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Auction Description for IAA: The History Makers
Sale Notes:
www.invaluable.com/iaa

The History Makers (185 Lots)

by International Autograph Auctions


185 lots with images

December 10, 2016

Live Auction

London, United Kingdom

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FERDINAND & ISABELLA: FERDINAND II (1452-1516) King of Aragon 1479-1516 and

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Description: FERDINAND & ISABELLA: FERDINAND II (1452-1516) King of Aragon 1479-1516 and, as Ferdinand V, King of Castile jure uxoris 1474-1504 & ISABELLA I (1451-1504) Queen of Castile 1474-1504. A good D.S. by both Ferdinand V ('Yo el Rey') and Isabella I ('Yo la Reyna') individually, at the foot, one page, oblong 8vo, n.p., 22nd July 1493, in Spanish. The boldly penned manuscript document authorises Juan de Ribera to act as their agent and states, in full, 'We beseech Don Juan de Ribera, Our Captain General in the frontier of Navarre and of Our Council, that he may speak to you of our transaction which we place at your disposal and we request that you fully vouch for and guarantee to the effect that such deed be executed' Countersigned at the foot by Fernando Alvarez, Secretary to the Monarchs, beneath a holograph statement ('Por mandato del Rey y de la Reyna'), mandating the document. With some extremely light, very minor age wear, otherwise a clean and handsome document, VG Ferdinand II and Isabella I were bestowed the title of Rex Catholicissimus ('Catholic Monarchs') by Pope Alexander VI in 1494, the year after signing the present document, in recognition of their defence of the Catholic faith within their realms. The marriage of the Catholic Monarchs became the basis for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, and Ferdinand and Isabella are also recognised for completing the Reconquista, as well as ordering conversion or exile of their Muslim and Jewish subjects in the Spanish Inquisition. However, their place in history is more commonly associated with the support and finance they granted with their sponsorship of Christopher Columbus for his first voyage of 1492 which led to the opening of the New World and to the establishment of Spain as the first global power which dominated Europe and much of the world for more than a century. The present document is dated between the first voyage of Columbus, which concluded on 15th March 1493, and the commencement of his second voyage on 24th September 1493.

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CHARLES V: (1500-1558) Holy Roman Emperor 1519-56, and King Charles I of Sp

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Description: CHARLES V: (1500-1558) Holy Roman Emperor 1519-56, and King Charles I of Spain 1516-56. L.S., Yo el Rey, one page, folio, Burgos, 16th July 1524, to the Councillor of the Royal House, in old Castilian. Writing in his capacity as King of Spain, King Charles I states `I hereby instruct you to register in the Royal House books and apply the corresponding food rations to Juan de Quirós, as the newly appointed young server in charge of the whippets.´ further adding that de Quiros will replace 'our master Martin from Mallorca, after his death, who was long since in charge of our whippets, and this with his same salaries, robes and food rations....for two whippets.´ Some very light, extremely minor age wear, VG In 1524, in the same year as the present letter was signed, the Peasants Revolt broke out in Germany, and was to last for a further two years. At the end of April 1524 Emperor Charles V and King Henry VIII formed a new league to support the Duke of Bourbon in a fresh attack on France and in July 1524 the Emperor prohibited the holding of the proposed German synod at Spires. Grandson of the Catholic Kings, Ferdinand & Isabella, Charles V was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire (for 37 years) and the Spanish Empire ( for 40 years). Through inheritance he brought together such extensive territories in western, central and southern Europe, and the Spanish colonies in America and Asia. So large were his domains that they were described as 'the empire on which the sun never sets'

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HENRY VIII: (1491-1547) King of England 1509-47.   A fine D.S., Hen

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Description: HENRY VIII: (1491-1547) King of England 1509-47. A fine D.S., Henry R, (a good, bold example) as King, at the head, one page (vellum), oblong folio, Westminster, 30th October 1533. The manuscript warrant is addressed to Baron Windsor, Keeper of the Great Wardrobe, and orders him to deliver clothing to John Berwick, Richard Bolton, William Hammond and Thomas Maxson, the 'children of our lease' [leash], each to receive 'oon Dublet of chamlet…any dublet….lyned with fustyan and Canvas….three shyrthendy shyrte….made with draught worke….a gowne of fowre brode yardes of woollen cloth….to bee finred with yrisshe lambe….thre peyre of hosen….fowre peyre of doble soled shoes (or eight peyres of single-soled)…oon hatte…five brace of colers, fowre cheynes of the best…[and]…thre leases'. With a blind embossed paper signet seal at the foot. A very small printed identification slip is neatly affixed at the base. Some extremely minor overall creasing and very light dust staining and two very slight traces of former mounting to the verso, otherwise a clean and attractive document overall, about VG Andrews Windsor (1467-1543) English Nobleman, Keeper of the Great Wardrobe from 1504 until his death. King Henry VIII's household was the home for many animals and pets (he kept ferrets, his first wife Catherine of Aragon owned a monkey; canaries and nightingales could be found in ornamental birdcages hanging in the windows at Hampton Court) however it was his dogs, particularly beagles, spaniels and greyhounds, that the King considered his favourites. As illustrated by the present document, the monarch's dogs were adorned with decorative collars of velvet (permitted only to Royal dogs) and the Royal leash boys were equally handsomely attired. King Henry VIII regularly sent dogs (all garnished with a good iron collar) as gifts to foreign leaders. It has been recorded that some sixty-five dog leashes were found in the King's closet upon his death. Henry VIII was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty and has been described as 'one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne'. The monarch notably initiated the English Reformation, thereby greatly expanding royal power, and the scale and complexities of his legacy are such that, in their work Henry VIII in History (2012) Betteridge and Freeman state 'throughout the centuries [since his death] Henry has been praised and reviled, but he has never been ignored'. Provenance: Formerly part of the Enys Collection of Autographs and Manuscripts.

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EDWARD VI: (1537-1553) King of England & Ireland 1547-53. Son of King Henry

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Description: EDWARD VI: (1537-1553) King of England & Ireland 1547-53. Son of King Henry VIII and Jane Seymour and England's first monarch to be raised as a Protestant. A good, rare D.S., Edward, as King, at the head, one page (vellum), oblong folio, Manor of St. James's, 24th May 1547. The manuscript document is a Warrant addressed to Richard Bonnye (or Bunny), Receiver of the Royal Rents and Revenues in the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland, Lancashire, the Bishopric of Durham and the Archdeaconry of Richmond, commanding him to annually deliver to Sir Thomas Grey, Treasurer of the town of Berwick, the sum of £3000 for payment of the fees and wages of the officers and soldiers of the town. Countersigned at the foot by Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset ('E: Somerset'; c.1500-1552, Lord Protector of England 1547-49 during the minority of his nephew, King Edward VI) and five other members of the Privy Council comprising John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford ('J Russell'; c.1485-1554/55, Lord Privy Seal 1542-55 and Lord High Steward, for the Coronation of King Edward VI, 1547) Sir Thomas Cheney ('T Cheyne'; c.1485-1558, English Administrator & Diplomat, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports in South East England 1536-58), Sir Anthony Denny ('A D….' a large part of the signature worn away, 1501-1549, Groom of the Stool, a confidant of King Henry VIII who attended the monarch on his death bed), Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel ('H. Arundell', 1512-1580, English Nobleman, Lord Chamberlain) and Sir Ralph Sadler ('R. Sadleyr', 1507-1587, English Statesman, Secretary of State 1540-43, Master of the Great Wardrobe 1543-53). With a large portion of the blind embossed paper seal of the Privy Council affixed. A small diamond shaped spindle hole appears in the upper left margin, not affecting the text or signatures, some light overall creasing and minor dust staining and with a few very small holes to the lower edge and the upper edge a little frayed. A small area of text to the right side of the document is a little rubbed and a few words are partially illegible, G A rare document signed by the nine-year old King Edward VI in the first year of his reign, four months after the death of King Henry VIII, and countersigned by his uncle, Edward Seymour, leader of the Regency Council. Sir Thomas Grey (c.1509-1570), the beneficiary of the present Warrant, served as Justice of the Peace for Northumberland 1547-54 and as Treasurer for Berwick-upon-Tweed 1547-50. The fall of Edward Seymour as Protector in 1550 cost Grey the treasurership of Berwick, which was transferred to Richard Bunny (c.1513-1584) to whom the present Warrant is addressed. Provenance: The present document was formerly contained in the collection of Sir Thomas Phillipps (1792-1872) English Antiquary and Book Collector who amassed the largest collection of manuscripts in the 19th century. The document was sold by Sotheby's on 27th June 1977 (lot 4865, MS 25912) and most likely derived from the collection formed by the antiquary John Wilson of Broomhead (1719-1783) which included a volume of Bunny's paper as receiver of the Northern Revenues. The third of the Tudor monarchs, King Edward VI's reign was marked by economic problems and social unrest that culminated in riot and rebellion in 1549. The transformation of the church into a recognisably Protestant body also occurred under Edward, the architect of the reforms being Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, whose Book of Common Prayer is still used. King Edward VI fell ill in February 1553 and died at the young age of 15.

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[PHILIP & MARY]: [PHILIP II] (1527-1598) King of Spain 1556-98, King of Por

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Description: [PHILIP & MARY]: [PHILIP II] (1527-1598) King of Spain 1556-98, King of Portugal 1581-98 & King of England and Ireland jure uxoris 1554-58 & [MARY I] (1516-1558) Queen of England 1553-58 & Queen consort of Spain 1556-58. A fine document issued in the names of Philip and Mary, one page (vellum), slim oblong folio, 1st March 1555, being an Exemplification of a Fine, boldly penned in Latin in an accomplished scribal hand (two letters with attractive strapwork) and confirming the sale from John Lindsell to Richard Weston of listed parcels of land (Bradlese [i.e. Bradley's] Mead and Wood etc.) in Roxwell, in the parish of Writtle, Essex. With the seal of the Court of Common Pleas affixed at the foot, the seal tag bearing a notarial mark. The brown wax seal (with a diameter of 5") is largely intact, although somewhat rubbed, and depicts Queen Mary seated on a throne and with two coats of arms to the recto and the Queen riding on horseback to the verso. Some staining, just affecting a few words of text, and some light age wear, otherwise a clean and attractive document. About VG Richard Weston (c.1510-1572) English Judge and Politician, Solicitor General 1557-59 and Justice of Common Pleas 1559-72. In January 1555 Weston purchased, for the sum of £280, the Manor of Skreens in the hamlet of Roxwell, which he made his principal residence; the purchase in the present document presumably being contingent upon this. Weston is buried in Writtle church. His grandson and namesake, the 1st Earl of Portland (1577-1634/35) served as Chancellor of the Exchequer and later Lord Treasurer under both King James I and King Charles I, and was one of the most influential figures in the early years of Charles I's Personal Rule. The other party to the transaction, John Lindsell (d.1558) was a local Clerk of Assize. An Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain was passed by the English Parliament in April 1554 and, in reality, served as a business contract between England and Spain, specifying what Spain could effect from the union, while at the same time giving assurances that England would not become a satellite of Spain. Under the terms of the marriage treaty, Philip was to enjoy his wife's titles and honours as King of England and Ireland for as long as their marriage should last. All official documents were to be dated with both their names (with Philip's preceding Mary's, as deemed proper for husband and wife, evident in the present example). Mary I, the only child of King Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon to survive to adulthood, ascended to the throne in 1553 upon the death of her younger half-brother King Edward VI who had succeeded their father in 1547. The fourth crowned monarch of the Tudor dynasty, Mary is remembered for her restoration of Roman Catholicism. In the five years of her reign over 280 religious dissenters were burned at the stake, the executions of the Protestants leading to her posthumous sobriquet 'Bloody Mary'.

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GREGORY XIII: (1502-1585) Pope of the Roman Catholic Church 1572-85.

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Description: GREGORY XIII: (1502-1585) Pope of the Roman Catholic Church 1572-85. Rare L.S., Ita est U[go], one page, 4to, Rome, n.d. (c.1576-77), to [Fantino Petrignani] the Prefect of the Sacred Palaces, in Latin. The letter, written in a small clerical hand, refers to some administrative proceedings. Bearing the countersignature of an unidentified Papal official. Some very light, minor age wear and a few very small areas of paper loss to the edges, not affecting the text or signatures, otherwise VG Fantino Petrignani (1539-1600) Italian Archbishop. In 1576 Pope Gregory XIII appointed Petrignani to be Prefect of the Sacred Palaces and later promoted him to Archbishop of Cosenza. In 1580 he was appointed Apostolic Nuncio in the Kingdom of Naples and Spain and also held positions under two other Popes. In 1572 Cardinal Boncompagni, on becoming Pope, assumed the name of Gregory XIII in hommage to the great reformimg Pope Gregory I. Unlike most of his predecessors, Gregory XIII lived a faultless personal life, and was a model for his simplicity of life. He built the magnificent Gregorian chapel in the Basilica of St. Peter, however Pope Gregory XIII is best known for commissioning and being the namesake for the Gregorian calendar, which remains the internationally accepted civil calendar to this day.

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RICHELIEU CARDINAL DE: (1585-1642) Armand Jean du Plessis. French Clergyman

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Description: RICHELIEU CARDINAL DE: (1585-1642) Armand Jean du Plessis. French Clergyman and Statesman, Chief Minister of King Louis XIII 1624-42. A fine D.S., Le Card de Richelieu, one page (vellum), slim oblong folio, Garonne(?), 2nd April 1636, in old French. The attractively penned manuscript document appoints Baron D´allemagne to be Chief Commander of the Squadron of Provence, Naval Army of the West, and states, in part, `His Majesty having instructed to put at our disposal His very powerful naval army, including numerous war vessels and those of His subjects to fight against his enemies, we have judged that it was most important in order to serve His Majesty that the appointment of the Head Commander of the Provence squadron would be granted to an individual with long experience and whose proven capacity and bravery would be known to us.....We have therefore, by His Majesty orders and power, granted instructions to bestow upon you the honour, authority and privileges for such duty, instructing, ordering and signing the present document with the seal of our coat of arms...´ Signed at the foot by Cardinal Richelieu in his capacity as Naval Superintendent of the Navigation and Commerce of France. With Richelieu's (largely intact) red wax seal affixed by the original pendent strip. The seal, as mentioned, bears Richelieu's coat of arms and features a good impression of the three chevrons de gueules. A small area to the lower left corner of the document has been neatly clipped, not affecting the text or signatures, otherwise VG Baron Jean Louis D´allemagne had previously served as a General under the Duke of Savoy and returned to Provence and to the French Royal Court in 1635 at which time Cardinal de Richelieu appointed him Naval Commander of the Fleet, created specifically for the Lerins Islands conflict. Richelieu was consecrated as a Bishop in 1607 and appointed Foreign Secretary in 1616, soon rising in both the Catholic Church and French Government, becoming a Cardinal in 1622. He served as King Louis XIII's Chief Minister from 1624, remaining in office until his death in 1642. Ricelieu's tenure oversaw a crucial period of reform for France and his policies of consolidating royal power, crushing domestic factions and restraining the power of the nobility led to the transformation of France into a strong, centralised state. Notable for his authoritarian measures employed to maintain power, Richelieu censored the press, established a large network of internal spies and forbade the discussion of political matters in public assemblies; those who dared to conspire against him were prosecuted and executed. His legacy is also important for the world at large; his ideas of a strong nation-state and aggressive foreign policy helped create the modern system of international politics. The notions of national sovereignty and international law can be traced, at least in part, to Richelieu's policies and theories. The Cardinal is one of the leading characters in Alexandre Dumas' masterpiece The Three Musketeers, in which he is portrayed as a self-serving and ruthless de facto ruler of France.

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HENRIETTA MARIA OF FRANCE: (1609-1669) Queen Consort of England, Scotland

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Description: HENRIETTA MARIA OF FRANCE: (1609-1669) Queen Consort of England, Scotland & Ireland 1625-49. Wife of King Charles I. A.L.S., Henriette Marie, one page, small 4to, n.p., n.d., to Henry Rich, Lord Holland ('Mon cousin'), in French. The Queen Consort writes 'I am extremely distressed that my letter should have to begin on such a sad note as the need to commiserate with you on your loss. I take an interest in everything which affects you as you are someone I hold in the greatest esteem. I will not write more but will tell you more [later] and also hear news of your meeting'. Written in her distinctive hand, Henrietta Maria has struck through several words of text and made other alterations. With integral address leaf addressed in her hand, 'A Mon cousin, le comte de holand', and bearing two small red wax seals and pink coloured threads. Small areas of identical paper loss to the right edge of each page, just affecting a few words of text, and possibly caused when the letter was originally opened. A few small areas of light staining, otherwise about VG Henry Rich (1590-1649) 1st Earl of Holland. English Courtier, Peer and Soldier. In 1623, as Baron Kensington, Rich had been involved in the negotiations with the French which concluded with the marriage of King Charles I to Henrietta Maria. He is recorded as having displayed 'a penchant for political dealings with women'. He was one of the many lovers of Marie de Rohan, the veteran of French Court intrigue. Serving as her High Steward, Rich's relationship with Henrietta Maria as Queen Consort of England blossomed in the 1630s, from which time the present letter most likely dates. The fifteen-year-old Henrietta Maria married King Charles I by proxy on 11th May 1625, shortly after his accession to the throne. Her Roman Catholicism made her unpopular in England and she never had a coronation. The Queen Consort immersed herself in national affairs as civil war loomed, and was compelled to seek refuge in France in 1644. The execution of King Charles in 1649 left her impoverished. The mother of his two immediate successors, King Charles II and King James II, Henrietta Maria returned to England after the Restoration although returned again to Paris in 1665, where she died four years later.

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CROMWELL OLIVER: (1599-1658) Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England,

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Description: CROMWELL OLIVER: (1599-1658) Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland & Ireland 1653-58. Portion of a D.S., Oliver P, as Protector, at the base, one page (vellum), 8vo, n.p. (London), n.d. (1657), to [the Commissioners]. The portion is the left half of a manuscript Warrant instructing the Commissioners to make a payment out of the first moneys received 'by vertue of a certaine Act made in the Parliament… past in the year one thousand Six hundred fiftie & si[x]… in and about the Suburbs of London and within tenn mil[es thereof…to our]… welbeloved Sr. John Wollaston Knight and Alderman ... fyve thousand pounds to our ... Generalls at Sea' and 'foure thousand pounds to William Smithyer'. Lacking the seal and the right half of each line of text. Some overall staining and age wear, largely to the left edge and only slightly affecting a few words of text, Cromwell's signature largely unaffected and perfectly legible. About G The Parliamentary Act (passed on 26th June 1657) referred to in the present document was created in order to prevent the multiplicity of buildings in and about the Suburbs of London and within ten miles of the same, and commenced 'Whereas the great and excessive number of Houses, Edifices, Out-houses and Cotages erected and new built in and about the Suburbs of the City of London, and the parts thereunto adjoyning, is found to be very mischievous and inconvenient, and a great Annoyance and Nusance to the Common-wealth', It was in effect a barely concealed device to raise money. A Commission was to collect, starting with one half on 29th September 1657, one year's rent of the 'full improved value' of all properties of less than four acres built since 1620, with many interesting exceptions, such as for the Hospitals and for the developments in Covent Garden and Lincoln's Inn Fields. Sir John Wollaston (d. 1658) English Merchant, Lord Mayor of London 1643. He was elected Alderman for Bridge Without ward in 1657. Provenance: The present partial document is accompanied by an 8vo page removed from an album, featuring an image of Cromwell and with a manuscript annotation in the hand of a collector stating, in part, 'This parchment document was sent to me by Rev. Hy Thos Scott M.D. Oxford, England. He obtained it from the famous collection of John Walker, London. Vide Certificate [no longer present] J B Westley.' Oliver Cromwell entered the English Civil War (1642-51) on the side of the 'Roundheads' and quickly rose through the ranks to become one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role in the defeat of the royalist forces, is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the British Isles, considered by some a regicidal dictator (he was one of the signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649), thought of as a military dictator by Winston Churchill, but a hero of liberty by John Milton and Thomas Carlyle, and a class revolutionary by Leon Trotsky. Cromwell was selected as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time in a 2002 BBC poll.

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RUPERT OF THE RHINE: (1619-1682) German Prince, a noted Soldier, Admiral, S

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Description: RUPERT OF THE RHINE: (1619-1682) German Prince, a noted Soldier, Admiral, Scientist, Sportsman & Colonial Governor. Nephew of King Charles I of England. A fine D.S., Rupert, one page, 8vo, n.p., 3rd November 1679. The manuscript document is a receipt in which the Prince acknowledges that he has 'Received of Thomas Bennett Esqe. the sum of fifteene hundred pounds: being in full for my two Pencons due at Mich[aelma]s last….'. Boldly signed at the foot. With blank integral leaf. Some very light, extremely minor age wear, otherwise a clean and attractive document. VG Prince Rupert had a varied career, becoming a soldier at a young age who, at 23 years, was appointed Commander of the Royalist Cavalry during the English Civil War and thus becoming the archetypal Cavalier and ultimately the senior Royalist General. Following the Restoration, Prince Rupert returned to England and, having retired from his military and naval career, pursued his interest in scientific research. The Prince was the third founding member of the Royal Society, being referred to by his contemporaries as a 'philosophic warrior', and many of his inventions were of a military nature. Rupert is credited with developing a form of gunpowder which, when demonstrated to the Royal Society in 1663, had a force of over ten times that of regular powder.

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JAMES II & VII: (1633-1701) King of England & Ireland and King of Scotland

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Description: JAMES II & VII: (1633-1701) King of England & Ireland and King of Scotland (as James VII) 1685-88. D.S., James R, as King, at the head, one page, folio, Court at Whitehall, London, 11th April 1685. The manuscript Warrant is addressed to Francis, Lord Guilford, Keeper of the Great Seal, and states, in part, 'Whereas Our Most Deare Brother the late King deceased did by his Letters Patents bearing date the 12th day of January last past grant the Deanary and Church of Bristoll with all its Rights and Priviledges unto Richard Thompson ... who was instituted thereunto, but the Mandate for his Instalment becoming voyd by the Demise of Our said Most Deare Brother, the said Dr Thompson hath humbly besought Us to direct a New Mandate', further requesting Lord Guilford to direct 'the Canons of the said Church to install the said Deane ... in pursuance of Our said most Deare Brothers Royall Intention…' so as 'the same might have been done & compleated if the Demise ... had not hapned ...' Countersigned ('Sunderland') at the foot Robert Spencer (1641-1702) 2nd Earl of Sunderland. English Nobleman and Statesman, Secretary of State for the Southern Department 1682-88. With blind embossed seal at the head. With blank integral leaf. An attractive, clean document. VG A fine, early document signed by King James just two months into his reign. Francis North (1637-1685) 1st Baron Guilford. British Lawyer, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal 1682-85, succeeding Lord Nottingham. Richard Thompson, English Vicar of St. Mary Redcliffe in Bristol. King Charles II had presented him to the Deanery of Bristol on 12th May 1684, and again on 7th January 1685 owing to a clerical error. He was instituted on 2nd February (that is, to the temporalities of his post) but King Charles died on the 6th February 1685, just four days later. Thompson was re-instituted by the present document, and installed by the Cathedral Chapter on 24th May 1685, but himself died the following 29th November 1685. James II and VII was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland. King James is remembered for his struggles with the English Parliament and his attempts to create religious liberty for English Roman Catholics and Protestant nonconformists, against the wishes of the Anglican establishment. Parliament, opposed to the growth of absolutism that was occurring in other European countries, as well as to the loss of legal supremacy of the Church of England, saw their opposition as a way to preserve what they regarded as traditional English liberties. This tension made King James's four-year reign a struggle for supremacy between the English Parliament and the Crown, resulting in his deposition in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the passage of the Bill of Rights (1689).

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WREN CHRISTOPHER: (1632-1723) English Architect.  An attractive D.S

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Description: WREN CHRISTOPHER: (1632-1723) English Architect. An attractive D.S., Chr. Wren, (twice), two pages, large folio, Chelsea, 15th October & 12th November 1700. The neatly and boldly penned document is a page (numbered 161 and 162 at the head of each side) removed from the official ledger of the Royal Hospital in Chelsea and is an 'Abstract of the Expense of Provisions' for the two months in which Wren, in his capacity as a Commissioner of the hospital, and two other commissioners, Viscount Ranelagh (Paymaster of the Forces) and Sir Stephen Fox (Commissioner of the Treasury) authorise Ralph Cooke, Treasurer of the hospital, to pay various sums to listed individuals in payment for their provisions, the total payable for September being £510.14s.6¾d and for October £459.14s.1¾d. Each of the tradespeople have individually signed the document as confirmation of having been paid, and include Charles Hudson, butcher (£159.12s.8d), Thomas Marston, baker (£63.19s.8d), John England, brewer (£72.18s.11d), Robert Madock, cheesemonger (£80.10s.7¼d), John Gill, whitster (£74.14s.3½d; a whitster supplying bleach for whitening clothes), Elizabeth Hastings, tallow-chandler (£6.14s.9¼d; a tallow-chandler supplying candles made from animal fats), Barthalina Fells, lamps (£6.16s.9d) and Henry Powell, steward (£45.6s.10d). Individually signed by Wren, Ranelagh and Fox to either side of the document. An interesting and very handsome document. Some extremely light, very minor age wear to the extreme edges, not affecting the text or signature, VG Richard Jones (1641-1712) 1st Earl of Ranelagh. Irish Peer & Politician. Paymaster of the Forces 1685-1702. Ranelagh was expelled from the House of Commons in 1703 when discrepancies were found in his accounts as Paymaster, and he was discovered to have appropriated more than £900,000 of public funds. Sir Stephen Fox (1627-1716) English Politician. Paymaster of the Forces 1661-76 and 1679-80. Fox founded the Royal Hospital Chelsea, from where the present document originates, to which he contributed £13,000. Unlike some other statesman of his day, Fox grew rich in the service of the nation without being suspected of corruption or forfeiting the esteem of his contemporaries. The Royal Hospital at Chelsea was founded by King Charles II in 1682 as a retreat for veterans and opened its doors to the Chelsea Pensioners a decade later (mismanagement by Ranelagh, a signatory to the present document had caused the delay). Wren was responsible for designing the hospital and the hospital's chapel is a fine and rare example of the architect's pure ecclesiastical work. Sir Christopher Wren is one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history, responsible for rebuilding many churches in the City of London following the Great Fire in 1666, including his masterpiece, St. Paul's Cathedral, completed in 1710. Wren was also a noted astronomer, mathematician and physicist whose work was highly regarded by Isaac Newton. A founder of the Royal Society, Wren served as its President from 1680-82.

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MARLBOROUGH DUKE OF: (1650-1722) John Churchill. English Soldier and States

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Description: MARLBOROUGH DUKE OF: (1650-1722) John Churchill. English Soldier and Statesman. Commander-in-Chief of the Forces 1690-91, 1702-08. D.S., Marlborough, one page, folio, Office of Ordnance [London], 1st February 1702/3. The manuscript document is addressed to the Right Honourable John Granville, Lieutenant General of Her Majesties Ordnance and is a warrant of approval for Alexander Fort Jnr. to be employed as a Joiner at The Ordnance. Countersigned at the foot by James Craggs (1657-1721) Secretary to the Master-General of the Ordnance. With blind embossed paper seal affixed. Some light overall discoloration and age wear, creasing and some small tears, only slightly affecting the text, but not the signature. With a portion of the lower right corner of the document neatly excised. Accompanied by a small selection of unsigned printed ephemera and vintage postcards relating to Marlborough. About G, 7 Alexander Fort Jnr. Son of Alexander Fort who held high office as Master Joiner in the late 17th century and was one of the most noted of Sir Christopher Wren's group. At the time of the present document Marlborough was Master-General of the Ordnance, responsible for all British artillery, engineers, fortifications, military supplies, transport and field hospitals. Marlborough's career spanned the reigns of five monarchs, reaching the zenith of his powers and securing his fame and fortune upon the accession of Queen Anne in 1702, the present document being signed in the first year of her reign. Through his sheer force of personality Marlborough raised the standing of British arms to a level not known since the Middle Ages, his victories allowing Britain to rise from a minor to a major power, ensuring the country's growing prosperity throughout the 18th century.

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PHILIP V: (1683-1746) King of Spain 1700-24 & 1724-46.  A fine L.S.

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Description: PHILIP V: (1683-1746) King of Spain 1700-24 & 1724-46. A fine L.S., Yo el Rey, with three lines of holograph text at the conclusion, two pages, folio, El Buen Retiro Palace, Madrid, 25th April 1705, to Marquis Jacques de Puységur, in Spanish. King Philip V states `I have received your letter reporting the positive news regarding the location of most of the enemy´s troops, and that they were ready to start military operations close to Badajoz. Because the Marquis was without enough troops to resist or defend an invasion, I decided to send an extraordinary envoy to Maréchal de Tessé, instructing him, notwithstanding the King, my grandfather, orders for him to march straight to Extremadura where, according to these days reports, their presence is more necessary´ further adding `I specifically order that as soon as you receive this letter, you march to Extremadura with all the French troops located in the Old-Castile….and you will only leave to defend Castile all the infantry and cavalry Spanish troops.´ He concludes `I expect your zeal, and knowing that you are dealing with an affair which the King and I consider of the utmost interest, you will not delay a single instant in the prompt accomplishment of all orders instructed, and that you will report back on all you achieved´. Beneath his signature the King has added a further, severe instruction in his own hand, `The situation is too much under pressure, it´s not the time for you to have fun playing roles: therefore I want that you obey me absolutely and with no delay´. A letter of good content. With integral address leaf, bearing the remnants of a seal. VG Jacques François de Chastenet de Puységur (1656-1743) Marquis de Puységur. French Lieutenant Général and military tutor of King Louis XV. Appointed Marshal of France in 1734. René Mans IV de Froullay (1681-1746) Marquis of Lavardin and Tessé, Grandee of Spain. Appointed Marshal in 1707. Louis XIV (1638-1715) King of France 1643-1715. The longest reigning monarch in European history. Grandfather of King Philip V. The Spanish city of Badajoz, in Extremadura, was besieged in October 1705 during the War of the Spanish Succession 1701-15. Triggered by the death of the childless King Charles II of Spain, the major European conflict was to determine who should be the next King of Spain and whether a Bourbon or a Habsburg would take control of Spain's very extensive possessions. It was well known that the union of France and Spain under one monarch would upset the balance of power in Europe, such that other European powers would take steps to prevent it. The War concluded with the Treaty of Utrecht which forbade any future possibility of unifying the French and Spanish thrones. Philip V, Duke of Anjou, was born at the Palace of Versailles and was the Heir apparent to the throne of France. The grandson of King Louis XIV, Philip was the first member of the House of Bourbon to rule as King of Spain. The sum of his two reigns is the longest in modern Spanish history.

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ELIZABETH PETROVNA: (1709-1762) Empress of Russia 1741-62.  D.S., E

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Description: ELIZABETH PETROVNA: (1709-1762) Empress of Russia 1741-62. D.S., Elisavet, as Tsesarevna, in Cyrillic, one page, folio, St. Petersburg, 14th November 1737, in Cyrillic. The boldly penned manuscript document is a decree stating 'On this date there has been transferred from our patrimonial office to Our room the sum of 200 roubles: of which you are to take account'. Annotated at the foot in another hand with instructions to record the transaction and to 'inform the expenditure department of Her Highness' decree'. Some extremely minor, very light age wear at the edges of the document, VG The daughter of Peter the Great, Empress Elizabeth led her country into the two major European conflicts of her reign, the War of Austrian Succession (1740-48) and the Seven Years' War (1756-63) but is also recognised for the exorbitant sums of money she spent on the grandiose baroque projects of her favourite architect, Bartolomeo Rastrelli, particularly in Peterhof and Tsarskoye Selo, and the Winter Palace and the Smolny Cathedral in Saint Petersburg are among the chief monuments of her reign. Elizabeth remains one of the most popular Russian monarchs due to her strong opposition to Prussian policies and her decision not to execute a single person during her reign.

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ROUSSEAU JEAN-JACQUES: (1712-1778) French Writer and Philosopher.

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Description: ROUSSEAU JEAN-JACQUES: (1712-1778) French Writer and Philosopher. An interesting autograph manuscript, unsigned, one page, 4to, n.p., n.d. (c.1746), in French. The page of manuscript, with a couple of alterations in Rousseau's hand, is from his unpublished work relating to the history of women which he prepared between 1746-51 for his benefactress Louise Marie Madeleine Dupin. Rousseau writes his text in the right column of the page, the left reserved for additional notes, the present manuscript annotated in his hand 'Ordonn[ance]: des R[ois] de Fr[ance]…p.205'. In his text Rousseau writes regarding King Philippe le Long of 1317, stating '…by letters given to the Abbess…of Cusset, who previously had given to the King half of the Justice and duties that they had and received in their village during the fairs…granting them that the Abbess will in future decide on her own behalf of belongings and not him nor any successor King will be able to remove such right.´ VG Philip V (c.1292/1293-1322) King of France and Navarre 1316-22, known as 'Philippe le Long'. Cusset is situated in the department of Allier, Auvergne, close to Vichy, in the central region of France. The Abbess Rousseau refers to was the superior of a female community of nuns from the Order of St. Benoit. Rousseau's political philosophy influenced the Enlightenment in France and across Europe. His sentimental novel Julie, or the New Heloise (1761) was of importance to the development of romanticism in fiction and his Discourse of Inequality (1754) and The Social Contract (1762) are cornerstones in modern political and social thought. During the period of the French Revolution Rousseau was the most popular of the philosophes among members of the Jacobin Club. Rousseau was interred as a national hero in the Pantheon in Paris in 1794, sixteen years after his death.

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FREDERICK II: (1712-1786) King of Prussia 1740-86, known as Frederick The G

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Description: FREDERICK II: (1712-1786) King of Prussia 1740-86, known as Frederick The Great. L.S., Friedrich, one page, 4to, Berlin, 18th February 1741, to his Minister of State [Samuel Von] Marschall, in German. The King writes to von Marschall in regard to his report of the 16th Februray 'relating to the two known portraits' and confirms that 'I have given the order to the Treasury council to pay the expenditure of 13660 Taler from our budget.´ With blank integral leaf. About EX Samuel von Marschall (1683-1749) Prussian Finance Minister who served under both Frederick I and Frederick II. Marschall was one of the most important political figures of his time. Frederick the Great's most significant accomplishments during his 46 year reign (the longest of any Hohenzollern King) include his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment in Prussia, as well as his final success in the Seven Years' War, against great odds.

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'...the Russians are already wading in the Prussian  snows...'

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Description: '...the Russians are already wading in the Prussian snows...' VOLTAIRE: (1694-1778) François-Marie Arouet. French Enlightenment Writer and Philosopher. Rare A.L.S., with his initial `V´, one page, 8vo, Les Délices, 23rd November n.y. (1755-60 during which time Voltaire lived at Les Délices, his residence in Geneva), to an unidentified correspondent, evidently another writer, in French. Voltaire begins his letter by referring to his correspondent's novel ('vous aviez sans doute commencé le roman par la queue') and further writes `People say that the 24 thousand soldiers will march and that the Russians are already wading in the Prussian snows. If this is true, send a message…´. Voltaire concludes by asking his correspondent to forward his letter to some colleagues in their own country, and sends his regards ('Je vous embrasse de mon hermitage'). With blank integral leaf. Some light creasing and two extremely small holes in the left margin, not affecting the text or signature, VG Voltaire's reference to the large number of soldiers is in relation to the Seven Years' War (1754-63) which was being fought at the time. It involved every European great power of the time except the Ottoman Empire, spanning five continents, and affected Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain on one side and the Kingdom of France on the other. For the first time, aiming to curtail Britain and Prussia's ever-growing might, France formed a grand coalition of its own, which ended with failure as Great Britain rose as the world's predominant power, altering the European balance of power. Voltaire, the French Enlightenment Writer, Historian and Philosopher was famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and the separation of church and state. A versatile writer, he produced works in almost every literary form.

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'You might say that the Empire will not suffer because of my  stay here

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Description: 'You might say that the Empire will not suffer because of my stay here.' CATHERINE II: (1729-1796) Empress of Russia 1762-96, known as Catherine the Great. An excellent A.L.S., Catherine, one page, 4to, n.p., n.d. (December 1765), to Count von Münnich, in French. The Empress states 'I am very satisfied learning that the horrors of the tradesman….and his fellows of iniquity have been uncovered. Continue with this affair in the same way you have been doing since the beginning. ´ She continues `Here it is not as cold as it was the first days…. but the path between town and here could harm someone convalescent. I am getting better and will return soon', further concluding `You might say that the Empire will not suffer because of my stay here´ With blank integral leaf. Lightly mounted and matted in light beige, and framed and glazed in a decorative frame to an overall size of 14 x 16. VG Count Burkhard Christoph von Münnich (1683-1767) German Soldier and Engineer, a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire. Münnich was the major Russian Army reformer and founder of several elite military formations and also became involved in the politics of the Russian Empire. As a statesman, he is regarded as the founder of Russian Philhellenism, and served under Peter the Great, Catherine I, Peter II, Anna of Russia, Peter III and Catherine II. Catherine the Great, the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, came to power following a coup d´état when her husband, Peter III, was assassinated. Russia was revitalised during her reign, growing larger and stronger than ever and becoming recognised as one of the great powers of Europe. As a patron of the arts she presided over the age of the Russian Enlightenment and the Catherinian Era is often considered the Golden Age of the Russian Empire.

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'…that is a mocking on people just for the pleasure of mocking…'  S

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Description: '…that is a mocking on people just for the pleasure of mocking…' SADE MARQUIS DE : (1740-1814) Donatien Alphonse François de Sade. French Writer and Philosopher. Rare A.N., unsigned, two pages, 8vo, n.p., n.d. (1771), in French. De Sade's note appears at the foot of a brief set of accounts (also in his hand) relating to Paulet [Thomas Paulet, Mayor of the village of Lacoste and a trusted friend of De Sade] and totalling 400 florins. The list of expenses includes payments for wood, jars of oil and for the builders of a park. De Sade's note states, in part, 'As you can see, it wasn´t worth making this unnecessary action for the poor man of the chapel, that is a mocking on people just for the pleasure of mocking, and this is a discredit….', further remarking `If he would have been someone who could afford to pay…you wouldn´t have proceeded this way, am I right?' Some very light, extremely minor age wear, VG The present note was written by Sade and given to Jean Antoine Fage, a French lawyer who served as De Sade's financial administrator. In 1774 Fage was dismissed for connivance with Mme de Montreuil, De Sade's mother-in-law, in organising the police raid of 6th January at the Lacoste Castle. De Sade, the French aristocrat, revolutionary politician, philosopher and writer, remains infamous for his libertine sexuality and is best known for his erotic works depicting sexual fantasies with an emphasis on violence and blasphemy against the Catholic Church. Incarcerated in various prisons and an insane asylum for over 30 years of his life, many of De Sade's works were written in prison. The words sadism and sadist are derived from his name.

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GEORGE III: (1738-1820) King of the United Kingdom 1760-1820.  L.S.

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Description: GEORGE III: (1738-1820) King of the United Kingdom 1760-1820. L.S., Georguis R, with holograph subscription ('Maj:tis V:ro Bonus Frater, Consanguineus et Amicus', in Latin), one page, folio, St. James's, 30th June 1772, to King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, in Latin. King George III acknowledges the receipt of his correspondent's communication announcing the news of the birth of a Princess whom the Queen, his spouse, with the help of divine providence, has brought into the world and continues to send his good wishes for the happiness of the newly born Princess and for the prosperity of the King's entire family. Countersigned at the foot by William Nassau de Zuylestein (1717-1781) 4th Earl of Rochford. British Courtier, Diplomat and Statesman, Secretary of State for the Southern Department 1770-75. With integral address leaf with a blind embossed paper seal affixed (small area of paper loss at the base of the page, caused by the original breaking of the seal). An attractive letter featuring an elegant example of King George III's signature. VG Ferdinand I (1751-1825) King of the Two Sicilies 1816-25, previously King Ferdinand IV of the Kingdom of Naples 1759-99, 1799-1806 & 1815-16 and King Ferdinand III of the Kingdom of Sicily 1759-1816. Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily (1772-1807) Eldest Daughter of King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and his wife, Marie Caroline of Austria (1752-1814). The Princess was born on 6th June 1772 and later served as the last Holy Roman Empress (1792-1806) and the first Empress of Austria (1804-07). King George III's reign, longer than that of any British monarch before him, was marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms. Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britain's American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence. Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

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FOX CHARLES JAMES: (1749-1806) British Statesman.  L.S., C. J. Fox,

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Description: FOX CHARLES JAMES: (1749-1806) British Statesman. L.S., C. J. Fox, one page, folio, St. James's, 29th March 1782, to Sir William Hamilton, marked 'No.1' to the upper left corner. Fox informs his correspondent that, following the resignation of Viscount Stormont, King George III has 'been pleased to appoint me to be one of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State' and, as such, 'make a new arrangement in the Departments by conferring that for Domestick Affairs and the Colonies on the Earl of Shelburne, and entrusting me with the sole Direction of the Department for Foreign Affairs'. Fox adds that in the future Hamilton should address his letters to him, and that 'I shall not fail to lay regularly before the King' those letters 'and to transmit to you such orders and instructions as His Majesty shall think proper to give for your Guidance and Direction'. With blank integral leaf. Some very light, extremely minor dust staining and age wear, VG Sir William Hamilton (1730-1803) Scottish Diplomat who served as British Ambassador to the Kingdom of Naples from 1764-1800. Hamilton's second wife was Emma Hamilton, the mistress of Horatio Nelson. As the present letter confirms, Fox was appointed as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs two days earlier on 27th March 1782. He served in the post until 5th July of the same year and was later reappointed from April-December 1783 and February-September 1806. Great Britain's Prime Minister, Lord North, resigned in March 1782 as a result of the strains of office and the disastrous American war, and was replaced by the new ministry of the Marquess of Rockingham, under whose administration Fox was first appointed as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Rockingham died unexpectedly on 1st July 1782 and Fox refused to serve in the successor administration of the Earl of Shelburne. The ensuing political turmoil culminated in the Fox-North Coalition which came to power on 2nd April 1783, representing the first occasion when King George III had been allowed no role in determining who should hold government office. Charles James Fox, the arch-rival of William Pitt the Younger, rose to prominence in the House of Commons as a forceful and eloquent speaker with a notorious and colourful private life. In a parliamentary career spanning almost forty years Fox's opinions evolved into some of the most radical ever to be aired in the Parliament of his era.

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'This modern evil called Grippe'  CASANOVA GIACOMO: (1725-1798) Ita

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Description: 'This modern evil called Grippe' CASANOVA GIACOMO: (1725-1798) Italian Author and Adventurer. A.L.S., Casanova, two pages (written on the first and third sides of the conjugate leaves), 4to, Prague, 18th May 1788, to Count Antonio Collalto ('Your Excellency, my Beloved Lord') in Vienna, in Italian. Casanova announces `This modern evil called Grippe, after travelling through the Austrian capital, did not forgive the Bohemian capital and caught me, obliging me to attend V[ostra] E[ccellenza] with such an ungrateful appearance; but thank God, V E is free of it, not me, I am in bed´ further remarking `I have here with me your precious letters dated 10th and 13th, but with my headache I am unable to remember if I have already answered to the first or not, so in order not to fail, I´ll answer to both of them.´ Casanova continues to refer to some books sent to his correspondent and also to some other individuals, `I understand, according to your letter, that you have received the box with the books, and I read also and appreciate the news regarding the call from the French Ambassador´s to Venice, and as a consequence the imbroglio with Naples, an affair on which I fully ignore the cause. According to your second letter I understand that with your usual excess of goodness, V.E. went personally to deliver to Countess Clari-Ligne the volumes, and that you refused to accept the nine Guilders. V.E. acted wisely, nevertheless I will write today to the Prince of Liechtenstein who knows me, and I hope that all will be taken care of in a noble way.´ He further writes `My brother wrote to me and he praised your kindness in sending the thirty volumes, and promised he will send the money to you as soon as he will receive it from the associates… Count Waldstein has the first 72 copies…and my brother promises he will get 24 more associates....´ Casanova concludes his letter `Additionally to all mentioned, I beg you to send me on the 27th of the present month the money you may have for me as I have to pay a bill of exchange before the end of the month. The third volume was welcomed here with applause and allowed me to get eight more associates. The King´s speech on page 261 pleased a lot.´ An attractive, boldly penned letter. A few very minor, insignificant holes to some words of text, evidently caused by the ink burning the paper, otherwise VG Count Antonio Collalto - Italian Nobleman and Military officer. Aloys I (1759-1805) Prince of Liechtenstein. He expanded the Liechtenstein library through the purchase of complete collections of books. Joseph Karl Emanuel Waldstein (1755-1814) Count Waldstein. Casanova spent the last years of his life in Bohemia as a librarian in Count Waldstein's household, where he also wrote the story of his life. Casanova's autobiography, Histoire de ma vie, is regarded as one of the most authentic sources of the customs and norms of European social life during the 18th century. Casanova is remembered today for his often elaborate and complicated affairs with women and his name is synonymous with 'womanisers'. He associated himself with European Royalty, Popes and Cardinals as well as luminaries including Voltaire, Goethe and Mozart.

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LOUIS XVI: (1754-1793) King of France and Navarre 1774-1791, King of the Fr

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Description: LOUIS XVI: (1754-1793) King of France and Navarre 1774-1791, King of the French 1791-92. The only King of France to have been executed. D.S., Louis, as King, at the conclusion, two pages (vellum), folio, Versailles, May 1786, in French. The document is a Letters Patent addressed to the Bishop of St. Brieuc, authorising him to purchase, according to the King´s derogation, some properties which were pending the decisions of the Court, and which the Bishop claims he requires, stating '..the Bishop of St. Brieuc has explained in his request of 26th March 1785 that he has begun to re-build his Epicospal Palace which is in ruins, that he would need to have enough space to create a courtyard and a second lower courtyard with a sufficient extension because at the present date he does not have the sufficient space....and that he will not be able to obtain it unless he can acquire two houses..´ further explaining `according to all said, and having seen the sale contracts, the Council has approved and permits, and we sign the present document, authorising the Bishop of St. Brieuc to exercise the feudal revocation and to purchase the aforementioned properties.' With several countersignatures at the conclusion of the document, including those of Louis Charles Auguste le Tonnelier de Breteuil and Armand Thomas Hue de Miromesnil. Some overall age wear and dust staining and some small areas of paper loss (just affecting a few words of text) to the right edge and a neat, irregular tear to the lower left corner, not affecting the text or signatures, about G Hugues-François de Regnauld de Bellescize (1732-1796) French Clergyman, Bishop of the Catholic Church of St. Brieuc from 1774. Louis Charles Auguste le Tonnelier de Breteuil (1730-1807) French Aristocrat, Diplomat, Statesman & Politician. He was the last Prime Minister of the Bourbon Monarchy, appointed by King Louis XVI just one hundred hours before the storming of the Bastille. Armand Thomas Hue de Miromesnil (1723-1796) French Minister, Keeper of the Seals under King Louis XVI. King Louis XVI, the husband of Marie Antoinette, daughter of the Emperor and Empress of Austria, succeeded his grandfather, Louis XV, as King of France in 1774. French support of the colonists in the American War of Independence had brought the country to the verge of bankruptcy and the King initially supported attempts by his ministers to relieve France's financial problems. Meanwhile, accusations of frivolity, extravagance and scandalous behaviour against the Queen, Marie Antoinette, further discredited the monarchy. In 1789, to avert the deepening crisis, Louis agreed to summon the 'estates-general' (a form of parliament, but without real power) in order to try and raise taxes. This was the first time the body had met since 1614. Angered by Louis' refusal to allow the three estates - the first (clergy), second (nobles) and third (commons) - to meet simultaneously, the Third Estate proclaimed itself a national assembly, declaring that only it had the right to represent the nation. Rumours that the king intended to suppress the assembly provoked the popular storming of the Bastille prison, a symbol of repressive royal power, on 14 July 1789. In October, Louis and his family were forced by the mob to return to Paris from their palace at Versailles. In June 1791, they attempted to escape, which was considered proof of Louis' treasonable dealings with foreign powers. He was forced to accept a new constitution, thereby establishing a constitutional monarchy. Nonetheless, against a background of military defeat by Austria and Prussia, the revolutionary leadership was becoming increasingly radicalised. In September 1792, the new National Convention abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic. Louis was found guilty of treason and executed at the guillotine on 21 January 1793, bringing to an end more than a thousand years of continuous French monarchy. Marie Antoinette was executed nine months later.

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'Do not forget to take hostages...and bring the terror to Ghent'  R

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Description: 'Do not forget to take hostages...and bring the terror to Ghent' ROBESPIERRE MAXIMILIEN: (1758-1794) French Lawyer and Politician. One of the most influential figures of the French Revolution. Guillotined. A rare and exceptional L.S., Robespierre, (and also by four other members of the Committee of Public Safety), two pages, 4to, Paris, 16th June 1794, to [Pierre-Rene] Choudieu and [Joseph-Etienne] Richard, on the printed stationery of the Committee of Public Safety, War department, in French. The letter states `We expect, dear colleagues and representatives of the citizenship, that the city of Ypres will have capitulated when this letter will reach you. If however the enemy would persist in defending the city and you would have to negotiate the conditions of their surrender, you are free to fix them in the best way you will consider and find convenient according to the National dignity, accelerating this way the important victory we must not let escape.´ further specifying `The decree which states that we will not take English nor Hanovrien prisoners does not affect the Hesse people, you must take them prisoners and exchange the others against the same number of our soldiers and sailors. Regarding the emigrants there is no way or option of pardon..´ Robespierre and the members of the Committee further order `Inmediately after Ypres´ surrender you must do the same with Nieuport and besiege Ostende.´ and instruct `Do not forget to take hostages among the important persons devoted to the imperial party...take the Bruges warehouses, and bring the terror to Ghent', further concluding `You will soon become the absolute masters of the maritime Flanders.' Countersigned at the conclusion by Lazare Carnot ('Carnot'), Georges Couthon ('Couthon'), Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois ('Collot d'herbois') and Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne ('Billaud Varenne'). With blank integral leaf. A letter of excellent historical content signed by the four instrumental figures of the Reign of Terror. Some light overall foxing and signs of age wear, the central vertical fold strengthened in places with clear tape and some small areas of paper loss and minor tears at the edges, most of which have been professionally repaired. None of the faults affect the signatures. G The present letter was signed by Robespierre and Couthon just over a month before their executions, by guillotine, at the young ages of 36 and 38 respectively. Pierre-Rene Choudieu (1761-1838) French Politician, a Member of the Convention and a Deputy to the Legislative Assembly. He voted for the death of the King and contributed to the fall of the Girondins. Choudieu was accussed of complicity in the insurrection of 1st April 1795 and imprisoned. Joseph-Etienne Richard (1761-1834) French Politician, a Member of the Convention and the Legislative Assembly. Lazare Carnot (1753-1823) French Politician, Engineer, Freemason and Mathematician. The 'Organiser of Victory' in the French Revolutionary Wars. President of the National Convention May - June 1794 and a Member of the Committee of Public Safety 1793-94. Georges Couthon (1755-1794) French Politician and Lawyer, known for his service as a deputy on the Legislative Assembly during the French Revolution. President of the National Convention 1793-94 and a Member of the Committee of Public Safety 1793-94. Jean-Marie Collot d´Herbois (1749-1796) French Actor, Dramatist and Revolutionary. President of the National Convention June 1793 and a Member of the Committee of Public Safety 1793-94. Although he saved Madame Tussaud from the guillotine, d'Herbois administered the execution of more than 2,000 people in the city of Lyon during the Reign of Terror. Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne (1756-1819) French Revolutionary, an instrumental figure during the Reign of Terror. President of the National Convention September 1793 and President of the Committee of Public Safety July - September 1794. The Committee of Public Safety was created in April 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793, and formed the de facto executive government in France during the Reign of Terror. A forceful unit during the French Revolution, the Committee reached the height of its powers between August 1793 and July 1794 (during which time the present document was signed) under the leadership of Robespierre, who had established a virtual dictatorship. Following the execution of Robespierre the Committee's influence diminished and it was disestablished in 1795. Robespierre is one of the best known and most influential figures of the French Revolution, particularly remembered for his defence of the Republic and his role in the Reign of Terror. Robespierre's personal responsibility for the excesses of the Terror remains the subject of intense debate among historians of the French Revolution, however his name is continually associated with the radical purification of politics through the killing of enemies.

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MOMORO ANTOINE-FRANÇOIS: (1756-1794) French Printer, Bookseller and Politic

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Description: MOMORO ANTOINE-FRANÇOIS: (1756-1794) French Printer, Bookseller and Politician during the French Revolution. Momoro is the originator of the French Republic motto `Liberté-Egalité-Fraternité´. Guillotined. A rare L.S., Momoro, one page, small 4to, Paris, 15th January 1794, to the President of the Electoral Assembly, in French. Momoro accepts his correspondent's proposal to become a member of the Electoral Assembly and states `I have forwarded to the General Prosecutor my acceptance to the post of member of the department. I inform the Electoral Assembly about this and report that I will not be able to attend the assembly meeting today.´ Countersigned at the foot by citizen Leblanc (in whose hand the text of the letter is written) who also accepts the appointment. A boldly penned and attractive letter. Some extremely minor age wear to the edges, VG Momoro was condemned to death by the Revolutionary Tribunal and guillotined at the young age of 37 on 24th March 1794, a little over two months after the present letter was written. Upon hearing the sentence of the Revolutionary Tribunal Momoro loudly responded `You accuse me, who has given everything for the Revolution! ´ Somewhat forgotten today by historians, Momoro was, however, an important figure in the Cordeliers Club and in Hébertisme. As the originator of the phrase Unité, Indivisibilité de la République; Liberté-Egalité-Fraternité ou la mort', one of the mottos of the French Republic, his contribution to French history is in no doubt.

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ROUGET DE LISLE CLAUDE JOSEPH: (1760-1836) French Army Officer of the Frenc

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Description: ROUGET DE LISLE CLAUDE JOSEPH: (1760-1836) French Army Officer of the French Revolutionary Wars who wrote the words and music of the French National Anthem La Marseillaise. A.L.S., J. Rouget de Lisle, one page, 8vo, n.p., n.d. ('le Samedi matin'), to a gentleman [M. Pleyel], in French. Rouget de Lisle intriguingly writes 'In exchange for the most indiscreet demand that I made of you yesterday allow me to give you a piece of useless advice…you spoke the other day of your liaisons with Mr. Garnery. If you have, or will be, in the position of entering into some interesting relationships with him, be on your guard. We see that the position is nothing less that certain… he is himself being watched…' A few minor tears to the left edge, only very slightly affecting a few words of text, but not the signature. Strengthened to the verso, otherwise VG Ignace Pleyel (1757-1831) Austrian-born French Composer. Pleyel had been friends with Rouget de Lisle having worked together on Pleyel's Hymne à la liberté (1791), to which Rouget de Lisle had written the libretto. With the onset of the Reign of Terror in 1793 and 1794, life in France became dangerous for many. Pleyel was brought before the Committee of Public Safety a total of seven times due to the following: his foreign status, his recent purchase of a château, and his ties with the Strasbourg Cathedral. He was subsequently labeled a Royalist collaborator. The outcome of the Committee's attentions could easily have been imprisonment or even execution. With prudent opportunism, Pleyel preserved his future by writing compositions in honor of the new republic. La Marseillaise is widely regarded as one of the best and most instantly recognisable National Anthems ever composed. Written in 1792 by Rouget De Lisle in Strasbourg following France's declaration of war against Austria, the revolutionary song was originally entitled Chant de guerre pour l'Armee du Rhin ('War Song for the Rhine Army'). An anthem to freedom and a patriotic call to mobilise all citizens and an exhortation to fight against tyranny and foreign invasion, the French National Convention adopted it as the Republic's anthem in 1795. The anthem acquired its nickname after being sung in Paris by volunteers from Marseille marching on the capital. The first example of the 'European march' anthemic style, La Marseillaise's evocative melody and lyrics have led to its widespread use as a song of revolution and its incorporation into many pieces of classical and popular music.

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GUILLOTIN JOSEPH-IGNACE: (1738-1814) French Physician, Politician & Freemas

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Description: GUILLOTIN JOSEPH-IGNACE: (1738-1814) French Physician, Politician & Freemason who, in 1789, proposed the use of the guillotine as a device to carry out death penalties in France. Manuscript D.S., Guillotin, one page, 4to, Paris, 24th January 1796, in French. The document is a medical prescription and states, in full, 'Take a quart of scrag of mutton and half a dozen turnips; put in a pint of water; boil at low heat until the turnips are cooked, then remove the turnips and mutton and let dissolve. Manna en sorte [flake or common manna] one ounce. Then pass it through a linen. You must drink the broth hot, in the morning, with an empty stomach, glass by glass, every half an hour, until all is finished'. Signed and dated at the conclusion. With a small slim 12mo French newspaper clipping announcing the death of Guillotin neatly affixed at the foot of the document. Some light overall foxing and with slightly irregularly trimmed edges, otherwise about VG It is unclear which ailment the present prescription would alleviate, however turnips are a very good source of anti-oxidants, minerals, vitamins and dietary fibre and have been cultivated as staple food since ancient Greek and Roman periods. Guillotin proposed the use of the device known as a guillotine on 10th October 1789 as a less painful method of carrying out death penalties by execution in France. The apparatus, with which Guillotin's name has become eponymous, was particularly used during the French Revolution, where it was celebrated as the people's avenger by supporters of the Revolution and vilified as the pre-eminent symbol of the Reign of Terror by opponents. One of the most famous individuals to be executed by guillotine was Marie Antoinette, Queen consort of the French, on 16th October 1793.

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WASHINGTON GEORGE: (1732-1799) American President 1789-97.  A.L.S.,

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Description: WASHINGTON GEORGE: (1732-1799) American President 1789-97. A.L.S., G: Washington, as President, one page, 4to, Philadelphia, 14th November 1796, to Colonel William Deakins in George Town. Washington writes, in full, 'Permit me to recommend the enclosed letter (no longer present) to your care. - And to ask if it be practicable to procure me ten or a dozen Bushels of Oats from the Glades for Seed, by the first of March next? With esteem & regard I am, Dear Sir, Your Obedt. Servant'. With integral address leaf hand addressed by Washington and signed ('President U.S.') by him to the lower left corner of the address panel. With the remnants of a red wax seal and a small area of paper loss where originally broken. Some uniform age toning and a couple of minor stains, not affecting the signature, and some very minor chipping to the right edge and corners of the letter, about VG Colonel William Deakins (1742-1798) Prominent Georgetown Merchant who served as the treasurer for the D.C. commissioners from 1791-96. The present letter was written towards the conclusion of Washington's second term of office as American President, which was to end in March 1797. It is not unreasonable to presume that Washington was already considering, and anticipating with pleasure, his return to Mount Vernon as a working farmer, just as the Roman leader Cincinnatus rescinded the reins of power to return to the land. The Society of the Cincinnati, of which Washington served as the first president, is a historical association which was founded in the aftermath of the American Revolutionary War, by officers of the Continental Army, to preserve the ideals of the military officer's role in the new American republic. 'Bushels of Oats from the Glades of Seed', as mentioned in the present letter, would have figured prominently in his farming plans. Washington served as the first President of America, and was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. As such, and Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and hero of the Revolution, Washington's legacy remains among the two or three greatest in American history.

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PAUL I: (1754-1801) Emperor of Russia 1796-1801. Assassinated.  L.S

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Description: PAUL I: (1754-1801) Emperor of Russia 1796-1801. Assassinated. L.S., Paul, as Emperor, one page, 4to, Gatchina, 6th October 1797, to Lieutenant General [Christoph von] Benckendorff, in French. The Emperor states 'I authorize you, according to your letter of 2nd October, to make the expenses you will judge are necessary´ and further adds `the money will be returned to you later, and based on the memoirs you will send me. ´ With blank integral leaf. Some very light, minor creasing and age wear and with a small area of paper loss to the integral leaf, VG Christoph von Benckendorff (1749-1823) Baltic Baron, General and Military Governor of Livonia, Estonia. Emperor Paul I, son of Peter III and Catherine the Great, had a relatively short reign over Russia. Overshadowed by his mother (who had suggested his father may actually have been her lover Sergei Saltykov) for much of his life, Paul I's reign lasted five years ending with his assassination by conspirators. His most important achievement was the adoption of the laws of succession to the Russian throne - rules that remained until the end of the Romanov dynasty and of the Russian Empire.

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TALLEYRAND-PERIGORD CHARLES MAURICE DE: (1754-1838) French Statesman.

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Description: TALLEYRAND-PERIGORD CHARLES MAURICE DE: (1754-1838) French Statesman. D.S., Ch. Maur. Talleyrand, one page, 4to, Paris, 8th January 1797, in French. The manuscript document was issued at the Ministry of External Affairs and Talleyrand, in his capacity as the Minister of External Affairs, confirms the content of a general receipt issued by the cashier of the Treasury, relating in particular to a man named Palomba who 'is included for the sum of thirty francs, total of one twentieth retained for the aforementioned four month period, on the basis if eighteen hundred francs annual salary, counting from the first of Vendemiaire (September) last.' Signed by Talleyrand with a typically small signature at the conclusion and countersigned by Paganel, the Secretary General. Some light age wear and minor traces of former mounting to the left margin. A small, neat tear at the centre of the head of the page has been repaired to the verso. About VG Talleyrand worked at the highest levels of successive French governments, usually as Foreign Minister or in some other diplomatic capacity. His career spanned the regimes of King Louis XVI, the years of the French Revolution, Napoleon I, King Louis XVIII and King Louis-Philippe I. Those he served often distrusted Talleyrand but, like Napoleon, found him extremely useful.

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BEAUHARNAIS JOSEPHINE DE: (1763-1814) Empress of the French 1804-14, the fi

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Description: BEAUHARNAIS JOSEPHINE DE: (1763-1814) Empress of the French 1804-14, the first wife of Napoleon I. L.S., Lapagerie Bonaparte, two pages, 8vo, n.p. (Chateau de Malmaison?), 30th May 1800, to an unidentified recipient, in French. Josephine thanks her correspondent for the plants which she had been promised and informs her correspondent that her gardener (Alexander Howatson?) will receive and take care of the plants, which she provides a list of, and which includes a rose, as well as various species of Eucalyptus, Magnolia, Laurel and Hibiscus etc. She further invites her correspondent to visit her garden and provide her with some advice. The text of the letter is in the hand of Mme. De Remusat. Some very light, minor age wear, otherwise VG In 1799, while Napoleon was in Egypt, Josephine purchased the Chateau de Malmaison. She had it landscaped in an English style, hiring landscapers and horticulturalists from the United Kingdom including Thomas Blaikie, a Scottish horticultural expert, and Alexander Howatson, a Scottish gardener. The rose garden was begun soon after purchase and Josephine took a personal interest in the gardens and the roses, as illustrated by the present letter, and learned a great deal about botany and horticulture from her staff. Josephine wanted to collect all known roses so Napoleon ordered his warship commanders to search all seized vessels for plants to be forwarded to Malmaison. The English nurseryman Kennedy was a major supplier and, despite England and France being at war, his shipments were allowed to cross blockades. Sir Joseph Banks, Director of the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew, also sent her roses. The general assumption is that she had about 250 roses in her garden when she died in 1814. Unfortunately, the roses were not catalogued during her tenure, however Josephine produced the first written history of the cultivation of roses, and is believed to have hosted the first rose exhibition, in 1810. The present letter was written just nine days before the Battle of Montebello on 9th June 1800, part of the lead-up to the Battle of Marengo on 14th June 1800, when the vanguard of the French Army in Italy engaged and defeated an Austrian force in a glorious victory. In 1795 Josephine Beauharnais met Napoleon Bonaparte, six years her junior, for the first time. She became his mistress and in January 1796 Napoleon proposed to her. The marriage was not well accepted by Napoleon's family, who were shocked that he had married an older woman with two children. As the wife of Napoleon, Josephine became the first Empress Consort of the French and was crowned by Pope Pius VII at Notre Dame de Paris on 2nd December 1804. She did not bear Napoleon any children and, as a result, he divorced her in 1810 to marry Marie Louise of Austria.

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The marriage contract of Leon Aune, Napoleon's  'brave comrade'

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Description: The marriage contract of Leon Aune, Napoleon's 'brave comrade' NAPOLEON I: (1769-1821) Emperor of France 1804- 14, 1815 LANNES JEAN (1769-1809) Marshal of France. Duc de Montebello. One of Napoleon's most daring and talented generals and a personal friend of the Emperor. BESSIERES JEAN-BAPTISTE (1768-1813) Marshal of France. Duc d´ Istria. CAFFARELLI DU FALGA MARIE-FRANCOIS AUGUSTE DE (1766-1849) French General who served as aide-de-camp to Napoleon and organised Pope Pius VII's trip to France for Napoleon's coronation as Emperor. A rare D.S. by Napoleon I ('Bonaparte'), Jean Lannes ('Lannes'), Jean-Baptiste Bessieres ('Bessieres'), Marie-Francois Auguste de Caffarelli du Falga ('A. Caffarelli') and a number of others, at the conclusion, six pages, folio, Paris, 20th October 1800, in French. The manuscript document is a marriage certificate issued for Leon Aune and Anne Clair, in the presence and agreement of Napoleon, and comprises ten clauses with references to the endowment provided by the parents of Anne Clair, and to the wedding contract. Signed by Leon Aune and Anne Clair at the conclusion, alongside the signature of Napoleon and the other witnesses at their marriage, and also with a number of annotations in the margins throughout the document, each initialled by both the bride and groom. An interesting combination of signatures with a good association. Neatly tied into the original paper wrappers with the title and date to the front cover. The edges of the paper a little ragged and with some light overall age wear, otherwise VG Leon Aune (1777-1803) French Military officer, labelled 'the second Grenadier of France' by Napoleon. Aune served as a Second Lieutenant in the Foot Grenadiers of the Consular Guard and received a sabre and musket of honour in March 1800 in recognition of his brilliant actions. Aune wrote to Napoleon to thank him for his weapons of honour and he was to receive a reply from Bonaparte stating 'I have received your letter, my brave comrade. You needed not to have told me of your exploits, for you are the bravest grenadier in the whole army, since the death of Benezete. You received one of the hundred sabres I distributed to the army, and all agreed you most deserved it. I wish very much to see you. The War Minister sends you an order to come to Paris'. This letter, circulated throughout Napoleon's army, would serve to have a tremendous effect on the enthusiasm and morale of the troops. Napoleon had Aune taught to write, so that he could be promoted, although was to tragically die at an early age from pneumonia. Napoleon signed a decree following Aune's death approving a pension of 500 Francs to Anne Clair, his widow. Napoleon Bonaparte, the French military and political leader, rose to prominence during the French Revolution and, as Napoleon I, served as Emperor of the French from 1804-14, and again in 1815. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He was victorious in most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. One of the greatest commanders in history, Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has ensured his status as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in history.

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An unpublished letter of Nelson to  Lady Hamilton  'Ever my Dear Fr

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Description: An unpublished letter of Nelson to Lady Hamilton 'Ever my Dear Friend your affectionate half sea sick Nelson & Bronte' NELSON HORATIO: (1758-1805) British Admiral during the Napoleonic Wars, the victor of the Battle of Trafalgar, 1805. A good A.L.S., Nelson & Bronte, four pages (the conjugate leaves very neatly split at the central vertical fold, and now two separate leaves), 4to, HMS Amazon, (although mailed from Deal, Kent), 14th October 1801, to his mistress Emma Hamilton ('My Dearest Friend'). Nelson announces 'Tomorrow week all is over no thanks to Sir Thos. [Troubridge] I believe the fault is all his, and he ought to have recollected that I got him the medal of the Nile. Who upheld him when he would have sunk under grief & mortification. Who placed him in such situation in the Kingdom of Naples that he got by my public letters titles, the Colonelcy of Marines, Diamond Boxes from the King of Naples, 1000 ounces in money for no expenses that I know of. Who got him 500£ a year from the King of Naples and however much he may abuse him, his pension will be regularly paid. Who brought his character into notice, look at my public letters. Nelson that Nelson he now Lords it over, so much for gratitude. I forgive him but by God I shall not forget it' and further reports of the weather ('the day is very bad, blows rains & great sea') and adds that he is anxiously waiting for Emma's letters, 'they are my only comfort for they are the only friendly ones I receive'. Nelson also writes of Captain Somerville who is aboard the Amazon with his wife and family and who has only £100 a year to maintain them, remarking 'He has been begging me to interceed (sic) with the Adm.[iralty] again but I have been so rebuffed that my spirits are gone & the great Troubridge has what we call cowed the spirits of Nelson but I shall never forget it.' The admiral resumes his letter having just received Emma's 'kind letters' which have 'given me great comfort' and asks 'Pray tell Sir Willm. that if I can I will write to him this day but certainly tomorrow. I have much to do from Admiralty orders, letters &c. I rejoice at your occupation…Have you done anything abt. the turnip field. Say everything that is kind for me to Sir Wm., Mrs. Cadogan &c. I have delivered your message to Sutton & Bedford. You may rely on a visit.' Nelson concludes 'Ever my Dear Friend your affectionate half sea sick Nelson & Bronte' although continues with an extensive postscript, signed with his initials N & B, sending thanks for 'Revd. Drs letter & Mrs. N[elson's] Her going to Swaffham is mentioned 7 times & in the Postscript. It put me in mind of the directions for the Cardinal. I have laughed but she is [a] good wife for him or he would have been ruined long ago. His being a Doctor is nonsense, but I must write tomorrow & congratulate him or else the fat will be in the fire', and finally confirms that he has written to Sir William at Merton. The final page bears the address panel, entirely in Nelson's hand and signed ('Nelson & Bronte') by him, addressed to Lady Hamilton at 23 Piccadilly in London and dated Deal, 14th October (annotated by Emma Hamilton 'the date of the year' and with 1801 added in another, unidentified hand; Hamilton's words somewhat smudged). With the almost complete remnants of the black wax seal (in two sections as originally broken). A letter of interesting content and good association, with many references to Nelson's contemporaries. Some light creasing and overall age toning and with a few small tears to the final page (evidently caused by the breaking of the seal), not affecting the text or signature, about VG Emma Hamilton (1765-1815) Lady Hamilton, second wife of Sir William Hamilton. Mistress of Lord Nelson. William Hamilton (1730-1803) Scottish Diplomat, husband of Emma Hamilton. British Ambassador to the Kingdom of Naples 1764-1800. Thomas Troubridge (c.1758-1807) British Naval Commander. In August 1798 Troubridge's ship of the line, HMS Culloden, ran aground whilst getting into position in preparation for an attack on the French fleet and was consequently unable to take any part in the Battle of the Nile. At Nelson's request, however, and as mentioned in the present letter, Troubridge was awarded the gold medal commemorating the victory. From 1801-04 Troubridge served as a Lord of the Admiralty. Philip Somerville (1763-1817) English Naval Captain who commanded a division of boats under Lord Nelson at the Raids on Boulogne in August 1801, just a few months prior to the date of the present letter. Somerville was wounded during the unsuccessful attacks although his division was the only one that succeeded in getting on board the enemy. William Nelson (1757-1835) 1st Earl Nelson, 2nd Duke of Bronte. Anglican Clergyman and elder brother of Lord Nelson, referred to as the 'Revd. Dr.' in the present letter. By a special remainder William Nelson succeeded in his younger brother's titles upon his death in 1805 and was further honoured as Earl Nelson and Viscount Merton in recognition of his brother's achievements. William Nelson's wife, also referred to in the present letter, was Sarah Yonge (c.1749-1828). They were married at Swaffham in Norfolk on 9th November 1786. 1801 had been a busy year for Nelson, both domestically and in service. In January, he met with his wife, Frances 'Fanny' Nelson for the last time. With their marriage effectively over, the heartbroken Fanny, was taken in by Nelson's father, Reverend Edmund Nelson, whilst Horatio Nelson's open cohabitation with Emma Hamilton scandalised polite society. In the same month Nelson was promoted to Vice Admiral of the Blue and appointed second in command to Admiral Sir Hyde Parker whose fleet were to sail to the Baltic. In February Emma Hamilton gave birth to Horatia, Nelson's daughter, at 23 Piccadilly, the home of Sir William Hamilton (and to where the present letter was addressed). Nelson received the news whilst at Torbay, preparing to sail, and was overjoyed at the birth. On 2nd April 1801 Nelson participated in the Battle of Copenhagen during the War of the Second Coalition. The British naval fleet, under the command of Parker, defeated a Danish fleet anchored just off Copenhagen, with Nelson leading the main attack. He famously is reputed to have disobeyed Parker's order to withdraw by holding the telescope to his blind eye to observe the signals from Parker. The signals had given Nelson permission to withdraw at his discretion, yet he declined. Copenhagen is often considered to be Nelson's hardest-fought victory, ranked among battles such as the Battle of Trafalgar, as the Danes offered a very steadfast resistance. The British public viewed the Battle of Copenhagen as a great victory and as a result ministers in England called for Nelson to take over Parker's command. Nelson was subsequently appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Baltic fleet and made Viscount Nelson of the Nile and of Hillborough. Nelson was writing to Hamilton almost daily from HMS Amazon in October 1801, however the present letter is not published in The Letters of Lord Nelson to Lady Hamilton (1814) and neither is it published in The Dispatches and Letters of Vice Admiral Lord Viscount Nelson (Vol. IV, 1799-1801, ed. by Nicolas and published by Henry Colburn, London, 1845) or in Nelson - The New Letters (ed. by White and published by the Boydell Press, 2005). Nelson was noted for his inspirational leadership, superb grasp of strategy and unconventional tactics, all of which led to a number of decisive Naval victories, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars. His death at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 secured his position as one of Britain's most heroic figures. The significance of the victory and his death led to his signal, 'England expects that every man will do his duty', being regularly quoted, paraphrased and referenced up to the present day. Nelson's memory and legacy remain highly influential.

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SCHILLER FRIEDRICH: (1759-1805) German Poet and Philosopher.  An ex

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Description: SCHILLER FRIEDRICH: (1759-1805) German Poet and Philosopher. An extremely rare D.S., v Schiller, one page, oblong 8vo, Jena, 21st July 1804, in German. The document is a receipt issued by Schiller to the library of the University of Jena, and refers to the book `Juliani J. Caesares cum adnotat. Liebe & Heusinger´ annotated `Imperat. 0.30.´ in another hand and Schiller adding the word `accepit´ above his signature. Some overall foxing, not affecting the clarity of the text or signature, G The exact title of the work Schiller refers to is 'Juliani Imperatoris Caesares, cum integris adnotationibus aliquot doctorum virorum et selectis Ezech. Spanhemi interpretatione item latina et gallica additis imperatorum nummis ex instituto et bibliotheca Christiani Sigism. Liebe. Accedit Sponii Dissertatio de usu nummorum in physiognomia, et vita Juliani. Recensuit cim codice M.S. Augustano editisque omnibus contulit variantes lectiones observationes et indices adiecit. Joh. Mich. Heusinger. Gotha 1736', housed in the library of the University of Jena. Schiller borrowed that book during his stay in Jena between 19th July and 19th August, most probably in the course of his studies on Agripina. Schiller is widely considered as one of the greatest German poets in history and the second most important playwright in Europe after William Shakespeare. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788-1805), Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated, friendship with the already famous and influential Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Schiller's An die Freude ('Ode to Joy') of 1785 became the basis for the fourth movement of Beethoven's ninth symphony, one of the best known works in classical music and one of the most performed symphonies in the world. Beethoven's tune (but not Schiller's words) were adopted as the Anthem of Europe in 1972.

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JORDAN DOROTHEA: (1761-1816) Anglo-Irish Actress and Courtesan, the mistres

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Description: JORDAN DOROTHEA: (1761-1816) Anglo-Irish Actress and Courtesan, the mistress and companion of the future King William IV. Rare A.L.S., Dora Jordan, two pages, 4to, Mortimer Street, n.d. ('Friday', annotated 1808 in another hand), to Miss. Dalrymple. Jordan states that she will be detained at the theatre tomorrow from 12 noon until 3pm and therefore won't be at Bushy to receive her correspondent and continues 'I have only to assure you that my best and most sincere good wishes must soon attend you; and allow me to add, that if you are as happy as you deserve to be, (and of which you have so fair a prospect) your lot will be a most enviable one', further concluding that 'Sophy desires her love'. Some very light, extremely minor age wear, VG In 1797 King George III appointed his son William, Duke of Clarence, as Ranger of Bushy Park, carrying with it residence at Bushy House, which Jordan makes reference to in the present letter. The future King William IV lived there with his mistress, and their ten illegitimate children, until the couple's relationship came to an end in 1811. In the present letter Jordan also makes reference to her eldest illegitimate daughter, Sophia Sidney (1795-1837) Baroness De L'Isle and Dudley, who served as State Housekeeper in Kensington Palace shortly before her death. Pretty, witty and intelligent, Jordan made her first appearance on the London stage at Drury Lane in 1785 and remained there until 1809 playing a large variety of parts. It was said that the actress had the most beautiful legs ever seen on the stage and she was particularly remembered for her comedic roles. Jordan soon came to the attention of wealthy men after her arrival in London and the Duke of Clarence took the actress as his mistress for twenty years. Together they produced ten illegitimate children, Jordan having previously given birth to four other children by other men with whom she had conducted affairs.

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MURAT JOACHIM: (1767-1815) Marshal of France, brother-in-law of Napoleon Bo

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Description: MURAT JOACHIM: (1767-1815) Marshal of France, brother-in-law of Napoleon Bonaparte. King of Naples 1808-15. L.S., Joachim Napoleon, (a bold example), one page, 4to, Naples, 22nd January 1809, to [Giuseppe Zurlo] the Minister of State, in French. Murat instructs his correspondent to 'stop including on the list of Councillors of State the Prince of Canova, Pere; you will inform the Finance Minister that he will have to cease paying him as Councillor of State from 1st of February onwards. ´ With blank integral leaf (small area of paper loss). VG Giuseppe Zurlo (1759-1828) Italian Lawyer and Politician. Zurlo served as Minister of Justice of the Two Sicilies in 1809 and as Interior Minister of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 1809-15 & 1820. Murat served as both a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon I. He received his titles, most notably as King of Naples (1808-15) partially by being Napoleon's brother-in-law (he had married the Emperor's beloved younger sister in 1800) as well as by personal merit. Noted as a daring, brave and charismatic cavalry officer, as well as a flamboyant dresser, Murat was known as 'the Dandy King'. Murat was executed in 1815 proclaiming, at the time of his death, 'Soldiers! Do your duty! Straight to the heart but spare the face. Fire!'

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MARIE LOUISE: (1791-1847) Duchess of Parma. Austrian Archduchess, the secon

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Description: MARIE LOUISE: (1791-1847) Duchess of Parma. Austrian Archduchess, the second wife of Napoleon Bonaparte and, as such, Empress of the French 1810-14. An attractive D.S., Marie Louise, as Empress, one page (vellum), oblong folio, Palais des Tuileries, 15th December 1811, in French. The partially printed document, which features a decorative border, nominates Madame La Baronne de Lacour (nee Botot) as a 'Dame de la Société de la Charité maternelle'. Countersigned by Joseph Fesch (1763-1839) French Cardinal and Diplomat, Prince of France and the uncle of Napoleon Bonaparte. Some light age wear and minor dust staining to the edges, not affecting the text or signatures, about VG The Société de Charité maternelle was founded in 1788 to work alongside the government to provide welfare to the many needy of the time by encouraging maternal virtues amongst the poor. Such philanthropic organisations were encouraged as much to promote social interaction as to alleviate the call upon the public purse. The end of the War of the Fifth Coalition in 1809 resulted in the marriage of Napoleon and Marie Louise in 1810, which ushered in a brief period of peace and friendship between Austria and the French Empire. Marie Louise dutifully agreed to the marriage despite being raised to despise France. She was an obedient wife and was adored by Napoleon, who had been eager to marry a member of one of Europe's leading royal houses to cement his relatively young Empire.

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From Moscow  'By military cartage they will never arrive in time to be

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Description: From Moscow 'By military cartage they will never arrive in time to be of any use for us.' NAPOLEON I: (1769-1821) Emperor of France 1804-14, 1815. An extremely rare L.S., Nap, one page, 4to, Moscow, 5th October 1812, to the Duc de Feltre, Minister of war, in French. Napoleon sends an urgent order from Moscow, and states in full, ´Monsieur le Duc de Feltre, the 500 mills that I have requested must reach the station. By military cartage they will never arrive in time to be of any use for us. I pray God to keep you under his saintly protection ' With the small 12mo original holograph note of receipt neatly pinned to the lower left corner. A letter of good content. Some extremely light, minor age wear, VG The French Invasion of Russia began on 24th June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armee crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army. Napoleon entered Moscow in September, just a few weeks before the present letter was written, although there was no delegation to meet the Emperor. The Russians had evacuated the city, and the city's governor, Count Fyodor Rostopchin had ordered the city to be burnt. Napoleon's hopes had been set upon a victorious end to his campaign, but victory in the field did not yield him victory in the war. The loss of Moscow did not compel Alexander I to sue for peace, and both sides were aware that Napoleon's position grew worse with each passing day. After a month, concerned about the loss of control back in France, Napoleon and his army left and the campaign effectively ended on 14th December 1812, with the last French troops leaving Russian soil. The campaign was the decisive turning point in the Napoleonic Wars and the reputation of the Emperor had been severely shaken. Napoleon Bonaparte, the French military and political leader, rose to prominence during the French Revolution and, as Napoleon I, served as Emperor of the French from 1804-14, and again in 1815. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He was victorious in most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. One of the greatest commanders in history, Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has ensured his status as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in history.

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NAPOLEON I: (1769-1821) Emperor of France 1804-14, 1815.  An extrem

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Description: NAPOLEON I: (1769-1821) Emperor of France 1804-14, 1815. An extremely rare D.S., Nap, one page, oblong 8vo, Longwood, Saint Helena, 30th July 1817, to the Great Marshal [Henri Gatien, Comte Bertrand], in French. The manuscript document (the text of which is in the hand of his valet, Louis Marchand) is a short list of three expenses which Napoleon gives his approval to pay, stating, in full, `Instruction to pay 1st August next: 1. July´s Clothes & Dressing 1000 Fr - 2. Wages 1.700 Fr - 3. July House needs 4500 Fr - 7200 Fr´. Two very small pinholes to the upper and lower left corners, not affecting the text or signature, VG An extremely rare example of a document signed by Napoleon whilst exiled at Saint Helena. The present document was signed at Longwood House, Napoleon's residence on the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic. Following his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, the British exiled Napoleon to the island where he was to spend the last years of his life, dying there in 1821. Napoleon refused to send and sign letters from Saint Helena because he considered that, as an Emperor, he should not be subject to censure by the King of Great Britain and although Napoleon dictated his memoirs whilst at Saint Helena, and various other manuscripts were written, documents signed by the fallen Emperor originating from Longwood very rarely appear for sale at auction. Henri Gatien (1773-1844) Comte Bertrand. French General. Gatien had accompanied Napoleon to Elba in 1814, and returned with him in 1815, holding a command in the Waterloo campaign. Following the French defeat, Gatien accompanied Napoleon to Saint Helena and did not return to France until after Napoleon's death. In 1840 he was chosen to accompany the Prince of Joinville to Saint Helena to retrieve and bring Napoleon's remains to France, in what became known as the retour des cendres. Napoleon Bonaparte, the French military and political leader, rose to prominence during the French Revolution and, as Napoleon I, served as Emperor of the French from 1804-14, and again in 1815. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He was victorious in most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. One of the greatest commanders in history, Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has ensured his status as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in history.

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`The King´s entry into Paris is positively fixed'  CHARLES X: (1757

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Description: `The King´s entry into Paris is positively fixed' CHARLES X: (1757-1836) King of France 1824-30. Brief A.L.S., Charles Philippe, one page, 4to, Paris, 1st May n.y. (1814), to an unidentified correspondent, in French. The King states, in full, `The King´s entry into Paris is positively fixed for next Tuesday at ten in the morning.´ With blank integral leaf. Some very light, minor wrinkling to the right edge and light overall age toning, otherwise VG The present letter is written at an important date in the Bourbon Restoration. In January 1814, Charles covertly left his home in London to join the Coalition forces in southern France. His brother Louis XVIII, by then wheelchair-bound and in exile in England, supplied Charles, his younger brother, with letters patent creating him Lieutenant General of the kingdom. On 31st March, the Allies captured Paris and a few days later, on 4th April, Napoleon I abdicated. The Senate declared King Louis XVIII restored. Charles had arrived in the capital on 12th April and acted as Lieutenant General of the kingdom until Louis XVIII arrived from England. Two days after the present letter was written, on 3rd May, the King was greeted with great rejoicing from the Parisians and proceeded to occupy the Tuileries Palace. Charles X, known as the Count of Artois for much of his life, reigned as the last Bourbon King of France from 1824-30. An uncle of the uncrowned King Louis XVII and the younger brother of reigning Kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, Charles supported the latter in exile and eventually succeeded him. During his brief tenure as regent, Charles created an ultra-royalist secret police that reported directly back to him without Louis XVIII's knowledge. It operated for over five years. His rule of almost six years ended in the July Revolution of 1830, which resulted in his abdication and the election of Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans, as King of the French.

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DAVY HUMPHRY: (1778-1829) British Chemist & Inventor.  A.L.S., Hump

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Description: DAVY HUMPHRY: (1778-1829) British Chemist & Inventor. A.L.S., Humphry Davy, three pages, 4to, Montpelier, 17th (?) (January) 1814, to Monsieur Le Baron Delessert in Paris. Davy states that he has 'not yet profited by your letter of credit' and adds that he proposes to stay at Montpelier for a further ten days and would like the letter of credit sent there, explaining 'I am just going to make a journey to the extinct volcanoes in this neighbourhood & on my return I will send you bills of exchange for as much money as I shall want whilst I am in the south of France.' In a postscript Davy remarks 'If you can have the goodness to transmit the enclosed letter (no longer present) to London it will serve as a letter of notice to Messrs Drummond & Messrs Morland & Co in case the other letters should have miscarried'. With integral address leaf (small area of paper loss caused by the seal being broken, not affecting the text or signature). Some very light, minor age wear, VG Jules-Paul-Benjamin De Lessert (1773-1847) French Industrialist, Financier & Philanthropist. Humphry Davy, the Cornish chemist and inventor, is best remembered today for isolating a series of substances for the first time; potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine. A President of the Royal Society (1820-27), whose laboratory assistant was Michael Faraday, Davy also invented a very early form of incandescent light bulb as well as the Davy Lamp.

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GRIMALDI JOSEPH: (1778-1837) English Actor, Comedian & Dancer, the most pop

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Description: GRIMALDI JOSEPH: (1778-1837) English Actor, Comedian & Dancer, the most popular English entertainer of the Regency era. Rare A.L.S., J. Grimaldi, one page, 4to, Spa Fields, 5th September 1817, to R. W. Elliston at the Theatre Royal, Birmingham. Grimaldi informs his colleague that he has returned to London following 'a most successful tour' and continues 'With respect to terms we cannot agree - If I work I must be paid - I can have no objection to visit Birmingham at the time proposed if I can obtain permission - And terms proposed by me accepted - the best nights receipt clear out of the week'. With integral address leaf in Grimaldi's hand and signed ('J. Grimaldi') by him. With a red wax seal and a small area of paper loss where originally broken. Some very minor, light dust staining to the edges, not affecting the text or signature, VG Robert William Elliston (1774-1831) English Actor and Theatre Manager. Elliston had an interest in the Theatre Royal, Birmingham, a patent theatre, however ill health and misfortune culminated in his bankruptcy in 1826. In the early 1800s Joseph Grimaldi expanded the role of Clown in the harlequinade that formed part of British pantomimes, most notably at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. The actor is recognised as by far being the most popular English entertainer of his day and the Victoria and Albert Museum (among others) have concluded that no other Clown has achieved Grimaldi's level of fame.

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CAROLINE OF BRUNSWICK: (1768-1821) Queen Consort of the United Kingdom and

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Description: CAROLINE OF BRUNSWICK: (1768-1821) Queen Consort of the United Kingdom and Hanover 1820-21. Wife of King George IV. A.L.S., Caroline, Princess de Galles, as Princess of Wales, in the third person (although also signed in a conventional manner at the conclusion), three pages, 4to, n.p. (Pesaro), 21st August 1818, to Professor Tamassini, in French. The Princess expresses her pleasure at the news that her correspondent's wife has safely given birth to a baby girl, and adds that she is looking forward to congratulating him personally on his next visit, further conveying the good wishes of 'Monsieur le Baron' (her lover, Bartolomeo Pergami), and continuing to explain that she will be especially pleased to see him again later in the year as she hopes that Cardinal Albani will be in Pesaro at that time, further noting that Marquis Antaldo's letters to their mutual friend Dr. Rosari appear to be censored by the police ('…comme la police est si inquiet a son suject….'). VG Provenance: The present letter originates from a collection formed in 1903 by A. M. Broadley, author of Chats on Autographs (1910). In his book Broadley observes 'The letters of the Princess of Wales…the Queen Caroline of 1820-21, are not very valuable, but they are curious. They are now quite as valuable as those of her worthless husband and his successor….' The marriage of the future King George IV to Caroline of Brunswick was a disaster from the outset, not least as Prince George was already secretly married to Maria Fitzherbert. In 1814, offended at her exclusion from the celebrations to mark the fall of Napoleon, Caroline moved to Italy where she employed Bartolomeo Pergami (mentioned in the present letter) as a servant. Pergami soon became Caroline's closest companion and lover. Gossip about her affairs and lifestyle was widespread and Hanoverian spies watched her in the hope of collecting evidence of her adultery which George required as the grounds for the divorce he desperately sought, but never obtained. When her husband finally acceded to the throne in 1820, Caroline was famously shut out of her own coronation.

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GEORGE IV: (1762-1830) King of the United Kingdom 1820-30.  A good

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Description: GEORGE IV: (1762-1830) King of the United Kingdom 1820-30. A good D.S., George R, as King, at the head, four pages, folio, Court at Carlton House, 14th May 1824. The manuscript document is addressed to the Reverend George Gregory and William Ponsford and is a License allowing John Lambert Arden and his issue to take and use the surname of Gorwyn in addition to, and after that, of Arden and provides a lengthy explanation, stating, in part, 'Whereas George Gregory of Dunsford in the County of Devon, Clerk, and William Ponsford, of Puddicombe in the same County, Gentleman, for and on behalf of John Lambert Arden, of the Parish of Cheriton Bishop in the County aforesaid, Gentleman, a minor of the age of twenty years and upwards, the fourth and youngest son of George Arden, late of the City of Exeter, Mercer, deceased, by Joan his wife, one of the sisters of John Lambert Gorwyn, late of Cheriton Bishop….also deceased, have by their Petition humbly represented us, that the said John Lambert Gorwyn, the late material uncle of the said John Lambert Arden, in and by his last Will….gave and devised his messauges….in the said Will, there is contained a Proviso and Direction that when and as soon as the said John Lambert Arden should become seized or entitled to the actual Possession of the said Estate….he shall use, assume and take upon him and afterwards continue the surname of Gorwyn only instead of his then surname or by adding the same thereto….' Countersigned at the conclusion by Robert Peel (1788-1850) British Prime Minister 1834-35, 1841-46 and Home Secretary 1822-27 & 1828-30. With blind embossed paper seal affixed. A good document featuring fine examples of the signatures of King George IV and Robert Peel. VG Robert Peel twice served as the United Kingdom's Prime Minister (1834-35, 1841-46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822-27, 1828-30) and is regarded as one of the founders of the modern Conservative Party and the father of modern British policing. His establishment of the Metropolitan Police Force for London in 1829 led to a new type of officer known in tribute to him as 'bobbies', a term still used today. King George IV had served as Prince Regent during the final years of his father, King George III's, illness and acceded to the throne in 1820. The King led an extravagant lifestyle that contributed to the fashions of the Regency era. He was a patron of new forms of leisure, style and taste and commissioned the building of the Royal Pavilion in Brighton, the remodelling of Buckingham Palace and the rebuilding of Windsor Castle. His charm and culture earned him the title of 'the first gentleman of England', however his way of life brought contempt from his public, many of whom found his behaviour selfish, unreliable and irresponsible.

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JENNER EDWARD: (1749-1823) English Physician & Scientist, the pioneer of sm

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Description: JENNER EDWARD: (1749-1823) English Physician & Scientist, the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine. An extremely rare and significant manuscript notebook, unsigned, the tall 8vo bound volume compiled by Jenner, comprising over 100 pages of holograph text (and some original illustrations and diagrams), n.p., n.d. (c.1822/23), being Jenner's transcripts of contemporary scientific texts relating to meteorology. Jenner's notes explore the various aspects of contemporary meteorology, including the observations and discoveries of leading academics including William Falconer, Luke Howard and Thomas Forster and cover a wide variety of meteorological subjects from instrumentation ('a complete apparatus of meteorological instruments should include the Barometer, Thermometer, Hydrometer, Photometer, Athrioscope, Cynometer') through to the influence of flora and fauna ('Animal effluvia as well as vegetable are capable of being mixed with the air, and suspended in it. These are now generally esteemed to be the cause or source of fevers of the malignant or contagious kind'). The comprehensive notebook includes texts from various publications, essays and papers, a few extracts of which include - 'The analysis of the atmosphere is one of the finest discoveries of modern Chemistry. It appears to consist of two distinct expansible fluids contained in different proportions, a single portion of oxygen gas being united to three parts by weight, or four parts by bulk, of azote. There is also a very slight admixture of carbonic acid gas, accounting perhaps to a thousandth part of the whole', from the Supplement to the Encyclopaedia Britannica written by Sir John Leslie between 1815-24, 'The degree of pressure of the atmosphere upon the human body has not been exactly estimated, it having been computed from 31,000 to 42,000 pounds' weight. In the different states of the atmosphere his varies, the effects of these variations are not ascertained', from the 'Remarks on the Influence of Climate, Situation, Nature of Country, Population, Nature of Food, and Way of Life' by William Falconer (London, 1781), 'It is the frequent observation of the countenance of the sky, and of its connection with the present and ensuing phaenomena, that constitutes the antient and popular meteorology. The want of this branch of knowledge renders the predictions of the philosopher, who is attending only to his instruments less generally successful than those of the weather-wise mariner or husbandman', from the Philosophical Magazine, (Vol. XVI, London, 1803. Article XVIII), 'On the Modifications of Clouds, and on the Principles of their Production, Suspension and Destruction'; being the substance of an Essay read before the Askesian Society in the Session 1802-3, by Luke Howard, 'One of the principle uses of meteorology is, that it enables us to predict, in some measure, the ensuing changes of the weather. To do this accurately, a familiar acquaintance with the modification of the clouds, and indeed with all the operations which are going on above, appears necessary. When two or more contrary indications appear, the result must be deduced from those which ultimately prevail; & that when several agreeable signs appear, the event may be predicted with additional certainty…some animals express signs of uneasiness previous to an alteration of the weather long before there are any visible signs of a change. Dogs for instance become very drowsy & stupid before rain & their ears are sometimes found considerably inflamed….cats though in a less degree are affected in the same manner - and a leech, confined in a glass of water, has been found, by its rapid motions…to indicate fair or wet weather. Peculiarities in the electric state of the atmosphere may…affect the constitution of animals in the same manner as they appear to do ours, & thereby excite pleasurable or uneasy sensations', from the 'Researches about Atmospheric Phaenomena etc.' by Thomas Forster (London, 1813), 'The sound of bells heard form a great distance is a sign of wind, or a change of weather. When sea fowl and other aquatic birds return to the sea shore or marshes it indicates a change of weather and a sudden storm. When frogs croak much, toad crawl out in the evening, when earth worm come forth, ants remove their eggs, moles throw up earth, asses frequently shake and agitate their ears', from the 'Monthly Magazine or British Register' (Vol. 35, London, 1813) and 'An Account of Ireland, Statistical and Political' by Edward Wakefield, 'In the formation of thunder storms I have noticed that when the rain actually begins to form and descend, the intensity of the blackness is not so great as where the cumulostratus is only going into a state of nimbus. If therefore the density is increased in the formation of drops of water, the blackness must depend on some other peculiarity of structure', from an article in 'The Philosophical Magazine' (Vol. XLI, London, 1813) written by Thomas Forster, 'To establish meteorology on a solid basis we should inquire into the extent and constitution of the medium we breathe and assist external observation by the different philosophical instruments which implicate at all times the exact condition and qualities of that mutable fluid', from the 'Treatise on Meteorology' by John Leslie in the Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature, and the Arts (Vol. XIV, Article X, London, 1823) 'White clouds on a grey ground, is one of the most certain indications of a mixture of two currents possessed of different constitutions. Storms are more sudden from the West points, in their commencement and are preceded by greater indications of commotion in the atmosphere, are attended with greater variations of the Barometer, are more squally in their progress, more partial in their extent and generally of less duration than those from an East point', from 'Remarks upon Meteorology; with a Specimen of a New Meteorological Table' by Dr.Bostock, as it appeared in 'A Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and The Arts' by William Nicholson (Vol. XXV, London, 1810), 'The limit, or boundary of the atmosphere terminates where the expansive force or power of the air, upwards, or from the Earth's surface is completely overcome by the force or power of gravitation downwards, or towards the Earth's surface, which is estimated at about 44 or 45 miles. It is computed that it would extend only to about 5 ½ miles in height if it were so compressed, that its density throughout should equal its degree of density near the surface of the Earth', from an essay 'On the Barometer' by Richard Walker of Oxford, published in 'The Philosophical Magazine' by Alexander Tilloch (Vol. XL, July - December 1812). On two pages at the centre of the journal there can be found Jenner's grey & black water colour depictions of cloud types, faithfully rendered in the style of the originals as they appear in Luke Howard's On the Modification of Clouds (1803). A third original illustration has been neatly excised from its page. Bound in the original, plain dark cloth boards (some light staining and age wear) and with a pencil ownership signature and address to the front free endpaper of a Miss Perkins & Dr Perry of 3 Priory Street, Everton. Some light staining and age wear throughout, the text however completely legible and not significantly affected in any way. Generally G A fascinating and remarkable meteorological record compiled by Jenner for his personal reference. Jenner's interest in meteorology is not well documented, however, it would undoubtedly have been a subject of great importance to him in association with his experimentation with ballooning and his studies of bird migration. The present notebook offers a unique insight into the aspects of meteorology he most desired to understand. It was in 1784 that Jenner was to make his first tentative steps at being a balloonist. Influenced by his close friend, the surgeon William F. Shrapnell, Jenner carried out his first aeronautical experiment based on a balloon deign supplied by boyhood friend Dr. Caleb Parry. Jenner wrote 'your directions respecting the Balloon are so clear and explicit, 'tis impossible for me to blunder; but to make it quite a certainty, I intend first to fill it and see if it will float in the Castle-Hall, before the public exhibition. Should it prove unwilling to mount and turn shy before a large assembly, don't you think I may make my escape under the cover of three or four dozen Squibs and Crackers?' Subsequently, Jenner became known for his studies on the migrating Cuckoo, which were published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (1788) and later in the posthumously published, Some Observations on the Migration of Birds (1824). It was not until the 18th century that significant progress occurred in the study of meteorology, so whilst little is known of Jenner's attraction to this interdisciplinary branch of science we can be sure that in these early days, Jenner was there to appreciate its importance. His forays into ballooning and the serious study of migration were undoubtedly made more pleasurable to his scientific mind by the knowledge he had gained in the study of meteorology. Jenner is frequently referred to as the 'father of immunology' and his work is said to have saved more lives than the work of any other human. A member of the Royal Society, in the field of zoology he was the first person to describe the brood parasitism of the cuckoo. In 2002 Jenner was named in the BBC's list of the 100 Greatest Britons. We are indebted to Mark Beswick, Archive Information Officer of the Met Office National Meteorological Archive and to Owen Gower, Manager of Dr. Jenner's House, Museum & Garden in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, for their assistance with the present lot.

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With references to John Quincy Adams, Rowland Hill and Joseph Priestley

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Description: With references to John Quincy Adams, Rowland Hill and Joseph Priestley BENTHAM JEREMY: (1748-1832) English Jurist, Philosopher and Social Reformer. A good L.S., Jeremy Bentham, two pages, small 4to, Q[ueen] S[quare] P[lace], 31st March 1825, to Joseph Parkes ('My dear Joseph'). Bentham states 'Trusting to your so well experience philanthropy, I shall take the liberty of addressing to you by tomorrow…. a smart pretty looking boy of 8 years old, son of a Mr Robt. Hunter, U.S. Consul at the Isle of Wight, begging of you to convey the boy to Hazlewood (sic)' and continues 'Mr John Adams Smith, late Secretary of Legation here from U.S., now about to depart in the same character for Madrid (he is Nephew to the new President) introduced Mr. Hunter and his son to me….for this purpose'. Bentham further quotes from a letter of Hunter's, explaining that the expenses for the boy's education will be covered by Joshua Bates, and continues to write 'Be so good as to desire Mr. Hill to send me some more Epitomes and Proposals. I gave four of them to Mr. Martin, a merchant of Liverpool, Secretary of the Royal Institution, who has children of his own, and is a superiorly informed and influential man there. He was a sort of pupil of Priestley's' before concluding 'Oh my weak and battered old memory! We spoke of you together: he and you are intimate. This is enough and more than enough from yours most truly…..' Bentham has added a holograph note at the foot of the letter, addressed to his amanuensis (John Flowerdew Colls), stating 'The original in my own hand goes to Mr. Hunter as soon as I have learnt…from (John) Bowring who is to dine here to day'. A letter of interesting content. Some extremely minor age wear, VG Joseph Parkes (1796-1865) English Political Reformer, associated with the Philosophical Radicals. In 1822 he had established a solicitor's practice in Birmingham and was a regular correspondent with Bentham, whom Parkes had first met as a young man articled to a London solicitor. Hazelwood School had recently been established in Edgbaston by Thomas Wright Hill (1763-1851) English Mathematician and Schoolmaster, father of the postal reformer Rowland Hill who himself designed the new purpose built school. As an 'educational refraction' of Joseph Priestley's ideas, Hazelwood was to provide a model for public education. Rejecting the cane as a disciplinary tool and advocating self-governance for its pupils, it worked on educational principles similar to those proposed by Bentham in Chrestomathia. Bentham was highly impressed with the school and keenly promoted it, often encouraging his friends and acquaintances to send their sons there, as illustrated by the present letter. John Adams Smith - nephew of John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) American President 1825-29. Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) English Theologian. His grammar textbook was innovative and highly influential, more importantly he argued that a practical education would be more useful to students than a classical one. He was also the first to advocate the study and teaching of modern history. In the present letter Bentham also refers to Joshua Bates (1788-1864) an American financier who was later to become the senior partner of Baring Brothers & Co. and was to found the Boston Public Library and John Bowring (1792-1872) English Political Economist, a disciple and friend of Bentham who later served as his literary executor. The fully holograph version of the present letter is held in the Bentham Papers in the Library of University College London and is also published in The Correspondence of Jeremy Bentham (ed. O'Sullivan & Fuller, 2006, Vol. XII). Jeremy Bentham is regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism. Bentham defined as the 'fundamental axiom' of his philosophy the principle that 'it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong'. He became a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law. He advocated individual and economic freedom, the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women and the right to divorce. He called for the abolition of slavery, the abolition of the death penalty, and the abolition of physical punishment, including that of children.

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ALEXANDER I: (1777-1825) Emperor of Russia 1801-25. Alexander was also the

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Description: ALEXANDER I: (1777-1825) Emperor of Russia 1801-25. Alexander was also the first Russian King of Poland (1815-25) and the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland (1809-25). D.S., Aleksandr, as Emperor, in Cyrillic, one page, folio, n.p., 4th July 1825, in Cyrillic. The attractively penned manuscript document is a decree addressed to the Chapter of the Orders of Russia and confers Knighthoods on Cossack Captain Popov and Councillor Ogarkov and states, in part, 'In recompense for the aid given to the inhabitants of the Colony of Sarepta by Marshal of the Nobility for Kamyshin and Tsaritsyn, Cossack Captain Popov, in putting out the fire suffered by them in 1823, and the Member of the Moscow Mountain Board Titular Councillor Ogarkov, in recompense for the distinguished zeal shown in his work….We Most Graciously appoint them Knights, the former of the Order of the Apostolic Prince St. Vladimir, 4th Class, and the latter of the Order of St. Anne, 3rd Class', further commanding the Chapter to deliver to them the certificates and insignia of the orders. Countersigned at the foot in the Settlement District of the 1st and 2nd Carabineer Regiments. With a very small, insignificant area of paper loss to the upper left edge, not affecting the text or signature, VG Alexander I succeeded to the Russian throne following the assassination of his father, Emperor Paul I. Alexander ruled Russia during the chaotic period of the Napoleonic Wars and he changed his country's position relative to France on four occasions between 1804 and 1812 among neutrality, opposition and alliance. In 1805 he joined Britain in the War of the Third Coalition against Napoleon, but after the massive defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz he switched and formed an alliance with Napoleon by the Treaty of Tilsit (1807). He and Napoleon could never agree, especially about Poland, and the alliance had collapsed by 1810. Emperor Alexander I's greatest triumph came in 1812 as Napoleon's invasion of Russia proved a total disaster for the French.

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WILLIAM IV: (1765-1837) King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ire

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Description: WILLIAM IV: (1765-1837) King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1830-37. A.L.S., William R, as King, one page, 8vo, St. James's, n.d. ('Sunday Morning', c.1830), to 'Dearest Mary' (his illegitimate daughter, Lady Mary Fox). The King writes a brief letter stating, in full, 'I broke thro' mistake the seal and therefore enclose Amelia's letter (no longer present) Ever believe me, Yours most affectionately'. Neatly annotated in ink in an unidentified hand at the foot. A letter of interesting association. Some very slight, extremely minor traces of former mounting to the verso, VG Lady Mary Fox (1798-1864) English Writer, the illegitimate daughter of King William IV by his mistress Dorothea Jordan. In later life she served as housekeeper at Windsor Castle. Amelia Cary (1807-1858) Viscountess Falkland. British Noblewoman, the illegitimate daughter of King William IV by his mistress Dorothea Jordan and sister of Lady Mary Fox. Since the 12th century and the reign of King Henry II, British Kings have, with very few exceptions, enjoyed the companionship of a royal mistress. Monarchs had an incentive to take mistresses in that they generally made dynastic marriages of convenience, and there was often little love in them. Beyond the physical relationship, the royal mistress would often exercise a profound influence over the King, extending even to affairs of state. William IV was the last King and penultimate monarch of Britain's House of Hanover and his reign saw several reforms, not least the abolishment of slavery in almost all of the British Empire. The King cohabited with his mistress, Dorothea Jordan (see lot XXX), for twenty years and fathered ten illegitimate children with her.

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NICHOLAS I: (1796-1855) Emperor of Russia 1825-55.  D.S., Nikolai,

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Description: NICHOLAS I: (1796-1855) Emperor of Russia 1825-55. D.S., Nikolai, as Emperor, in Cyrillic, one page, folio, St. Petersburg, 2nd January 1832, in Cyrillic. The elegantly penned manuscript document is a decree addressed to the Chapter of the Orders of Russia and appoints Van Lennep, the Dutch Consul-General at Smyrna, to be a 'Knight of the Order of St. Anne 2nd Class, decorated with the Imperial Crown' and commands the Chapter to deliver to him the insignia of the Order with the prescribed certificate. Countersigned at the foot by Karl Nesselrode (1780-1862, Russian Foreign Minister 1814-56) as Vice Chancellor, 4th January 1832. About EX Jacob Van Lennep (1769-1855) Turkish Merchant who served as Consul-General of the Netherlands at Smyrna. Emperor Nicholas I also reigned as King of Poland (1825-30, 1831-55) and Grand Duke of Finland (1825-55) and is remembered as political conservative whose reign was marked by geographical expansion, repression of dissent and frequent wars that culminated in Russia's disastrous defeat in the Crimean War (1853-56). On the eve of the Emperor's death the Russian Empire reached its geographical zenith.

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