpreter for the Cornplanter"( and below Signed) "his X mark The Cornplanter" and (Signed) "his wife - her X mark".The Seneca War Chief Cornplanter was one of the most famous and feared of all Indian Chiefs, who aligned with the Loyalists and British in the American Revolutionary War. In 1790, Cornplanter and his brother Half-Town (also a chief) traveled to Philadelphia to meet with President George Washington and Pennsylvania Governor Thomas Mifflin; they were protesting the current treatment of their people. Cornplanter and Half-Town extracted an agreement from Washington and Mifflin to protect Iroquois land. (see: The speech of the Cornplanter ..., December 1, 1790). In addition, other land was granted to Cornplanter in 1791 and his people.This other land of 1791 included Richland (near current West Hickory in Forest County) and the Cornplanter Tract, also known as "The Gift." Cornplanter promptly sold this land to his good frient, General John Wilkins, Jr. "The Gift" the third land grant is the present-day business district of Oil City, Pennsylvania. Major General John Wilkins, Jr. was the 7th Quartermaster General of the United States (June 1796-June 1802) who was from Pennsylvania. After his office was abolished by the Army, he turned his full attention to building the fortunes of the Wilkins family in Pittsburgh. He served as the president of city's first bank organized in 1802. John Wilkins died suddenly in Pittsburgh on April 20, 1816. Though this Letter is written and dated in 1811, it is likely that Cornplanter is thinking that he had already died.In gratitude for his assistance to the State, Cornplanter was given a grant of 1,500 acres by Pennsylvania in 1796, along the western bank of the Allegheny River (about three miles (5 km) below the southern boundary of New York state) to him and his heirs "forever". By 1798, 400 Seneca lived on the land, which was called the "Cornplanter Tract" or "Cornplanter Grant." During the War of 1812, Cornplanter supported the American cause, convincing his people to do so as well. At one point he offered to bring two hundred warriors to assist the U.S., but his offer was refused. In 1821 Warren County, Pennsylvania tried to force Cornplanter to pay taxes for his land, which he protested on the basis that the land had been "Granted" to him by the United States Government, to which the State finally agreed that the Cornplanter Tract was indeed exempt.Cornplanter died on the Cornplanter Tract in 1836. He requested a grave with no marker. The massive Monument in tribute to Cornplanter, which was installed over his grave by the State of Pennsyvania in 1866, "is believed to be First Monument erected in honor of a Native American in the United States." The relocation of Cornplanter's remains and gravesite figure in the song, "As Long As The Grass Shall Grow" that Johnny Cash recorded in 1964; it was originally written by Peter LaFarge. (From Wikipedia)Chief Cornplanter's people knew him as Kaintwakon, meaning "by what one plants." The White people knew him also as John Abeel (rendered also as Obail) and by other names.Cornplanter was born to his Seneca Indian mother about 1750 at Ganawagus, near Avon, New York. The Wolf Clan to which she belonged was a ranking Indian family. Among its members were several prominent Indian leaders, Kiasutha, Handsome Lake, Red Jacket, and Governor Blacksnake, all principals in the drama of Indian-white relations which spanned the remainder of the century after 1755. Ultimately, this drama would determine whether this country, especially that part west of the Allegheny Mountains, would be French or English, European or Indian. About 1784, Cornplanter assumed rather, had thrust upon him-his principal's role. This role derived from his leading position among the Iroquois of the upper Allegheny and Genesee rivers, a position which he had gradually assumed from his maternal uncle, Kiasutha.Cornplanter was only half Indian. His father was John Abeel, of a prominent Albany Dutch family. Abeel had gone into the Indian country in western New York to trade as early, possibly, as 1744-he was 22 that year-and he would spend the rest of his active life as a trader there. His special passport among hostile Indians was his ability as a gunsmith. French, Dutch, or British saw to it that the Indians had plenty of arms, and the Indians welcomed white men who could repair them. Cornplanter was the child of a temporary union, common then between whites and Indians. In Iroquois society the "Nationality" of the mother determined that of her children. Cornplanter was reared as an Indian and an Indian he remained. It is hard to believe that one who had so many contacts with whites never spoke their language, but it apparently is true.The Native American Indians' hostility was not without cause. In 1790, Cornplanter visited Philadelphia to protest white inroads upon Iroquois lands. In his frustration, he characterized President Washington as a "Town Destroyer," recalling the disastrous effects of the Sullivan expedition upon his people during the Revolution. He pleaded for his people: "Where is the land which our children, and their children after them, are to lie down upon?" they asked. The Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania and Governor Thomas Mifflin listened to Cornplanter's plea and assured him that Indians and their lands would be protected.The following year President George Washington sent Cornplanter to cultivate Peace and Friendship with the Indians of Ohio and Michigan. Conferences with them on the Ohio and at Painted Post in New York ended in failure. Major General Anthony Wayne's bloody defeat of the Indians in the Battle of Fallen Timbers near Toledo, Ohio, August, 1794, finally convinced the western tribes to end their resistance. Cornplanter, however, was successful in keeping the Iroquois from joining the rebels. On his numerous visits to New York, Albany and Philadelphia, he discussed religion and education with those who were concerned about his people. During his long stay in Philadelphia in the winter of 1790, he attended Quaker meetings with some regularity. The following year he asked the Quakers to accept his oldest son Henry and two other boys for schooling in Philadelphia, to which they agreed. He also asked the Society of Friends for a Seneca mission:"We wish our children to be taught the same principles by which your fathers were guided. Brothers! We have too little wisdom among us, and we cannot teach our children what we see their situation requires them to know. We wish them to be taught to read and write, and such other things as you teach your children, especially the love of peace."In 1798 the Quakers accepted Cornplanter's invitation to teach his people. He encouraged schools and missions. The Quakers made no attempt to convert, but instead devoted themselves to morals, education, and improved agricultural techniques. With their guidance, his community became a model, with roads, good houses, fences, plowed fields, and more cattle than could well be wintered.Cornplanter strongly opposed liquor and he was supported in this by his half-brother Handsome Lake, who in 1799 became a religious reformer and a prophet to the Iroquois people. To an extent, the Quakers complemented and influenced Handsome Lake's, "new religion."After 1812, however, Cornplanter became disillusioned with the Americans. Their increasingly shabby treatment of his people confirmed for him the earlier warning of Handsome Lake that Indian salvation demanded a turning away from white ways and a return to the best Indian tradition. In remorse over his part in assimilating his people to the culture of the white man, Cornplanter burned his military uniform, broke his sword, and destroyed his medals; he closed the schools and dismissed the missionaries. Yet, despite this, he retained his affection for the Quakers, who now settled at Tunesassa, near the Allegany Reservation in New York state. He died at home on the Cornplanter Tract on February 18, 1836. Cornplanter's descendants and other Indians continued to live on the tract. The community had its own school and its Presbyterian Church. Eventually, however, the population dwindled as residents moved to the adjacent, larger, and related Allegany Reservation of New York.Residence became largely seasonal and in late 1964 the last inhabitant left, permitting Kinzua Dam to be closed and the reservoir to be flooded. The Cornplanter Indians would no longer call Pennsylvania their home.See Extensive Official Records and Period Documentation: Papers Relating to the DEFENCE OF THE FRONTIERS. 1790 - 1796. Pennsylvania Archives, Series Two, Volume IV. Pages 525-652. (Reproduced by Donna Bluemink) at:http://www.usgwarchives.org/pa/1pa/paarchivesseries/series2/vol4/defence/defence1.htm

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DANIEL CLYMER, Manuscript Document Signed

Lot 14: DANIEL CLYMER, Manuscript Document Signed

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Description: Autographs"... Mr. Clymer receiv'd his Veneson from Mr Bennet, the President and Cheif Justice allso, and return their thanks..." Great Content Period Letter of AppreciationDANIEL CLYMER (1748-1810) American Revolutionary War Patriot and Officer, Signed of Continental Paper Money, Pennsylvania State Assemblyman, Cousin of Declaration of Independence Signer George Clymer.Robert Hudson, Admitted to the Philadelphia Bar May 27, 1786.Manuscript Document Signed, "Robert Hudson and D.(aniel) Clymer Esquire," 1 page, measuring about 4.75" x 8.5" having no date or place, being a special letter of appreciation and thanks, Choice Very Fine. As such, it is not clear, yet possible to include either George Washington as President of the United States in 1789 or Benjamin Franklin, as Acting President of the Pennsylvania Supreme Council circa late 1786. There is a communication is recorded within "THE PAPERS OF GEORGE WASHINGTON" section 11:596-97, between Daniel Clymer and George Washington. It is boldly penned and easily readable upon bright, clean period laid paper, lightly folded with some modest humidity tone along the right margin. This Document reads (errors included), in full:"Sir -- This day Mr. Clymer receiv'd his Veneson from Mr Bennet, the President and Chief Justice allso, and return their thanks to Mr Eales and yourself -- (Signed) Robert Hudson & D. Clymer Esquire"Colonel Daniel Clymer was born in Philadelphia and raised by his uncle, General Roberdeau. He graduated Princeton in 1766 and practiced law at Reading, PA. At the start of the Revolutionary War, Clymer joined as a Private on May 1, 1775, became a Philadelphia Associator (The Associators were a defense force organized in 1747 by Benjamin Franklin to protect Philadelphia from possible attack by the Spanish during the War of the Spanish Succession. From that military organization the Pennsylvania Army National Guard traces its history to this day.), joining the 2nd Battalion of Philadelphia Militia. He was made 2nd Lt. in 1775 and the Continental Congress made him a Signer for Continental Currency Bills of Credit on July 25, 1775 for the issues of 5/10/75; 11/29/75; 2/17/76 and 5/9/76. He was made Lt. Col., commanding the Rifle Battalion of Philadelphia. Clymer was Secretary to the Military Convention, held at Lancaster, Pennsylvania July 4th, 1776, to choose Brigadier-Generals for the Associated Battalions of Pennsylvania. He also held the position of Deputy Commissary-General of Prisoners in 1777, and later Commissioner of Claims of the Treasury. Served as a Member of the State Assembly for Berks County 1782 to 1784 and 1786 to 1787.Robert Hunter Esquire, of Northampton was Admitted the the Philadelphia Bar as a Lawyer in 1786. Robert Trail Esquire was elected to serve on the Supreme Council of Pennsylvania October of that same year. In this very same timeframe, the serving President of the Council was Benjamin Franklin, and they were immediately entered into consideration of a request from the Continental Congress to place a Federal Mint in Philadelphia.1747 - Overcoming the long pacifist tradition of Pennsylvania's founding Quakers, Benjamin Franklin leads some 600 "gentlemen and merchants" of Philadelphia in signing "articles of association" to provide for a common defense against Indian raiders and French privateers. These "Associators" (today's 111th Infantry and 103rd Engineers) are recognized as the foundation of the Pennsylvania National Guard. Within months, the Philadelphia Associators have brother units throughout the populated commonwealth.1755 - The Pennsylvania Assembly passes the first Militia Act, formally authorizing a volunteer militia.1775 - The First Troop, Philadelphia City Cavalry escorts General George Washington to New York to take command of the Continental Army. The Army's first units include a regiment of rifle companies from Pennsylvania -- among them, the predecessor of a current National Guard unit in York.1776-1783 - With the start of the Revolutionary War, Pennsylvania supplies 6,000 troops (4,500 of them Associators) for military operations in New York. One unit, the Philadelphia Artillery Battalion, lives on as today's 103rd Engineer Battalion. In all, tens of thousands of Pennsylvania Soldiers are called to service over the next seven years.1793 - Pennsylvania Governor Thomas Mifflin establishes the Adjutant General's Office to provide for "a new system for the regulation of the militia."1794 - Pennsylvania contributes 4,000 militiamen to a four-state force which quells the Whiskey Rebellion in the western part of the state -- a crucial test of the new federal authority.

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Mayor ABRAHAM CUYLER 1774 Freemans Agreement Document Signed Last Loyalist Major

Lot 15: Mayor ABRAHAM CUYLER 1774 Freemans Agreement Document Signed Last Loyalist Major

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Description: Autographs1774 Mayor of Albany New York Signed "Freeman's Agreement" by Abraham C. Cuyler Its Last Loyalist MajorABRAHAM CUYLER. Last British Loyalist Mayor of Albany New York (1770-1778).September 27, 1774-Dated, original Manuscript Document Signed, "Abrm. C. Cuyler," at Albany, New York, Choice Very Fine. This Document is 6" x 11" with light folds, and retains its original, nice official red wax seal of the City of Albany at left. Mayor Abraham Cuyler has signed a rare Freeman's Certificate for Peter Van Bergen, to have all the rights and privileges. In the 18th century and into the early 1800s; men who owned land were considered Freeman; those that did not own property were not allowed the same rights and privileges.The main one being that only Freemen were allowed to vote; allowing them to set legislation over those that were in servitude, manufacturing laborers or renters. In Albany, many immigrants were tenant dwellers and did not have this right to vote; allowing land holders to always control the conditions and ways of living. There is a small edge chip at the left of the seal, otherwise, it is boldly written and very clear. A lovely, superior quality clean document on period laid paper, having bold brown text on excellent period laid paper.Petrus Van Bergen was a member of an Albany militia company in 1767 and witnessed a will in March 1771. In 1775, he contributed for the relief of Ticonderoga. His first ward property was configured on the assessment rolls in 1779. After the war, he was accorded a land bounty right in conjunction with the Albany militia regiment. In 1785, he was appointed assessor for the first ward and in 1789 served as election inspector. His first ward household was configured on the Albany census in 1790. In 1797, a Peter Van Bergen was identified as a "yeoman" living in the first ward on a list of Albany freeholders. From census records, Peter Van Bergen of Albany was a Slaveholder as well.Abraham C. Cuyler was the last mayor of colonial Albany. This native son lost everything as a result of the American Revolution. He held a commission in the provincial militia and succeeded to his father's seat on the Albany Common Council. Prospering from importing metalware and the patronage of Sir William Johnson, the city assessment rolls for 1766 and 1767 show him to be among the wealthiest of the young Albany merchants. Unlike other city fathers, he did not inherit extensive family lands. Thus, opportunity for future real property acquisition was dependant on his connection to the royal government. In 1767, he was the captain of an Albany militia company. In September 1770, twenty-eight-year old Abraham C. Cuyler became the third member of his family to be appointed mayor of Albany. What would soon become a dubious honor was based on his standing within the Albany community and on his willingness to cooperate with the royal government during a time of increasing tension between British and American interests.In 1775 Cuyler's administration was curtailed when escalating conflict between colonists and king led to suspension of royal government across New York. It ended in June 1776 when he was among those arrested by the Revolutionies and exiled to Connecticut. Later transferred to prison at Fishkill, he escaped to the British but made several trips to Albany to visit his family. By 1778, his wife and children had joined him in New York. Abraham C. Cuyler suffered greatly from his attachment to the British government. Deprived of his property and condemned to death under the Act of Attainder in 1779, a destitute Cuyler sailed to England to seek relief. Granted an annuity, he returned to New York. After the peace treaty, he attempted to come home. This American Tory soon learned there was no place for him in the new Albany. Even though many of his kinsmen were prominent revolutionaries, he was unable to reclaim his Albany property. Shunned by the new and old people of his birthplace, Abraham C. Cuyler took his family to upper Canada, founded the town of Yorkfield, and died there in 1810.

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1794 Colonel Thomas Dawes Document Signed, Boston, MA Architect-Designer-Builder

Lot 16: 1794 Colonel Thomas Dawes Document Signed, Boston, MA Architect-Designer-Builder

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Description: AutographsPatriot Colonel Thomas Dawes - Cousin of William Dawes Who Road With Paul Revere On His "Midnight Ride" Rare!COLONEL THOMAS DAWES (1731-1809). Patriot who served as a Massachusetts Militia Colonel during the American Revolution; afterward assumed prominent positions in Massachusetts's government; Architect and Builder designing many notable buildings in Boston, including the Old Street House and the Brattle Street Church.March 4, 1794-Dated Federal Period, Manuscript Document Signed, "Thos. Dawes" (as Builder/Architect) Town Of Boston, Choice Very Fine. This original Document is headed: "Town of Boston to Thomas Dawes," Boston, 1 page, measuring 8.25" x 7.25" being an invoice for work done by Dawes for Boston. The listed items for various amounts due are given in pounds and shillings. One entry is, "To building a back & pointing in the workhouse." He mentioned repairs done "in Mr. Whitwell's Room," and several repairs, "in the Hall." Docket written upon the blank reverse reads: "Thos Dawes Esqr - March 5, 1794".Expenses include mortar and brick and the help of another man and his "boy." Others include, "mending 6 backs of Chimneys front of the Kitchen Ovan... laying harth in the Hall... mending the brick work... & pointing in all the rooms" and "laying a new harth to the Kitchen Ovan." This historic Document has fold splits with fine tape reinforcement upon the blank reverse. There are some minor edge chips at the right margin. A wonderful, historical Town of Boston Document made to one of its most important early noted Architect-Designer-Builder, Colonel Thomas Dawes.A major and highly prominent Boston figure, Dawes received a most Historic Engraved Silver Punch bowl made by Silversmith William Holmes, dated 1763 which is currently displayed within the collection of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts: 10 h x 4 7/8" d x 5 1/4" (base) d x 9 7/8" (lip); wt: 32 oz, 17 1/2 dwt. This magnificent Silver Bowl is engraved with Dawes Family Arms in scroll and foliate cartouche, with drapery below on one side. The Inscription on other side, within engraved and bright-cut medallion with instruments of war and British flags, Reads: "The Gift / of the Field Officers and / Captains of the Regiment / of the Town of BOSTON. to / THOMAS DAWES Esqr / for his past Services as Ad- / jutant to said Re- / giment Sept. 13 / 1763." In addition, there is an important Portrait of Dawes, Painted by Gilbert Stuart, ca. 1806.Thomas Dawes (August 5, 1731 - January 2, 1809), was a Patriot who served as a Massachusetts militia colonel during the American Revolution and afterward assumed prominent positions in Massachusetts's government. His positions included state councilor, member of the Academy of Arts and Sciences, and representative in both the House and Senate. He ardently supported the Whigs, gaining infamy among Royalists; his house was raided by British Troops during the war. Later, he became active in politics, lived in a roomy house on Purchase Street beside John Adams, and worked as an architect and builder designing many notable buildings in Boston, including the Old Street House and the Brattle Street Church. He attended Old South Church in Deacon from 1786 until his death in 1809, and was a good friend of John Hancock. Colonel Thomas DawesBorn: 5 Aug 1731, Boston MA Marriage: Hannah Blake about 1751 in Boston MA Died: 7 Jan 1809, Boston MAHistoric Engraved Silver Punch bowl by Silversmith William Holmes, 1763 displayed in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts 10 h x 4 7/8" d x 5 1/4" (base) d x 9 7/8" (lip); wt: 32 oz, 17 1/2 dwt.Engraved with Dawes arms in scroll and foliate cartouche with drapery below on one side. Inscription on other side, within engraved and bright-cut medallion with instruments of war and British flags: The Gift / of the Field Officers and / Captains of the Regiment / of the Town of BOSTON. to / THOMAS DAWES Esqr / for his past Services as Ad- / jutant to said Re- / giment Sept. 13 / 1763.Thomas Dawes aunt was William Homes' wife, Rebecca Dawes. Colonel Dawes served as Senator, Moderator, and member of the Governor's Council. He was a builder and worked with the architect Charles Bulfinch. His will, probated on 02 Jan 1809, left ". . . to my Grandson Thomas Dawes Tertius after the decease of his Grandmother Dawes my Gold Watch and Silver Bowl, which was presented to me by the Officers of the Boston Regiment."Thomas Dawes (August 5, 1731 - January 2, 1809) was a Patriot who served as a Massachusetts militia colonel during the American Revolution and afterward assumed prominent positions in Massachusetts's government. His positions included membership and chairmanship of the Massachusetts Governor's Council, member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and representative in both the House and Senate. As chairman of the Governor's Council, Dawes served briefly as the de jure presiding officer of the executive branch of Massachusetts' state government for ten days - May 20, 1800 to May 30, 1800 - following the death of first Governor Increase Sumner and then Lieutenant Governor Moses Gill. (See List of Governors of Massachusetts.)Dawes was born in Boston. Prior to the Revolution, he attended a regular school and worked as a mechanic. He ardently supported the Whigs, gaining infamy among Royalists; his house was plundered by the British when they withdrew from Boston in 1776. Later, he became active in politics, lived in a roomy house on Purchase Street beside John Adams, and worked as an architect and builder designing many notable buildings in Boston, including the Old Street House and the Brattle Street Church. He attended Old South Church from 1786 until his death in 1809, and was a good friend of John Hancock.Dawes, a member of the prominent Dawes family of Massachusetts Bay, was a cousin of the April 1775 Whig patriot William Dawes.

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1783 General JOHN DICKINSON Continental Congressman, Signer U.S. Constitution

Lot 17: 1783 General JOHN DICKINSON Continental Congressman, Signer U.S. Constitution

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Description: AutographsContinental Congressman and Signer of the ConstitutionJOHN DICKINSON, Continental Congressman and Signer of the Constitution, Brigadier General in the Pennsylvania militia of the Continental Army.November 15, 1783-Dated Revolutionary War Period, Partly-printed Document Signed, "John Dickinson," being a one year's interest on his depreciation certificate, to Matthew Long, late private 1st Regiment, Choice Very Fine. This original printed order is for Matthew Long in the amount of "three pounds, ten shillings & Eleven pence". Typical light folds, well printed and attractive. Also signed by "John Nicholson" at left. See Stack's, John J. Ford, Jr. Collection Sale Part VI, where this document form is rated as a High Rarity-7.John Dickinson (1732 - 1808) was an American Lawyer, Politician, influential Continental Congressman and Signer of the Constitution. He is known as the "Penman of the Revolution" for his historic "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania". When the Continental Congress began the debate on the Declaration of Independence on July 1, 1776, Dickinson reiterated his opposition to declaring independence at that time believing that Congress should complete the Articles of Confederation and secure a foreign alliance before issuing a declaration. Dickinson refused to sign the Declaration and since a proposal had been brought forth and carried that stated, "for our mutual security and protection," no man could remain in Congress without signing, Dickinson voluntarily left and joined the Pennsylvania militia. Following the Declaration of Independence, Dickinson was given the rank of Brigadier General in the Pennsylvania militia, known as the Associators. He led some 10,000 soldiers to Elizabeth, New Jersey to protect that area against British attack from Staten Island. He later served delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, and would become a Signatory of the United States Constitution.

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WILLIAM DONNISON, 1790 Signed Letter to Major General Goodwin

Lot 18: WILLIAM DONNISON, 1790 Signed Letter to Major General Goodwin

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Description: Autographs"Wm. Donnison" Signed Letter to Major General GoodwinWILLIAM DONNISON (c. 1757-1834). Revolutionary War Continental Army Officer, serving at various times as an Aid to Governor Hancock, Adjutant General of the Massachusetts Militia, and a Judge of Common Pleas, he also uncovered a major political scandal during the Federalists and Anti-federalists debates over the ratification of the United States Constitution.September 18, 1790-Dated, Manuscript Letter Signed, "Lieutenant Wm. Donnison," at Boston, Fine. This original Signed Manuscript Letter measures 9" x 7.25", 1 page, from Lieutenant Wm. Donnison to General Goodwin. It is regarding Military Commissions for General Goodwin's Brigade. General Goodwin was a Major-General of the Militia of Maine (then still part of Massachusetts) from 1783 to 1815. This historic Signed Letter has some outer margin chipping with some loss to the period laid watermarked period paper, slightly affecting the boldly written, clear deep brown ink text as shown. It reads, in full:"Boston Septr. 10, 1790 - General Goodwin --I must ask your excuse for delaying to answer you until this day - the reason is I could not procure the Commissions for your Brigade until yesterday when General Cobb received them from my office and proposes sending them by Mr. Robins. With regard to Inspection Rolls I will observe - It was not my plan to have any, for the reason I will mention - It will take one half of our Militia Captains half a day to fill up one of them on the field, and when done be very liable to error - I have therefore decided that every Captain bring a Roll of his train band men and deliver it to the Inspector - and have directed the Inspector in the mode of taking the slate of the Arms to himself the adjutant can examine and count the war Rank while the Inspector does the same with the first and the Inspector will put the whole down in a book I have sent for that purpose, properly ruled --- Yr. Hubl. Servant Wm. Donnison"Docket on reverse reads: Genl. Donnison Letter - Sept. 18, 1790 - abt. Commission etc"

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WILLIAM ELLERY, 1793 Autograph Document, Signer - Declaration of Independence

Lot 19: WILLIAM ELLERY, 1793 Autograph Document, Signer - Declaration of Independence

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Description: AutographsSuperb 1793 Autograph Document Signed "William Ellery"WILLIAM ELLERY (1727-1820). Signer of the Declaration of Independence from Rhode Island.May 4, 1793-Dated, Autograph Document Signed, "William Ellery," one page, 8.5" x 6.5", at Newport (RI), Extremely Fine. Some minor marginal chipping along left edge. Beautifully written in deep brown ink upon fresh, clean period laid paper having exceptional overall eye appeal. An acknowledgement that reads, in full:"Be it hereby remembered that We have paid our respective proportions of the expence attending the surveying & dividing of our Lands in Hopkinton & Richmond & do severally acquit and discharge one another of all Demands of either against the others or either of the others on that account - (Signed) William Ellery, Benjamin Ellery, Sam Vernon Junr., Christ Ellery, and Asher Robbins. - Newport May 4th 1793." William Ellery also wrote the docket which reads, "Acknowledgement of the payment of heirs respective parts for surveying & deviding Richmond belonging to Ellery etc - 1793

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(WILLIAM ELLERY, JR.) 1757 Rhode Island Naval Appointment

Lot 20: (WILLIAM ELLERY, JR.) 1757 Rhode Island Naval Appointment

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Description: Autographs"Signer" William Ellery's 1757 Rhode Island Naval Office Appointment As The "Acting Naval Officer" for the Colony Signed By Colonial Governor William Greene(WILLIAM ELLERY, JR.) (1727 - 1820). Signer of the Declaration of Independence for Rhode Island,"Son of Liberty," 1776 Delegate to the Continental Congress from Rhode Island and on its Marine Committee, Naval Officer for the Colony and appointed Continental Congress Loan Office Commissioner for the State, etc.WILLIAM GREENE, Revolutionary War Governor of Rhode Island and Chief Justice of the Colony.May 6, 1757-Dated French and Indian War Era, Autograph Document Signed, "W. Greene, Govr.," 1 page, measuring 5.75" x 9.75," Very Fine. In this document, Governor William Greene of Rhode Island authorizes William Ellery Jr., Appointed Naval Officer, to act on behalf of the Colony of Rhode Island in all matters pertaining to his office. The Governor's bold 2.75" long signature appears in the lower right, and on the left, a star shaped paper covers the embossed, red wax Official Seal. This boldly written impressive Manuscript Document Appointment reads in full (punctuation added):"Colony Rhode Island & (etc.) - To William Ellery Junr. - Gentleman Greeting - You being appointed Naval officer for said Colony for the year pursuing, are hereby authorized and fully impowered (sic) To act and Do in all things fully, amply and effectually, so far as Relates to said office, according to Law, and for Doing, this shall be your Sufficient warrant. Given Under My hand and Seal in said Colony the 6th Day of May in the thirtieth year of his Majesty's Reign A D 1757 - (Signed) W. Greene, Govr." This rare Document has been archivally backed for preservation, sealing two edge tears, one of which extends through the abbreviation "Govr" after the signature. Otherwise this Colonial Naval Document is in excellent overall condition.William Ellery (December 22, 1727 - February 15, 1820) was a Signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Rhode Island. In 1764, the Baptists consulted with Ellery and the Congregationalist Reverend Ezra Stiles on writing a charter for the college that became Brown University. However, Ellery and Stiles attempted to give control of the college to the Congregationalists, but the Baptists withdrew the petition until it was rewritten to assure Baptist control. Neither Ellery nor Stiles accepted appointment to the reserved Congregationalist seats on the board of trusteesThe second son of William Ellery Sr. and Elizabeth Almy, William Ellery was born in Newport and received his early education from his father, a merchant and Harvard College graduate. In 1747 William Ellery graduated from Harvard College where he had excelled in Greek and Latin. Ellery returned to Newport where he worked first as a merchant, next as a customs collector, and then as Clerk of the Rhode Island General Assembly. Ellery started practicing law in 1770 at the age of 43 and became active in the Rhode Island Sons of Liberty.After Samuel Ward's death in 1776, Ellery replaced Ward in the Continental Congress. Ellery was among the fifty-six signers of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Ellery also served as a judge of the Supreme Court of Rhode Island and by 1785 he had become an Abolitionist. He was the first customs collector of the port of Newport under the Constitution, serving there until his death. Ellery was an active worshipper at the Second Congregational Church of Newport. After his death in 1820 at age 92, Ellery was buried in Common Burying Ground in Newport.(From Wikipedia)

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American Major General HORATIO GATES 1777 Rev. War Letter to GEORGE WASHINGTON

Lot 21: American Major General HORATIO GATES 1777 Rev. War Letter to GEORGE WASHINGTON

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Description: AutographsAmerican Major General "Horatio Gates" 1777 Dated Revolutionary War Letter to General George WashingtonHORATIO GATES (1727-1806). American Major General during the Revolutionary War taking credit for the American victories in the Battles of Saratoga (1777) and was blamed for the American defeat at the Battle of Camden (1780). January 31, 1777-Dated Autograph Letter Signed "Horatio Gates", 1 page, 7.75" x 12.75", Philadelphia, Very Fine. Gates writes to General Washington to discuss the prevention of spreading small pox. Letter reads in part, "Sir Yesterday Evening I had the Honour to receive your Excellency's Letter of the 28th, Instant; I immediately consulted with Doctor Shippen, & Mr. Morris, upon the best method of preventing the spreading of The Infection Small Pox, & have Issued Orders to Oblige all the Troops & Recruits, upon their March from the Westward, to Avoid this City, & take their Route through German Town. Gates was given command of the Canadian Department and was quite disorganized with the retreat from Quebec. At this time, disease, especially smallpox, had taken a significant toll on the ranks. He eventually made it to Fort Ticonderoga, but had a tiff with Phillip Schuyler, as that was his territory. They eventually worked it outIn 1777, the Continental Congress blamed generals Schuyler and St. Clair for the loss of Fort Ticonderoga, though Gates had exercised a lengthy command in the region. Congress finally gave Gates command of the Northern Department on August 4th, 1777.This famous and historic Painting of the Surrender of General Burgoyne by John Trumbull shows Major General Horatio Gates is in the center, with arms outstretched. Gates assumed command of the Northern Department on August 19 and led the army during the defeat of British General Burgoyne's invasion in the Battles of Saratoga.While Gates and his supporters took credit for the victory, military action was directed by a cohort of field commanders led by Benedict Arnold, Enoch Poor, Benjamin Lincoln, and Daniel Morgan. Arnold in particular took the field against Gates' orders and rallied the troops in a furious attack on the British lines, suffering serious injuries to his leg. John Stark's defeat of a sizable British raiding force at the Battle of Bennington, Stark's forces killed or captured over 900 British soldiers, was also a substantial factor in the outcome at Saratoga.General Gates stands front and center in John Trumbull's painting of the Surrender of General Burgoyne at Saratoga, which hangs in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda. By Congressional resolution, a gold medal was presented to Gates to commemorate his victories over the British in the Battles of Bennington, Fort Stanwix and Saratoga.

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Continental Army General HORATIO LLOYD GATES, Autograph Document Signed Rev. War

Lot 22: Continental Army General HORATIO LLOYD GATES, Autograph Document Signed Rev. War

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Description: AutographsContinental Army General Horatio Gates Requests The Favor That Congress Acts to Grant Two French Soldiers Military CommissionsHORATIO GATES (1727-1806). American General during the Revolutionary War who took credit for the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga only after General Benedict Arnold, who led the attack, was finally forced from the field when he was shot in the leg and was blamed for the defeat at the Battle of Camden.c. August 1778 Revolutionary War Period, Autograph Document Signed in the text, "General Gates," 1 page, measuring 9.25" x 7.5" no date, no place, Very Fine. This very finely penned, easily readable document is written upon clean period laid paper, being his personal request to the Continental Congress to issue two Military Commissions. It reads, in full:"General Gates Requests the Favor, That Congress will be please to Grant, a Colonels Commission, to Lieut. Col. the Chevallier de Fallie; & a Majors Commission to Captain the Chevallier de Luce. These gentlemen served with reputation all the last Campaign to the Northward." Docket written upon the blank reverse reads: "Gen. Gates recom. Lt. Coll. Failly."The mentioned "Campaign to the Northward" mentioned within this letter is most probably the Saratoga Campaign, thus it would have been written circa August of 1778, as it was about the only time Gates was successfully in command. Only three words of text are very faint due to a fold line and some light tone, not affecting "General Gates" which heads this historic Revolutionary War Period request to the Continental Congress.Horatio Gates was a British soldier who served in North America during the French and Indian War and became a Major General in the American Revolutioanry War Continental Army. He claimed victory at Saratoga (1777) and was involved in the Conway Cabal; he was Relieved of his Command and his conduct was questioned after the Battle of Camden in 1780. In 1782 General Gates was allowed back into service under Commanding General George Washington.

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BENJAMIN GOULD, Last Patriot To Leave From Bunker Hill Signed Document

Lot 23: BENJAMIN GOULD, Last Patriot To Leave From Bunker Hill Signed Document

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Description: AutographsExceedingly Rare Revolutionary War "Benjamin Gould" Last Patriot To Leave From Bunker Hill Signed DocumentBENJAMIN GOULD. American Revolutionary War Patriot and Soldier, as a Corporal was wounded at the Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, and was the very Last Patriot Soldier to leave from the Battle of Bunker Hill.May 14th 1781-Dated Revolutionary War Manuscript Document Signed, "Benjm. Gould," Fine. This authentic original document is from the American Revolution, dated at Topsfield (MA), noting a substitute soldier bounty payment for a Mr. Eleazer Lake, Junior. It reads:"Topsfield May 14th 1781 - Received of Mr. Eleazer Lake Junr Eighteen hard Dollars towards Paying his Prepotion (sic) of a man for the three years Service. - Benjm Gould".This document measures approximately 7.5" x 3" and has some heavy age staining at its centerfold area. It is well written and signed, being easy to read in rich brown ink. Benjamin Gould, who signs the document, was an American corporal and was wounded at the Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. He continued his service in the Massachusetts militia from 1777 until his honorable discharge on October 10, 1780. He took part in the Revolutionary War battles at Bennington, Stillwater, and Saratoga, and served as captain of the guard at West Point, at the time of Benedict Arnold's treason. Much more can be found about him online, as he is listed in multiple historic postings, and is accompanied with some historic biographical information. This is the first signature of Gould which we have offered in three decades.

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NATHANAEL GREENE 1778 ALS as Major General Revolutionary War Continental Army

Lot 24: NATHANAEL GREENE 1778 ALS as Major General Revolutionary War Continental Army

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Description: Autographs1778 Major General Greene "But the Laws of Congress impose a conformity that I am not at liberty to dispense with."NATHANAEL GREENE (1742-1786). Nathanael Greene. Major General and Appointed Quartermaster General of the Continental Army by General George Washington in the American Revolutionary War, known for his successful command in the Southern Campaign in the defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown.October 24, 1778-Dated Revolutionary War, Autograph Letter Signed, "Nath Greene," as Quartermaster General of the Continental Army, 2 pages, measuring 8.25" x 13.25" at Camp Fredericksburg, Fine. This historic content letter is written to Colonel Ephraim Bowen DQMG (Deputy Quarter Master General), written in brown upon quality laid paper of the period. There are some edge splits at top and about a .25" portion of the upper left margin edge missing at top above the dateline, affecting a few words written on the reverse, and some tone along the left margin. Overall, this letter is very readable and clear with a wonderful large 3" signature of Nathanael Greene at its conclusion.Major General Nathanael Greene in the American Revolution was General George Washington's most trusted General. General Greene's dedication and service to this country was evident to his peers and fellow patriots during his lifetime. The Marquis de Lafayette proclaimed of him, "..in the very name of Greene are remembered all the virtues and talents which illustrate the patriot, the statesman, and the military leader..." The only men to have served all eight years of the Revolution at the rank of General were George Washington and Nathanael Greene.The accomplishments of Nathanael Greene are far too numerous to catalogue here, however two essential assignments given him were decisive in the victorious outcome of the American Revolution: his assignment as "Quartermaster General" of the American Forces, and the assignment of Command of the Southern Campaign culminating in the defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown.Taking on the task of Quartermaster-General of the Army was daunting. Greene himself was not keen on the idea saying, "No one ever heard of a quartermaster in history." He finally consented to the assignment but insisted that he still retain some command and participate in battle. However, in spite of his reluctance to take the assignment he understood its vital importance to the cause and immersed himself to successfully carry out the task. The American forces were under funded, under supplied, and had little if any system of transportation of supplies. Greene's predecessor had not done well in allocating the scarce resources effectively. However Nathanael Greene got to work and turned the situation around. Sometimes he even spent some of his own money, and at one time guaranteed personally expenses that would cost him all of his holdings in Rhode Island, and the money and lands given him by the state of North Carolina at the end of the Revolutionary War. However, the lessons he learned as Quartermaster-General would benefit him as a leader when he assumed command of the Southern Campaign. Allocation and distribution of scarce resources, transportation and mobility, as well as the crucial aspects of setting up and maintaining supply lines, would be lessons that he carried with him to the South. His strategy would evolve into a comprehensive plan to conserve his troops and supply lines, striking when essential while at the same time exhausting the enemy's troops and harassing and overextending the British supply lines.This Letter is in regard to certain opinions of General James Mitchell Varnum.General James Mitchell Varnum (1748-1789) was an American Brigadier General 1775-1779 in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, twice elected Delegate to the Continental Congress (1780-82 and 1786-87), Legislator, Lawyer, and later a Pioneer to the Ohio Country. General Varnum served in the Siege of Boston, Battles of Long Island, White Plains, Red Bank, Wintered at Valley Forge, and the Battle of Rhode Island. Along with Nathanael Greene he served in the Kentish Guards. He served as a Brigadier General in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, serving from 1777 until 1779. Varnum advocated allowing African Americans to enlist in the Continental Army, which resulted in the reformation of the 1st Rhode Island Regiment as an All-Black unit. Varnum was a disciple of General Charles Lee and a serious critic of the position of Inspector General, held in 1778 by Baron Von Steuben. After Varnum resigned his Continental Army commission because of personal business matters, he was appointed major general of Rhode Island militia. He led troops in the service of the United States in July and August, 1780, under the Comte de Rochambeau who commanded allied troops sent by King Louis XVI of France. Varnum was an original member of the Rhode Island Society of the Cincinnati and served as President of the Society from 1786 until his death in 1789. He later represented Rhode Island in the Continental Congress (1780-1781 and 1787). After the Revolutionary War, along with General George Washington, Nathanael Greene, Henry Knox, Thomas Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney and several others, he became a Founding Member of the Society of the Cincinnati. A portrait James Mitchell Varnum in his military uniform was painted posthumously in 1804 by Charles Willson Peale.General Greene writes to Colonel Ephraim Bowen (1716-1812), a member of the Providence town council from 1773 and 1775; and a representative in the General Assembly in 1777; served in the Providence militia between 1774 and 1777, holding the rank of Colonel of the First Regiment of Providence County from 1776 to 1777. Between the years 1778 and 1786, with the exception of the year 1780 to 1781, Bowen was Deputy Governor of Rhode Island. He became a Superior Court Judge in August of 1776, and became Chief Justice in 1781. The correspondence of Ephraim Bowen, Jr. includes 29 retained copies of letters he wrote to General Nathanael Greene concerning supplies and finances for the Revolutionary War. There are also three letters written to him from Greene, all written during the first half of 1779; and a 1780 letter to him from the Compte de Rochambeau concerning an invitation. This current letter, dated October 24, 1778 by General Nathanael Greene thus appears to be previously unrecorded and unknown. It reads, in full:"Sir -- Your favor of the 19th of this instant came to hand this day. I observe what you mention regarding Mr. Mitchel, General Varnum is certainly mistaken. It is impossible that I should have ever made such a promise or that Mr. Mitchel should be continued notwithstanding the Resolve of Congress to the contrary. I remember of telling the General that Mr. Mitchel should continue until the matter was more fully explained. When this conversation happened, it was in the infancy of the affair, and while it remained uncertain whether the establishment would be fully adopted. But General Varnum can't suppose I meant or intended to continue Mr. Mitchel in direct opposition to a Resolve of the Congress.If I was to do this I should be obliged to allow all the extra pay, besides by my self liable to be impeached for contempt of authority. There is no body that would wish to olibge General Varnum sooner than I should, as that is more desirous of gratifying Mr. Mitchel. For two Reasons, first because of his lameness, and secondly because I think him a faithful honest officer. But the Laws of Congress impose a conformity that I am not at liberty to dispense with. Therefore I must repeat the answer of having Brigade quarter Masters appointed from the line of the Army and Sir I would just observe to... [torn/missing] ... of Congress confines the appointment to the Officers actually belonging to the Line of the Army at the time the appointment is made. --- If there is any place in any branch of the quarter Masters department that Mr. Mitchel can be employed consistent with his own interest and the Public good - I wish you to give him an appointment. -- I am Sir -- Your humble Serv't. -- (Signed) Nath Greene QMG (Quarter Master General)." A Docket upon a panel below reads: "General Greene - 24 Oct. 1779)Of the Headquarters that General George Washington occupied for any length of time during the Revolutionary War, perhaps none was more remote or obscure than the one where he lived and worked for much of the fall of 1778. In his numerous letters and orders of this period, this Headquarters was variously designated as being either at or near Fredericksburg (now Patterson), N.Y., a village just west of the Connecticut state line and some seventy miles north of New York City. "Near" was the more accurate term, for George Washington actually resided at Pawling, N.Y..In mid-October GW began the time-consuming task of planning for the coming winter. As was his practice in such matters, he elicited both oral and written opinions from his generals and then made up his own mind. A majority of the general officers favored establishing the army's winter quarters in the Hudson highlands, and several further recommended that large detachments should be stationed in western Connecticut or northern New Jersey or both. Brig. Gen. John Nixon proposed splitting the army equally between the highlands and Danbury. Brig. Gen. Henry Knox suggested concentrating most of it at Ridgefield, Conn., or somewhere along the road running west from that town. Four generals, however, advised GW against wintering substantial numbers of troops east of the Hudson River, for two essential reasons: flour and forage. Nathanael Greene, Alexander McDougall, Lord Stirling, and William Maxwell were concerned, among other things, that the Continental army's already hard-pressed supply line running from the middle states could not be adequately sustained during the winter months. The best alternative, they thought, was to send a major part of the army to those states, in particular to New Jersey and more particularly, Greene and McDougall suggested, to the old camp at Middlebrook, N.J., which, as Greene reminded GW on 18 Oct., was located "in a plentyful Country." GW agreed with them. On 29 Oct. GW told Greene that he had decided to divide the army for the winter among Danbury, West Point, and Middlebrook, but the exact numbers sent to the latter two places would depend on the enemy's wintertime strength at New York, which remained unclear even at that late date.Philander D. Chase, ed., The Papers of George Washington: Revolutionary War Series volume 17, 15 September - 31 October 1778. Charlottesville and London: University of Virginia Press, 2008.

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FRANCIS GURNEY Funeral Charges At St. Peter's Church in Philadelphia

Lot 25: FRANCIS GURNEY Funeral Charges At St. Peter's Church in Philadelphia

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Description: AutographsDetailed Funeral Charges for Colonel Francis Gurney's Son Held At St. Peter's Church in PhiladelphiaFRANCIS GURNEY (1738-1815). Philadelphia Businessman, Civic Leader, and Revolutionary War Lieutenant Colonel, served from the French and Indian War to the Whiskey Rebellion, in 1799, promoted to Brigadier General.Late 18th Century, Revolutionary War Era or so, Manuscript Document Signed, Very Fine. June 11th, (undated) Receipt for the Funeral charges for Colonel Francis Gurney's son, at St. Peter's Church. St. Peter's Church in Philadelphia is a historic church located on the corner of Third and Pine streets. It opened for worship on September 4, 1761 and served as a place of worship for many of the United States Founding Fathers, during the period of the Continental Congresses. The building was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1996. Francis Gurney commanded the 11th Pennsylvania Regiment, had also served during the French and Indian War, participating in the Canadian campaign and against the French West Indies Islands, in the capture of Guadeloupe. Gurney was wounded at Iron Hill on September 3, 1777. During the Whiskey Rebellion his military services were called upon, where Gurney led the 600 strong 1st Philadelphia Militia of the against rebelling farmers in Western Pennsylvania.Francis Gurney (1738-1815), a native of Bucks County, Pa., served in the French and Indian War, and as a colonel with Pennsylvania troops during the Revolution. After the war he became a merchant in Philadelphia and for a time was warden of the post of Philadelphia, a Philadelphia alderman, and a member of the city council (Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 47 [1923], 175-76). After the war, Gurney returned to Philadelphia where he began his career as a merchant. During the American Revolution, he donated heavily to the cause both monetarily and in military service. He served as a captain with the Grenadier Company, 3rd Regiment, Philadelphia Militia, and was later promoted to lieutenant colonel. He resigned his commission on October 22, 1777 after a failure to receive an expected promotion. Gurney served throughout the remainder of the war and its aftermath in civilian offices.In 1794 he was in command of the 1st Regiment of the Philadelphia Brigade with the rank of colonel. Apparently Gurney had considerable difficulty maintaining discipline among his troops, for Washington wrote Hamilton, 26 Oct., on his way back to Philadelphia, that "I heard great complaints of Gurney's Corps (&c some of the Artillery) along the road to Strasburgh. . . . In some places, I was told they did not leave a plate, a spoon, a glass or a knife; and this owing, in a great measure I was informed, to their being left without Officers. At most if not all the encampments, I found the fences in a manner burnt up. I pray you to mention this to Govr. Mifflin" (Library of Congress: Hamilton Papers). In 1799, he was promoted to Brigadier General. In addition to his other civic and military duties, Gurney served on the Board of Trustees of Dickinson College from 1798 until his death. He was often entrusted with College business in Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. Francis Gurney died on May 25, 1815.

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(JOHN HANCOCK) 1783 American Revolution Receipt of Governor John Hancock

Lot 26: (JOHN HANCOCK) 1783 American Revolution Receipt of Governor John Hancock

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Description: AutographsGovernor John Hancock Receipt In American Revolution (JOHN HANCOCK) (1737-1793). Prominent Merchant, Patriot of the American Revolution, served as President of the Second Continental Congress and was both the First & Third Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Remembered for his large and stylish First Signature on the United States Declaration of Independence, so much so that the term "John Hancock" became, in the United States, a synonym for "signature".11th - 1783 (No month)-Dated American Revolutionary War, Manuscript Document Signed, "Silas Hussey," 1 page, measuring approximately 3" x 6.75" (84 x 180 mm), at Boston, Very Fine. An original Handwritten Receipt boldly penned upon clean period laid paper. It reads, in Full:"Boston 11th. - 1783 -- Rec. of John Hancock Esqr. Twenty One Shillings Lawful Money for three Groos (Gross) Corks Delivered By Joseph Hussey some years ago -- Silas Hussey." Docketed upon its verso: "Governor Hancock's Bill" (and apparently paid as noted) "Sylvanus Hussey Rect. 1783."There is one light vertical fold, torn at bottom margin, old tape used for a prior mounting display along the outer margins where now toned, overall the text portions are in very nice condition. A stated and direct tie to the historic John Hancock.

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1817 EPHRAIM HART, Jewish American Merchant, Document Signed

Lot 28: 1817 EPHRAIM HART, Jewish American Merchant, Document Signed

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Description: AutographsEphraim Hart Jewish American Merchant & Founding Member of New York "Board of Stock-Brokers"EPHRAIM HART (1747 - 1825). Historic Jewish American Merchant who helped to organize the "Board of Stock-Brokers," now known as the New York Stock Exchange!April 18th, 1817-Dated, Manuscript Document Signed, "Ephm. Hart," being a payment receipt for selling real estate on Love Lane (New York) for James C. Roosevelt, Very Fine. This original Document measures 4" x 6" and is very well written in bold brown ink, having a bold clear signature of Ephraim Hart at the conclusion. It reads, in full:" New York - April 18th, 1817 Recd. of Mr. James C. Roosevelt thirty seven dollars and a half in full for Commissions for Selling h8is place in Love Lave. -- Ephm. Hart".Ephraim Hart is listed among the historic early Jewish persons of America. After immigrating to American from Europe, by 1782 he was residing as a major merchant in Philadelphia. In 1787 he also joined the Mickvé Israel congregation. He married in 1783 Frances Noah, a sister of Manuel Noah, and their son was named Joel Hart. Later he moved to New York City and engaged in the commission and brokerage business. On April 2, 1787, Hart was registered as an elector of the Shearith Israel Congregation.By 1792 he had become one of the most successful merchants in New York City, and at this time he helped to organize the Board of Stock-Brokers, now known as the New York Stock Exchange. The origin of the New York Stock Exchange can be traced to May 17, 1792, when the Buttonwood Agreement was signed by 24 stock brokers on Wall Street in New York City under a buttonwood tree. On March 8, 1817, the organization drafted a constitution and renamed itself the "New York Stock & Exchange Board." His name appears in 1799 in a "list of owners of houses and lots valued at £2,000 or more." He was also one of the founders, in 1802, of the ebra Hesed Veemet, a charitable organization connected with the Shearith Israel Congregation. This is a rarely encountered signature is of an important figure in Jewish American history and the financial history of the United States of America. The very first we have offered.

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1780 Brigadier General MOSES HAZEN Court Martial Trial of ISAAC TICHENOR, Gov VT

Lot 29: 1780 Brigadier General MOSES HAZEN Court Martial Trial of ISAAC TICHENOR, Gov VT

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Description: AutographsRare Brigadier General "Moses Hazen" Continental Army 1780 Court Martial Trial of ISAAC TICHENOR (Vermont)MOSES HAZEN (1733-1803). Brigadier General in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He saw action in the French and Indian War with Rogers' Rangers. Hazen served throughout the Revolutionary War, seeing action in the 1775 Battle of Quebec, 1777 Philadelphia campaign, and at Yorktown in 1781.April 18, 1780-Dated Revolutionary War, Autograph Letter Signed, "Moses Hazen," 1 page, measuring 12.5" x 7.75" at Springfield, New Jersey, Choice Extremely Fine. This Letter is neatly penned being written upon fresh, clean period laid paper that is only lightly folded. It is easy to read and has an exceptional choice full signature "Moses Hasen" measuring over 2.5" long. This is an excellent, high quality example for display.This historic Letter is written in regard to a relatively famous and important Continental Army Court Martial Trial of ISAAC TICHENOR (1754-1838), then an Deputy Commissary, and later became Twice elected early Governor of the State of Vermont. In 1777 Ticheror was appointed Assistant Commissary and bought supplies for distribution to the Northern Department of the Continental Army. He was brought up on numerous charges that he was misusing his purchasing powers. Ultimately, Isaac Tichenor was fully acquitted of all charges in this well documented Court Martial. See: The Writings of George Washington, which fully describes this incident in significant detail.Here, Hazen writes to Colonel Jonathan Chase (1732-1800). In 1775, Chase was appointed Colonel of the 13th New Hampshire Militia Regiment. He led his regiment to Fort Ticonderoga in 1776 to support the Continental Army and served in General William Whipple's Brigade of New Hampshire Militia during the Saratoga Campaign of 1777. At the surrender of General John Burgoyne, Col. Chase actually drew up the "Articles of Convention for the Surrender" of General Burgoyne's Army for General Horatio Gates.This Autograph Letter Signed by then Colonel Moses Hazen is in regard to the Court Martial of Isaac Tischnor, the twice future Governor of the State of Vermont from: Oct. 16, 1797 - Oct. 09, 1807 and from Oct. 14, 1808 to Oct. 14, 1809. In 1814 he was again elected to the U.S. Senate, where he served until 1821. This Letter reads, in full,"Springfield 18th April 1780 ----The court martial for the trail of Mr. Isaac Tichenor, Commissary of Purchases has been convened at this place. The court has found it necessary to adjour to Charlestown and thre to meet on Monday the 24th instant at 10 o'clock in the fore noon. Your evidence will be necessary on that day, or as soon after as you can possibly attend. Not so much on the principal charges exhibited against Mr. Tichenor, as for the Credit of; justice due; and future protection of your own country - which will much depend on the event of this trial. I have desired this letter to be forwarded to you by express where ever you may be, and beg you will not omit giving your personal attendance at Charlestown in this trial. --- I am --- Dear Sir --- your very Humble Serv't. --- (Signed) Moses Hazen".Docket upon the blank reverse reads: "Colo(nel) Hazen Leter (sic) April 18th 1780."Mozes Hazen was apprenticed to a tanner when the French and Indian War broke out. In 1756, he enlisted with the local militia, which included a number of family members. He first served at Fort William Henry near Lake George, where he probably first met, and may have served under, Robert Rogers of Rogers' Rangers.Rogers eventually recommended him for an officer's commission in a new company of the Rangers; in 1758, after having worked for his brother providing supplies for the British Siege of Louisbourg, he was commissioned as a first lieutenant in John McCurdy's company of the Rangers at Fort Edward. In McCurdy's company, he saw action at Louisbourg, including the initial landings, when the action was quite fierce.After Louisbourg, the company was stationed first at Fort Frederick (Saint John, New Brunswick), and then at Fort St. Anne, where the company was part of a campaign against Indians and Acadians that had taken refuge there from the ongoing expulsion of the Acadians. These raids were sometimes quite brutal; the company was known to scalp Acadian settlers. In one particularly brutal incident, Hazen was responsible for the scalping of six men, and the burning of four others, along with two women and three children, in a house he set on fire.Joseph Bellefontaine, a leader of the local militia and the father of one of the women, claimed that he was forced to witness this event in an attempt to coerce his cooperation with the Rangers. (Bellefontaine escaped into the woods with two of his grandchildren.) General Jeffrey Amherst, who did not hear of the incident until after he had promoted Hazen to captain, noted, "I am sorry that to say what I have since heard of that affair has sullied his merit with me as I shall always disapprove of killing women and helpless children."In January 1759, Captain McCurdy was killed when a tree felled by one of his men fell on him; Hazen was given command of the company. Later in 1759, his company was at the siege of Quebec, where the company was primarily engaged in scouting and raiding in the countryside; he was away on one of those raids during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. In another notable atrocity that may have involved Hazen's company, a priest and thirty parishioners in a parish near Quebec were killed and scalped.Hazen also fought at the 1760 Battle of Sainte-Foy, where he was severely wounded in the thigh. In February 1761, he purchased a commission as a first Lieutenant in the 44th Regiment of Foot in the British Army. He spent the remainder of the war on garrison duty at Montreal, retiring on half-pay in 1763. General James Murray wrote approvingly of Hazen in 1761, "He discovered so much still bravery and good conduct as would justly entitle him to every military reward he could ask or demand.At the start of the Revolutionary War in 1775, Hazen was living on half-pay in Saint-Jean. When Benedict Arnold raided Fort Saint-Jean on May 18, Hazen reported the news of that raid (as well as the capture of Fort Ticonderoga) first to the military authorities in Montreal, and then to Governor Guy Carleton in Quebec, before returning home to consider the consequences the conflict might have on him and his lands.The American invasion of Quebec arrived near his home at Saint-Jean on September 6. On that day, Hazen met with General Philip Schuyler, explaining to him that Fort Saint-Jean was well-defended and unlikely to be taken by siege, and that the local habitants were unlikely to assist the American effort. This gloomy portrait led Schuyler to consider retreating; but the arrival of additional American troops, and a more optimistic assessment from James Livingston, a grain merchant living near Chambly, encouraged the Americans to renew the attack. Livingston went on to form the 1st Canadian Regiment in November 1775.Hazen and his regiment spent the Winter of 1779 at Washington's main encampment in Morristown, New Jersey. There Hazen was again involved in litigation; he was rejected for service on a court martial considering charges against Benedict Arnold due to their previous confrontations, and he also opened complaints of supply mismanagement during the summer's roadbuilding activities. A detailed review of the army in the Spring of 1780 by Baron von Steuben led to the recommendation that the regiments of Hazen and Livingston be merged, as Livingston's had shrunk to 103 men. Hazen and Livingston had a political tussle over seniority; although Hazen lost the claim to seniority, he ended up in command of the combined regiment.In January 1780 the regiment was involved in a failed attack on Staten Island; word of the operation leaked to the British. Hazen's regiment was then transferred to the brigade of Enoch Poor. By the time the transfer was effected, Hazen was given command of the entire brigade, although repeated requests he had made for promotion to Brigadier General were rejected. During the summer the brigade was relocated to the West Point area. While en route, Hazen allowed his men to stop for water, breaking the army column. Baron Von Steuben ordered Hazen's arrest for this transgression of military discipline. Hazen was acquitted, and promptly countercharged Baron von Steuben with behavior unbecoming an officer and gentleman; von Steuben apologized.Hazen's regiment was garrisoned opposite West Point that fall when British Major John André was captured and General Arnold defected. One hundred of Hazen's men, including his nephew, Benjamin Mooers, witnessed Major André's hanging.On June 29, 1781, Hazen was finally promoted to Brigadier General and assigned command of a brigade under Lafayette during the Siege of Yorktown. Hazen's brigade served on the right of the line, and was deeply involved in the October 14 battles for the redoubts.

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American Revolutionary War General SAMUEL HOLDEN PARSONS Autograph Letter Signed

Lot 30: American Revolutionary War General SAMUEL HOLDEN PARSONS Autograph Letter Signed

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Description: AutographsRare Lexington Alarm Era Autograph Letter Signed By American Revolutionary War General Samuel H. ParsonsGENERAL SAMUEL HOLDEN PARSONS (1737-89). American Revolutionary War General who was actively involved in promoting resistance to the British and was an early proponent of a Congress within the American Colonies. He served from the Lexington Alarm in 1775 until after the British surrender at Yorktown.c. 1775 Early Revolutionary War Period, Autograph Letter Signed "Saml H. Parsons", one page, 8.5" x 7.5", no date, no place, Choice Crisp Extremely Fine. To "Mr. Commisy. Clark - Camp" regarding Officers' Hats. It reads, in part:"The three Hats ... are for me & my Family (meaning his aides and other officers at his headquarters). I exclude the officers of the 6th Regt. (Parsons was appointed Colonel of the 6th Connecticut Regiment in 1775) from a Division, except the field officers because their Caps make them decent in appearance & if they want, they must wait. Two of the field officers of the 5th Regt. have had their share to one; the Paymaster also has been supplied & therefore that Regt. ought to be excluded from a Draft for the three remaining on Hand, as the Regts. who draw them can have no more than the 5th have had..."When the Regimental Commander gets involved with what to do with three hats, it shows just how severe was the scarcity of clothing. Docket on the blank reverse "Officers Hats" and Integral Address Leaf "To - Mr. Commisy. G. Clark - Camp." A superb quality example of this extremely rare American Revolutionary War period Autograph Letter Signed by General Samuel H. Parsons.Samuel Holden Parsons was an American political and military leader in the years following the American Revolution. He was one of the first settlers in the Northwest Territory and one of its most prominent early leaders.Parsons was born in Lyme, Connecticut, on May 14, 1737. He graduated from Harvard College in 1756 and then studied law with his uncle. He joined the Connecticut bar in 1759. Three years later, the people of Lyme elected Parsons to the Connecticut General Assembly. He served in the Assembly until 1774. As tensions increased between the colonies and Great Britain, Parsons actively supported independence. He participated in Connecticut's Committee of Correspondence and was one of the first people to call for the organization of the Continental Congress.Following the Battles of Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts, Parsons joined the Continental Army. He helped General Benedict Arnold capture Fort Ticonderoga. He was present at the siege of Boston and at the battle for New York City. Following the loss of New York, Parsons spent the remainder of the war defending Connecticut from British invasion. The highest military rank he attained during the American Revolution was major general. He became a strong opponent of the Continental Congress after the government bonds that he purchased at the war's beginning became valueless. Due to poor health beginning in 1777, Parsons repeatedly threatened to resign from the army. Parson's ill will against the American government convinced William Heron, a double agent working for both the Americans and the British, to try to get Parsons to switch his loyalties. While he disagreed with many of the actions taken by the Continental and Confederation Congresses, Parsons was a devoted patriot and remained loyal to the American cause. The Confederation Congress refused to accept his resignation until July 22, 1782, as the war was ending.Following the American Revolution, the voters of Connecticut returned Parsons to the General Assembly. The Confederation Congress also selected him to serve as an Indian commissioner. In 1786, he and Richard Butler negotiated the Treaty of Fort Finney with the Shawnee Indians. In this treaty, the Shawnees agreed to relinquish their claims to the land in southwestern Ohio and southern Indiana.Having spent time in the Ohio Country negotiating with the Indians, Parsons became convinced that he could earn a fortune on the frontier. In 1786, he became a shareholder in the Ohio Company of Associates. In the next year, the company's investors selected Parsons to be a director of the company and sent him to the Confederation Congress to negotiate the purchase of land in the Northwest Territory. The Congress refused, and the Ohio Company removed Parsons from his position as director. In October 1787, the Confederation Congress appointed Parsons, along with James Varnum and John Cleves Symmes, as the first judges of the Northwest Territory. Accepting the position, Parsons moved from Connecticut to Marietta in April 1788. The judges commonly disagreed with the governor of the Northwest Territory, Arthur St. Clair. Tensions between the judges and St. Clair dominated politics in the Northwest Territory in the late eighteenth century. Still involved in real estate speculation, Parsons traveled to the Connecticut Western Reserve in 1789. He had invested money in the Connecticut Land Company. On the return trip to Marietta, Parsons traveled by canoe. Parsons drowned when his canoe overturned on November 17, 1789.

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Signer FRANCIS HOPKINSON, WILLIAM BINGHAM Plus JOHN BENEZET 1779 Document Signed

Lot 31: Signer FRANCIS HOPKINSON, WILLIAM BINGHAM Plus JOHN BENEZET 1779 Document Signed

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Description: AutographsFrancis Hopkinson Signer of the Declaration of Independence from New Jersey & Other Noted AmericansFRANCIS HOPKINSON (1737 - 1791) & WILLIAM BINGHAM (1752 - 1804), Plus JOHN BENEZET (see text).Hopkinson was an American Author, was one of the Signer of the Declaration of Independence as a Continental Congress Delegate from New Jersey and helped in the design of the First American National Flag, First graduate of what is now the University of Pennsylvania.William Bingham was an American Statesman from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was a Delegate for Pennsylvania to the Continental Congress from 1786 to 1788, and later served in the United States Senate from 1795 to 1801 and as President Pro Tempore of the United States Senate.March, 1st, 1779-Dated Revolutionary War Period, Partially-Printed Document Signed, "F. Hopkinson" as Continental Congress Treasurer of Loans, Third Bill of Exchange $60 Sight Draft, printed in Violet, Green and Black, Very Choice Crisp About Uncirculated. This bright, clean and fresh Continental Treasury form being beautifully printed upon watermarked "UNITED STATES 3" fine quality laid period paper. It is made to "Jacob Cook" on interest due on Money borrowed by the United States. This form is made:"To the Commissioner or Commissioners of the United States of America, at Paris. - Countersigned, Tho(mas) Smith - Commissioner of the Continental Loan-Office in the State of Pennsylvania -- (Signed) F(rancis) Hopkinson - Treasr. of Loans."This form is in superb, bright overall quality having a bold brown signature of Hopkinson measuring fully 2.5" long. The blank reverse is endorsed at top by Jacob Cook, being signed to William Bingham, authorized by John Benezet, and then further endorsed and noted in French on July 13, 1779, Signed by "Wm. Bingham" with his bold signature with a lovely flourish below.John Benezet was a native of Philadelphia and the son of Daniel Benezet, a prominent Philadelphia merchant. Benezet briefly attended the College of Philadelphia in 1757 and was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1768. In 1775, he married Hanna Bingham, and with that, his father gave him £3,000 plus £6,000 in stock to set up an import business. Benezet became active in political affairs, but only briefly. In early 1775, John Benezet served as one of the Secretaries who recorded proceedings at the Pennsylvania Provincial Congress. In August of that year, he was named to Philadelphia's Committee of Correspondence. Two years later, in 1777, the Continental Congress appointed Benezet as Commissioner of Claims in the Treasury Office, later resigned and returned to his business interests. Benezet died in the Winter of 1780-81, when his ship, the Shillelagh, was lost at sea during a voyage to France.Francis Hopkinson, signer of the Declaration of Independence, signs this bill of exchange as Treasurer of Loans. Francis Hopkinson (September 21, 1737 - May 9, 1791), an American author, was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence as a delegate from New Jersey.He later served as a federal judge in Pennsylvania. His supporters believe he played a key role in the design of the first American flag. Francis Hopkinson was born at Philadelphia in 1737, the son of Thomas Hopkinson and Mary Johnson. He became a member of the first class at the College of Philadelphia (now University of Pennsylvania) in 1751 and graduated in 1757, receiving his masters degree in 1760, and a doctor in law (honorary) in 1790.He was secretary to a Provincial Council of Pennsylvania Indian commission in 1761 that made a treaty with the Delaware and several Iroquois tribes. In 1763, he was appointed customs collector for Salem, New Jersey. Hopkinson spent from May 1766 to August 1767 in England in hopes of becoming commissioner of customs for North America. Although unsuccessful, he spent time with the future Prime Minister Lord North and his half-brother, the Bishop of Worcester Brownlow North, and painter Benjamin West. After his return, Francis Hopkinson operated a dry goods business in Philadelphia and married Ann Borden on September 1, 1768. They would have five children. Hopkinson obtained a public appointment as a customs collector for New Castle, Delaware on May 1, 1772.He moved to Bordentown, New Jersey in 1774, became an assemblyman for the state's Royal Provincial Council, and was admitted to the New Jersey bar on May 8, 1775. He resigned his crown-appointed positions in 1776 and, on June 22, went on to represent New Jersey in the Second Continental Congress where he signed the Declaration of Independence.He departed the Congress on November 30, 1776 to serve on the Navy Board at Philadelphia. As part of the fledgling nation's government, he was Treasurer of the Continental Loan Office in 1778; appointed Judge of the Admiralty Court of Pennsylvania in 1779 and reappointed in 1780 and 1787; and helped ratify the Constitution during the Constitutional Convention in 1787.On September 24, 1789, he was nominated by President George Washington to the newly created position of Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Pennsylvania. He was confirmed by the United States Senate, and received his commission, on September 26, 1789.As a Federal Judge, Hopkinson died in Philadelphia at the age of 53 from a sudden epileptic seizure. He was buried in Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia. He was the father of Joseph Hopkinson, member of the United States House of Representatives and Federal judge.

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FRANCIS HOPKINSON, Signer the Declaration of Independence, Continental Congress

Lot 32: FRANCIS HOPKINSON, Signer the Declaration of Independence, Continental Congress

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Description: Autographs1780 Revolutionary War Continental Congress Loan-Office Certificate Signed By Francis HopkinsonFRANCIS HOPKINSON (1737-1791). Signer of the Declaration of Independence for New Jersey and Designer of the American Flag in 1777.April 10, 1780-Dated Revolutionary War period, Partially-Printed Document Signed, "F. Hopkinson" as Treasurer, being an official Continental Congress Loan-Office Certificate, Crisp Extremely Fine. This being made out from the Commissioners of the United States at Paris, to Edward Russell, $60, Fourth Bill, on Massachusetts. Printed in Black and Orange upon special laid period Paper watermarked "UNITED STATES." Countersigned by Nathaniel Appleton for the Loan office in Massachusetts-Bay. Listed in Anderson, THE PRICE OF LIBERTY. Bold brown signature "F. Hopkinson" measuring a huge 3 inches across, as Treasurer of Loans for the United States. Francis Hopkinson, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, here signs this historic Bill of Exchange as United States Treasurer of Loans. Francis Hopkinson (September 21, 1737 - May 9, 1791), an American author, was one of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence as a delegate from New Jersey.He later served as a federal judge in Pennsylvania. His supporters believe he played a key role in the design of the first American flag. Francis Hopkinson was born at Philadelphia in 1737, the son of Thomas Hopkinson and Mary Johnson. He became a member of the first class at the College of Philadelphia (now University of Pennsylvania) in 1751 and graduated in 1757, receiving his masters degree in 1760, and a doctor in law (honorary) in 1790.He was secretary to a Provincial Council of Pennsylvania Indian commission in 1761 that made a treaty with the Delaware and several Iroquois tribes. In 1763, he was appointed customs collector for Salem, New Jersey. Hopkinson spent from May 1766 to August 1767 in England in hopes of becoming commissioner of customs for North America. Although unsuccessful, he spent time with the future Prime Minister Lord North and his half-brother, the Bishop of Worcester Brownlow North, and painter Benjamin West. After his return, Francis Hopkinson operated a dry goods business in Philadelphia and married Ann Borden on September 1, 1768. They would have five children. Hopkinson obtained a public appointment as a customs collector for New Castle, Delaware on May 1, 1772.He moved to Bordentown, New Jersey in 1774, became an assemblyman for the state's Royal Provincial Council, and was admitted to the New Jersey bar on May 8, 1775. He resigned his crown-appointed positions in 1776 and, on June 22, went on to represent New Jersey in the Second Continental Congress where he signed the Declaration of Independence.He departed the Congress on November 30, 1776 to serve on the Navy Board at Philadelphia. As part of the fledgling nation's government, he was Treasurer of the Continental Loan Office in 1778; appointed Judge of the Admiralty Court of Pennsylvania in 1779 and reappointed in 1780 and 1787; and helped ratify the Constitution during the Constitutional Convention in 1787.On September 24, 1789, he was nominated by President George Washington to the newly created position of Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Pennsylvania. He was confirmed by the United States Senate, and received his commission, on September 26, 1789.As a Federal Judge, Hopkinson died in Philadelphia at the age of 53 from a sudden epileptic seizure. He was buried in Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia. He was the father of Joseph Hopkinson, member of the United States House of Representatives and Federal Judge.

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FRANCIS HOPKINSON, 1780 Manuscript Document Signed, Signer of the Declaration

Lot 33: FRANCIS HOPKINSON, 1780 Manuscript Document Signed, Signer of the Declaration

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Description: AutographsFrancis Hopkinson - Declaration of Independence Signer Upon Continental Congress "Bills on Spain & France"FRANCIS HOPKINSON, Signer of the Declaration of Independence for New Jersey and Designer of the American Flag in 1777.July 11, 1780-Dated Revolutionary War Period, Manuscript Document Signed, "Frans(is) Hopkinson" as Treasurer of Loans for the United States Continental Congress, Very Fine. Hopkinson's 4" long signature is in dark brown ink, this document measuring 8.25" x 6.75" being custom framed and matted along with a 8" x 6" portrait engraving and a separate typed biography, to an overall size of 16" x 28.5".Unique, highly important United States Revolutionary War Loan Office Financial Document directly mentioning Loan Certificates on Spain and France from their respective governments. It lists the number and denominations of various "Bills on Spain & France," being Loan Office Certificates made out for America's various states during the Revolutionary War period. This Document has an integral envelope on the other side and is addressed to Thomas Harwood, who was the United States Commissary of Loans for Maryland.It is also docketed on that side, "Bills on Spain & France" (the reverse is hidden by the display and this lot is accompanied by a full color copy for reference). The loan certificate denominations and the number of certificates that are listed by Hopkinson appear quite huge, being 100, 300, 500 etc. and are apparently listing certificates "No. 1" for each denomination grouping totaling to 5,000! There are a couple of minor repairs to some edges, and the wax seal tear created upon the original opening of this document is restored affecting a few notations. Overall, this historic American fiscal document is beautifully framed for display.Francis Hopkinson, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, here signs this historic Bill of Exchange as United States Treasurer of Loans. Francis Hopkinson (September 21, 1737 - May 9, 1791), an American author, was one of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence as a delegate from New Jersey.He later served as a federal judge in Pennsylvania. His supporters believe he played a key role in the design of the first American flag. Francis Hopkinson was born at Philadelphia in 1737, the son of Thomas Hopkinson and Mary Johnson. He became a member of the first class at the College of Philadelphia (now University of Pennsylvania) in 1751 and graduated in 1757, receiving his masters degree in 1760, and a doctor in law (honorary) in 1790.He was secretary to a Provincial Council of Pennsylvania Indian commission in 1761 that made a treaty with the Delaware and several Iroquois tribes. In 1763, he was appointed customs collector for Salem, New Jersey. Hopkinson spent from May 1766 to August 1767 in England in hopes of becoming commissioner of customs for North America. Although unsuccessful, he spent time with the future Prime Minister Lord North and his half-brother, the Bishop of Worcester Brownlow North, and painter Benjamin West. After his return, Francis Hopkinson operated a dry goods business in Philadelphia and married Ann Borden on September 1, 1768. They would have five children. Hopkinson obtained a public appointment as a customs collector for New Castle, Delaware on May 1, 1772.He moved to Bordentown, New Jersey in 1774, became an assemblyman for the state's Royal Provincial Council, and was admitted to the New Jersey bar on May 8, 1775. He resigned his crown-appointed positions in 1776 and, on June 22, went on to represent New Jersey in the Second Continental Congress where he signed the Declaration of Independence.He departed the Congress on November 30, 1776 to serve on the Navy Board at Philadelphia. As part of the fledgling nation's government, he was Treasurer of the Continental Loan Office in 1778; appointed Judge of the Admiralty Court of Pennsylvania in 1779 and reappointed in 1780 and 1787; and helped ratify the Constitution during the Constitutional Convention in 1787.On September 24, 1789, he was nominated by President George Washington to the newly created position of Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Pennsylvania. He was confirmed by the United States Senate, and received his commission, on September 26, 1789.As a Federal Judge, Hopkinson died in Philadelphia at the age of 53 from a sudden epileptic seizure. He was buried in Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia. He was the father of Joseph Hopkinson, member of the United States House of Representatives and Federal Judge.

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1781 Rev. War Continental Army Soldier DEATH Sentence Major Gen. ROBERT HOWE

Lot 34: 1781 Rev. War Continental Army Soldier DEATH Sentence Major Gen. ROBERT HOWE

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Description: AutographsHistoric 1781 Death Sentence by Major General Robert Howe Continental Army Revolutionary War Letter - The West Point Commander Transmittal for a Continental Soldier Sentenced To Death At Court MartialGENERAL ROBERT HOWE (1732 - 1786). Major General in the Continental Army; commanded West Point; ran an important American Spy network against the British.June 20, 1781-Dated Revolutionary War, Rare West Point Continental Army Manuscript Letter Signed, "R. Howe," Commanding West Point, being a Death Sentence Transmittal for an American Soldier, Very Fine. Exceedingly Rare and Historically Important Revolutionary War Manuscript Letter was written while Howe was in command at West Point, 1 page, measuring 8" x 6.75" dated June 20, 1781. Overall, this letter is very clean, nice and fully readable. It is specifically mentioned in the major reference work: "The Writings of George Washington". This Letter reads, in full:"West Point - 20th June 1781 -Sir - I send you under guard John Hennesey of your line who has been sentenced to Death by a Court Martial - The enclos'd Extract from his Excellency Genl. Washington's Letter to me, I transmit for your Government. I am with much Regret.- Dear Sir. - Your most obediant - Robt. Howe". In his postscript, Howe adds a most personal plea: "I should be glad if you can spare the life of Henesey."The verso bears two dockets in two different hands, one likely General James Clinton's, reading:"From Gen'l Howe June 20th 1781" and "Sends John Henessey a private to be executed or pardoned as the Genl sees fit - requests his pardon".In, "The Writings of George Washington", a letter to Major General Robert Howe is recorded as being send a letter noted as: "June 8 Pardon for a soldier under sentence of death --- case of John Henesey." On June 8, 1780, George Washington wrote to Robert Howe from his Headquarters in New Windsor, New York, ordering that Henesey, a soldier with the 2nd N.Y. Reg., be sent to General James Clinton in Albany: "to be brought to Execution, or pardoned, as the Genl on Consideration of Circumstances, shall think proper..." Henesey's fate is apparently unknown.ROBERT HOWE (1732 - 1786), Major General in the Continental Army, stymied by his lack of control over the forces in the South, later saw action under General "Mad" Anthony Wayne in New York. General Howe also put down a revolt of Continental soldiers who served under George Washington, by executing its three Continental Army soldier "ring leaders". Robert Howe also ran an important American Spy network against the British in the Northeast.A recorded letter from General George Washington reads: To MAJOR GENERAL ROBERT HOWE - Head Quarters, New Windsor, May 7, 1781. Dear Sir: I have received your favors of the 12th: of April from Portsmouth, and 19th: from Boston. Business of a very urgent public nature will oblige me to send General Heath immediately to the Eastern States. I am therefore under the necessity of desiring your Return as speedily as possible to take the command at West point, which, with all its dependencies, will be left with only one Brigadier. I am etc."

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WILLIAM HOWE Revolutionary War Commander-in-Chief of British Forces 1778 ALS

Lot 35: WILLIAM HOWE Revolutionary War Commander-in-Chief of British Forces 1778 ALS

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Description: AutographsWilliam Howe "1778" Dated Autograph Letter Signed As Revolutionary War Commander-in-Chief of British Forces WILLIAM HOWE (1729-1814). 5th Viscount Howe was a British Army Officer who rose to become Commander-in-Chief of British Forces during the American Revolutionary War of Independence.October 14, 1778-Dated Revolutionary War, Autograph Letter Signed, "W Howe", 4 pages, measuring 7.25" x 9.25", Cholderton, Choice Very Fine. This Letter is very bold in its written rich brown text, being upon high quality, fairly crisp and lightly folded period laid paper.On May 24th 1778, the day General Howe sailed home for England, General Clinton took over as Commander-in-chief of British armies in America. Howe arrived back in England on July 1st, 1778 where he and his brother faced censure for their actions in North America. It is likely that the resignation of both William and his brother Richard was due to their desire to hurry home to vindicate their conduct during the campaign. In 1779 Howe and his brother demanded a parliamentary inquiry into their actions in America. The inquiry that followed was unable to confirm any charges of impropriety or mismanagement levelled against either of them. Also after returning from American to England, William Howe was elected a member of Parliament for Nottingham, representing that constituency until 1780. This Letter is addressed to "Mark Hail Esqr." and reads, in full:"Cholderton. Oct. 14th, 1778.My Dear Sir --- I am much obliged to you for the list of Corporation & for your favors of the 7th. -- I conclude Smith is now with his Colleague & my hopes are that he will find it in his interest to be a Tory Member in the case we may still keep the peace upon a future occassion. -- Be assured did not my sentence upon your conduct perfectly coincide with your determination, I should most readily have given up my own opinion to your Judgement that has not to my certain knowledge was erred in your influential services you have been to good together to my late brother --I freely own to you and am much concerned that Lt. Gen. Howe should have written to Mrs Geo. Bromley without your necesary consideration upon a matter of such importance - but she has suffered so much distress from it since she has apprehended your consequence from the receipt of your letter that I have given her every comfort I could & will. Your letter, which she sent to me, is extremely proper & as she has explained herself to you how it came about, I am hopefull you have given her the satisfaction of knowing that you consider her inadversety in no other light than that in which he has mentioned it to her. -- It is very unfortunate that medically I should have declined after he had recd. (received) her letter, as it will appear to the world before the find view of it that not informed is extremely weak & that we have deverted me fact friends the Corporation to join the Tories.I see a Multitude of evils that may arise from that letter, as the true reason is what she has given you will not be sufficiently known. It appears to me to have been rather Sufficient in my Cousin - but my private opinions & investigation was from his ill will to qts. (question) Something. I have only a word for her to trouble you with upon this subject, which is that I shall be ever ready to give Jay be all for Nottingham when my friends shall have a wish for another Representative, get all we give it began under my hand. I never will decline their service as long as I receive encouragement from them to continue it, & no efforts on my part shall ever be wanting in the protection of their inclinations. Obediently D(ear) Sir - Most Humbly -- W Howe"This Letter continues on its final page, where it reads, in full:"Thursday Oct. 15th --- Last night late / the time our proof comes in I got yours of the 10th -- I should have acquainted Lt. Howe with your transactions preparing at Nottingham..." and continues on discussing some financial arrangements.William Howe was born August 10, 1729, and was the third son of Emanuel Howe, 2nd Viscount Howe and his wife Charlotte. His grandmother had been the mistress of King George I and as a result Howe and his three brothers were the illegitimate uncles of King George III. Attending Eton, Howe followed his two elder brothers into the military on September 18, 1746 when he purchased a commission as a coronet in Cumberland's Light Dragoons.A quick study, he was promoted to lieutenant the following year and captain in 1750. While with the regiment, he befriended Major James Wolfe, one of his future commanders.Howe in the French & Indian War:On January 4, 1756, Howe was appointed major of the newly formed 60th Regiment (redesignated 58th in 1757) and traveled with the unit to North America for operations against the French. In this capacity he took part in Major General Jeffery Amherst's successful siege of Louisbourg that summer. With the death of his brother, Brigadier General George Howe at the Battle of Carillon that July, William attained a seat in Parliament representing Nottingham. Remaining in North America, Howe served in Wolfe's attack on Quebec in 1759.On September 13th, Howe led the initial light infantry assault which secured the road up to the Plains of Abraham prior to the Battle of Quebec later that day. Promoted to lieutenant colonel that December, he helped defend Quebec through the winter before aiding in Amherst's capture of Montreal the following year and the siege of Belle Isle in 1762. After serving as the adjutant general of the force that assaulted Havana, Cuba in 1763, Howe returned to England. Appointed colonel of the 46th Regiment of Foot in Ireland in 1764, he was elevated to governor of the Isle of Wight four years later.Recognized as a gifted commander, Howe was promoted to major general in 1772, and a short time later took over training of the army's light infantry units. Representing a largely Whig constituency in Parliament, Howe opposed the Intolerable Acts and preached reconciliation with the American colonists as tensions grew in 1774 and early 1775.His feelings were shared by his brother, Admiral Richard Howe. Though publicly stating that he would resist service against the Americans, he accepted the position as second-in-command of British forces in America.Howe in the American Revolution:Stating that "he was ordered, and could not refuse," Howe sailed for Boston with Major Generals Henry Clinton and John Burgoyne. Arriving May 15, Howe brought reinforcements for General Thomas Gage. Under siege in the city, the British were forced to take action when American forces fortified Breed's Hill on the Charlestown Peninsula overlooking the city. While Clinton favored an amphibious attack to cut off the American line of retreat, Howe advocated a more conventional frontal attack. Taking the conservative route, Gage ordered Howe to move forward on June 17th.In the resulting Battle of Bunker Hill, Howe's men succeeded in driving off the Americans but sustained over 1,000 casualties in capturing their works. Though a victory, the battle deeply influenced Howe and crushed his initial belief that the rebels represented only a small part of the American people. A dashing, daring commander earlier in his career, the high losses at Bunker Hill made Howe more conservative and less inclined to attack strong enemy positions. Knighted that year, Howe was temporarily appointed commander-in-chief on October 10th (it was made permanent in April 1776) when Gage returned to England.Howe's Inability to Crush the Rebellion:Forced out of Boston on March 17, 1776, after General George Washington emplaced guns on Dorchester Heights, Howe withdrew with the army to Halifax, Nova Scotia. There, a new campaign was planned with the goal of taking New York. Landing on Staten Island on July 2nd, Howe's army soon swelled to over 30,000 men. Crossing to Gravesend Bay, Howe flanked and defeated Washington at the Battle of Long Island on August 26/27. Falling back to fortifications at Brooklyn Heights, the Americans awaited a British assault. Based on his earlier experiences, Howe was reluctant to attack and began siege operations. This hesitation allowed Washington's army to escape to Manhattan. He was soon joined by his brother who had orders to act as a peace commissioner. Though the Howes met with American leaders, they were only permitted to extend pardons to those rebels who submitted. Their offer refused, they began active operations against New York City. Landing on Manhattan on September 15th, Howe ultimately forced Washington from the island and later drove him from a defensive position at the Battle of White Plains. Rather than pursue Washington's beaten army, Howe returned to New York to secure Forts Washington and Lee.Again showing an unwillingness to eliminate Washington's army, Howe soon moved into winter quarters around New York and only dispatched a small force under Major General Lord Charles Cornwallis to create a "safe zone" in northern New Jersey. Recovering in Pennsylvania, Washington was able to win victories at Trenton and Princeton in December and January. As a result, Howe pulled back many of his outposts. While Washington continued small-scale operations during the winter, Howe was content to remain in New York enjoying a full social calendar.In the spring of 1777, Burgoyne proposed a plan for defeating the Americans which called for him to lead an army south through Lake Champlain to Albany while a second column advanced east from Lake Ontario. These advances were to be supported by an advance north from New York by Howe. While this plan was approved by Colonial Secretary Lord George Germain, Howe's role was never clearly defined nor was he issued orders from London to aid Burgoyne. As a result, though Burgoyne moved forward, Howe launched his own campaign to capture the American capital at Philadelphia. Left on his own, Burgoyne was defeated in the critical Battle of SaratogaSailing south from New York, Howe moved up the Chesapeake Bay and landed at Head of Elk on August 25, 1777. Moving north, Howe defeated Washington at the Battle of Brandywine on September 11th. Outmaneuvering the Americans, Howe captured the city without a fight eleven days later. Concerned about Washington's army, Howe left a small garrison in the city and moved northwest. On October 4, he won a near-run victory at the Battle of Germantown. In the wake of the defeat, Washington retreated into winter quarters at Valley Forge.Under severe criticism in England for failing to crush the Americans and feeling he had lost the king's confidence, Howe requested to be relieved on October 22nd. After attempting to lure Washington into battle late that fall, Howe and the army entered winter quarters in Philadelphia. Again enjoying a lively social scene, Howe received word that his resignation had been accepted on April 14, 1778. After an extravagant festival in his honor on May 18th, Howe turned command over to Clinton and departed.Arriving in England, he entered into the debate over the conduct of the war and published a defense of his actions. Made a privy counselor and Lieutenant General of the Ordnance in 1782, Howe remained in active service. With the outbreak of the French Revolution he served in a variety of senior commands in England. Made a full general in 1793, he died on July 12, 1814, after a prolonged illness, while serving as governor of Plymouth. An adept battlefield commander, Howe was beloved by his men but received little credit for his victories in America.American Revolution: General Sir William HoweBy Kennedy Hickman

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Commander ADAM HUBLEY, JR. 1783 Autographed Document

Lot 36: Commander ADAM HUBLEY, JR. 1783 Autographed Document

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Description: Autographs1783 Revolutionary War Patriot Soldier Adam Hubley, Jr.ADAM HUBLEY, JR. (1741-1793). Commander of the 10th Pennsylvania regiment in the Revolutionary War, with George Washington at Valley Forge, whom he had an extensive wartime correspondence. His wartime journal for 1779 is quite famous.November 30, 1783-Dated Revolutionary War Era, Autograph Document Signed, "A. Hubley Jr.," 1 page, measuring 5" x 7.25", Very Fine. Sent to Charles Swift Esq. being financial in nature, reading. "Sir -- You will please to stop the two actions on Bathzer Steinfort's bond & note, on his paying the costs. -- You'll please to let Mr. Keppel have either this evening or tomorrow Steinfort's obligatn." Very rare. Hubley later served as a Judge in his native Pennsylvania after the war.Adam Hubley, Jr. entered the Revolutionary War about Oct. 27, 1775 as a Lieutenant in the 1st Pa. Batalion, serving for a year in and around Canada. Promoted to major he then served as Lt. Col. Commanding the 10th Pa. in the New Jersey campaign with Washington whom he followed to Brandywine, Paoli, Whitemarsh and eventually to Valley Forge. He commanded at Stony Point then went back to New Jersey. He ended the war at the Morristown encampment.

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1782 Continental Army Quartermaster General HUGH HUGHES Autograph Letter Signed

Lot 37: 1782 Continental Army Quartermaster General HUGH HUGHES Autograph Letter Signed

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Description: AutographsRevolutionary War Payment for the Transcribing of a "Resolve of the Continental Congress of December 13, 1782"HUGH HUGHES. Quartermaster General in the Continental Army of the United States who served in that capacity throughout the entire Revolutionary War, earning the esteem of officers and General George Washington. He owned valuable property in Philadelphia, and using all of his wealth to promote the American cause died poor and brokenhearted that he was never properly reimbursed by Congress.December 28, 1782-Dated Revolutionary War Period, Autograph Letter Signed, "Hugh Hughes," with Two Additional Autograph Postscripts, 3 pages, measuring 9" x 7" at Fishkill (New York), Choice Very Fine+. This original Handwritten Letter is concerning payment to persons who have supplied the Quartermaster's Department, transcribing a Resolve of the Continental Congress of December 13th, 1782. Beautifully written in rich brown upon very clean period watermarked laid paper. This historic circular letter reads, in full:"Fishkill - Dec. 28th. 1782 --- Sir, --- In answer to my letter to the Quarter Master General of the 2nd Current, an Extract of which has been sent you, describing the Situation of his Department in this State, and soliciting him for a supply of Cash to pay the Persons who have served with me, & the debts that have been contracted on other Accounts, since the 1st of January 1782, he has replied as follows:'Philadelphia Dec. 13th 1782 -- As money has been furnished to defray a great proportion of the public expenses in the department in the course of the present Year in other States, so I presume the same justice will be done to the like Creditors in your district: but it will be in vain to ask for an indefinite Sum. I should therefore advise that you take immediate measures to ascertain the amount of the debts contracted by you & your Assistants since the first of January 1782 stating the debts due to each individual, & for what, generally. Another list of the Persons employed, & the pay due them will be requisite, tho' in the mean Time perhaps something may be obtained to pay them on Account.'You will therefore immediately comply with this mode of the Quarter Master General, in the most accurate manner possible, & transmit the list of Debts & pay roll to me when complete, that I may forward the whole to him, lest a Delay might be attended with Disappointment. -- I am sir Your most Obedient (Signed) - Hugh Hughes DM for the State of NY"Hughes has also added two postscripts:"P.S. - This is the 3rd Letter I have wrote without receiving any Answer. I must entreat your Attention to the foregoing as it is exceedingly interesting to all concern'd..." plus:"NB. - I am told there has lately been committed to Albany Jail a Person who has habour'd some Fellows from Canada that have perpetrated some Robberies on Livingston's Manor. If that is the Case, I wish to be ascertained of it, as perhaps some Intelligence may be obtain'd of my Loss... (Initialed) - HH"See - The National Archives and the Library of Congress: Hughes, Hugh. Memorial and Documents in the Case of Colonel Hugh Hughes, Deputy Quartermaster General in the War for American Independence. Washington, 1802.Hugh Hughes was serving as the Deputy Quartermaster for the State of New York while based at Fish Kill, New York in 1782.

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Historic 1762 American Major-General CHARLES LEEAutograph Letter Signed At War

Lot 38: Historic 1762 American Major-General CHARLES LEEAutograph Letter Signed At War

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Description: AutographsRare 1762 Autograph Letter Signed By Colonel Charles Lee While At War Serving In Portugal & Discussing Burgoyne!CHARLES LEE (1731-1782). American Major-General of the Continental Army during the American War of Independence under George Washington and the Continental Congress.August 30, 1762-Dated French and Indian War period, Autograph Letter Signed, "Cha: Lee", 8.75" x 13.5", 2 pages, Nissa, Portugal, Choice Fine. An ALS written to "The Earl of Shelbourne" in London. Written during Lee's service during the Spanish invasion of Portugal, between 9 May and 24 November 1762.The Seven Years' War was a "World War" that took place between 1754 and 1763 with the main conflict being in the seven year period 1756-1763. It involved most of the great powers of the time and affected Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines. In the historiography of some countries, the war is alternatively named after combatants in the respective theaters: the French and Indian War (North America, 1754-63); Pomeranian War (with Sweden and Prussia, 1757-62); Third Carnatic War (on the Indian subcontinent, 1757-63); and Third Silesian War (with Prussia and Austria, 1756-63).The Spanish-Portuguese War (1761-1763), in turn was part of the larger scale Seven Years' War. This action as the principal military campaign of the Spanish-Portuguese War. It initially involved the armies of Spain and Portugal, before the French and British intervened in the conflict on the side of their respective allies. This Letter contains excellent historic military content. It reads, in full:"I am in some apprehension that you have not received a letter which I wrote from A... I hope it may still come to your hands, only for this reason; that I would not be thought deficient in my respect to your Lordship and not that there was anything material in my scrawl the sum of it was only that the Portuguese were a a race of miscreants, unforgiving, more execrable and despicable than God Almighty should suffer to exist to the disgrace of his works.We are ever & more convinced of this truth; They are even too absurd to be ridicule'd and too abominable to be abord - the other part of my letter consisted of our disappointment in the treatment we expected to meet with from the Count - and of our mistake of the Man's character, (I don't mean as a Soldier for I believe him to be a very able one) but as a Man of a singular bold and independent way of thinking a Man with whom the recommendation of a Friend of approv'd worth and honour wou'd have more sway than the interposition of the whole Ministerial herd. Such I had represented to myself to be the stamp of Count La Lipe but we are undecisive by the most mortifying circumstances, not one or two, but a continued tenor of slighting carriage towards us, even this morning I requested the favour of an audience, was not admitted - but referr'd to Crawford, what is to Crawford to me or, I to Crawford & but -My Lord I will say no more on this subject it must be an ungrateful one to you, which is and, ought to be, a most indespensable reason for my stopping it - but assure yourself, My Lord that gratitude to you is as full as heart can contain and I hope you will believe, that my conduct has been irreproachably circumspect, I have confind my dissatisfaction to my own breast and to the ear of Grey, but I shall ....too long on this ... We have had some success in surprizing a Village - taken a General and three Colours. Bargoin [Burgoyne] shew'd much of a Soldier - his Regt is excellent. One Sergt and seven men attack'd a Spanish Officer and twenty five over... the Sergt kill'd three with his own hand, this is great on a little scale - I believe we shall keep Portugal this year not from any defence we can make - but from the ... by proceedings of the Enemy - adieu - My D[ea]r Lord, Yours forever - (Signed) Cha. Lee"Vividly written in very dark brown ink upon clean heavy period laid paper with some modest edge chipping. Most of the Integral Address Leaf is present. Accompanied with a copy of a detailed discussion of this war explaining the service of Lee, Burgoyne and Count de La Lippe against the Spanish army. A great, historic and personal content Charles Lee handwritten Letter.Charles Lee (February 6, 1732 - October 2, 1782) was originally a British Soldier who later served as a Major General of the American Continental Army during the American War of Independence. Charles Lee also served earlier in the British army during the period of the Seven Years War.After the war he sold his commission and served for a time in the Polish army of King Stanislaus II. In 1773 Lee, who had Whig views, moved to America and bought an estate in Virginia. When the fighting broke out in the American War of Independence in 1775 he volunteered to serve with rebel forces. Lee's ambitions to become Commander in Chief of the Continental Army were thwarted by the appointment of George Washington.During 1776, forces under his command repulsed a British attempt to capture Charleston, which boosted his standing with the army and Congress. Later that year he was captured by British cavalry under Banastre Tarleton and held as a prisoner until exchanged in 1778.During the indecisive Battle of Monmouth later that year, Lee led an assault on the British which miscarried. He was subsequently court-martialed and his military service brought to an end. He died in Philadelphia in 1782.

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1776 Major General BENJAMIN LINCOLN Signed Siege of Boston Document

Lot 39: 1776 Major General BENJAMIN LINCOLN Signed Siege of Boston Document

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Description: AutographsRevolutionary War Major General Benjamin Lincoln Sends Supplies to Soldiers at Dorchester Heights at Boston 1776BENJAMIN LINCOLN (1733-1810). American Major General during the Revolutionary War, the First United States Secretary At War. August 3, 1776-Dated Revolutionary War, Autograph Letter Signed, "Benj' Lincoln," 1 page, measuring about 7.5" x 4" at Boston, Choice Very Fine. Well written and extremely clear, bold and readable upon clean period laid paper. There is some faint pencil notes regarding Benjamin Lincoln on the reverse. Here, General Lincoln writes to Mr. Richard Devens, the Massachusetts Commissary General in regard to sending provisions to the soldiers stationed at Dorchester Heights at Boston. The commissary general (Richard Devens) provided supplies and services to militia, garrison personnel, and convicts until dissolution of his office in June 1792. In this instance the supplies were to be delivered to Captain Blanchard's Company. It reads, in full:"Boston Aug. 3rd, 1776 --- Mr. DevensYou will deliver to Mr. Edward Blanchard the stores I just mentioned to you to send to Dorchester Heights, & take his Receipt. -- (Signed) Benj Lincoln".Docket written upon the blank reverse reads, in full: "Genl Lincoln for Provision Augt. 3 fav. Ed. Blanchard -- Aug 6. 1776".In March of 1776, American forces captured Dorchester Heights, which overlooked Boston harbor. They proceeded to enhance their position with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga and miraculously brought to Boston by Henry Knox. Being now outflanked, the British were forced to evacuate Boston and set sail for Halifax, Nova Scotia. Major General Benjamin Lincoln's boldly written huge signature measures nearly 3" long. A great, historic original Revolutionary War document for display.The Siege of Boston began on April 19, 1775, when, in the aftermath of the Battles of Lexington and Concord. Colonial militia surrounded the city of Boston. Benedict Arnold, who arrived with Connecticut militia to support the siege, told the Massachusetts Committee of Safety that cannons and other valuable military stores were stored at the lightly defended Fort Ticonderoga, and proposed its capture.On May 3rd, the Committee gave Arnold a colonel's commission and authorized him to raise troops and lead a mission to capture the fort. Arnold, in conjunction with Ethan Allen, his Green Mountain Boys, and militia forces from Connecticut and western Massachusetts, captured the fort and all of its armaments on May 10th.After George Washington took command of the army outside Boston in July 1775, the idea of bringing the cannons from Ticonderoga to the siege was raised by Colonel Henry Knox. Knox was eventually given the assignment to transport weapons from Ticonderoga to Cambridge. Knox went to Ticonderoga in November 1775, and, over the course of 3 winter months, moved 60 tons of cannons and other armaments by boat, horse and ox-drawn sledges, and manpower, along poor-quality roads, across two semi-frozen rivers, and through the forests and swamps of the lightly inhabited Berkshires to the Boston area. Historian Victor Brooks has called Knox's feat "one of the most stupendous feats of logistics" of the entire Revolutionary war!The British military leadership, headed by General William Howe, had long been aware of the importance of the Dorchester Heights, which, along with the heights of Charlestown, had commanding views of Boston and its outer harbor.The harbor was vital to the British, as the Royal Navy, at first under Admiral Samuel Graves, and later under Admiral Molyneux Shuldham, provided protection for the troops in Boston, as well as transportation of supplies to the besieged city. Early in the siege, on June 15, the British agreed on the plan of seizing both of these heights, beginning with those in Dorchester, which had a better view of the harbor than the Charlestown hills. It was the leaking of this plan that precipitated events leading to the Battle of Bunker Hill.Neither the British nor the Americans, had the daring to take and fortify the heights; but both armies knew of its strategic importance in the war. When George Washington took command of the siege in July 1775, he considered taking the unoccupied Dorchester Heights, but rejected the idea, feeling the army was not ready to deal with the likely British attack on the position.The subject of an attempt on the heights was again discussed in early February 1776, but the local Committee of Safety believed the British troop strength too high, and important military supplies like gunpowder too low, to warrant action at that time. By the end of February, Knox had arrived with the cannon from Ticonderoga, as had additional supplies of powder and shells. Washington decided the time was right to act.Washington first placed some of the heavy cannons from Ticonderoga at Lechmere's Point and Cobble Hill in Cambridge, and on Lamb's Dam in Roxbury. As a diversion against the planned move on the Dorchester Heights, he ordered these batteries to open fire on the town on the night of March 2nd, which fire the British returned, without significant casualties on either side. These cannonades were repeated on the night of March 3rd, while preparations for the taking of the heights continued.On the night of March 4th, 1776, the batteries opened fire again, but this time the fire was accompanied by action. General John Thomas and about 2,000 troops quietly marched to the top of Dorchester Heights, hauling entrenching tools and cannon placements. Hay bales were placed between the path taken by the troops and the harbor in order to muffle the sounds of the activity. Throughout the night, these troops and their relief labored at hauling cannon and building earthworks overlooking the town and the harbor.General Washington was present to provide moral support and encouragement, reminding them that March 5th was the sixth anniversary of the Boston Massacre. By 4 am, they had constructed fortifications that were proof against small arms and grapeshot. Work continued on the positions, with troops cutting down trees and constructing abbatis to impede any British assault on the works. The outside of the works also included rock-filled barrels that, while appearing to be a part of the defensive structure, could be rolled down the hill at attacking troops."The rebels have done more in one night than my whole army would have done in a month."General Howe, March 5, 1776 Washington anticipated that General Howe and his troops would either flee or try to take the hill, an action that would have probably been reminiscent of the Battle of Bunker Hill, which was a disaster for the British. If Howe decided to launch an attack on the heights, Washington planned to launch an attack against the city from Cambridge. As part of the preparations, he readied two floating batteries and boats sufficient to carry almost 3,000 troops. Washington's judgment of Howe's options was accurate; they were exactly the options Howe considered.Admiral Shuldham, commander of the British fleet, declared that the fleet was in danger unless the position on the heights was taken. Howe and his staff then determined to contest the occupation of the heights, and made plans for an assault, preparing to send 2,400 men under cover of darkness to attack the position.George Washington, notified of British movements, increased the forces on the heights until there were nearly 6,000 men on the Dorchester lines. However, a snow storm began late on March 5th and halted any chance of a battle for several days. By the time the storm subsided, Howe reconsidered launching an attack, reasoning that preserving the army for battle elsewhere was of higher value than attempting to hold Boston.On March 8th, intermediaries delivered an unsigned paper informing Washington that the city would not be burned to the ground if his troops were allowed to leave unmolested. After several days of activity, and several more of bad weather, the British forces departed Boston by sea on March 17th and sailed to Halifax, Nova Scotia, taking with them more than 1,000 Loyalist civilians.(From Wikipedia)

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Aaron Lopez 1772 Manuscript Document Signed, Rev War Era Jewish Merchant

Lot 40: Aaron Lopez 1772 Manuscript Document Signed, Rev War Era Jewish Merchant

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Description: Autographs1772 "Aaron Lopez" Very Rare & Historic Colonial and Revolutionary War Era Jewish Merchant Signed ReceiptAARON LOPEZ. Important Hispanic Jewish Revolutionary Era Entrepreneur and Colonial Rhode Island Merchant.November 12, 1772-Dated, Manuscript Document Signed, "Aaron Lopez" at Newport (Rhode Island), being a receipt form, tipped to a larger collector page, Choice Very Fine. This high quality, original document has the signature of Aaron Lopez, the important Hispanic Jewish Revolutionary Era Entrepreneur and Colonial Rhode Island Merchant. It is boldly Signed "Aaron Lopez" in a bold, beautiful and sweeping calligraphic style hand measuring a large 2.75" long. This document measures 3" x 7" has some original folds and has been tipped to a larger page for display. It is easily readable and very clearly written, with a pleasing overall appearance. In 1740, Aaron Lopez and his family landed in New York after fleeing religious persecution in their homeland of Portugal. They arrived in the emerging New World Colony with the hope of freely practicing the traditions and cultural enjoyments of their Sephardic Jewry heritage. In 1752, Lopez then moved to Newport Rhode Island and quickly established himself as a major and important merchant.The following excerpt from the book "Aaron Lopez.- Merchant King Who Kept The Revolutionary Army Supplied" by Seymour "Sy" Brody, best describes the man and the important role he played in American history, in part: "Aaron Lopez was a major factor in the Colonies' ability to continue to revolt against the British in their quest for freedom. He is said to have owned, whole or in part, 30 transoceanic ships and more than 100 coastal vessels that became an important delivery arm for supplying sorely needed supplies to the Revolutionary Army.Despite the pressure put on his ships by the British to prevent them from supplying the Colonial Army, his ships managed to deliver the materials needed for the Revolution. Lopez was a power in Newport, Rhode Island, for years, when the port city was described as a shipping center that "New York can never hope to rival." One of the reasons for this was Rhode Island's great religious liberalism, which attracted a substantial community of well-educated and able Jews, the most affluent in the Colonies. Lopez, who was born in Portugal in 1731 and died in Newport in 1782, was one of the most outstanding Jews. He was described by Ezra Styles, Christian pastor and president of Yale, as "a merchant of first eminence; for honor and extent of commerce probably surpassed by no merchant in America." Newport's shipping industry was most important to young America's growing strength and power that enabled it to revolt.Lopez was also recognized as a promoter of friendly relations between the faiths. He was respected by Christians and Jews alike, and no ship ever left his dock on either's Sabbath, Lopez personally laid the cornerstone of Touro Synagogue in Newport, which is now a Federal Shrine. In strong sympathy with the Revolutionary patriots, Lopez fled Newport when the British attacked. Although Newport was ruined in the war, he did attempt to return when peace was won, but he was killed in an accident on the way."This is an important item, that is excellent for display, which is related to Colonial American, Revolutionary War and the role of this historic Jewish figure.

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1772, JOSHUA LORING Jr, Letter Signed Contemptible Boston Tory British Loyalist

Lot 41: 1772, JOSHUA LORING Jr, Letter Signed Contemptible Boston Tory British Loyalist

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Description: Autographs"Contemptible" Joshua Loring, Jr. Boston British LoyalistJOSHUA LORING, JUNIOR. Boston Tory "British Loyalist" and was described as a "contemptible" character, who would be placed in charge of American Revolutionary Patriot Prisoner-Of-War who starved them for his own profit.February 3, 1772-Dated Pre Revolutionary War Era, Autograph Letter Signed."Jos(uah) Loring Jun.", 1 Page with Integral Address Leaf, measuring 8" x 6.5", Choice Very Fine.This original letter, measuring 8" x 6.5", is written to John Swift, Esq. Loring states, in part:"Dear Sir... After we parted yesterday I saw Mr. Smith, and as I thought it best to have in my power to say I did not leave the Port without giving charge of the office to a proper person. I conversed with him upon the subject, I gave him a line or two which I think will answer the end, and at the same time told him he was not to do the least thing but by your direction, and your approbation of him in this will as every other of him proceedings was the greatest reward he could give me for any services I may have done him, I hope he will be moderate if not, take it away from him & make use of any name you please..."A very rare Revolutionary War autograph of one of the most despicable, ruthless and hated Tory loyalists in both Boston and New York. The first we have offered.Joshua Loring, Jr., was a Boston Tory "British Loyalist" and was described as a "contemptible" character. In the summer of 1775 the younger man jockeyed for appointment as auction manager and royal sheriff of Suffolk County. The latter appointment put him in charge of the Boston jail, and of the wounded American Patriot Rebel Prisoners from the Battle of Bunker Hill. Many of these prisoners, under his care died. By the end of the siege, Joshua, Jr., had a very poor reputation among Massachusetts Patriots. He accompanied the Crown forces to New York in late 1776 and apparently secured the Commissary post by offering Howe the use of his wife. Loring then served as Deputy Commissary of American Prisoners-Of-War in New York from 1777 until 1783. Americans accused him of starving the Prisoners of War as a way to enrich himself. Loring admitted he misappropriated two-thirds of the allowance for prison food, resulting in the starvation of hundreds of the American prisoners. In 1783 Loring moved to England, where six years later he died.

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DIAH MANNING Drum Major of the Commander-in-Chief's Life Guard

Lot 42: DIAH MANNING Drum Major of the Commander-in-Chief's Life Guard

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Description: Autographs1793 Document Signed "DIAH MANNING" ConnecticutDrum Major of the Commander-in-Chief's Life Guard the Continental Army Unit to Protect George WashingtonDIAH MANNING, drummer in the First Connecticut Regiment of the Continental Army during the American Revolution.October 24, 1793-Dated, George Washington Presidenial Period, Manuscript Document Signed "Diah Manning," who "beat the drum" for Major Andre's march to the Gallows, a Pay Order, at Norwich (Connecticut), Very Fine. This is a very rare original Manuscript Pay Order Signed, "DIAH MANNING," measuring 5" x 8" with folds, boldly written and easily readable, clear in very nice overall condition.Dian Manning (1760-1815) of Norwich, was a drummer in the First Connecticut Regiment of the Continental Army during the American Revolution. At Valley Forge he was appointed as Drum Major of the Commander-in-Chief's Life Guard, a most prestigious military unit composed of the very best Continental Army soldiers, and charged with the protection of General George Washington. He served in that historic Life Guard unit from 1776-1780. Manning was also one of the attendants of British Major John Andre, during his captivity and trial. He actually "beat the drum" for Major Andre's march to the gallows for execution. In later years, he was well known in Norwich for his close association with George Washington.See Subject: The Commander-In-Chief's Guard - List of known Guards of George Washington (http://www.sons-of-liberty-sar.org/listguards-5.jpg) Transcribed by Janice FarnsworthDiah Manning (1760-1815) - Fifer - Service 1776-1783 - 19th Mass. Reg. - Promoted to Drum Major. A very, very rare signature.

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Signer ROBERT MORRIS, 1795 Signed North American Land Company Stock Certificate

Lot 43: Signer ROBERT MORRIS, 1795 Signed North American Land Company Stock Certificate

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Description: AutographsRobert Morris aka: "Financier of the American Revolution" 1795 Signed Stock Certificate as President of the North American Land Company, PhiladelphiaROBERT MORRIS (1734-1806). Signer of the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution, Patriot of the American Revolutionary War and known as the "Financier of the Revolution," United States Senator from Pennsylvania.March 10, 1795-Dated, Partly-Printed Document Signed, "Robt Morris," as President of the North American Land Company, Philadelphia, 1 page, on laid watermarked paper measuring 9.75" x 12.75", Choice Crisp About New. Countersigned by James Marshall (Morris' son-in-law, and brother of Chief Justice John Marshall). This magnificent looking Document has a scalloped left edge, and is a stock certificate of the North American Land Company, for twenty-five shares in the name of Sylvanus Bourne. Morris' large 2.75" long, extremely bold brown signature is found at lower right with a fine manuscript cancel with document is fresh and clean with some light creases. A beautiful specimen that is perfect for framing or display.Robert Morris arranged for financing supplies for Washington and his troops, was a member of the Continental Congress, a Signer of the Declaration of Independence, founder and organizer of the Bank of North America, delegate to the Constitutional Congress, and U.S. senator from Pennsylvania. He and his partners speculated heavily in Western lands, believing that Europeans fleeing revolutions would buy, but this did not happen. A minor creditor had Morris arrested and he spent 3-1/2 years in "Prune Street," the debtor's prison. He was released in 1801 with the passage of the national bankruptcy law, but died in poverty and obscurity.

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Declaration of Independence Signer ROBERT MORRIS Signed 1796 Fiscal Document

Lot 44: Declaration of Independence Signer ROBERT MORRIS Signed 1796 Fiscal Document

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Description: AutographsMagnificent 1796 "Robert Morris" Signed Financial ReceiptROBERT MORRIS (1734-1806). Signer of the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution, Patriot of the American Revolutionary War and known as the "Financier of the Revolution," United States Senator from Pennsylvania.April 13, 1796-Dated Federal Period, Manuscript Handwritten Financial Receipt Signed, "Robt Morris" (likely for the Pennsylvania Company Venture), measuring 7.75" x 9.75", Choice Very Fine. This boldly written, vivid Document being a Receipt which reads, in full:"Received April 13, 1796 of Messer Jeremiah Warden & Co their notes dated the 6th & 20th Instant at 2,3,4,5 & 6mos Amounting to Eighteen thousand five hundred Dollars, & a note of mine in their favor for fifteen hundred Dollars, making together Twenty Thousand Dollars, which at 16opbe (sic) Exchange is four thousand Six hundred and Eighty Seven Pounds ten Shillings Sterling on acct of a Debt due by them to John Warden & Co --- Robt Morris, one of the assigners on behalf of himself & the other assignees."Boldly signed "Robt Morris" in deep brown rich ink upon clean period fine quality watermarked laid paper, his signature measuring fully 2.75" long and .75" tall being the most eye popping portion of this document. Excellent for display.Robert Morris arranged for financing supplies for Washington and his troops, was a member of the Continental Congress, a Signer of the Declaration of Independence, founder and organizer of the Bank of North America, delegate to the Constitutional Congress, and U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania.He and his partners speculated heavily in Western lands, believing that Europeans fleeing revolutions would buy, but this did not happen. A minor creditor had Morris arrested and he spent 3-1/2 years in "Prune Street," the debtor's prison. He was released in 1801 with the passage of the national bankruptcy law, but died in poverty and obscurity.

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1782 TIMOTHY PICKERING, Revolutionary War Autograph Letter Signed

Lot 45: 1782 TIMOTHY PICKERING, Revolutionary War Autograph Letter Signed

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Description: AutographsTimothy Pickering Signed Revolutionary War Letter TIMOTHY PICKERING (1745-1829), August 27, 1782, Revolutionary War Dated, Autograph Letter Signed, as follows: "Tim. Pickering - Q.M.G" as Quartermaster General of the Continental Army, in brown ink, New Windsor, NY, 9" x 7.25", Choice Very Fine.He writes to Col. Henry Jackson, "The conditions mentioned by the persons proposed for quarter master and adjutant for your regiment of light infantry are reasonable, and shall be granted. Col. Webb desires a brigade quarter master. The service will be so short & not probably active, I wish that expense may be avoided. Every such demand increases my embarrassments, already greater than I can find means to struggle with. I have proposed to him that the Regimental quarter master should do each for himself, or by turns for the brigade, what would otherwise be required of the brigade quarter master. I will thank you to consult with him on the subject..."Docketed on second page. Age-toned, with small tear to lower left corner, seal remnant in upper left corner. Colonel Webb had been brevetted Brigadier General in 1780 after having previously served on George Washington's staff. Col. Jackson's universally well-regarded regiment later formed the nucleus of the postwar army. Although often criticized for financial "embarrassments" during the war, Pickering managed despite enormous obstacles to keep the army running long enough to achieve victory.TIMOTHY PICKERING, American Soldier, Politician and Aide to General George Washington.During the American Revolution, Pickering served as Adjutant General and later Quartermaster General of the Continental Army; U.S. Postmaster General, Secretary of War, and Secretary of State under President George Washington; continued in the latter post under John Adams, but intrigued against him in support of the policies favored by Adams's rival, Alexander Hamilton, and was consequently dismissed.

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SARAH W. PERRY War of 1812 Era Manuscript Poem THE AMERICAN EAGLE

Lot 46: SARAH W. PERRY War of 1812 Era Manuscript Poem THE AMERICAN EAGLE

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Description: AutographsSarah Wallace Perry's Amazing Naval War of 1812 Era Manuscript Poem "THE AMERICAN EAGLE" Supporting Commodore Bainbridge Authored by Sibling of US Naval Officers Oliver Hazard Perry & Matthew Calbraith Perry SARAH W. PERRY (1792-1851). Daughter of Commodore Christopher Raymond Perry (1761-1818) of Newport, R.I. and member of a famous American Naval Family including; Oliver Hazard Perry (1785-1819), Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794-1858). c. 1815 War of 1812 Era, Handwritten Autograph Poem Signed, "Sarah W. Perry" of Newport, Rhode Island, 1 page, undated, measuring 10" x 8," Fine. Boldly penned in brown ink upon period laid paper and easily legible. Some scattered tone where the paper was exposed after having been folded. Entitled "To the American Eagle." This historic theme Manuscript Poem "THE AMERICAN EAGLE" Signed, "Sarah W. Perry" is from a most prestigious and historic Colonial American Naval related family with lineage back to the Mayflower. Her parents were Christopher Raymond Perry (1761-1818) who was an officer in the United States Navy. He was the father of Oliver Hazard Perry and Matthew Calbraith Perry. He was the great-grandson of Edward Perry from the county of Devon, England who settled in Sandwich, Massachusetts around 1650 and his wife Mary Freeman.On his mother's side he was a seventh-generation descendant of Captain Richard Raymond, (1602-1692), and his wife, Julia (or Judith). He was born probably in Essex County, England in 1602 and arrived in Salem, Massachusetts about 1629, possibly with a contingent led by the Rev. Francis Higginson. The first actual date given for Richard is on August 6, 1629 when he is on the list of the 30 founding members of the First Church (Congregational) of Salem. He was about 27 years old. He was later a founder of Norwich, Connecticut, and an "honored forefather of Saybrook". His mother was also a descendant of Gov. Thomas Prence (1599 - March 29, 1673), a cofounder of Eastham, Massachusetts, a political leader in both the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Colonies, and Governor of Plymouth; and a descendant of Mayflower passengers, both of whom were Signers of the Mayflower Compact, Elder William Brewster, (c. 1567-1644), the Pilgrim colonist leader and spiritual elder of the Plymouth Colony, and George Soule (1593-1679), through his grandmother Susannah Barber Perry (1697-1755).Perry married Sarah Wallace Alexander on August 2, 1784 in South Kingstown, Rhode Island. She was born about 1768 in County Down, Ireland and died December 4, 1830 in New London, Connecticut. She was a descendant of William Wallace, the Scottish knight and landowner who is known for leading a resistance during the Wars of Scottish Independence, and is today remembered as a patriot and national hero. Their five sons were all naval officers. A noble family line for the mother and father of the author of this poem, Sarah Wallace Perry.WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE, (1774-1833) noted American Naval Commodore, who sunk the British Frigate H.M.S. Java as Commander of U.S.S. Constitution, during the War of 1812. c. 1815 War of 1812 Era, Handwritten Autograph Poem Signed, "Sarah W. Perry" of Newport, Rhode Island, 1 page, undated, measuring 10" x 8," Fine. Boldly penned in brown ink upon period laid paper and easily legible. Some scattered tone where the paper was exposed after having been folded. Entitled "To the American Eagle." This unique manuscript item is of great historical significance and reads, in part:"Fly back to thine eyry, and gaze on the sky, From the shame on thy flag, in scorn turn thine eye - Fly back to thine eyry, and dwell with the sun, For dastards would tarnish what valour hath won. Go! forget when thy country, in danger's dread night, First saw thee emerging to glory and light - When high o'er the wild rage of battle and Sea, Thou waved thy bold pinion unblenching and free..."On May 21, 1803, American Naval Commodore Bainbridge was given command of the ship "Philadelphia" and given orders to join the Mediterranean squadron of Commodore Preble, operating against Tripoli.On October 31, while chasing a Moorish craft into the harbor at Tripoli, the "Philadelphia" ran aground on an uncharted reef, resulting in the capture and detention of Bainbridge and his crew of 315 until a peace was negotiated in June 1805.A naval court of inquiry exonerated Bainbridge from all blame in connection with the loss of the "Philadelphia." We believe that this highly complimentary poem was written after the announcement of the court of inquiry was made and before Commodore Bainbridge was exonerated.

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ISRAEL PUTNAM April 1777 Revolutionary War Letter to General Benjamin Lincoln

Lot 47: ISRAEL PUTNAM April 1777 Revolutionary War Letter to General Benjamin Lincoln

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Description: AutographsApril 1777 Israel Putnam Revolutionary War Letter Signed and Dated at Princeton to Major General Benjamin LincolnISRAEL PUTNAM (1718-1790). American Continental Army General and Freemason, who fought with distinction at the Battle of Bunker Hill during the American Revolutionary War.April 11, 1777-Dated Revolutionary War, Manuscript Letter Signed, "Israel Putnam" at Princeton (New Jersey), to Major General Benjamin Lincoln, 1 1/4 pages (back to back), measuring 8.5" x 12", Choice Very Fine. This historic Revolutionary War Letter is on clean fine laid paper with a "Crown and Fleur de lis" watermark, being well written in brown ink and easily readable. For added study, the best account of Israel Putnam's career is by William Farrand Livingston, "Israel Putnam, Pioneer, Ranger, and Major-General, 1718-1790" (1901). Two other useful biographies are: David Humphreys, "The Life and Heroic Exploits of Israel Putnam" (1835), and I. N. Tarbox, "Life of Israel Putnam ("Old Put"), Major-General in the Continental Army" (1877).This Letter is a long and detailed explanation being sent to Major General Benjamin Lincoln regarding a mare that was confiscated by British Troops. It is a tracing of the possession of that mare through various owners, and the ownership trades, needed eventually offering a solution to unwind all the prior ownership transactions. The paper is very clean and original with full margins and a thin prior paper hinge along the left extreme outer edge which is easily removeable. This Letter reads, in full:"Princeton April 11th 1777Sir, --- The Bearer of this Philip Melich was lately in posession of a Mare belonging to Richard Stockton Esq. of this place which the British Troops took from his farm after he left it, and while they continued in this town. proof was made upon Oath before a Magistrate that the property of the Mare was in Mr Stockton, upon which Melich gave her up.Melich it seems got her of a certain Wm. Hay, who, it is said, is in the Militia now in Service - he is a Soldier in Capt. Ten Eich's company and Col. Frelinghuysen's Regt. Melich gave Hay a Horse for his Mare, which Horse Hay said refuses to give up to him. -- Hay got the Mare of Mr Lewis Hartson, who got her of Comdius Vandiche also got her of Philip Van ardallon, who got her of some of the British Troops, without any considerationas it is said. -- if the Courts of law were open in this State, those would be no doubt of Melich's recovery his horse, in that way; but as they are not yet; he must suffer redress the military do him the justice he is intitled to. Hay is in your ---- and therefore you will be pleased to order him to decline the Horse he had of Belich to him; Hay can then resort to Hartson unless the Compels her at his our risk and so in turn to Van ardallon, by which justice will be done all round. ---- I am Sir --- Your most humbl Servt. -- (Signed) Israel Putnam".Addressed at lower left to: "Major Genl. Lincoln". Docket upon a lower reverse side blank panel reads, in full: "General Putnam April 11th. 1777".General George Washington had ordered Israel Putnam to Princeton early in 1777. This Letter is apparently an illustration of "the incapacity of Israel Putnam." Even in this seemingly inconsequential matter, Putnam makes it into a major issue and at a time of War bothers Major General Benjamin Lincoln with this situation, which seems to be more informative than anything else.Mentioned in this letter is Frederick Frelinghuysen (1753-1804), was an American lawyer, soldier, and Senator from New Jersey. A graduate of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), Frederick went on to become an officer during the American Revolutionary War. In addition, he served as a delegate to the Continental Congress. He was a United States Senator from New Jersey from 1793 until 1796, and served as the United States Attorney for the District of New Jersey in 1801. A Very Rare Signed, "Israel Putnam" Revolutionary War Letter in excellent overall quality.Israel Putnam (1718-1790), American soldier, was a Revolutionary War General. When the French and Indian War broke out in 1756, Putnam was commissioned a lieutenant in the Connecticut militia and served throughout the conflict, rising steadily in rank until he reached a colonelcy by the time it ended in 1763. He fought in numerous engagements, earned a reputation for bravery and resourcefulness, and gained valuable military experience.He took part in the developing conflict between England and the Colonies, helping organize the Sons of Liberty in 1765. He participated in the political life of Connecticut as a representative to the General Assembly in 1766 and 1767. In 1774 he headed the local Committee of Correspondence and accepted appointment as lieutenant colonel of a regiment of Connecticut militia.When the fighting began in the spring of 1775, Putnam entered active service and in June was appointed by the Continental Congress one of the four major generals under George Washington's command. It was not a wise appointment, for although Putnam was a good soldier and an inspiring and able leader, he did not have the qualities needed for planning major operations, commanding large units, or executing grand strategy.Putnam was at Bunker Hill, at the siege of Boston, and in New York to plan the defenses there. He was in command at the Battle of Long Island in August 1776 until Washington's arrival, and that American defeat has been blamed by one historian on "the incapacity of Israel Putnam."In subsequent assignments his performance was no better. George Washington ordered him to Princeton early in 1777, but Putnam delayed. He was then sent to command an important post on the Hudson River. In December 1777, after 7 months of inefficiency, he was removed. A court of inquiry convened to investigate his record in one action, but he was exonerated. It was clear, however, that he was unfit for a command. General Washington sent Putnam to be chief of recruiting in Connecticut in 1779.In December of that year, a paralytic stroke ended his military career. He returned to his farm in Connecticut, where he died on May 29, 1790.(From Wikipedia)

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1776 DAVID RITTENHOUSE + GEORGE ROSS Council of Safety Document Signed

Lot 48: 1776 DAVID RITTENHOUSE + GEORGE ROSS Council of Safety Document Signed

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Description: AutographsUnique David Rittenhouse & Declaration Signer George Ross Signed Revolutionary War Dated "Council of Safety" Military PayDAVID RITTENHOUSE (1732-1796). American Astronomer, First Director of the United States Mint, Inventor, Clockmaker, Mathematician, Surveyor.GEORGE ROSS (1730 - 1779). Signer of the Declaration of Independence as a Representative of Pennsylvania.November 26, 1776, Philadelphia, Revolutionary War dated Manuscript Document, Signed "Dav.d Rittenhouse," as Treasurer for the Committee of Safety Payment, on evenly toned laid paper, being a request to the Council of Safety, Fine. This Revolutionary War payment authorization request measures 5" x 8" in size. It is whole and complete with some minor chipping and some well made early reinforced paper repairs and some scattered sealed splits on the back. This historic document reads, in full:"Gent.- Please pay messrs Levy & Thomas Hollingsworth Five Hundred Pounds Currency on Accts: of our Contract for Ball as soon as they shall deliver a sufficient Quantity so as that sum may be due to us - [Signed] "Geo. Ross Geo: Esq" - Passed In Council of Safety - November 26th 1776 - [Signed] "Dav'd Rittenhouse"Philad:a November 2: 1776 To the Hon'ble Council of Safety - To John M. Nesbitt Esq. TreasurerThis document is also docketed on the back: "Levy Hollingsworth $order of Geo: Ross & George Ege..." David Rittenhouse's signature is large, fully written and bold, measuring over 3" long. This is an important opportunity to acquire an original Revolutionary War, Pennsylvania Council of Safety item, with the signatures of both David Rittenhouse and the Declaration of Independence Signer, George Ross!David Rittenhouse was treasurer of Pennsylvania from 1777 to 1789, and with these skills and the help of George Washington, he became the first director of the United States Mint.[14] On April 2, 1792, the United States Mint opened its doors, but would not produce coins for almost four months. Rittenhouse believed that the design of the coin made the coin a piece of artwork. The first coins were made from flatware that was provided by Washington himself on the morning of July 30, 1792. The coins were hand-struck by Rittenhouse, to test the new equipment, and were given to Washington as a token of appreciation for his contributions to making the United States Mint a reality. The coin design had not been approved by Congress. Coin production on a large scale did not begin until 1793. Rittenhouse resigned from the Mint on June 30, 1795, due to poor health. The 1783 Nova Constellatio coin was first minted in Philadelphia. David Rittenhouse was consulted on the design. In 1871 Congress approved a commemorative coin in his honor.George Ross (May 10, 1730 - July 14, 1779) was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Pennsylvania.He was born in New Castle, Delaware, and educated at home. He studied law at his brother John's law office, the common practice in those days, and was admitted to the bar in Philadelphia. Initially a Tory, he served as Crown Prosecutor for 12 years and was elected to the provincial legislature in 1768. There his sympathies began to change and he became a strong supporter of the colonial assemblies in their disputes with Parliament.He was a member of the Committee of Safety and was elected to the Continental Congress. He was a colonel in the Pennsylvania militia (1775-1776), and vice-president of the first constitutional convention for Pennsylvania. He resigned from the Continental Congress in 1777 because of poor health, and was appointed to the Pennsylvania Court of Admiralty, in which office he died at age 49.George's sister Gertrude married Thomas Till, the son of William Till, a prominent Sussex County judge and politician; after his death, she married George Read, another signer of the Declaration.[1] George Ross was born May 10, 1730 at New Castle Delaware. He was the oldest son in his family. His dad was an Anglican clergyman who had immigrated from Scotland. The Ross children received a sound classical education at home. He studied law at his half-brother John's Law Practice in Philadelphia.He was the last of the Pennsylvania delegation to affix his signature to the Declaration of Independence. He had been loyal to the King but he soon became disgusted with Tory politics and supported the cause of the Patriots.In 1750, he was admitted to the Pennsylvania Bar (member of Pennsylvania) when he was twenty years old and he established his own practice in Lancaster. In 1751, he married Ann Lawler at Lancaster, Pa. He fathered two sons and a daughter. From 1768 to 1776, he was for twelve years Crown Prosecutor (which is attorney general) for Carlisle (Cumberland County), until 1778 when he was elected to the provincial legislature of his state.He was elected to Continental Congress in 1774, 1776, 1777. He was a Colonel in the Continental Army in 1776. In 1776, he undertook negotiations with the northwestern Indians on behalf of his Colony and that year he acted as vice president of the State constitutional convention, so then that led to helping draft a declaration of rights. He was re-elected to the Continental Congress again in January 1777 but resigned that same year because of poor health. He was vice president of the Pennsylvania constitutional convention and was the Judge of the Admiralty Court of Pennsylvania in 1779. In 1778, while he was acting as admiralty judge, a congressional court of appeals overruled his decision in a case involving a dispute between a citizen of Connecticut and the state of Pennsylvania. He refused to acknowledge the authority of the higher court to counter State decisions, which initiated a dispute between manifestation of the states' rights controversy and did not subside until 1809.In 1779 he died in office at the age of 49, and is buried at Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia.

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1786 PHILIP SCHUYLER Revolutionary War Major General Autograph Letter Signed

Lot 49: 1786 PHILIP SCHUYLER Revolutionary War Major General Autograph Letter Signed

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Description: AutographsRevolutionary War Major General Philip Schuyler LetterPHILIP SCHUYLER (1733-1804). American Revolutionary War Major General and United States Senator from New York.January 11, 1786-Dated Post Revolutionary War, Autograph Letter Signed, 4 pages, "P. Schuyler," measuring 7.5" x 9.25", no place, Choice Very Fine. Schuyler's Letter discusses various pertinent business and personal affairs. It reads, in part,"Wednesday 11th January 1786 ----My Dear Sir --- We arrived here on Monday at two in the afternoon. Mrs. Schuyler was better than when we left Albany... I have learned that I am easy and I certainly should not be..." This four page letter is Signed "P. Schuyler," at its conclusion, his signature measuring about 2.5" long. Several trivial and easily removeable partial stamp hinges on the back page right edge from a prior mounting for display. Overall, this Letter is well written in brown upon period fine quality laid paper, light folds from mailing. Scarce.Philip Schuyler joined the British forces in 1755 during the French and Indian War, raised a company, and was commissioned as its Captain by his cousin, Lt. Governor James Delancey. Later in that war, he served as a quartermaster, purchasing supplies and organizing equipment.From 1761 to 1762, Schuyler made a trip to England to settle accounts from his work as quartermaster. During this time his home in Albany, later called Schuyler Mansion, was built. His country estate (General Schuyler House) at Saratoga (now Schuylerville, New York) was also begun. After the war he also expanded the Saratoga estate to tens of thousands of acres, adding slaves, tenant farmers, a store, mills for flour, flax, and lumber. His flax mill for the making of linen was the first one in America. He built several schooners on the Hudson River, and named the first Saratoga.Schuyler began his political career as a member of the New York Assembly in 1768, and served in that body until 1775. During this time his views came to be more opposed to the colonial government. He was particularly outspoken in matters of trade and currency. He was also made a Colonel in the militia for his support of governor Henry Moore.Schuyler was elected to the Continental Congress in 1775, and served until he was appointed a Major General of the Continental Army in June. General Schuyler took command of the Northern Department, and planned the Invasion of Canada (1775). His poor health required him to place Richard Montgomery in command of the invasion.As department commanding General, he was active in preparing a defense against the Saratoga Campaign, part of the "Three Pronged Attack" strategy of the British to cut the American Colonies in two by invading and occupying New York State in 1777. In the summer of that year General John Burgoyne marched his British army south from Quebec over the valleys of Lakes Champlain and George. On the way he invested the small Colonial garrison occupying Fort Ticonderoga at the nexus of the two lakes. When General St. Clair abandoned Fort Ticonderoga in July, the Congress replaced Schuyler with General Horatio Gates, who had accused Schuyler of dereliction of duty.The British offensive was eventually stopped by Continental Army then under the command of Gates and Benedict Arnold in the Battle of Saratoga. That victory, the first wholesale defeat of a large British force, marked a turning point in the revolution, for it convinced France to enter the war on the American's side. When Schuyler demanded a court martial to answer Gates' charges, he was vindicated but resigned from the Army on April 19, 1779. He then served in two more sessions of the Continental Congress in 1779 and 1780.Schuyler was an original member of the New York Society of the Cincinnati.He was a member of the New York State Senate from 1780 to 1784, and at the same time New York State Surveyor General from 1781 to 1784. Afterwards he returned to the State Senate from 1786 to 1790, where he actively supported the adoption of the United States Constitution.In 1789, he was elected a U.S. Senator from New York to the First United States Congress, serving from July 27, 1789, to March 4, 1791.After losing his bid for re-election in 1791, he returned to the State Senate from 1792 to 1797. In 1797, he was elected again to the U.S. Senate and served in the 5th United States Congress from March 4, 1797 until his resignation because of ill health on January 3, 1798.(From Wikipedia)

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Admiral THOMAS SHIRLEY, 32 Gun Survey Ship the H.M.S. Lark Manuscript Document

Lot 50: Admiral THOMAS SHIRLEY, 32 Gun Survey Ship the H.M.S. Lark Manuscript Document

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Description: AutographsAdmiral Thomas Shirley HMS Lark 1763 Signed DocumentTHOMAS SHIRLEY (1733-1814). Admiral Thomas Shirley in the Service of the Royal Navy. This Document From the Famous 32 Gun Survey Ship the H.M.S. Lark.February 25, 1763-Dated French & Indian War Period, Manuscript Document Signed, Tho.(mas) Shirley," as the British Commander of the His Majesty's Ship Lark, Fine. Thomas Shirley signs this Manuscript Letter regarding the fine service of John Collins, being his Master Mate aboard the Ship Lark during the year 1762. It is boldly Signed by Thomas Shirley at the conclusion. This Document measures 8" x 10" being boldly written in deep brown ink on laid and watermarked GR with Crown, period paper. There are some early taped repairs to an edge fold split that is just above and away from the signature, and another internal near center, with some soiling on the blank docketed back. A rarely encountered British Naval signature and a ship tied to use in the American Revolutionary War.Hugh Palliser took over as Governor of Newfoundland in 1764. He and the famous Captain James Cook traveled together on H.M.S. Lark, under Captain Samuel Thompson, from Britain in May. The Lark was a new ship, having been built in 1762 in Rotherhithe by Bird. It was a 5th rate, 646 tons, 38.7 meters long and 10.4 meters wide, and carried 32 guns. The Lark ended its Naval career as it was scuttled at Newport, Rhode Island in 1778, at the same time as the Endeavour. In 1777, the H.M.S. Lark was stationed off Arnold's Point on the northwestern coast of Aquidneck Island, the Lark was the first to challenge and engage Rhode Island vessels as they tried to escape through the Bristol Ferry narrows into Mount Hope Bay.In November 1777, she returned from Boston Bay to Rhode Island with a stowaway: smallpox. The Lark was hauled inside Goat Island, and her crew was put ashore, her ballast removed, and her interior washed with vinegar and fumigated with tobacco or gunpowder smoke. Despite these precautions, the disease spread among the citizens of Newport.In March 1778, Louis XVI of France recognized the United States of America and entered the war as an ally of the new nation. The entrance of France permanently changed the character of the war.Lark was stationed in the West Passage in 1778 to stop ships as they raced for the open sea. In March she engaged the Continental Frigate Columbus, running her ashore and setting her afire. In May she challenged the Continental Frigate Providence but she escaped. to avoid seizure by the French, who were in Narragansett Bay to assist American forces.On August 5, 1778, her Captain Smith ran the Lark aground and set her on fire to avoid capture by the French who were assisting American forces in Naragansett Bay, as did the captains of the Cerberus, Orpheus and Juno. A short time later, the Lark's 76 barrels of gunpowder exploded, burning a nearby house and rocketing debris as far as three miles inland. Reflecting on the incidents, British engineer Frederick Mackenzie wrote in his diary, "It was a most mortifying sight to us, who were Spectators of this conflagration, to see so many fine Frigates destroyed in so short a time, without any loss on the part of the Enemy."

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Editor JOHN S. SKINNER Autographed Letter American Turf and Sporting Magazine

Lot 51: Editor JOHN S. SKINNER Autographed Letter American Turf and Sporting Magazine

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Description: AutographsVery Scarce John S. Skinner Letter Editor of the "American Turf Register and Sporting Magazine"JOHN S. SKINNER, Postmaster of Baltimore and early Editor of the "American Turf Register and Sporting Magazine."July 15, 1834-Dated, Autograph Letter and Integral Signed, "J S Skinner" one page on the integral in upper right corner in brown ink, from Baltimore, Very Fine. The letter itself measures 9.6" x 7.75" and the signature measures 2". It is written in brown ink on lined period paper by Gideon B. Smith, for J. S. Skinner. There is one small absence on the letters left side that is the result of its initial opening and breaking of the red wax seal and in no way interferes with the text. The integral cover also boasts a faint "Baltimore, MD" Postmaster Stamp in red ink, with some chipping along the left side and creases. The content of the letter refers to collecting on accounts for the "American Turf Register," a monthly periodical that Skinner himself started in August of 1829. A scarce letter with a rare early American sports related signature.John S. Skinner, (1788-1851), lived an extraordinary life. Skinner had a notable time during the War of 1812. He was known as the "Paul Revere" of this war, and seeing as how he was the first to announce the approach of the British to Washington, after riding 90 miles in the night, one can see why the name fits. Skinner also has kept extremely famous company. He was with Francis Scott Key on the famed ship where Key was inspired to write "The Star Spangled Banner." And, General Lafayette stayed at Skinner's home during his visit to the U.S. in 1824. Lafayette later selected Mr. Skinner as agent to manage the 20,000-acre grant of land that had been voted Lafayette by Congress. Skinner was also the Postmaster of Baltimore from 1816-39, but his most famous contributions relate to agriculture. In 1819, Skinner established "The American Farmer", which was the first agricultural journal in the country. Continuing in this tradition, in 1829, he established the "American Turf Register and Sporting Magazine", the "Farmer's Library and Monthly Journal of Agriculture," as well as the "Plough, the Loom, and the Anvil". These periodicals gave a new stimulus to agricultural pursuits, and added to the general popularity of outdoor sports. He died in Baltimore on March 21, 1851.

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