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Auction Description for Profiles in History: Historical Auction 84

Historical Auction 84 (197 Lots)

by Profiles in History


197 lots with images

April 18, 2016

Live Auction

Calabasas, CA, USA

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Adams, John.  Extraordinary autograph letter signed, 26 April 1813.

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Description: 1. Adams, John. Extraordinary autograph letter signed (“John Adams”), 2 pages (8 x 10 in.; 203 x 254 mm.), front and back, Quincy, 26 April 1813. With (unattached) address overleaf addressed in Adams’ hand to: Elbridge Gerry Esquire, Vice President of U.S., Cambridge - Elbridge Gerry (1744-1814), Vice-President (served 1813-14) under President James Madison (1809-17). With Adams’ free frank J. Adams penned on the address panel, and Free penned in the upper right-hand corner. Exhibits pin holes on the far left margin with moderate toning. John Adams confides in Vice President Elbridge Gerry on the future of our society and government, on the history of the Revolution and the passing of the remaining Signers of the Declaration of Independence.“You, my Friend, have been hurt, by your Country: So have I. We have sacrificed our Lives our Families our Popularity, our Reputations our Pleasures our Comforts to the Publick; while the Politicians have accumulated Fortunes, Palaces in the City and Pillars in the Country...If I was only thirty, I would not undertake an History of the Revolution in less than twenty years. A few Facts I wish to put upon Paper: and an awful Warning to do it soon has been given me by the Sudden Death of our Friend [Benjamin] Rush. Livingstone and Clymer had preceeded him in the same year; the same Spring. How few remain. Three in Massachusetts I believe are a Majority of the Surviving Signers of a Declaration which has had too much Credit in the World, and the Expence of the most of its Signers.”Adams pens in full: Dear Sir Although Governor [Thomas] Gage’s [the British commander of the British Army in America, as well as the appointed Governor of Massachusetts, who precipitated the Battle of Bunker Hill (June 17, 1775)] Prediction to General Jo. Warren [President of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress who was killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill] has not yet been fully accomplished in this country, yet as his observation was suggested by History, it will be found too just [true], some time or other. Selfishness has disappointed the Hopes of Patriotism and Philanthropy in all ages, not only in England at the Period of her Commonwealth. Edes’s Watertown Gazette shall be carefully returned to you or Mr. Austin if he requires it. Had your Motion in Congress been adopted, and a Man of Sense and Letters appointed in each State to collect Memorials of the Rise Progress and Termination of the Revolution: we should now possess a monument of more inestimable value than all the Histories and Orations that have been written. The Few, if they are not more selfish than the Many, are more cunning; and all the Ages of the World, have not produced such glaring proofs of it, as the History of this Country for the last thirty years. I look back with astonishment at the Height and Depth, the Length and Breadth of this Stupendous Fabrick of Artifice. If I had suspicions of the Depravity of our Politicians, I had no Idea of their Genius. That Mr. Jay the President of Congress when your motion was made, admired it is no surprise to me. His head could conceive and his heart feel the importance of it. Your allusion to the controversy with Governor Hutchinson has touch’d me to the quick. I want the Journal of the General Court, which contains his Speeches and the Answers his Replications and your Rejoinders. These were printed all together in a Pamphlet. But I cannot find that Pamphlet nor hear of it. Governor Adams once showed it to me, and Judge Paine mentioned it to me, a year or two ago: but I dared not say a word to him about it, much less to ask the Loan of it. You, my Friend, have been hurt, by your Country: So have I. We have sacrificed our Lives our Families our Popularity, our Reputations our Pleasures our Comforts to the Publick; while the Politicians have accumulated Fortunes, Palaces in the City and Pillars in the Country. It is in my opinion our duty to brave the Imputation of Vanity and Egotism by recording Facts that no other human Beings know. Our Country will be benefited by it, sometime or other. There are a few Anecdotes which I wish to reduce to writing, particularly the Impeachment of the Judges and the Controversy with General Brattle. You talk to me at 77 years of age of writing History. If I was only thirty, I would not undertake an History of the Revolution in less than twenty years. A few Facts I wish to put upon Paper: and an awful Warning to do it soon has been given me by the Sudden Death of our Friend [Benjamin] Rush. Livingstone and Clymer had preceeded him in the same year; the same Spring. How few remain. Three in Massachusetts I believe are a Majority of the Surviving Signers of a Declaration which has had too much Credit in the World, and the Expence of the most of its Signers. As a Man of Science, Letters, Taste, Sense, Phylosophy, Patriotism, Religion, Morality, Merit, Usefulness, taken all together Rush has not left his equal in America, nor that I know in the World. In him is taken away, and in a manner most sudden and totally unexpected a main Prop of my Life. “Why should I grieve when grieving I must bear.” I can conceive no reason why Governor Plumer may not be furnished with every Scratch of a Pen relative to the X. Y. & Z Embassy. I know not where to look for any one Paper relative to it. It would give me great Pleasure to see Commodore Williams. His List of Prizes would be very acceptable. I wish he would write his own Life. With high Esteem and Strong Affection John Adams.Watching the growing hostility following the Boston Tea Party in Massachusetts in 1773, where the citizens decided to resist rather than pay for their tea, British General Thomas Gage nonetheless concluded that the Americans would “undoubtedly prove very meek.” It is very probable that Adams is referring to Gage’s comment when he mentions Gage’s “prediction” – a prediction Gage was very wrong about as the birth of America’s independence started with the seeds of the Boston Tea Party revolt. Adams’ reference to the infamous “XYZ Affair” is especially notable since Elbridge Gerry, the recipient of this letter, was one of the three American diplomats President Adams sent to France in July 1797 to negotiate problems that were threatening to break out into war. The diplomats were approached through informal channels by agents of French Foreign Minister Talleyrand, who demanded bribes and a loan before formal negotiations could begin. The name is derived from the substitution of the letters X, Y and Z for the names of the French diplomats in documents released by the Adams administration. The Americans were offended by the demands and eventually left France without engaging in formal negotiations. Gerry, seeking to avoid all-out war, remained for several months after the two other American diplomats left. His exchanges with Talleyrand laid the groundwork for the eventual end to diplomatic and military hostilities.Adams letters referencing the Declaration of Independence are of excessive rarity. $20,000 - $30,000

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Adams, John.  Document signed as President, 4 March 1799.

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Description: 2. Adams, John. Document signed (“John Adams”) as President, 1 page (13.1 x 17 in.; 333 x 432 mm.), on vellum, Philadelphia, 4 March 1799, being a partly-printed document appointing Samuel Phillips as Lieutenant in the Navy. Countersigned by Benjamin Stoddert, Secretary of the Navy. Usual folds and wrinkles associated with vellum documents; scattered staining with areas of faint manuscript text; missing wafer seal. John Adams appoints Samuel Phillips a Lieutenant in the Navy.The document reads in part: John Adams President of the United States of America…Know ye. That, reposing special trust and Confidence in the Patriotism, Valor, Fidelity and Abilities of Samuel Phillips I have nominated and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, do appoint him a Lieutenant in the Navy of the United States…John AdamsOn 13 October 1775 the Continental Congress authorized the construction and administration of the first American naval force – the precursor to the U.S. Navy. During the American Revolution, the Continental Navy successfully preyed on British merchant shipping and won several victories over British warships. This first naval force was disbanded after the war. What is now known as the United States Navy was formally established with the creation of the federal Department of the Navy on 30 April 1798. $3,000 - $5,000

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Adams, John Quincy.  Document signed as President, 1 August 1827.

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Description: 3. Adams, John Quincy. Document signed (“J.Q. Adams”) as President, 1 page (15.25 x 9.75 in.; 387 x 248 mm.), on vellum, Washington, 1 August 1827, being a partly-printed document granting Carnes E. Henderson lands in Jackson, Missouri. Countersigned by G. W. Graham, Commissioner of the General Land Office. Usual folds with wrinkles associated with vellum documents. Wafer seal intact; in fine condition. John Quincy Adams signs a land grant for “lands offered for sale at Jackson, Missouri, containing eighty acres.”The document reads in part: The United States of America…Whereas Carnes E. Henderson, of Cape Girardeau county, has deposited in the General Land Office of the United States, a certificate of the Register of the Land Office at Jackson…according to the provisions of the Act of Congress of the 24th of April 1820 entitled “An act making further provision for the sale of the Public Lands” for the Lot Number three, of the North west quarter of Section five, in Township thirty three North of Range thirteen, East, in the district of lands offered for the sale at Jackson, Missouri, containing eighty acres…J.Q. Adams $300 - $500

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[Adams, John Quincy].   Broadside.  National Intelligencer Extra,   entitled   President’s Message.

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Description: 4. [Adams, John Quincy]. Broadside. National Intelligencer Extra, entitled President’s Message, Washington, D.C., 5 December 1826, 17.75 x 21.25 in. (451 x 540 mm.), being John Quincy Adams’ second State of the Union Address. Light scattered spots and stains with some areas on margins expertly infilled (not affecting text); minor chipping on right margin. National Intelligencer Extra reporting John Quincy Adams’ State of the Union Address, including the July 4th anouncement to the Nation of the same day deaths of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.The closing paragraph of Adams’ address reads in part: In closing this communication I trust that it will not be deemed inappropriate to the occasion and purposes upon which we are here assembled to indulge a momentary retrospect, combining in a single glance the period of our origin as a national confederation with that of our present existence, at the precise interval of half a century from each other. Since your last meeting at this place the 50th anniversary of the day when our independence was declared has been celebrated throughout our land, and on that day, while every heart was bounding with joy and every voice was tuned to gratulation, amid the blessings of freedom and independence which the sires of a former age had handed down to their children, two of the principal actors in that solemn scene – the hand that penned the ever memorable Declaration and the voice that sustained it in debate – were by one summons, at the distance of 700 miles from each other, called before the Judge of All to account for their deeds done upon the earth. They departed cheered by the benedictions of their country, to whom they left the inheritance of their fame and the memory of their bright example…John Quincy AdamsVery rare, only two other examples have been located (New York State Historical and the Huntington Library). $6,000 - $8,000

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Adams, John Quincy.  Extraordinary autograph letter signed, 6 December 1830.

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Description: 5. Adams, John Quincy. Extraordinary autograph letter signed (“J.Q. Adams”), 3 pages (8 x 10 in.; 203 x 254 mm.), Quincy, 6 December 1830. Written to former Senator Samuel L. Southard (1787-1842) of Trenton, New Jersey, who was then serving as Attorney General for the state of New Jersey. Two years later, he would be elected governor of New Jersey, in which office he would serve just one year before resigning to fill a vacancy in the U.S. Senate. Just before departing for Washington to serve in Congress, John Quincy Adams contemplates former Presidents’ return to public service following their Presidential terms. “… it is my deliberate and well considered opinion that the discharge of the Office of President of the United States ought not in our Country to operate either as exclusion or exemption from the subsequent performance of service in either branch of the Legislature… Washington accepted a military commission from his successor – Jefferson while he lived was the Rector of his own University – my father, Madison, and Monroe, served in Convention of fundamental legislation in their respective States – Had every one of them after the termination of their functions in the first executive office of the Union, gone through a term of Service in either house of Congress, the Country might now be reaping a harvest of their Labour…”Adams writes in full: My dear Sir: So it was written the day before I left home for Washington, where I now write on the day of the Winter Solstice. My purpose was to acknowledge the receipt of your kind Letter, and to assure you of the day’s concern with which I had learnt your recent severe and long continued illness – called away by the bustle of preparations for departure upon a Journey, not yet short in winter. I was unable to return that day to my paper – and to foreclose the chances of final disappointment in the intention of inviting to you, brought it with me – The pleasure which I have enjoyed in the interval of meeting you at Philadelphia, ought not to deprive me of that of reciprocating the friendship of your letter. Your reasons for declining to be inserted in the ticket of New Jersey, for Representatives in the next Congress, are amply sufficient for your justification. Intending to take the Seat which the People of my District have thought proper to assign to me in that body, no person can more sincerely lament than I shall, the necessity under which you have excluded yourself from it. In your case, I should have done the same – We were so long fellow labourers in the service of the public, and my confidence both in your personal and political character, was so deeply rooted, and unbounded, that in another career of public duty, I cannot but often miss the able coadjutor, and faithful friend which I always found in you – The loss will be mine, and I shall share it with our Country – yet I will hope and trust that she is not destined to be always bereft of your Services in her Councils. For myself, taught in the School of Cicero, I shall say, ‘defendi rempulicam adolescens, non disiram genex.’ The People of the District in which I reside, when they called upon me to represent them in the Congress of the United States, consulted not my inclinations – To those of them who enquired better I would serve if elected, my answer was that I saw no warrantable ground upon which I could withhold my services if demanded. This was strictly the principle by which I was governed. Had I perceived any sound reason upon which my refusal could stand I should have refused. I could not disguise to myself the prospect that the service would neither be personally agreeable to me, nor without the mortification and its dangers – But there were considerations namely personal, which I deemed it my duty to disregard. A motive far more efficient caused my only hesitation – The service that a member of the House of representatives in Congress can render to his Constituents, depends not entirely upon his dispositions, or even upon his capacity. There is much in his relative position – much in the feelings towards him entertained by those with whom he is to act – In times of warm party collusion, his influence while in the minority cannot be considerable, and if personally obvious to the prevailing majority, there is danger that his best exertions may serve but to draw defeat and obliging upon himself, without benefit to the nations or profit to his particular constituents. A member less qualified in other respects, will in such cases prove a more useful Representative – So possibly does this consideration even here present itself to my mind that it might have staggered my Resolution to undertake the service which the confidence of my fellow Citizens has committed to me, had not the Scavingers of the Administration indulged themselves in [?] from individuals whom they have had the delicacy to name, and of whose services as bullies or assassins for the benefit of the party they hold themselves quite authorised to dispose. Some of my friends appear to be affected by this threat of Algerine warfare, and have advised me not to expose myself to it – So different is its operation upon me that it has riveted my determination to take my seat. I will not distrust the feint principles of our Republican Institution, by stipulating that the rights of the People who elected me will be violated in my person by any desperado or ruffian partizan in or out of the house; and as I took the Oath of President of the United States, under an anonymous threat that I should meet a Brutus, if I went that day to the Capitol, I may now again say with Cicero in the divine Philippiie, to any dark hint of future violence ‘contempsi catilinas gladios; non partinescam tuoi’. With regard to the general principle, it is my deliberate and well considered opinion that the discharge of the Office of President of the United States ought not in our Country to operate either as exclusion or exemption from the subsequent performance of service in either branch of the Legislature. There has indeed been hitherto no example of this, and one of my motives for consenting to serve has been, to get the example which I consider so eminently congenial to the Spirit of Republican Government, and which I cherish the hope will be followed by results signally useful to our Country – Washington accepted a military commission from his successor – Jefferson while he lived was the Rector of his own University – my father, Madison, and Monroe, served in Convention of fundamental legislation in their respective States – Had every one of them after the termination of their functions in the first executive office of the Union, gone through a term of Service in either house of Congress, the Country might now be reaping a harvest of their Labour the worth of which may be estimated by that which she has derived from their actual devotion to her cause and welfare. I have given you an exposition of my views and motives on this occasion, in the confidence of our friendship, and the more readily, inasmuch as there has been a considerable diversity of opinion among my friends upon the propriety and expediency of the cause which I have taken – To the advice of my friends I have ever held the obligation of yielding a respectful deference. In this case the opinions of most of those with whom I have consulted concur with my own – Those of different mind dwell chiefly upon the troubles which my return to public life may bring upon myself, a consideration which however unworthy it might be of me to entertain, is not the less deserving of my gratitude as entertained by them – It is a source of high gratification to me that the approbation of your judgment is among those which have sanctioned the determination of your friend J.Q. AdamsFollowing the bitter election of 1828, in which populist Andrew Jackson swept into office, John Quincy Adams left Washington and returned to his native Quincy, Massachusetts, a defeated politician. Half-hearted attempts at gardening and studying the classics did not ameliorate the growing depression he felt after leaving the seat of government. It wasn’t until the autumn of 1829 that certain friends of Adams urged him to run for Congress, reminding him that his stature in the community would guarantee a win. Adams then donned his familiar cloak of coyness by speaking of “age and infirmity,” and of “not the slightest desire to be elected.” He did take care to add, however, that while he would not seek the office, if the people should call upon him, he “might deem it my duty to serve.” This was the signal his supporters were awaiting, and, needing not more encouragement, they departed to begin the campaign. Adams kept mostly quiet during the campaign season the following year, and only in the few weeks prior to the election did he move toward active candidacy. The prospect of a seat in Congress – from where he could voice his opposition to the new Jackson Administration – had re-ignited his political fire.On 7 November 1830, John Quincy Adams was announced the winner of the election. He had received 1,817 votes against 373 for the Democratic candidate and 279 for the nominee of the old Federalist party. The lopsided victory elated him, and he called his election an answer to prayer, claiming that it brought a place of dignity from which he could once again strive to serve mankind. However, the election’s highest importance to the former President was that it signaled his political vindication.John Quincy Adams departed for Washington on 8 December 1830, just two days after the date of the present letter, delayed only by a violent snowstorm. Adams spent the next seventeen years of his life in Congress, the only former President to serve as a member of the House of Representatives. Though he often found himself in the minority, he made a number of important addresses before that body in support of Abolition, in addition to the questions of Texas annexation and the declaration of war with Mexico, both of which he vehemently opposed. Adams was also instrumental in approving John Smithson’s gift to the U.S. of $500,000, which became the foundation of the Smithsonian Institution.An excellent letter from Adams regarding his return to public service. Perhaps most stunning is Adams’ remark that he was threatened with assassination just prior to taking the Oath of Presidential Office: “…and as I took the Oath of President of the United States, under an anonymous threat that I should meet a Brutus, if I went that day to the Capitol, I may now again say with Cicero in the divine Philippiie, to any dark hint of future violence ‘contempsi catilinas gladios; non partinescam tuoi’. $40,000 - $60,000

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Albee, Edward.  Fine series of four typed letters signed.

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Description: 6. Albee, Edward. Fine series of four typed letters signed and a typed introduction from the American playwright relating to some of his most important works: The Zoo Story, The Death of Bessie Smith, The Sandbox and The American Dream. The group includes:1. Typed letter signed, 1 page (11 x 8.5 in.; 279 x 216 mm.), New York, 29 April 1960, to Robert Mabry, sending along The Sandbox (not present) for consideration for publication; browned.2. Typescript being an introduction for The Sandbox, 3 pages (11 x 8.5 in.; 279 x 216 mm.), New York, 4 July 1960; browned with marginal chipping.3. Typed letter signed, 1 page (8 x 6.75 in.; 174 x 202mm.), London 9 August 1960, to Robert Mabry with regard to airmailing proofs, noting Kenneth Haigh will do very nicely for Jerry in THE ZOO STORY and publication dates.4. Typed letter signed, 1 page (11 x 8.5 in.; 279 x 216 mm.), New York, 8 June 1961, to Mr. Dwoskin, regarding proofs for The American Dream; pencil notations in an unidentified hand; spotting.5. Typed letter signed, 1 page (11 x 8.5 in.; 279 x 216 mm.), [no place, no date], to Robert Mabry, sending along the copy for The Death of Bessie Smith and apologizing for the delay. $600 - $800

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Arthur, Chester A.  Document signed as President, 27 February 1885.

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Description: 7. Arthur, Chester A. Document signed (“Chester A. Arthur”) as President, 1 page (8 x 10 in.; 203 x 254 mm.), Washington, 27 February 1885, being a partly-printed document authorizing a proclamation convening the Senate. Docketed on verso in an unknown hand, “27 Feby. 1885 Proclamation Convening the Senate”. Fine condition. Chester A. Arthur issues a proclamation convening the Senate. The document reads in full: I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of State to cause the Seal of the United States to be affixed to a Proclamation convening the Senate in extra session at 12 o’clock March 4, 1885 dated this day, and signed by me; and for so doing this shall be his warrant. Chester A. Arthur $300 - $500

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[Authors].  Zola / Twain / Kipling / Haggard / Besant / Doyle signed quotations.

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Description: 8. [Authors]. Emile Zola / Mark Twain / Rudyard Kipling / Henry Rider Haggard / Walter Besant. Five autograph quotations signed respectively, with additional signature of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, all penned on 1 page (8.25 x 10.5 in.; 210 x 267 mm.) Fabric tape along left margin, not affecting text.Exceptional assemblage of handwritten quotations from six literary greats on a single page.Each author writes in full: Walter Besant: When Claude came in this afternoon, Valentine led him into the room where the Dead girl lay. ‘See,’ she whispered. ‘This is the beautiful face she was meant to have. You can discern it now…Did you think our poor Polly could ever have been so pretty? Her face was spirited & spoiled by our cruelty and neglect and apathy, not by anything of her own, poor child! Since she ceased to work, she has grown daily more beautiful – and now she is dead. What better thing could befall her? Oh! We have been Christians for nearly two thousand years and we can still say that the best thing for thousands among us is to die.” (From The Children of Gibeon) July 21 1891 Walter BesantArthur Conan Doyle: Arthur Conan Doyle Feb 8 /05Emile Zola (in French): A work of art is a corner of nature, viewed through a medium. 27 Sept. 93 Emile ZolaMark Twain: By trying, we can easily learn to endure adversity. Another man’s, I mean. Mark Twain May 7, 1897Rudyard Kipling: But the head & the hoof of the Law and the haunch & the hump is – Obey. Rudyard Kipling Sept. 11, 1900Henry Rider Haggard: In your patience possess ye your souls. H. Rider Haggard 22 June, 1905 $5,000 - $7,000

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Beethoven, Ludwig van.  Autograph letter signed twice.

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Description: 9. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Autograph letter signed twice (“Beethoven”) and (“Legal guardian of my nephew K. v. Beethoven”), in German, 1 page (8.12 x 10.12 in.; 206 x 257 mm.), [Vienna, after 1816], to an unidentified official; stains from tape at head and foot of letter. Beethoven as legal guardian for his nephew, Karl, requests a favor. The composer writes in full:P.P. [Per procurationem]Ich ersuche höflichst die Beylage durchzulesen und hierauf eine gefällige Antwort zu erteilen. Ergebenster DienerBeethovenVormund meines Neffen K. v. BeethovenTranslation:PP [Per procurationem/ By the agency of]I would like to most politely ask you to read the attachment and grant a favorable answer thereto.Your most loyal servant,BeethovenLegal guardian of my nephewK. v. BeethovenWriting in his capacity as legal guardian to his nephew, Beethoven requests a favorable response from an unidentified correspondent. The formal tone of the letter suggests the composer is appealing for assistance with an official matter on behalf of his nephew, Karl. In 1813, when Kaspar van Beethoven’s health began to seriously deteriorate, he signed a declaration appointing his brother, Ludwig, guardian of his son, then aged six, in the event of his death. Kaspar died on 15 November 1815. In his will dated the previous day, he assigned guardianship of his son both to his wife and to Ludwig, apparently hoping that the two would put aside their long-standing animosity. This effort failed entirely, as after his death Ludwig and Johanna engaged in a lengthy and bitter custody struggle over Karl.During the years of custody that followed, Beethoven attempted to ensure that Karl lived to the highest moral standards. Beethoven had an overbearing manner and frequently interfered in his nephew’s life. Karl attempted suicide on 31 July 1826 by shooting himself in the head. He survived and was brought to his mother’s house, where he recuperated. He and Beethoven were reconciled, but Karl insisted on joining the army and last saw Beethoven in early 1827.Apparently unpublished. Provenance: Walter Slezak––present owner. $100,000 - $150,000

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Boyd, Belle.  Extremely   rare autograph letter signed.

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Description: 10. Boyd, Belle. Extremely rare autograph letter signed (“Belle Boyd Hammond High”), 1 page (10.25 x 6 in.; 260 x 152 mm.), Peoria, 23 March 1887, written to Melton, an old friend from school in Virginia. Light even toning, small loss at bottom right, not affecting text, expertly infilled.An extremely rare autograph letter signed by Confederate spy Belle Boyd.Boyd writes in full: Dear Melton, Cherish thru life kind thoughts of me & know that the pleasant hours spent in your home after so many years have intervened shall often be recalled by me. Your old schoolmate & friend Belle Boyd Hammond HighBorn in Virginia, Belle was a Confederate sympathizer. Soon after the start of the Civil War, she organized parties to visit the troops. She became a courier for generals Beauregard and Stonewall Jackson, carrying information, delivering medical supplies and confiscating weapons. Boyd was imprisoned in 1862 in the Old Capitol Prison, and again in 1863 at the Carroll Prison for several months. She was released for health reasons (typhoid fever). In 1864, she was sent to England as a diplomatic courier to work with the Confederate Secret Service network there. Boyd was married twice after the war – first to John Swainston Hammond, and after divorcing him in 1884, marrying Nathaniel Rue High the next year. In 1886 she had been touring the country delivering dramatic lectures on her life as a Confederate spy. Boyd’s autograph in any form is extremely rare. $3,000 - $5,000

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Buchanan, James.  Document signed as President.

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Description: 11. Buchanan, James. Document signed (“James Buchanan”) as President, 1 page (8 x 10.4 in.; 203 x 264 mm.), Washington, [1859], being a partly-printed document ratifying the Treaty between the United States and the S’Kallams Indians. In light script, an unknown hand has written, “March 8, 1859” beneath the text. Fine condition.James Buchanan ratifies the Treaty between the United States and the S’Kallam Indians.The document reads in full: I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of State to affix the seal of the United States to the Ratification of the Treaty between the United States and the S’Kallams Indians. Dated this day, and signed by me and for so doing this shall be his warrant. James BuchananThe S’Kallam Tribe of Native Americans is located on the Northern Olympic Peninsula of Washington state (Washington Territory at the time of this document). $300 - $500

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Caruso, Enrico.  Autograph postcard signed with two self-caricatures.

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Description: 12. Caruso, Enrico. Autograph postcard signed (“Enrico Caruso”) with two self-caricatures (5.5 x 3.5 in.; 90 x 138 mm.), in Spanish, Buenos Aires, 1903, addressed on verso to Señorita Georgina French; light soiling.Caruso writes a whimsical note with two self-caricatures. Caruso writes in full: Señorita, Here I am with a mustache and here I am without. Caruso draws on self-caricature in profile with a mustache and the second without a mustache. $500 - $700

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Charles and Diana.  Royal Christmas card signed by both.

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Description: 13. Charles and Diana. Royal Christmas card signed by both, 5 in. x 7.25 in. (127 x 184 mm.), oblong, bi-fold, with gold embossed royal seals on the cover. Card opens to reveal the greeting with adjacent color photograph (4 in. x 5.5 in. oblong) of the happy couple with their young sons, Princes William and Harry casually posing for the photographer. In excellent condition.Christmas greetings from Charles and Diana.Printed text reads, “Wishing you a very Happy Christmas and New Year”. Diana has written To you both from the four of us, Diana, and Charles adds and Charles. A wonderful piece of holiday cheer from the Royal family. $1,500 - $2,000

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[Civil War].  Extraordinary period Civil War ledger book.

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Description: 14. [Civil War]. Extraordinary period Civil War ledger book filled with period photographs and ephemera including patriotic song sheets, stationery, flyers, a manuscript muster roll, as well as thirteen large-format salt-print photographs, most of which depict Union soldiers early in the conflict. Based on the contents, the material was collected by a resident of Philadelphia. Most of the photographs and papers have been mounted to the album pages with some expected wear, one of the photographs has been hand-painted and another bears some uneven toning, else very good condition overall. The album itself is chipped along the boards with portions of the spine missing, and front board detached.Extraordinary period Civil War ledger book housing thirteen large salt-print photographs of Union soldiers with excellent examples of patriotic ephemera including song sheets, broadsides, stationery and related ephemera.Of particular interest in this volume are the thirteen large-format salt-print photographs, most of which measure 6 x 8.25 in. (152 x 210 mm.) and appear to have been taken in the early part of the war. Particularly stirring is a full-length portrait of a member of the Anderson Cavalry staring directly at the camera and holding his sword. Another photograph depicts E.W.C. Greene, a correspondent for the Philadelphia Evening Transcript posing with Captain Thomas Hawksworth of the 20th Pennsylvania (“Scott’s Legion.”) Another compelling image is that of Major General B. F. Kelly seated, posing with his family in 1859. Also included is a muster roll recording members of Graham’s Missouri Cavalry Company, recording the names of 67 members and their dispositions between 20 August and 31 August 1861. The album also contains some excellent examples of patriotic letterheads and envelopes, prints by Charles Magnus, patriotic song sheets, as well as cartoons cut from newspapers. Particularly compelling is a October 1861 broadside promoting a “GRAND EXHIBITION IN AID OF THE COOPER SHOP VOLUNTEER REFRESHMENT SALOON,” which featured “Mammoth Stereoscopic Views of the Southern Rebellion, Each Displayed on 400 square feet of Canvass, at the Mechanic’s Institute...” As a whole, the material presents an optimistic view of the future from early in the war, when most people in the north anticipated a rapid and easy victory.  $5,000 - $7,000

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[Civil War].  Berryman A. McCormick Rare document signed.

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Description: 15. Berryman A. McCormick Rare document signed (“B.A. McCormick”), 1 page (8 x 3.25 in.; 203 x 83 mm.) Rome, Georgia, 4 May 1863, being a partly-printed document, headed: Prisoner’s Parole. Professionally reinforced at folds with general soiling. Accompanied by a certificate (8.5 x 11 in.), issued in Washington, 1884, certifying McCormick’s enlistment and discharge (tears at edges); a Certificate of Service (10 x 8 in.), issued in Washington, 1889 (fine condition), and a printed reproduction of a handwritten letter (5.5 x 8.5 in.) from Gen. Lew Wallace dated 27 November 1902, sent to Civil War veterans who wrote to him.A Union soldier captured by Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest after Streight’s Raid signs a Prisoner’s Parole, swearing, “I will not bear arms against the Confederate States Government …”The document reads in full: I, B. McCormic [sic] prvt of Co. A 51 Ind regt inft of the United States Army captured by BRIG. GEN. FORREST, solemnly swear before Almighty God, the Sovereign Judge, that I will not bear arms against the Confederate States Government, nor help, aid, or assist either directly or indirectly, any person or persons, in making war against the same, until regularly exchanged as a prisoner of war, and that I will not, at any time, communicate to any person information received within the Confederate lines, detrimental to the same. Sworn and subscribed to before me. Rome Ga May 4th 1863 JM Crews A Insptr Genl., B.A McCormickBerryman A. McCormick (1841-1908) was one of over 1,500 Union soldiers captured by Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest on 3 May 1863. Abel D. Streight was Colonel of the 51st Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment. In April 1863, he led his men of his 51st Indiana, 73rd Indiana, 3rd Ohio, and 18th Illinois, from Nashville, Tennessee, on what has been known as “Streight’s Raid.” The raid ended on 3 May with the capture of Streight and his command by General Nathan Bedford Forrest. $3,000 - $5,000

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[Civil War – Frank Crosby and the 10 th  Iowa. Vol. Inf. Regt.] collection.

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Description: 16. [Civil War – Frank Crosby and the 10th Iowa. Vol. Inf. Regt.] A remarkable and important collection of over 80 letters, documents, maps, drawings and photographs relating to the role of the 10th Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment during Grant’s Mississippi campaign and Sherman’s continuation of splitting the South through the eyes of one Frank W. Crosby.Detailed descriptions of the battles of Corinth and Vicksburg as well as many other skirmishes and actions the unit participated in during that long campaign to cut the south in two under Grant. In an effort to let his family, especially his sons, understand what is going on, Frank Crosby uses maps and drawings as well as detailed narratives to convey what the 10th Iowa was going through. From a detailed view of a Rebel Fort around Columbus Kentucky to the devices known as “torpedos” used in the rivers, to the Iowans first contact with slaves and confederate families, cotton speculators, disease, to the quotidian reality of the horror of war for the everyday soldier, Frank gives us an extraordinary view into the war and a major campaign start to finish as it was actually fought on a day to day basis.While the vast majority of the collection concerns Crosby’s time with the 10th Iowa, there are also some documents concerning his life after the war including ongoing claims by former Confederates for compensation for items confiscated by Frank’s regiment and several patent applications made by Frank Crosby after the war.Highlights include:7 July 1862, Camp Reeds Creek. As God is my witness, I would rather lay down my life, than that the Cause in which I am engaged should fail…I think since I have been in the service I have directly and indirectly liberated about 20 slaves. The last was…a few days ago. He was a bright looking fellow about 20 years old…12 October 1862, Camp two miles south of Corinth Miss. I am now about to give you a description of the greatest event of our military like and as regards the part I performed in the terrible drama…I stood on the edge just in the act of stepping down = when flash-crash-the masked rebel battery opened on us-and grape and canister came thick and fast. The man at my right elbow, fell mortally wounded, two others were fatally wounded a few steps from me. A canister shot just nipped the corner of my temple and went singing on…oh how the rebels sent the death missiles over our heads…we carried our dying and wounded from the field – I carried the head and shoulders of the man shot by my side. And I think I was never so completely exhausted in my life as when I dropped his mangled body on the litter just as we left the RR…we remained all night – sleeping but little…the morning of the 4th…a never to be forgotten day – by one at least…morning was quite dark – But as the guns flashed…you could see by their awful light – long dark lines of brave men with bronzed faces and stern hearts waiting the conflict of the coming day – the fitful light danced and glanced from ten thousand polished bayonets…now I have a very nice sharps rifle captured at Iuka [Mississippi] – and desirous of trying it…24 May 1863, Camp in the field at Vicksburg. A Heavy battle was fought on the 1st of May at Port Gibson – and then skirmishing for some days after. Then Battles on the 12th, 14th, and 16th at Raymond, Jackson, and Champion Hill. It was at the last named place that our Regt lost so heavily and twas in that fight that George Hillman lost his leg. The battlefield presented an awful sight dead and wounded men all through the woods, on the hill tops and in the valleys. In some places Rebels and Union Soldiers were lying side by side…at 10 AM on the 22nd a general charge was made along the whole line and the Tenth once more went in – and lost 3 killed and about 25 wounded – and in the evening our Div was ordered to go two miles to the left and reinforce McClernand – So once again that band of heroes went down into the Valley of the Shadow of Death – Right gallantly they charged on the rebel works – But our Brigade Commander Col Boomer was killed…June 1863, Vicksburg. …gradually we are contracting our lines…Tis now two weeks since the siege commenced and a heavy cannonade has been kept up almost incessantly by us…my own idea is that we will be in the place inside of a month…at times the cannonading is the most tremendous I believe ever known on earth…and kept up for hours…to stand upon a hill top at night and watch the 200 pound shells move like meteors through the air and burst with a flash like lightning and a noise like a thousand thunderclaps…19 June [18]63, Camp near Vicksburg. Standing by a pair of huge 9 inch 84-pounders, on the top of a high hill. Theses monster guns were once on the Cincinnati and when the rebels sunk her they were raised and brought out here. When they speak the foundations of the hills shake…the soldiers mostly stay in their holes – yes the whole army have been transmorgrified [sic] into gophers…the hillsides are fairly honeycombed with pits, holes, caves, and every species of shelter that old soldiers can devise as a protection against shells…29 July 1863, Vicksburg, Miss. After Confederate General John Pemberton surrendered Frank Crosby enters the city and describes the scene to his wife. We are now encamped inside the Rebel Fortifications on the outskirts of the city…Tis so abominably and awfully filthy – dead horses and mules are everywhere, fresh graves can be counted by hundreds and thousands and in many cases the dead are but a few inches from the surface…the accumulated filth and garbage of an old camp all fermenting and festering under the broiling rays of a tropic sun…millions of mosquitoes, warm putrid water, oceans of dust, no shade, plenty of fleas and every other creeping thing…27 July 1863, Piqua Ohio. In this letter from Frank’s brother, we can see how personal the war is for Crosby. Dear Bother, On Monday evening last I arrived at home a paroled prisoner…I will endeavor and give you a faint description of the Battle of Winchester and of my capture and imprisonment…6 April 1865, Richmond Falls Camp Near Goldsboro, NC. We have just heard the glorious news that Richmond and Petersburg are ours…Oh how the joyous shouts of the soldiers ring and roll along the lines – you really can’t imagine what a noise fifty thousand men can make when they really set about it…Also part of this archive are official reports made as a quartermaster. Along with lists of supplies and their costs Crosby also made recommendations to those in command of the Quartermaster function. Although serving as the regimental quartermaster, Frank Crosby was also a soldier and marched and fought through the battles at Corinth. It was with this experience as both infantryman and quartermaster that Crosby used in this recommendation to the Quartermaster of the Army in October of 1864, In connection with the subject of transportation I would respectfully call your attention to the expediency of devising some method of lightening up the burden of the Infantry Soldier. Under existing arrangements, he is always overloaded and my observations lead me to believe that there is no one cause so productive of evil as this. I have no doubt and I speak from personal experience. That to carry a gun and accutrements [sic] sixty rounds of ball cartridges three days rations canteen of water and a heavy knapsack is especially in hot dusty weather the most painful irksome and exhausting labor ever performed by man. As a natural result a march is held in greater dread than a battle…an immense destruction of property is the inevitable consequence of over-loading. I have known hundreds of blankets…thrown away in a single day’s march…In all, a remarkably complete history of a man and his unit during the Civil War. $3,000 - $5,000

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[Civil War].   Pickens, Francis W.    Historic autograph letter signed.

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Description: 17. [Civil War]. Pickens, Francis W. Historic autograph letter signed, 1 page (4.5 x 7.25 in.; 114 x 184 mm.), Quarto, Charleston, S.C., dated 8 January 1861, written to Brig. Gen. James Simons. Slight toning at extreme lower right; otherwise, in fine condition. Gov. Pickens of South Carolina reinstates the commission of Gen. James Simons, Fourth Brigade of Charleston (SC Militia), as a loyalist to the Southern cause shortly after the secession of his state. The very next day, Simons would fire the first shots of the Civil War against the Federal relief ship, the Star of the West.Pickens writes in full: Dear Sir, I received your of this date a few moments since, in which you say “I have the honour to apply to your Excellency to restore to me the Commission of Brigadier General 4th Brigade Infantry which I had the honour to resign, and which your Excellency accepted.” It affords me great pleasure to restore it and the order shall be given to that effect. I have the honour to be with perfect respect, Yours truly, F.W. PickensOf the South Carolina State militia, the largest organized body was the Fourth Brigade of Charleston, commanded by Brig. Gen. James Simons. This body of troops was well organized, well drilled and armed, and was constantly under the orders of the governor and in active service from 27 December 1860, to the last of April 1861. Some of the commands continued in service until the Confederate regiments, battalions and batteries were organized and finally absorbed all the effective material of the brigade. Distinguished officers of this brigade included Col. James Johnson Pettigrew (later Brig. Gen. CSA), in command of the First Regiment of Rifles. Having his commission “restored” as a Secessionist in service of his state, Simons was in command of the Fourth Brigade on Morris Island during the first attack on Fort Sumter, 12 April 1861. Just one day after the date of this letter (on 9 January 1861), Simons accepted orders from Pickens authorizing him to fire upon the Star of the West, the ship sent to relieve Maj. Anderson at Fort Sumter, which prevented the ship from passing, and constituted the very first shots of the war. Anderson made a formal protest to Gov. Pickens, but Pickens replied that the sending of reinforcements would be considered a hostile act as South Carolina was now independent, and that attack must be repelled. $3,000 - $5,000

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[Civil War – James H. Closson and the 91 st  Pennsylvania Vol. Inf. Regt.] collection.

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Description: 18. [Civil War – James H. Closson and the 91st Pennsylvania Vol. Inf. Regt.] An important and moving collection of (16) letters from James H. Closson, Captain of Company H of the 91st Pennsylvania Volunteer Regiment. The regiment was raised near Philadelphia during the fall of 1861 and mustered into Federal service on 4 December of that year. Edgar M. Gregory was elected colonel of the regiment. In January 1862 the 91st was ordered to Washington, D.C. serving in garrison duties until August, when it was sent to the Army of the Potomac. The letters are written mostly to his mother, but also his wife, Josephine, before she died from consumption of the lungs. Closson writes rich, and oftentimes horrifying, anecdotal descriptions of key battles in the war, including Antietam, Gettysburg, Spotsylvania Court House and Cold Harbor. Also included is a handwritten General Order N. 12, Head Quarters 91st Regt., Camp Stanton, Bladensbury Road, 27 January 1862, signed by Colonel E.M. Gregory, as well a 1-page “List of Casualties in Co. H., 91st Reg’t PVI”, naming the soldiers wounded and killed from 5 May through 18 June 1864. Also present is Closson’s Commonwealth of Pennsylvania document appointing him as Captain. Highlights include:2 June 1862, Alexandria, Va. The news has just came that McClellan has taken Richmond after a tremendous fight, and that he has taken 20,000 prisoners, if that is true, the rebellion is nearly crushed out. Bouregard [sic] after spending months in fortifying Corrinth [sic] evacuated that stronghold, and allowed the Union forces to enter without striking a blow…They [the rebels] are good at lying and bragging but they have not got the bottom that northern troops have…7 October 1862, Camp near Sharpsburg, Md. I suppose you have heard all about the great battle of Antietam, but no discription [sic] I have seen in the papers comes up to the reality of the scene, it was undoubtedly the hardest fought battle of the war. The traitors were commanded by Lee, Jackson, Longstreet…they fought with desperation, but could not withstand the terrible earnestness of our brave boys, who drove them from every point of the field, capturing several batteries of artillery, several thousand prisoners, and covering the ground with the dead…I saw one corn field of about 10 acres that had 1500 dead rebels lying in it…and I saw a gully about 3 ft. deep…filled with them in some places 4 deep, and nearly every man shot in the head, showing the accuracy of our men’s aim…1 July 1863 [Gettysburg, Pa.] …arrived at Hanover at 2 o’clock halted until 6 when we again started in the direction of Gettysburg, halted 5 miles from Gettysburg…July 2 marched this morning at 4 formed line of battle at 7. We then moved into a wood and remained under cover until 5 o’clock when we were ordered to the front and were soon engaged. We took a position on a hill called Round Top and were ordered to hold it at all hazards, we were supporting Battery D 5th regular artillery. Remained on Round Top until 5 o’clock PM on the 5 July when our casualties were one man wounded…13 May 1864, Battle field near Spotsylvania Court House, Va. Since we crossed the Rapidan we have been fighting for ten days with Lee’s army, he is badly beaten now but I think we will destroy him and his army in a few days more. The fighting has been terrible, and the losses enormous on both sides but the rebel loss is by far the heaviest. We have captured 10,000 prisoners. I was captured in the first days fight, and was struck with a spent ball but did not hurt me more than a bruise. I was taken from the rebs by the 2nd U.S. Infantry and was with my regt. in less than two hours after they took me…1 June 1864, Battle Field South Side the Pamunkey River 10 miles from Richmond, Va. Our Brigade has been in every battle and we have whipped Lee in every fight, the rebs made four charges to break through our lines but were handsomely repulsed each time day before yesterday. Our loss has been very heavy in wounded, but we have lost but few prisoners, while we have captured many thousand rebs, and their loss in killed and wounded is much greater than ours…We will have a hard road to travel for the next ten miles, but we will be in Richmond by 4th of July. The Rebels are entrenched all the way down but Grant is a good Genl and we will flank them out of their strong positions…4 June 1864, Battle field near Cold Harbor, Va. We had a severe battle here day before yesterday and a heavy fight on the left yesterday and last night, but we were successful and repulsed them with fearfull [sic] loss…two more of our officers are wounded, Capt. Francis and Lieut. Jones, there are now but five line officers left with the Regt. Two Companies to each officer…We were entrenching all the afternoon and falling trees in front of us and were prepared to give them a warm reception if they advanced on us, they did try it twice, but our artillery poured canister and shell into them so fast that they had to give it up… $2,000 - $3,000

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Clemens, Samuel L.   Autograph letter signed, 5 February 1869.

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Description: 19. Clemens, Samuel L. Autograph letter signed (“Sam.”), 3 pages (4.5 x 7 in.; 114 x 178 mm.), Elmira, New York, 5 February 1869, to his “Dear Mother & Brother & Sisters & Nephew & Niece, & Margaret,” with autograph transmittal envelope with imprint of his future father-in-law, Jervis Langdon, and addressed to Clemens’ sister, Mrs. William A. Moffett of St. Louis. Letter in fine condition; envelope exhibits wear.In characteristic fashion, Mark Twain enthusiastically announces his engagement with Olivia “Livy” Langdon to his entire family: “I am not worrying about whether you will love my future wife or not—if you know her twenty-four hours & then don’t love her, you will accomplish what nobody else has ever succeeded in doing since she was born. She just naturally drops into everybody’s affections that comes across her.”Clemens writes in full: My dear Mother & Brother & Sisters & Nephew & Niece, & Margaret: This is to inform you that on yesterday, the 4th of February, I was duly & solemnly & irrevocably engaged to be married to Miss Olivia L. Langdon, of Elmira, New York. Amen. She is the best girl in all the world, & the most sensible, & I am just as proud of her as I can be. It may be a good while before we are married, for I am not rich enough to give her a comfortable home right away, & I don’t want anybody’s help. I can get an eighth of the Cleveland Herald for $25,000, & have it so arranged that I can pay for it as I earn the money with my unaided hands. I shall look around a little more, & if I can do no better elsewhere, I shall take it. I am not worrying about whether you will love my future wife or not—if you know her twenty-four hours & then don’t love her, you will accomplish what nobody else has ever succeeded in doing since she was born. She just naturally drops into everybody’s affections that comes across her. My prophecy was correct. She said she never could or would love me—but she set herself the task of making a Christian of me. I said she would succeed, but that in the meantime she would unwittingly dig a matrimonial pit & end up tumbling into it—& lo! the prophecy is fulfilled. She was in New York a day or two ago, & George Wiley & his wife Clara know her now. Pump them, if you want to. You shall see her before very long. Love to all. Affect’ly Sam. P.S. Shall be here a week.Twain and Langdon first met at the end of 1867 through her brother Charles. Their first date was to a reading by Charles Dickens in New York City. Twain courted her mainly by letter throughout 1868; she rejected his first proposal but accepted his second and they were married a year later. Livy helped her husband with the editing of his books, articles and lectures that he would give. She was a “faithful, judicious and painstaking editor,” Twain wrote. She continued to help her husband to edit works up until days before her death. Their union lasted 34 years and, despite the death of two children and periodic financial troubles, the marriage itself was a happy one. An excellent letter by Twain announcing one of the literary world’s most famous love matches. Published in Love Letters of Mark Twain, p 64.Provenance: Prominent Twain scholar and collector Chester L. Davis, 1903-1987 (Christie’s New York, 9 June 1992, lot 35). $20,000 - $30,000

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Clemens, Samuel L.  Autograph letter signed, 17 December.

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Description: 20. Clemens, Samuel L. Autograph letter signed (“Saml. L. Clemens”), 2 pages (4.5 x 7 in.; 114 x 178 mm.), on two separate leaves of “SLC” monogrammed stationery, Hartford, 17 December, no year (1872), written to “the Father of the American Cartoon”, Thomas Nast. Page 2 has a small section of paper loss on left margin with both pages exhibiting mounting remnants.Following the publication of The Innocents Abroad, chronicling his travels to Europe and the Middle East, Mark Twain writes “The Father of the American Cartoon”, Thomas Nast, celebrating his work (including his drawing of the Sphinx) in hopes that his publisher will hire Nast to illustrate his English book.Clemens writes in full: My Dear Nast—I thank you heartily for your kindness to me & to my friend Charley. The Almanac has come, & I have enjoyed those pictures with all my soul & body. Perkins’s plagiarism of Doestick’s celebrated Niagara drunk is tolerable – that is, for a man to write whose proper place is in an asylum for idiots. – Pity that I should say it who am his personal acquaintance. Your “Mexico” is a fifty-years’ history of that retrograding chaos of a country portrayed upon the space of one’s thumb-nail, so to speak; & that sphynx in “Egypt” charms me – I wish I could draw that old head in that way. I wish you could go to England with us in May. Surely you could never regret it. I do hope my publishers can make it pay you to illustrate my English book. Then I should have good pictures. They’ve got to improve on “Roughing It.” Ys Ever Saml. L. Clemens.Mark Twain traveled to Europe and the Mid-east, including Egypt, in 1867 aboard the steamship “Quaker City”. Somehow he had convinced the San Francisco Alta California newspaper to pay for the trip, with the promise that he would provide them with articles for their readers. Their confidence was rewarded with a series of travel essays later edited to become Innocents Abroad or the New Pilgrim’s Progress (published 1869), Twain’s first published book, and the most popular during his lifetime.…my friend Charley, to whom Clemens refers is Charles M. Fairbanks, 17-year-old son Mary Mason Fairbanks, who was Twain’s friend, mentor and “mother” on the Quaker City voyage described in The Innocents Abroad. At Twain’s request, Nast had entertained Charley in his studio, and their meeting developed into a lifelong friendship. The two collaborated in 1892-93 on the short-lived Nast’s Weekly (Fairbanks supplying the text, Nast the pictures). The Almanac is Th. Nast’s Illustrated Almanac for 1873, which contained “The Story of the Good Little Boy Who Did Not Prosper” by Mark Twain and “New-Year’s Calls” by Eli Perkins (Melville D. Langdon). Clemens was justified in describing it as Perkins’s of Doestick’s celebrated Niagara drunk – a piece well known at the time, by Mortimer N. Thomson, a humorist writing as “Q.K. Philander Doesticks,” in which Doesticks describes his own visit to Niagara Falls, during which he makes frequent pauses for beer, with predictable results. Clemens’ trip to England in 1872 was intended to gather materials for a new book he planned to write on England and the English (his English book as referred to in this letter). However, he struggled to find the right sort of material, as Fred Kaplan notes in the biography The Singular Mark Twain: “He tried, though, to ‘see as many people’ as he could, rather than sights. ‘If I could take notes of all I hear said, I should make a most interesting book.’ Local customs, as always, intrigued him. The more he liked England and the English, though, the less sustainable seemed the kind of book he had intended to write.”Provenance: The Library, Correspondence and Original Cartoons of the Last Thomas Nast, Merwin-Clayton sale of 2-3 April 1906, lot 244. $10,000 - $15,000

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Cleveland, Grover.  Document signed as President, 4 May 1894.

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Description: 21. Cleveland, Grover. Document signed (“Grover Cleveland”) as President, 1 page (8 x 10 in.; 203 x 254 mm.), Executive Mansion, Washington, 4 May 1894, being a partly-printed document authorizing the Secretary of State to sign an agreement for a Modus Vivendi between the U.S. and Russia. Docketed on verso in an unknown hand, “4th May, 1894 Full Power to the Secy. of State to sign an agreement for a Modus Vivendi betwn the U.S. & Russia”. Fine condition. Grover Cleveland authorizes the Secretary of State to sign an agreement for a Modus Vivendi between the United States and Russia. The document reads in full: I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of State to cause the Seal of the United States to be affixed to my Full Power authorizing the Secretary of State to sign an Agreement for a Modus Vivendi between the United States and Russia, dated this day, and signed by me; and for so doing this shall be his warrant. Grover ClevelandIn diplomacy, modus vivendi is an instrument for establishing an international accord of a temporary or provisional nature, intended to be replaced by a more substantial and thorough agreement, such as a treaty. $300 - $500

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Cleveland, Grover.  Document signed as President, 9 May 1894.

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Description: 22. Cleveland, Grover. Document signed (“Grover Cleveland”) as President, 1 page (15.5 x 19.25 in.; 394 x 502 mm.), on vellum, Washington, 9 May 1894, being a partly-printed document appointing Henry W. Sprole to the rank of Captain, by brevet. Countersigned by Daniel D. Lamont, Secretary of the War. Docketed at the upper left corner, “Recorded Volume 6, page 96, Adjutant General’s office, May 9, 1894 [unknown signature] Adjutant General”. Usual folds with blue War Office seal intact; overall, in very fine condition.Grover Cleveland appoints Henry W. Sprole to the brevet rank of Captain for “gallant service in the pursuit of Indians” in Texas.The document reads in part: The President of the United States of America…I do hereby confer on Henry W. Sprole of the Army of the United States by and with the advice and consent of the Senate the rank of Captain By Brevet…for gallant service in the pursuit of Indians on the Washita River, Texas, October 14 and 15, 1874, and in the action against Indians on Muster Creek, Texas, November 29, 1874…Grover Cleveland $300 - $500

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Cline, Patsy. Extensive archive of handwritten letters.

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Description: 23. Cline, Patsy. From Small-Time Country Performer to National Superstar: The Handwritten Letters of Patsy Cline to Marie Flynt – a deeply personal correspondence sharing her triumphs and tragedies, dealing with her new-found fame, life on tour, and her abusive home life. As her most recent single “Crazy” rises to the top of the charts, domestic troubles – the inspiration to this song – have pushed Patsy Cline to formally ask for a divorce from her husband: “I’m fed up, don’t care if I ever see this man again, unhappy, tired of trying, sick, and tired of being hurt & used. I’m just plain Don’t give a dam any more…So I’ve ask for a divorce. Again tonight I said when I finish this trip in Calif I’m going to a lawyer soon as I get back. Now he’s begging me to stay with him. But I’m finished with trying, crying, begging, and there’s nothing left to be hurt any more…”In 1959, up-and-coming Country & Western star Patsy Cline made a last-minute appearance at a Maryland nightclub after superstar Kitty Wells declined to perform. As the story goes, Wells had some disagreement over the club’s liquor license, and Patty – always ready to sing and make a buck – stepped in. A family-owned club, one of the sisters was a young woman by the name of Marie Flynt. An aspiring singer herself, she met Cline and the two became fast friends. Such began the warm and intimate correspondence that would span the next four years, until Patty’s tragic death in a horrible plane crash.The following archive consists of twenty letters, dating from 26 October 1959 (the first year the two met), to 6 February 1963 – less than one month before her death. Most striking, the letters are extremely personal and revealing in nature, nearly all of them discussing her recording career, songs, contracts, her demanding schedule of personal appearances including many at the Grand Ole Opry, and sadly, her rocky marriage to Charlie Dick, an abusive, alcoholic husband who had the wherewithal to beat his wife in front of her fellow musicians.The excitement with which Cline describes her first national hit and the difficult choice of recording companies (she eventually decided on Decca), the receipt of her first big paycheck ($23,000!), and her disdain of ‘pop’ music even as her promoters successfully brought her to a wider audience are vividly brought to life in Cline’s uncorrected, easy tone. We learn for the first time of the loss (by miscarriage) of a third child in 1962, her resolution to divorce Charlie Dick, and the hint of a extramarital romantic interest. Throughout, Cline maintains her sunny disposition towards life and her youthful enthusiasm for Country & Western music, even as her grueling travel schedule strains her both physically and mentally.Patsy Cline’s resilient personality pours forth in these letters with a voice more candid and refreshing than any other source yet discovered. In 1999, a set of her earlier correspondence with a fan was published in book form. As much as these letters add to the body of knowledge about this intriguing singer, they are in no way as personal, enlightening, or sincere as those presented here. Indeed, the last letter in that particular collection is dated 22 January 1959 – a full 10 months before the first letter in this archive.A collection of unequalled importance, these letters remain the best primary source of Patsy Cline biographical information extant.Brief Summaries of the Letters1. 26 October 1959. Patsy Cline lands a national T.V. ad campaign, sponsored by the military: The Coast Guard of National Guard I don’t know which is making 5 T.V. movie advertisements and I got 2 of them to do. I M.C. them and do the singing to. I guess that’s pretty good for a hill-bill gal Huh??2. 10 August 1960. Patsy is fearful that she is going to lose her second child during a tough pregnancy, but continues to maintain a hectic schedule of appearances while agonizing over which record label to sign with: Decca, Victor, or Challenge. [She would later choose Decca.]3. 5 December 1960. As Christmas approaches, Patsy realizes she is far from ready for Santa Claus. In the last few weeks of her pregnancy, the doctor has told her that he’ll induce labor as soon as the baby drops – which is fine by her! I’m no where near ready for Santa Clause. But I’m happy to have Charlie & Julie well and me well except for baby bearing paines which I know I’ll be over in a couple of months. He told me today as soon as I droped, he would take me on it & start me, and that’s fine with me…4. 24 January 1961. Just hours after performing at the Grand Ole Opry, Patsy goes into labor and gives birth to a healthy baby boy. She writes from the hospital: Just a note to let you know that I’m over all the worst and we have a big boy. He was 2 weeks early and I even worked the 8:30 spot on the Opry Sat nite, go home at 11:30 and started having paines (which wasn’t bad paines & I though they were pressure paines) at 12:30…My Dr. said bring her right in here. So I got here at 9:30 a.m. & at 10:32 we had a boy…5. 3 May 1961. Patsy’s marriage to Charlie Dick takes a turn for the worse, while her new Decca album “Patsy Cline Showcase” rockets into the top five. …On top of every thing else I was ready to get a divorce I’m tired of being left one night a week all night long & never knowing where he was. And tired of everything in all…Sun morn, he had been home 2 ½ hrs. from being out all night drunk…I’m sick of this shit…if these 2 kids weren’t here I would never have come home I’ll tell you that for sure. I’m at the point where I’m just sick in health, happiness & my mind & nerves are shot…Now! Some good news. My record is #5 in C&W and is 70 some in pop & still climbing. I’ve got a chance to be the star singer on the Don McNeill Breakfast Club Radio Network Show regularly (waiting to hear from them) and the Opry is going on T.V. Network coast to coast…6. August 1961. While working on her second Decca album, Patsy’s first continues to climb on all charts. Decca’s insistence that she focus on the pop music market meets with her angry refusal. I had 21 songs picked for the album plus 7 new ones for 4 singles to come out of and that dam Owen Bradley turned down everything except 2 out of 7 for the singles and 4 for the album out of 12. I could spit dust I’m so mad. And he wants to put violins (you heard me) on my new session. Still trying to get me in the pop. And I’ll die & walk out before I’ll go all the way pop…In Cash Box it’s 25 in pop. In Boll Board it’s 28 I think in pop. No. 1 in C&W…Variety it’s No. 1, C&W & in pop No. 9 & been in the top 50 of pop 20 weeks. Now don’t that blow your hat in the creek??7. 22 August 1961. Patsy tells Marie of her busy schedule, and discusses the new recordings for her next album. So far I’ve done one side of a single (one song) and four new ones for the album (not new either). The ones so far are ‘True Love,’ ‘Way Ward Wind,’ ‘San Antonio Rose,’ and ‘Poormans Roses’ with violins. Dig that?!! The only think I’ve done is prove I can sing pop music and I knew that, and that this way it will see to those pop fools and the pop DJs will have to play it. Anyway I’m very dam unhappy. Ha.8. 6 September 1961. Charlie Dick accompanies his wife on the last half of a tour, causing havoc and forcing her to think more seriously about divorce. As for here, it’s the same ole thing I took him on the last half of this tour & he proceeded to get drunk every dam night…I get so dam fed up I could scream. I’m at that point again where it don’t matter where he is to me anymore. He’s just not man enough to take it is the only think I can see. I mean the having me where I am now & a wife. But I’m gonna put away as much of this money as I can & then when I get sick enough of it I’ll be able to live with out my dam man…9. 11 October 1961. As her most recent single “Crazy” rises to the top of the charts, domestic troubles – the inspiration to this song – have pushed Patsy Cline to formally ask for a divorce from Charlie. I’m fed up, don’t care if I ever see this man again, unhappy, tired of trying, sick, and tired of being hurt & used. I’m just plain Don’t give a dam any more…So I’ve ask for a divorce. Again tonight I said when I finish this trip in Calif I’m going to a lawyer soon as I get back. Now he’s begging me to stay with him. But I’m finished with trying, crying, begging, and there’s nothing left to be hurt any more…10. 6 December 1961. Patsy plays Carnegie Hall. The Carnegie Hall think was a smash hit. We had a full house, standing room filled and turned them away from the door 20 minutes after the curtain went up at $750 a head. How’s that for country music in New York?? Swingin, Comercial, I got four onchores in Carnegie Hall and 4 Sat. night at the Opry. The only girl in history of the Opry to get over two. So looks like at last I’m a singer…Well, I’ve found another song to record for single that Randy says is another smash hit. It’s called ‘You’re the One.’ So I hope he knows what he’s talking about.11. 20 January 1962. Just 10 days after its release, Patsy has sold almost 250,000 copies of “She’s Got You”, thanks in part to American Bandstand host Dick Clark. Well looks like my new record is gonna make a little noise after all. It’s going in no 60 slot next week in BillBoard and they are calling it a 2 sided hit. Dick Clark is playing it and that’s a big help. It was the highest rated record he had of new releases last week…The album to date has sold 40,000 and is just now breakin big in sales. The new one (single) has sold about 250,000 copies so far and only been out a week & ½…12. 26 February 1962. Patsy has faith that her new song “Wait Till I Get Through With You” will be a hit, and is thrilled upon receiving her first check from Decca. I’ve at last got a day or two off. Then I’ll be cutting a new single record. I believe I’ve got another one if we can get the right arrangement on it. It’s called ‘Wait Till I Get Through With You’. Some title huh?? It has an Everly Brothers beat to it like the one they had with that drum roll in it. Then put a real strong ballad on the flip side…I finally got my record check and don’t let anyone else know but I’ve just got to tell you. It was twenty three thousand dollars. I can’t get used to it yet. First I cried, the I laughed, then I prayed & thanked God, then cried & laughed some more. Boy! What a feeling… 13. 16 April 1962. With a new record out today, Patsy faces a busy performance schedule but must first answer questions from lawyers for the sixteenth time about her auto accident.14. 8 July 1962. A long-suffering, battered wife, Patsy starts divorce proceedings against her abusive husband…I got the hell beat out of me two weeks ago and had his a - - locked up to get sober & cool off. Then I slapped him with devorice papers and he moved out for two weeks. Then with the lawyers & his begging and pleading, I went soft and let him come back. But the devorice hasn’t been dropped. I can go ahead with it anytime things don’t go like I want them to. All I have to do is pick up the phone & say ‘go ahead with it’ & it’s over in four months. So he knows I mean what I say. No drinkin and no calling me names anymore…15. 4 August 1962. Patsy is fearful of miscarriage during her third pregnancy, but must maintain her busy schedule of recording and touring. I don’t know if I told you or not, but I’m p.g. again and I’m in bed now trying to keep it. Had the Dr last night and he said he thought I’d lose it yet. I sure am sick I know that. I’ve got low blood and it’s kinda early after losing all that blood from the wreck he don’t think I could carry it the whole time any way. I sure didn’t want to get this way but looks like I don’t have much to say about it. I might have to go to the hospital tomorrow if I keep on this way…16. 22 August 1962. Patsy’s music continues to do well, bringing her wealth and fame, but admits she is growing tired of recording ballads. Most remarkably, she reveals that she has lost her third child due to miscarriage. I’ve been under the covers myself in the past two weeks and really sick to. I was two mos. P.G. & lost it 2 wks ago on a Sat nite. I was never so sick in my life before. But I’m getting straightened out now again. Not enough blood and run down was the only then they could find. So I’m up and out on the road again. Been trying to get a letter wrote to you but just didn’t feel like it these last 2 wks…Well, I don’t remember if I read in your letters that you got my new album or not but I’ll send you one anyway…So N.Y. says it’s selling like wild fire. The Showcase sold 60,000 copies up till June 30th. That’s not bad Heck at 18¢ each for me? And this new one they say will do better than that. Honestly Ree, I can’t believe that I’m at long last able to make a little money off of records. I never got a check for records for 7 years that I recorded & now it’s like a dream. But I sure am greatfull for it & thank God for all these great things that have happened…My one song I found for my next session is one called ‘Why Can’t He Be You’. Another darn ballad, but Decca says that’s what they want, that that’s my way of getting thru to the people, so guess I can’t do anything else. But I sure would like to change the pace once in a while…Don Gibson has divorced his wife and Johnny Cash & June Carter are all hung up. What a mess…17. 30 August 1962. Patsy changes to a more convenient hairstyle! “Well, don’t be surprised if you see a blonde living at my house. I am a blonde now with real long hair. Yes! It’s a little funny at first when you see me but now every one says they like it better than my real hair. It’s a wig but the hand[i]est thing I’ve got, And when I’m on the road and can’t get my hair done, I just slip the wigs on. Crazy Baby!”18. 19 October 1962. Although the insensitive Decca A&R people are running Patsy ragged, her newest song “Heart Aches” is well on its way to becoming a hit. I had just got in from the most un godly tour of a so called promotion tour that I’ve ever been on. And as God is my witness, I’ll never go on another one ever…that Decca man canceled my plane tickets to Toronto for that nite & had me do 4 T.V. hops of nothing but jigs. And I told him I wanted to eat & stop for a drink & he said ‘Did you come here to promote or fool around & act like a star. I have my orders from my boss here & I’m going to see to it that you fill the bill.’ I got a sandwich at Midnight that nite & got to bed after 2 a.m. and cried myself silly on the phone to Randy & Rome…Well, it looks like it Heart Aches all the way dam it. They said in Philly & Detroit that this one had already sold more than Fall To Pieces did at it’s peak. I still can’t believe it. Anyway, I shouldn’t complain if it’s a hit period…19. 22 November 1962. Patsy cleans up at the Country Music Awards. Well I guess you heard by now I got 6 awards. Two from Reporter, 2 from Vender, 1 from Cash Box & 1 from Billboard. I got more than any other female or male. I’m so proud & happy I could bust…the greatest of all Ree was Reporters ‘Star Award’ of the year. That Star Award is the greatest anyone can get. Just think women? They gave it to me. I still have to look at them all and cry. I’ve now got 14 awards all together, and nine of them are gold. Oh! They are so pretty. I wish you could see them. The Nash Tenn paper wrote up a big story on me at the convention and every time I go to any of the stores some body always sees me and say ‘Congratulations Patsy on all your awards.’ ‘We’re so happy for you’ I didn’t dream soo many people would know me…Well this trip is gonna be a dilly. Seven days a week & four shows a nite. My ass should be draggin real good by the first of the year…20. 6 February 1963. Less than one month before her tragic death in a plane crash, Patsy Cline writes to her friend Marie Flynt that she has been traveling often via private airplane, and speaks enthusiastically of her latest album, yet to be released. Thought I’d better let you know that I’m still kicking and that I as yet don’t know how I’m gonna be traveling to that date up there, but I imagine that I’ll be coming in by plane…Some time Randy flies his own plane and takes me to my dates, and it’s less money for me when he does…I’ve been busier than a one arm man in a nest of bees…I recorded a jewel of an album this time I think. I don’t know when they will release it but they want it out as fast as possible I know. We really got some wild arrangements on some of the songs. The songs are, FADED LOVE, SOMEDAY, LOVE LETTERS IN THE SAND, BLUE MOON OF KENTUCKY, ALWAYS, SWEET DREAMS, DOES YOUR HEART BEAT FOR ME, BILL BAILEY, HE CALLED ME BABY BABY ALL NIGHT LONG, CRAZY ARMS, YOU TOOK HIM OFF MY HANDS, and I’LL SAIL MY SHIP ALONE. Well what do you think of that? Decca seems to think it will be my best L.P. yet, and I sure hope they are right because I had 22 musicians on this album for 4 nights in a row. But I believe we got a little something different this time. $18,000 - $25,000

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Cody, William F. (“Buffalo Bill”).  Autograph album.

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Description: 24. Cody, William F. (“Buffalo Bill”). Autograph album, 95 sheets (8 x 9.5 in.; 203 x 241 mm.), brown leather boards, marbled endpapers. Calling card of W.K. Kearsley affixed to front free-endpaper. Signed mostly on the pages, a few affixed, dated mostly 1870s and 1880s. Worn at edges and spine as would be expected. British 19th century autograph and photograph album featuring Buffalo Bill, Michael Faraday, Sarah Bernhardt, Kate Greenaway, Lilley Langtry and over 250 other notables.Album includes: W.F. Cody Buffalo Bill 1888, scientist Michael Faraday, actress Sarah Bernhardt, Victorian actors Ellen Terry, Henry Irving, Madge Kendall, E.A. Sothern, and Lillie Langtry, soprano Adelina Patti, author-illustrator Kate Greenaway, Salisbury (Prime Minister), novelist Walter Besant, actor Frank I. Frayne The Dead Shot, probably in 1879 [during a performance in Cincinnati in 1881, 25-year-old actress Annie Von Behren was shot in the head and killed by 18-year-old Frayne, when he pointed a rifle at her and it accidentally discharged]. Among the others who signed the autograph album were Members of Parliament, religious leaders, composers, and members of the Japanese Embassy in Manchester (newspaper articles present). Also included are 17 carte-de-visite photographs. $2,000 - $3,000

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Cooke, Sam.  Document signed.

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Description: 25. Cooke, Sam. Document signed (“Sam Cooke”), 1 page (8.5 x 16.75 in.; 216 x 425 mm.), William Morris Agency, New York, 19 November 1959, being the printed and typed agreement between Sam Cooke and William Morris Agency, in which Cooke hires the agency as his sole and exclusive manager for a period of one year. Initialed (“S.C.”) twice by Cooke. Document has a typewritten addendum stapled to the front of the document. The agreement is affixed to a larger 11 x 17.25 in. leaf of paper showing slight bleed through of adhesive from verso; otherwise, in overall fine condition.Sam Cooke hires William Morris Agency as his agent for one year.The document reads in part: I hereby employ you as my sole and exclusive manger and representative, and also for my orchestra, throughout the world, with respect to the services, appearances, and endeavors of myself, or my orchestra, or both, in all matters and things in any and every capacity as a musician…The term of this agreement…shall be for a period of one (1) year from today…Sam Cooke $200 - $300

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Coolidge, Calvin.  Document signed as President, 9 May 1924.

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Description: 26. Coolidge, Calvin. Document signed (“Calvin Coolidge”) as President, 1 page (20 x 16 in.; 508 x 406 mm.), Washington, 9 May 1924, being a partly-printed document appointing Detlef F.A. de Otte temporarily a Captain in the U.S. Coast Guard. Countersigned by Andrew Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury. With gilt Department of the Treasury seal. Usual folds; fine condition.Calvin Coolidge appoints Detlef F.A. de Otte a Captain of the U.S. Coast Guard.The document reads in part: Calvin Coolidge, President of the United States of America…reposing special trust and confidence in the patriotism, valor, integrity and abilities of Detlef F.A. de Otte I have Nominated, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate do Appoint him temporarily a Captain in the Coast Guard of the United States to rank as such from the twenty-first day of April, 1924…Calvin Coolidge $300 - $500

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Cooper, Peter.  Document signed and  DeMille, Cecil B.  Bank check signed.

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Description: 27. Cooper, Peter. Document signed (“Peter Cooper”), 1 page (7.5 x 9.25 in.; 191 x 235 mm.), New York, dated March 1847, being a document of commendation to New York Public School student Maria Nunns as a testimonial of the appreciation of her Teacher & the School Committee for regular & punctual attendance with correct deportment & diligent attention to her studies during the month of March 1847. Peter Cooper, School Committee. Countersigned by teacher Caroline Whiting. Fine condition. Peter Cooper, inventor of the first American steam locomotive, signs a commendation for a young student in the New York Public School.Peter Cooper (1791 – 1883) was an American industrialist, inventor, philanthropist and candidate for President of the United States. He designed and built the first American steam locomotive, the Tom Thumb, and founded the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art in Manhattan, New York City. Together with:DeMille, Cecil B. Bank check signed (“Cecil B. DeMille”), 8.25 x 3 in. (210 x 76 mm.), a partly-printed check drawn from Bank of America, Los Angeles, dated 3 January 1956, payable to Constance A. deMille & Cecil B. deMille, for the sum of $292.30. Cancellation holes to not approach DeMille’s ink signature. Fine condition.Together with:Vintage bank check, (3.4 x 8 in.; 86 x 203 mm.), drawn from Geo. Washington Bank, Corning, N.Y., dated 24 June 1868, payable to Bartlett Berry & Co., for the sum of $22.37. Fine condition.Together with:Vintage bank check, (3.4 x 8.75 in.; 86 x 222 mm.), drawn from Peoples National Bank, Rock Island [Illinois], dated 7 May 1894, payable to EDW Holmes Agent, for the sum of $398.85. Fine condition. $200 - $300

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Crockett, David.   Rare signature in scrapbook.

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Description: 28. Crockett, David. Rare signature, (“D. Crockett”) accomplished on a 2.5 x .75 in. (64 x 19 mm.) slip, mounted to a page within a (8.5 x 13.5 in.; 216 x 343 mm.) album consisting of approximately 80 leaves, containing a variety of 19th century prints and ephemera, together with 49 signatures, the owner of which is identified on the first leaf, in ornate calligraphy, “THE SCRAP BOOK. Elvira F. Smith... JEFFERSON BARRACKS: February 12, 1830.” The album was kept by Elvira Loraine Foster Smith (1804-1878), the wife of infantry officer Henry Smith (1798-1847), who was stationed at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri from 1830-1832. The album is mostly disbound but still retains the original marbled boards, most of the pages bear marginal tears and losses together with some light soiling. Crockett’s signature bears a small fold at the bottom left corner, but is otherwise very clean and in overall fine condition.An 1830s album kept by the wife of an officer in the Black Hawk War, with signatures of David Crockett, Sam Houston and dozens of others. The album also includes a significantly large piece of Martha Washington’s dress with contemporary attribution, a relic of the St. Vrain Massacre, and hundreds of colorful engravings and other period ephemera.Other signatures found in the album include: Sam Houston (Yours Sincerely Thy friend Sam Houston), Daniel Webster (Danl Webster U.S. Senate), Rufus King, John C. Calhoun (J.C. Calhoun), Timothy Pickering (Timothy Pickering Secy. of War), William Eaton (Your Mo. Obed. Servt, William Eaton), William Dayton (Wm Dayton), Lewis Cass (Lew Cass), actor and playwright John Howard Payne (John Howard Payne) and numerous others. Henry Smith was an 1815 graduate of West Point who served in a variety of posts, including working as Quartermaster in various locations; an aide-de-camp to General Winfield, and from 1830 to 1832 was posted to Jefferson Barracks where he participated in the Black Hawk War, seeing action at the Battle of Bad Axe River on 2 August 1832. Of tremendous interest is the front of an address panel made out To Mrs. Elvira F. Smith (care of Capt. H. Smith) Jefferson Barracks (Mo.) with a lengthy note beneath, presumably in Mrs. Smith’s hand identifying it as a piece of a letter sent from Dixon’s ferry during the ‘Sac War,’ by the hands of Mr. F. St. Vrain U.S. Indian agent: Mr. St. Vrain was killed by the Indians, on his way home, and this letter, with others taken from his pocket and kept by the Indian throughout the campaign - At the battle of Ioway (2nd Aug 1832) the Indian was killed, and this letter found in his pack, and returned, on the spot, top Capt. Smith. On 23 May 1832, General Henry Atkinson (whose signature, H. Atkinson is also found in the album) appointed Felix de Hault de Lassus de St. Vrain, U. S. Indian Agent for the Sauk and Fox at Fort Armstrong, to carry dispatches to Galena, Illinois and thence to Fort Armstrong. The following day, St. Vrain and his party were attacked by a party of Winnebago, the Indian Agent and several other were killed (only three made it alive to Galena). The attack became known as the St. Vrain massacre. Like many journals kept by women of the period, the book contains a plethora of engravings from a variety of sources, as well as other ephemera including a curious ticket to view the French Chambre des Députés, as well as a 2.75 x 2 in. (70 x 51 mm.) swatch of embroidered purple and brown fabric, purported to be “part of a dress worn by Martha Washington.” $12,000 - $15,000

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Custer, George A.  Autograph letter signed.

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Description: 29. Custer, George A. Autograph letter signed (“G.A. Custer” and “G.A.C.”) in dark pencil, 1 page, 7.75 x 9.75 in. Fort Lincoln, Dakota Territory, 31 March (ca. 1875), written to Major [John] Carland. Two mounting remnants on top edge verso with no show through; minor pinholes at folds. General George A. Custer writes from Fort Lincoln, Dakota Territory, to his friend Major John Carland, who found his body after the Battle of the Little Bighorn: “I have seized several government missiles …”Custer writes in part: Fort Lincoln DT March 31. Major Carland. As his employer will be arrested on similar charge look closely to Hannons bondsmen. I have seized several government missiles concealed near Apple Creek by Bmrk [Bismarck]. Cause his arrest also on this charge and scrutinized his bondsmen closely - If he could be placed here for safe keeping by the Marshall I think information of value could be obtained...G.A. Custer BMGenl.Although the year is not given in the letter, the incident probably occurred during the spring of 1875, about the same time that grain stores began disappearing steadily from Fort Lincoln. With justice still being dispensed pell-mell in the chaotic frontier town of Bismarck, and under orders not to make arrests outside the military reservation, Custer was hampered in his efforts to stop the robberies. Assisted by his friend Major John Carland, an officer with the 6th Infantry who had formerly worked as a lawyer, Custer was determined to root out every thieving culprit. During the planning of the Battle of the Little Big Horn, Custer told Major Carland that he did not want the support of the 2nd Cavalry and Gatling guns because “I want all the glory for the 7th.” Shortly after the 25-26 June 1876, battle, a column of troops under Gen. Alfred H. Terry’s command arrived. Carland was in Terry’s column. It was Carland and Terry who discovered Custer’s body on the battlefield.Provenance: Sotheby’s, New York, 1 November 1993, lot 43. $6,000 - $8,000

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Darrow, Clarence.   Autograph letter signed.

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Description: 30. Darrow, Clarence. Autograph letter signed (“Clarence Darrow”), 1 page (8.5 x 5.5 in.; 216 x 140 mm.), 8 June [1925?], to Marguerite Tucker, on Hotel Belmont stationery; folds and light soiling.Darrow Declines to sign a document related to anti-war sentiment. Darrow writes in part: I prefer not to sign the enclosed. The reason is that I was for the war. I am not sure that I was right. Still I hate to put my name down on paper that I have changed my mind. It would be a sin…Best wishes Clarence Darrow $1,500 - $2,500

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Davis, Jefferson.  Autograph letter signed as President of the Confederate States of America.

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Description: 31. Davis, Jefferson. Autograph letter signed (“Jeffn. Davis”) as President of the Confederate States of America, 1 page (5 x 8 in.; 127 x 203 mm.), [no place, Richmond], 6 July 1863, written to his nephew, John Taylor Wood, ordering him to commence his secret plan to raid Union shipping on the Chesapeake. An important letter in which Davis, seeking to gain as much advantage from the Gettysburg campaign as possible, approves a secret plan to raid Union shipping on the Chesapeake, hoping to take advantage of the distraction caused by Lee’s army then still to the northwest of Washington. Typical mailing folds, light soiling and creases. Three days after Gettysburg, “While attention is concentrated on the operations in Pa…” and while Robert E. Lee was threatening the Capital “…fear is entertained for the safety of Washington,” Jefferson Davis orders his nephew, John Taylor Wood, to commence his secret plan to raid Union shipping on the Chesapeake.Davis writes in full: Now is the accepted time, it seems to me, to attempt your contemplated effort on the Chesapeake. While attention is concentrated on the operations in Pa. and fear is entertained for the safety of Washington a demonstration on the water approach will have its greatest effect and be least likely to be guarded against. It may happen that transports with archives and government officials would offer a fit reward for daring and enterprise. Jeffn. DavisFor sometime, John Taylor Wood had been lobbying to be allowed to mount raids against Union ships in the Chesapeake—in part to thwart Union efforts to suppress Confederate sympathizers in eastern Virginia. He carefully planned the expedition with tremendous secrecy—not even disclosing the plans with Davis’ staff. Not even Wood’s hand-picked officers and men knew their destination when they set out from Richmond on 12 August 1863. He initially established his base on the Piankatank River but alert Union gunboats found Wood’s camp and he was forced tor relocate to the Rappahannock. On the night of the 23rd, Wood discovered two Union gunboats, the U.S.S. Satellite and the U.S.S. Reliance anchored on the mouth of the Rappahannock. Because the ships were stationed close to each other, the raiders divided their forces as to attack both ships simultaneously. The raiders quickly overcame the surprised crews with hand-to-hand combat. The Satellite became Wood’s raiding vessel and he soon steamed back to the mouth of the Rappahannock and seized the Union schooner Golden Rod, which was laden with coal, together with two schooners that were filled with cargoes of chain and anchors. After burning the Golden Rod (it’s draft was too deep for the river), Taylor returned to Port Royal, Virginia with the prizes, which, with the Satellite and Reliance, were all stripped of useful parts and scuttled to prevent capture on 28 August 1863. $10,000 - $15,000

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[Declaration of Independence].  Peter Force engraving.

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Description: 32. [Declaration of Independence]. Peter Force engraving of the Declaration of Independence, with remarkably exact renditions of the signers’ hands. One of the best representations of the original manuscript Declaration, perhaps as few as 500 copies issued. Broadside: “The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States of America.” [Washington: M. St. Clair Clarke and Peter Force, 1848], 1 page (25 x 29 in.; 635 x 737 mm.), copperplate engraving on thin rice paper. Usual folds with slight toning in areas; overall, in fine condition.Peter Force engraving of the Declaration of Independence printed in 1848.By 1820 the original Declaration of Independence showed serious signs of age and wear from handling. John Quincy Adams, then Secretary of State, commissioned William J. Stone to engrave an exact copy of the original onto a copper plate. In 1823, Congress ordered 200 official copies printed on vellum. Fewer than 40 of Stone’s printing on vellum are known to have survived, with at least 21 of those housed in institutions and public collections. “These copies are characterized by the legend engraved in the left superior portion of the document which reads, ‘ENGRAVED BY W.I. STONE for the Dept. of State by order,’ and on the right superior portion ‘Of J.Q. Adams, Sec. of State July 4, 1823.’ This legend was removed after the parchment copies were struck and in the lower left quadrant, the engraver placed his name, ‘W.J. Stone, SC WAShnn’” (Coleman, 98). All subsequent exact facsimiles of the Declaration descend from the Stone plate. In 1843 Congress commissioned Peter Force to compile and publish The American Archives. Perhaps using the Stone’s original plate at first, but then most likely a copy plate, Force prepared prints of the Declaration of Independence on special thin rice paper. Congress authorized the printing of 1500 copies of American Archives, but subscriptions for the elaborate edition were disappointing, and in the end many fewer copies—perhaps only 500—were issued. Most, including this copy, were folded and bound into Volume I, Series Five, published in 1848. $15,000 - $20,000

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Dean, James.  Bank check signed.

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Description: 33. Dean, James. Bank check signed (“James Dean”), (6.25 x 2.75 in.; 159 x 70 mm.), drawn on The Chase National Bank of the City of New York, 18 November 1954, the check is completed in Dean’s hand and made payable to Ed Farrand for $15.30. Interrupted ink flow from the ballpoint pen has made some of the writing somewhat light, but remains completely legible. Cancellation holes do not touch Dean’s signature. Mounting remnants on the upper edge on verso. James Dean signed check drafted after filming East Of Eden. James Dean’s enduring fame and popularity rest on his performances in only three films: as loner “Cal Trask” in East of Eden, troubled teenager “Jim Stark” in Rebel Without a Cause and surly ranch hand “Jett Rink” in Giant. Dean’s premature death in a car crash on 30 September 1955 cemented his legendary status. He became the first actor to receive a posthumous Academy Award nomination for Best Actor (East of Eden, 1955), and remains the only actor to have had two posthumous acting nominations (the second being for Giant, 1956). $1,000 - $2,000

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Edison, Thomas A.  Document signed.

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Description: Edison, Thomas A. Document signed (“Thomas A. Edison”), 2 pages (11.75 x 8 in.; 298 x 203 mm.), front and back, New Jersey, 1 February 1906, being a stock certificate for 173 shares of common capital stock in The Edison Portland Cement Company being transferred from New Jersey Pennsylvania Concentrating Works to Thomas A. Edison (79 shares) and W.S. Mallory, president of the company (94 shares). On the verso, Edison penned his famous umbrella signature in acknowledgement of the transfer of the shares. Numbered 614 and stamped “Cancelled” on the front. Mounting remnants on the left margin with usual folds; otherwise, in fine condition.Thomas Edison signs a stock certificate for one of his great business failures – The Edison Portland Cement Company.The Edison Portland Cement Company, founded in 1902, was one of Edison’s greatest failures. Edison started the company because another of his enterprises, a process for refining iron ore using magnets and huge crushing rollers, had failed and Edison couldn’t bear to sell the equipment for scrap. So instead, he used the machinery for making cement. Unfortunately, there was little demand for his product.

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Edison, Thomas A.   Important unpublished archive featuring (7) autograph letters.

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Description: 35. Edison, Thomas A. An important unpublished archive featuring (7) autograph letters signed (“T.A.E.”, “Father” and “Pop”), 10 pages, various sizes, mostly accomplished in ink with a few penciled examples, Menlo Park & Orange, New Jersey, [Fort Meyers, Florida], 29 September 1877 through ca. 1929, to his eldest daughter, Marion Estelle Edison Oeser (1873-1965); an inscription, signed Dad, on a 5 x 3.25 in. card; together with letters from several other correspondents including her brothers Thomas Alva Edison, Jr., Charles Edison, her mother-in-law, Mina Miller Edison, as well as former Edison Pioneer Samuel Insull, and Edison assistant, Frank A. Wardlaw, Jr. and others, totaling 36 letters (62 pp.). The group also includes a calendar book kept by Maron Edison Oeser, as well as 15 original photographs including an apparently unpublished early tintype of Edison together with related ephemera. Exhibit expected wear; overall condition very good.Remarkable archive of letters belonging to Thomas Edison’s eldest daughter, Marion, with 7 personal letters from her father and 36 from her mother, and brothers Thomas and Charles, together with rare family photos. Edison always saw to his daughters’ financial needs including, “…the Phonograph bonds and allowance would give you 1800 per year …”Marion Estelle Edison was the eldest child of Mary and Thomas Edison. She was nicknamed “Dot,” a reference to Morse Code - an homage to her father’s first professional occupation. Following her mother’s death in 1884, she grew very attached to her father, which bred no small degree of friction when Edison married the nineteen-year-old Mina Miller in 1886 - only five years her senior. The correspondence from Edison begins with a touching letter to his first wife, Mary (or “Ducky” as he fondly called her): Menlo Park, 29 September 1877: Dear Ducky, I want to see you so bad that I will come out for you next week, although I do not see how I can spare time...I cannot possibly stay but one day and Marion must not expect me to so you must be ready to go when I arrive...Everything Ok here but your being away - I do not sleep well since you left and that makes me feel a little Ill… Thomas Edison was terribly fond of his eldest daughter and did everything in his power to support her financially. Writing from Orange, ca. 1890, he informed her, Marion You have an income from US bonds $400 per year and with the Phonograph bonds and allowance would give you 1800 per year - If I should provide one thousand dollars additional for the next year would this be sufficient...In 1894 Marion travelled to Austria and Germany, and after she became engaged to Oscar Oeser, a young German military officer, Edison began rounding up funds to provide his daughter with a respectable dowry. Writing on Sunday Nov 11/94, he informed her that S[ameul] O[gden] has arrived home but he does not bring the data I want regarding the money necessary to afford the income required by law therefore I have asked him to write Mr Oeser...for information, I will take immediate steps to have your money released from the Court, I understand from SO. That about $20,000 will be required...I will also furnish, so you can rest assured that the money will be forthcoming before Feby or march depending on the Court, My formal consent I intended to have sent today but the Notary public was away so I will send it next week. I see that you have it very bad but I guess it is all right because I am very well impressed with Oeser and think he is not only honest but a man of ability... Although Edison was happy with the match, he certainly missed his daughter and hoped one day she should return. In an undated note (ca. 1900), Edison writes: Mina’s Letter fails to mention that I sent you 10000 franco [illg.] to be added o your letter of Credit - I see by Mrs Earls letters you are getting along nicely = I hope you wont be marked in the slightest and as soon as you feel like it return to the Land of the finest and the best the almighty has created. Marion enjoyed travel, and sometime after her return to the United States she proposed taking a cross-country journey, to which her father opined: Marion: I strongly advise you not to go to California alone with just a Chauffeur he might attack you — its a long monotonous dreary journey[?] Think you should Come to Florida by West coast side & go back on East Coast and then toward N England, afterwards the next year you could go west by Railway thru the Canadian Rockies which has grandest scenery in America then go down the Coast to Los Angles & Yosemite then to Grand Can[y]on...The collection features fifteen photographs, many of them candid and not published including three from the 16 May 1925 dedication of a memorial erected at the site of his Menlo Park Laboratory by the State of New Jersey in his honor. It also features what appears to be an unpublished 2.25 x 2.5 in. tintype photograph of Edison posing with Marion and two others. A remarkable and personal correspondence.Provenance: Marion Estelle Edison Oeser; Lois Marsh Werme (Oeser’s neighbor), Norwalk Connecticut; to her descendants. $15,000 - $20,000

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Edison, Thomas A.  Three (3) typed letters signed.

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Description: 36. Edison, Thomas A. Three (3) typed letters signed (“Thos. A. Edison”), each on “From the Laboratory of Thomas A. Edison, Orange, N.J.” letterhead, written to Frank S. Martin of the Montana Phonograph Company, a distributor of Edison phonographs in Helena, Montana. Each letter is trimmed and exhibits soiling and toning from mounting adhesive on verso. Page 2 of the letter dated 4 February 1925 exhibits Martin’s “Field Representative, Edison Distributing Corporation” business card, (2) small I.D. photographs, postal clippings from the Edison Laboratory in Orange, N.J., and a clipping from Martin’s memorial service on 30 July 1980 – all affixed below the text of the letter.Despite approaching 80 years of age, Thomas Edison writes three letters to one of his phonograph distributors demonstrating his very active role in the business – a testament to the legendary inventor’s work ethic.“As you know, I have always been actively interested in the development and exploitation of my phonograph and records. There was only one period when I suspended such work, and that was during the two years that I gave to our Government during war times. On the signing of the armistice I came back to the laboratory and resumed active work…”“Manager Ireton is here now at Orange and I am giving him a lecture he won’t soon forget. Things will be lively out there in the future. I am nearly eighty years old, if I was as dead as most of the jobbers I would want to die and join them…”Letter 1:Edison, Thomas A. Typed letter signed (“Thos. A. Edison”), 1 page (8.5 x 10.5 in.; 216 x 267 mm.) Edison writes in part: On reading your recent letter I was somewhat surprised to learn that a number of your dealers were of the impression that I was not taking any active part in the phonograph business, and only interested to the extent of receiving royalties. As you are aware, there could be nothing further from the facts. As you know, I have always been actively interested in the development and exploitation of my phonograph and records. There was only one period when I suspended such work, and that was during the two years that I gave to our Government during war times. On the signing of the armistice I came back to the laboratory and resumed active work…I am the sole owner of the factories here, in which we employ several thousand men and women in making phonographs and records. I am giving a great deal of effort to the formulation of new selling plans…Letter 2:Edison, Thomas A. Typed letter signed (“Thos. A. Edison”), 1 page (8 x 8.5 in.; 203 x 216 mm.) Edison writes in part: I have received your letter of August 1st in which you ask for more reports from travellers in Utah, Oregon, Washington and California...Manager Ireton is here now at Orange and I am giving him a lecture he won’t soon forget. Things will be lively out there in the future. I am nearly eighty years old, if I was as dead as most of the jobbers I would want to die and join them…Letter 3:Edison, Thomas A. Typed letter signed (“Thos. A. Edison”), 2 pages (7.5 x 9.25 in.; 191 x 216 mm.), on separate leaves, Edison writes in part: You will have noticed…that the dealer, Crew, Boggs & Co., has a record girl who has developed from a mere clerk into a saleswoman, and has taught us that 95 per cent of all dealers are just clerks and not salesmen. If all dealers conducted their Record business like this girl does, it would almost double record sales. You all know that when a person comes into the store and asks for a certain record, it is handed over and the money is paid and that ends the transaction. Yet the purchaser, who probably has no catalogue, could be sold another or perhaps two more records if the clerk was taught to be a salesman. For instance, if the clerk noticed the type of record asked for and was familiar with the records in our catalogue, he or she could suggest two or three other records of the same type as the one called for and permit purchaser to hear them, noting the customer’s remarks so as to get a clue as to the kind of record liked. By taking the name and address she could use the telephone when she came across other similar records in the catalogue, by referring to the address book, or when a new record arrived. This would get many customers in the habit of buying records, and when this habit is fixed it is difficult to break away from it. You can use a little diplomacy and get nearly every clerk or record girl sold on this idea by saying “Why just a clerk? Why don’t you advance yourself out of that designation to that of a real salesman or saleslady and make yourself invaluable and probably get an advance in salary? In any event, you will be more appreciated and give your brain a chance to develop”…Write me what you think, It will, of course, take a little jollying with the girls and clerks to put it over, but I am in hopes it can be done. “Suggestion Records” is a good name. Use it as a slogan… $1,000 - $2,000

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Edison, Thomas A.  Exceptional photograph signed.

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Description: 37. Edison, Thomas A. Exceptional photograph signed (“Thos. A. Edison”), a 7 x 10 in. (178 x 254 mm.) head & shoulders portrait (by Walter Scott Shinn, N.Y.) of the aged inventor wearing a three-piece suit with bow tie. Inscribed beneath his image on the wide margin of the photograph, To Mme. Marie Curie Thos. A. Edison. In very fine condition.Thomas Edison inscribes a photograph to pioneering physicist/chemist Marie Curie.By the 1920s Edison was internationally revered. However, even though he was personally acquainted with scores of very important people of his era, he cultivated very few close friendships. And due to the continuing demands of his career, there were still relatively long periods when he spent a shockingly small amount of time with his family. It wasn’t until his health began to fail, in the late 1920s, that Edison finally began to slow down and enjoy life as best he could. Up until obtaining his last patent (1,093rd) at age 83, he worked mostly at home where, though increasingly frail, he enjoyed greeting former associates and famous people such as Charles Lindberg, Marie Curie, Henry Ford, and President Herbert Hoover, etc. He also enjoyed reading the mail of admirers and puttering around, when able, in his office and home laboratory.  $6,000 - $12,000

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Einstein, Albert.  Autograph letter signed, 25 January 1915.

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Description: 38. Einstein, Albert. Autograph letter signed (“Papa”), 3 pages (5.75 x 8.25 in.; 146 x 210 mm.), front and back on conjoined leaves, in German, [Berlin], 25 January 1915, written to his son Hans “Albert.” Fine condition.Einstein writes to his 10-year-old son, Albert: “In a few years you can start to practice thinking. It’s a beautiful thing to be able to do that.”Einstein writes in part:…There’s no other place that’s as beautiful as Zurich for boys and as healthy. Boys don’t have to do too many chores and don’t have to always dress well and be proper…but don’t forget about the piano…Tonight I am playing in a little concert and the money made from this concert will help two poor artists…In a few years you can start to practice thinking. It’s a beautiful thing to be able to do that…Kisses to you and Tete. Write me soon. Yours, Papa. $2,000 - $3,000

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Einstein, Albert.  Autograph letter signed, 20 December 1900.

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Description: 39. Einstein, Albert. Autograph letter signed (“Albert”), 1 page (5.38 x 8.5 in.; 137 x 216 mm.), in German, written at the end of a 3-page letter penned by his first wife, Mileva Marić, Zurich, Switzerland, 20 December 1900, written to Mileva’s best friend Helene Savik. Minor separation at folds with slight chipping.In the early days of their rocky relationship, Einstein and future wife, Mileva Marić, each write a letter to Mileva’s best friend – Albert writes a poem about their impending separation. Einstein writes in full: Dear Mrs. Sawik (+ 1/9½, hopefully)! I will not release my resentment against you, now in my powerlessness that I am not getting to read daughter’s letter to you; instead I want to join you in your happiness for your blessings of youth. It’s really delightful when you see both of them on the photograph and that’s how we did it. Your sister did send them to us with a nice letter...but when do we get to see the originals again? I hope pretty soon, in Zurich. But what do you say to our separation?The girl started cryingso the boy had to squeeze herand then he thoughtI don’t want to tease her!So, we are staying together for the time being, at least until Easter, and after that also I wish for you lots of luck, for your sister a speedy recovery after her surgery and for us that we’ll receive another friendly letter from you real soon. Regards to you and your old man, cordially Your Albert”Mileva Einstein writes in full: My dearest Helenchen! I can hardly tell you how soothing your dear letter was for me. Disheartened as I was at the time, thinking that there was nothing for me in this evil world, and then came your lines, which expressed so clearly that I have a girlfriend who loves me, even if I’m not well. How much I love you, you dear, good one.- As you will see at the end of the letter, Albert is still here and will stay until his doctoral thesis is completed, which may take until Easter; only then will he become a grass widower. The fact that we have to separate is very difficult for me, but if it takes its natural course I will endure it bravely. But what really brought me down was the fact that our separation was to happen so unnaturally, due to slander and intrigues, and all these kinds of things. You know, even if I would write all day, could I not tell you how much I suffered in those days, and Albert as well. But now, thank God, everything is back on track. Albert’s parents were behind it to a small degree, so you can imagine how hard it was for me to be attacked from that side. But now I don’t want to waste one more word over this, and about the vast disgusting world. I am happy that he loves me, and what else do I need? He is going home for Christmas, which scares me quite a bit, but there is no way around it. A few days ago I received a photograph of you and your husband from your sister Alma. Thank you so much, I was looking forward to this for quite a while. We think both of you look fantastic, and I am particularly pleased that your lovely eyes gaze so happily and content into this world. Albert has written a Physics paper, which will most likely be published soon in the Annalen der Physik. Can you imagine how proud I am of my darling? It is not an ordinary paper either, but something very important from the theory of liquids. We have also privately submitted it to Boltzmann and would like to know what he is thinking; hopefully he will write to us. Are you spending your first Christmas together at home or are you going to Vienna? Wherever you will be, I am wishing you very, very joyous and happy holidays! Write to me about all the nice things you’re doing, I am interested in hearing more about it, and I know and am happy that a lot of nice, blessed things are coming. Since Albert wants to write a little bit himself I have to close for today. A heartfelt embrace from your MizaAnd regards to your husband.Mileva Marić (1875-1948) was born into a wealthy family in Titel (modern day Serbia). As a student, her highest grades were in mathematics and physics. In the autumn of 1896, Mileva attended Zurich Polytechnic, enrolled for the diploma course to teach physics and mathematics in secondary schools at the same time as Albert Einstein. She was the only woman in her group of six students and she and Einstein became close friends quite soon. The present letter, written December 1900, indicates Einstein and Mileva’s plans to separate, however, this did not turn out to be the case. In 1901 Mileva’s academic career was disrupted when she became pregnant by Einstein. After having failed her final examination in 1900, she retested but failed a second time without improving her grade. Around January 1902 her daughter Lieserl was born. The girl’s fate is unknown; she may have died late summer 1903, or was given up for adoption. In 1903 Einstein and Mileva were married in Bern, Switzerland, where Einstein had found a job at the Federal Office for Intellectual Property. In 1904 their first son Hans Albert was born. The Einsteins lived in Bern until 1909, when Einstein got a teaching position at the University of Zurich. In 1910 their second son Eduard was born. By 1912 their marriage had become strained and Einstein became reacquainted with his cousin Elsa Löwenthal. Moving to Berlin in 1913 caused Mileva stress and in 1914 she took the boys back to Zurich – a separation that would become permanent. After five years of separation, the couple divorced in 1919; in June of that year Einstein married Elsa and returned to Zurich. $6,000 - $8,000

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Einstein, Albert.  Autograph letter signed, ca. 1915.

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Description: 40. Einstein, Albert. Autograph letter signed (“Papa”), 3 pages (5.5 x 8.25 in.; 140 x 210 mm.), front and back on conjoined leaves, [Berlin], 4 November [no year, ca. 1915], written to his son Hans “Albert.” Light soiling with paperclip stain; blank portion of page 3 is missing below horizontal fold.Enthusiastic about announcing his General Theory of Relativity, Albert Einstein writes to his son, Hans Albert:“There are a lot of great and beautiful things you can learn from me that others would not readily be able to offer you…These days I completed one of the most beautiful works of my life, and when you are bigger, I will tell you about it.”After expressing his worry that his son would never write him again, Einstein discusses an arrangement for them to see each other and promises that he will insist on spending at least one month per year together so that you see that you have a father who cares for you, who loves you. He wants to share his work and knowledge with him: There are a lot of great and beautiful things you can learn from me that others would not readily be able to offer you. What I have acquired with so much hard work shall not only be for strangers but especially for my own boy. These days I completed one of the most beautiful works of my life, and when you are bigger, I will tell you about it. Einstein continues by discussing his son’s activities, giving him some advice on what to practice on the piano: We learn the most when we are doing something with so much pleasure that we loose track of time. I am often so absorbed in my work that I forget to eat lunch. Einstein closes the letter signing, Kisses to you and Tete. Yours, Papa. Albert Einstein had described the Special Theory of Relativity in 1905. The result of Einstein’s thinking about light, this theory introduced brand-new ideas to science. It opened up an entire field of physics, but left Einstein with some nagging questions. The problems of gravity and acceleration would not go away. After thinking about the problems for 10 years, he published the general theory of relativity 25 November 1915. In it, he suggested that gravity is not a force, as Newton had believed, but the result of a curvature of the space-time continuum -- the four-dimensional world in which we live. He used a thought experiment to compare the force felt from gravity with acceleration. Imagine you are in an elevator and feel what you believe is the force of gravity, holding you to the floor. According to Einstein, since you cannot see outside the elevator, you cannot tell if you are feeling the force of gravity or if the elevator is being pushed toward your feet. Einstein stated that the two forces are actually identical. Furthermore, if you were in the elevator accelerating upward and a beam of light entered the elevator parallel to the floor, the light beam would appear to bend downward. This meant that light, which ordinarily traveled in straight lines, could curve if it traveled across a gravitational field. This curving path of light meant that that “field” was really a curving of space, which Einstein found was inseparable from time. The curvature would be caused by bodies with great mass. A weak gravitational field indicates nearly flat space-time, and there Newton’s theories seem to apply. But a strong gravitational field throws classical predictions off. Einstein postulated three ways this theory could be proved. One was by observing the stars during a total solar eclipse. The sun is our closest strong gravitational field. Light traveling from a star through space and passing the sun’s field would be bent, if Einstein’s theory were true. If you could see the star during the day, he predicted, it would be in a different place than at night. The only chance to see it during the day would be during an eclipse. On 29 March 1919, that opportunity came. British Astronomer Sir Arthur Eddington traveled to Príncipe Island off the western coast of Africa. His team photographed starfields during the eclipse and compared the photos with those of the same starfield taken when the sun was not present. Eddington found the apparent location of the stars had shifted, just as Einstein predicted. The experimental confirmation of his theory catapulted Einstein to world fame. The recent February 2016 announcement of the discovery of gravitational waves, detected from the collision of two black holes a billion light-years away, completes Einstein’s 100-year-old vision of ripples in the fabric of space-time. $4,000 - $6,000

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Einstein, Albert.  Autograph letter signed, 23 December 1915.

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Description: 41. Einstein, Albert. Autograph letter signed (“Papa”), 3 pages (5.75 x 8.75 in.; 146 x 222 mm.), front and back on conjoined leaves, in German, Berlin, dated 23 December 1915, written to his son Hans “Albert”. An unknown hand has written a note in pencil in an unidentified hand below Einstein’s writing. Scattered spots.Einstein writes son Albert two days before Christmas.“Is there a certain subject in school that you’re fond of? How’s your brother’s health?…You should take CaCl2 (Calcium Chloride) The Calcium ‘Ca’ plays a major role in people’s teeth and bones…” Einstein writes in part: I’ve been working so hard that I really need some rest during Christmas break. It’s also uncertain right now if I can cross the border…Even though I can’t make it, I want to plan a future visit for April…I have sent money for Christmas. I hope that there will be snow so you can go skiing. Tell your mom to send a photo of you and your brother….write me and tell me what you’re doing outside of school. Who are your friends? Is there a certain subject in school that you’re fond of? How’s your brother’s health? …You should take CaCl2 (Calcium Chloride) The Calcium “Ca” plays a major role in people’s teeth and bones…Kisses to both of you, Papa and greetings to Mom. $2,000 - $3,000

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Einstein, Albert.  Autograph letter signed, ca. 1915.

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Description: 42. Einstein, Albert. Autograph letter signed (“Papa”), 2 pages (6.5 x 8.5 in.; 165 x 216 mm.), front and back, in German, Berlin, [no date, ca. 1915], written to his son Hans Albert, thanking him for writing letters and plans a summer trip he would like to do annually. Usual folds. Fine.Einstein writes to his young son Hans Albert about his enthusiasm for science and mathematics, promising to send him some pretty problems to solve. “I’m very happy that you enjoy geometry. That was my favorite pastime when I was a little older than you, about 12.”Einstein writes in part: …I don’t know where we’re going to hike to. Maybe to Italy! And I will tell you many beautiful and interesting things about science and other fields…I’m very happy that you enjoy geometry. That was my favorite pastime when I was a little older than you, about 12. But I didn’t have anyone to show it to me; I had to learn it from books. I wish I could teach you, but that’s not possible. But if you write me what you’ve already learned, I can send you some pretty problems to solve…Don’t forget to play piano because you can get a lot of joy out of being able to play music…It is very important to brush your teeth. You will understand later. I am very happy I have retained enough healthy teeth. Kisses to you and Tete. Your dad who often thinks of you. Papa.Hans Albert Einstein was born in 1904 and was Einstein’s second child and first son. Hans Albert followed in his father’s footsteps and studied at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. He was awarded a diploma in civil engineering and eventually emigrated to the United States in 1938 where he became a professor of hydraulic engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. $6,000 - $8,000

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Einstein, Albert.  Autograph letter signed, 5 December 1919.

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Description: 43. Einstein, Albert. Autograph letter signed (“Albert” and “Papa”), 2 pages (9 x 10.75 in.; 229 x 273 mm.), front and back, in German, [no place], dated 5 December 1919, written to his ex-wife Mileva and his two son Hans “Albert” and Eduard “Tetel/Tete”. Einstein discusses practical advice and support for his ex-wife and fatherly input in his son’s activities. Minor separation at horizontal folds.Writing to both his ex-wife and sons, Albert Einstein takes interest in son Albert’s proclivities in science and technology.“I think he [Albert] will study something having to do with technology but I want him to have all the time in the world just like I did…”“I think that the propeller should be more slanted. If it didn’t have enough effect, then it might have been the engine. That’s something one can’t calculate. The conditions during takeoff (rest versus air) are completely different than during the flight”Einstein writes to Mileva in part: It seems to be our fate right now to move around like Gypsies. Speaking of his young son Albert prophetically: I think he will study something having to do with technology but I want him to have all the time in the world just like I did…Try not to spend a lot of money. Maybe I’ll make some money abroad to secure your stay in Zurich…Happy travels, yours, Albert Einstein writes to his sons about Eduard’s illness and Hans’ propeller design: I am very happy about both of your letters…I will send Tete the music he wants very soon…I hope you don’t get the Mumps from Albert… Dear, Albie, I think that the propeller should be more slanted. If it didn’t have enough effect, then it might have been the engine. That’s something one can’t calculate. The conditions during takeoff (rest versus air) are completely different than during the flight…Sending you both lots of love, yours, Dad $3,000 - $5,000

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Einstein, Albert.   Autograph letter signed.

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Description: 44. Einstein, Albert. Autograph letter signed (“Papa”), 1.5 pages (8.5 x 11 in.; 216 x 279 mm.), front and back, in German, [no place, no date], written to his son Eduard (nicknamed “Tetel” for petit) while he was attending medical school in Zurich. Usual folds with minor soiling on edges. Einstein gives his opinion of Sigmund Freud after his son receives the psychoanalyst’s lectures from Vienna.Einstein writes in part: Dear, Tetel. I hope you’ve received Freud’s lectures from Vienna. I’ve read most of them myself in the past. They lead me to admire the author, but not quite convince me of the accuracy of his theories. But since then, based on personal experiences, these convictions have slowly grown in me, at least in terms of his main theses…Einstein goes on to wax philosophical:…I would have written sooner, but my work is not giving me a break. Even if you tell yourself that the strife of the individual is ridiculously minor, such an insight does still not defeat the passion with which we pursue our interests and that’s a good thing. Because the personal illusions that bring warmth and joy into your life when you are young, fall apart later and life would be completely bleak if the work and the passion for discovery weren’t there. Einstein mentions that he’s reading Schiller’s poems and offers his critique:…There’s a certain stiltedness about them but the strength of expression and richness of thought captures the reader. I’m happy that I’m reading it…Speaking of Albert:…He’s been travelling. I hope he follows my advice and keeps a journal. I don’t really have that much hope because in terms or writing and speaking, he’s more or less chronically constipated. Love, Papa.Tetel, who would soon succumb to schizophrenia, so admired Freud that he hung his portrait on his bedroom wall – and whether Einstein, in writing “kindly” about Freud, was placating his son or admitting a truth, is open to analysis. $6,000 - $8,000

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Einstein, Albert.  Autograph letter signed, 15 December 1920.

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Description: 45. Einstein, Albert. Autograph letter signed (“Papa”), 2 pages (8.5 x 11 in.; 216 x 279 mm.) front and back, in German, [no place], 15 December 1920, writing to My Loved Ones addressing his family and son Hans Albert’s previous letter in particular. Minor separation at folds; light soiling; three numbers written in another hand, presumably Einstein’s family. Einstein gives stern financial and professional advice to his family while complaining about supporting their reckless choices with his income.Einstein writes in part: I will send you some money so you will be liquid again. I received your letter, dear Albert…It’s really a pity that you all are so ill advised. In my opinion you have got to move to Darmstadt. There’s a very good Polytechnicum and you would live there not only much better than in Zurich but you would also save a lot of money, while now I have to spend all my entire income to provide for you adequately in Zurich. Every expert that I talk to thinks that it’s outrageous and reckless. This way, we’re not saving a penny and when I die, there’s nothing left. I even had to go into debt to provide for you with necessities.Einstein goes on to give his family strong suggestions on where to move to better themselves, which primarily involves them moving from Switzerland to Germany. He also mentions that such a move would allow the family to be nearer and to spend more time with him…We wouldn’t be so terribly far apart. Why don’t you talk to some people who are not so fanatical about Switzerland. I probably will be spending six months lecturing in North America in the summer. Wouldn’t it be nice if we could see each other before then? Everything would be better if you all lived closer…Don’t wait too long. Give me a positive answer soon. Love, Papa. $6,000 - $8,000

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Einstein, Albert.  Autograph letter signed, 24 November 1923.

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Description: 46. Einstein, Albert. Autograph letter signed (“Papa”), 4 pages (5.25 x 8.5 in.; 133 x 216 mm.), front and back, in German, Leiden, Holland, 24 November 1923, written to To my dear children. When signing, Einstein first signed Albert over which he wrote Papa. Einstein ponders giving up his position in Germany [at the Prussian Academy of Sciences] and discusses German politics and the Jewish people. Einstein writes in part: I’m sitting here quietly in Holland after I was informed that there are certain people in Germany who are after me as a “Jewish Holy Man” In Stuttgart, they even had a billboard where I was ranked first among the richest Jews. That costs money and speaks of bad intentions…I’m working so hard that it is affecting my stomach, so I have to take it easy, which is why I don’t want to travel….I have been thinking about giving up my position in Germany altogether but I am not doing that because it would be morally damaging to the German intellectuals, which is something I want to avoid. Should my return to Germany not be advisable in the near future, I shall stay in Holland…Now I am happy that you stayed in Switzerland. An existence in Germany would have become pretty difficult. You can hardly imagine how the poor people there have to suffer.A note to Tetel: Music is one of the best companions in life. It will beautify and enlighten your path. Love, Papa.With the price of a loaf of bread in Berlin rising in 1923 from 700 to one billion marks, the Germans were casting about for scapegoats. Internationalists, pacifists and Jews all fit the bill, and Einstein, who was an internationalist, pacifist and Jew, was one of the first targets of the Nazis. Ultimately, German anti-semitism and the drumbeat of Nazi death threats would cause Einstein not only to flee Berlin, but the continent of Europe. By 1933, he would come to America to stay. $8,000 - $12,000

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Einstein, Albert.   Autograph letter signed, 17 June 1924.

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Description: 47. Einstein, Albert. Autograph letter signed (“Papa”), 1 page (8.5 x 11 in.; 216 x 279 mm.), in German, [no place], dated 17 June 1924, written to My Loved Ones, addressing his family. Einstein discusses his plans for the summer and meeting up with family. He also congratulates them on buying a house. Slight paperclip stain; otherwise, in fine condition.Einstein to his son: “I’m very happy, dear Albert, that you’re finding so much joy in your studies.” Einstein writes in part: I hope the elephant has been born i.e. the house has been purchased. I like it very much in the picture. I’m looking forward to seeing it. After all, it is the visible result of my planning. With a note to his son Albert: I’m very happy, dear Albert, that you’re finding so much joy in your studies. Love to everybody, Dad $2,000 - $3,000

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Einstein, Albert.  Autograph poem signed, 1930.

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Description: 48. Einstein, Albert. Autograph poem signed (“A. Einstein”), 1 page (5 x 6.25 in.; 127 x 159 mm.), in German, [no place], 1930. Fine.It is the art of life…Einstein writes in full: It is the art of life to accept fate patiently and, at the same time, preserve life-giving activities A. EinsteinAs a scientist, Einstein wrote about the heavens and the mystery of time, but here, as a poet, writes about everyday life. $2,000 - $3,000

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Einstein, Albert.   Autograph letter signed, 28 January 1926.

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Description: 49. Einstein, Albert. Autograph letter signed (“Albert”), 1.5 pages (8.5 x 11 in.; 216 x 279 mm.), front and back, in German, [no place], 28 January 1926, written to his ex-wife Mileva Maric. In the opening of the letter, Einstein bluntly pours out his frustration with his son Hans Albert’s prospective marriage to an older woman. He then expresses his views on the “thorny” state of theoretical physics, despite the success of his Relativity Theory. Usual folds.Einstein expresses his unhappiness with the “thorny” state of theoretical physics despite the success of his Relativity Theory.“The Relativity Theory has now been experimentally proven, but the issue of the connection of gravitation and electricity is shipwrecked, at least in my opinion. Theoretical physics is currently enormously thorny.” Einstein writes in part: …It’s OK if you borrow some extra money in Zurich. Regarding Albert: I’m very concerned…I believe that the girl has him under her thumb and that he is too naïve to really assess the situation. We have to do everything we can to avoid the worst. The young Haber is already married, but to an intelligent, fine girl from a healthy family. That’s what I would like too…I didn’t really like Dolly very much. I liked her mother more. She is pretty for her age but a superficial average person. You find plenty of them in the big city.Addressing his theory: The Relativity Theory has now been experimentally proven, but the issue of the connection of gravitation and electricity is shipwrecked, at least in my opinion. Theoretical physics is currently enormously thorny. I’m glad that the boys are interested in other things. I’m curious what Tetel’s going to choose. But we shouldn’t talk to him about it too much or it will be too much pressure and he won’t be able to handle it… I remember how heavy the thought of a future profession had weighed on me…It is not that difficult if you are not fishing for praise but are content with being useful…It’s really important that he gets away from home because it’s in his nature to not be very practical and to not be independent. He might not resemble me physically, but his character is very similar to mine…Best wishes, Albert.Hans Albert married in 1927 after, what his daughter recalled, “explosion after explosion” from Einstein and Mileva. The marriage lasted thirty-one years, until his wife’s death. He became a professor of hydraulic engineering at Berkeley. $15,000 - $20,000

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Einstein, Albert.   Autograph letter signed, ca. 1933.

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Description: 50. Einstein, Albert. Autograph letter signed (“Papa”), 2 pages (7 x 9 in.; 178 x 229 mm.), front and back, in German, [Princeton, New Jersey, ca. 1933], written to his son Eduard (nicknamed “Tetel” for petit). Usual folds with slight soiling and minor ink smudges.After fleeing Germany, Einstein writes about his life, work and place in the world.“Abroad I’m one of the most hated people. Even the Swiss newspapers have written ugly things about me. But I have kept my sense of humor…”Einstein writes in part: …I haven’t written any letters except business letters and otherwise following the inflexible scientific truth with a racing heart and little success…If you want to surrender your powers to the service of the goddess, be prepared for a hard and difficult life. And from the outside it looks like being lazy…Since our recent meeting, dreadful things have happened, friends have been scattered all over the world, stubborn reaction reigns supreme. Abroad I’m one of the most hated people. Even the Swiss newspapers have written ugly things about me. But I have kept my sense of humor and am writing limericks whenever I have the chance. People are like the sea, sometimes smooth and friendly, sometime stormy and treacherous. But after all, they are just water…Here it is quiet and pretty, a small university with professors who deem themselves very clever and students who play football and roar continuously. But things are better than I thought they would be…I wish you and mom all the best and a happy new year. Say hi to Albert and his family as well. Yours, Papa.A recently-arrived émigré with a price on his head in Germany, Einstein writes to his youngest son about settling into his new home at Princeton, New Jersey. In closing, Einstein adds that he hopes he can see his son in the spring, and that they might play music together. But Einstein would remain in Princeton for the rest of his life and he never again saw his “Tetel,” who would remain with his wife in Zurich. $6,000 - $8,000

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