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Auction Description for TimeLine Auctions: Antiquities: Day 1
Sale Notes:
www.invaluable.co.uk/timelineauctions

Antiquities: Day 1 (629 Lots)

by TimeLine Auctions


629 lots with images

December 6, 2016

Live Auction

London, United Kingdom

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Roman Bust of Hercules Holding Apples of Hesperides

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. A large bust of Hercules (Herakles) wearing a lion skin fastened over his shoulders with paws resting on his chest; right hand holding a club raised over his right shoulder; left hand holding three apples and face of a lion skin; very fine facial details with large curly beard and short curly hair with fillet. See similar pose on marble statue The Bust of Commodus as Hercules, Capitoline Museums, Rome. Accompanied by an Art Loss Register certificate. 2.52 kg, 25.2cm (10"). Property of a Surrey collector; acquired in the early 1970s. Accompanied by a copy of positive metallurgic analytical results, written by Metallurgist Dr. Peter Northover (ex Department of Materials, Materials Science-Based Archaeology Group & Department of Materials, University of Oxford"). Hercules (Greek Herakles) was the son of Zeus and a mortal queen Alkmene. He displayed his great strength since early childhood, when he killed two snakes that were sent by the goddess Hera (Roman Juno) to kill him in his cradle. Heroic deeds such as sailing with the Argonauts, liberation of the Titan Prometheus, the twelve labours in the service of king Eurystheus and his voluntary death on a pyre on Mount Oite, mark his progress from hero to immortal where he ascended to Olympus and was given the goddess Hebe as a wife. In his aspect as kallinikos, meaning 'the radiant victor', in all forms of contest, he became the national hero of the Greeks. He was popular with the ordinary people as alexikalos, or protector against misfortune, and someone one could turn to in need. His club was an object of protection and was replicated in small versions to be worn as amulets. The Hercules knot, with which the god tied the skin of the Nemean lion about his shoulders, would also take on apotropaic powers, especially among women, where it was used in a variety of jewellery, but also to tie the belt around the wedding dress on the day of marriage. The apples that Hercules holds in this image relate to the eleventh labour. The Hesperides were nymphs of evening and golden light of sunset, who were the Daughters of the Evening or Nymphs of the West. They tend a blissful garden in a far western corner of the world, located near the Atlas mountains in North Africa at the edge of the encircling Oceanus, the world-ocean, and it is in this garden that the golden tree is located. As well as the garden, the golden tree and the nymphs, the Titan Atlas was also here holding up the heavens.Hercules tricked him into retrieving some of the golden apples for him, by offering to hold up the heavens for a little while. Upon his return, Atlas decided that he did not want to take the heavens back, and instead offered to deliver the apples himself to king Eurystheus, but Hercules tricked him again by agreeing to take his place on condition that Atlas relieve him temporarily, so that Hercules could make his cloak more comfortable. Atlas agreed, but Hercules reneged and walked away, carrying the apples. However, since those apples were not meant for mortals, they were given to Athena who took them back to the garden. Hercules was a popular god in Rome, as well, and had many temples dedicated to him. He was also a patron deity of some of the emperors who would depict themselves in the guise of the god, such as Commodus. In the city of Rome, Hercules had many epithets such as Custos, 'custodian', Invictus, 'unconquered', and Triumphalis 'the triumphant'. He was also especially worshipped in Gaul where he was amalgamated with native Celtic deities such as Ilunnus, Magusanus and Saegon, and had an important healing shrine at Deneuvre. The life of Hercules, which involved heroic struggles for the benefit of mankind, overcoming of evil forces and eventual apotheosis, led to a mystery cult developed around him. Though not as popular as that of Isis, Dionysus or Cybele, it found favour among the troops and a number of altars and dedications are known depicting the initiated in the guise of the god.

Condition Report: Extremely fine condition. Important.

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Roman Altar Pillar with Hekate Surrounded by Nymphs

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. An Eastern Empire marble altar with rectangular base three figures of females dressed in peplos representing triple goddess Hecate (Hekate) surrounded by four smaller figures of nymphs, three dancing and once playing aulos; inscription to one side: In the 7th (?) year. For the continuance of Kl(a)udios. ......akos (the name of the dedicator"). At the behest of Artemis .....; provincial workmanship. For a Hellenistic altar pillar to Hekate and the Graces see The Glyptothek Museum, Munich, inventory number 60; Metropolitan Museum of Art, Accession Number: 1987.11.2. Accompanied by an Art Loss Register certificate. 20.7 kg, 69cm (27"). Property of a European gentleman living in London; acquired in the UK 1981. Hekate was a Greek goddess who possibly originated in Asia Minor, and was later adapted also in Roman religion. As an underworld deity, she was associated with witchcraft and necromancy, often depicted holding the keys to the underworld and a flaming torch to light her way during her nocturnal travels. Her animal attendants were snakes and dogs, both associated with the underworld, and black dogs were sacrificed to her. In spite of her nature, she was relatively popular and worshipped goddess, with a small altar to her in front of every house in Athens. Hekate was also worshipped as the goddess of crossroads, traditional meeting place for ghosts and witches over who she held a patronage. She is commonly mentioned on curse tablets and magical papyri as a deity who will carry out maleficent spells. In literal sources, she appears in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and in Hesiod's Theogony, where she is promoted as a great goddess. In the second to third century AD writings of the Chaldean Oracles, she was regarded as a ruler over earth, sea and sky, as well as a more universal role as Saviour, Mother of Angels and the Cosmic World Soul. The dedication to Artemis on the altar most likely refers to Hecate's function as a moon goddess. If Hecate's cult spread from Anatolia into Greece, it is possible that it created a religious conflict, as her role was already filled by other more prominent deities in the Greek pantheon, above all by Artemis and Selene. The triple form could be a result of religious compromise, including Hecate in the pantheon of already established moon goddesses. In one version of her origin, Hecate is a mortal priestess often associated with Iphigeneia. She scorns and insults Artemis, who in retribution eventually brings about the mortal's suicide. According to Strabo, there was an area sacred to Hecate in the precincts of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, where the priests, megabyzi, officiated.

Condition Report: Very fine condition. Rare.

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Roman Luna on Globe Statuette

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. A bronze statuette of Luna standing on a globe, in advancing pose with loose peplos clasped at the shoulders by disc brooches, left hand raised and open, right hand slightly extended, hair dressed in a chignon with scrolls to the brow and crown; the eyes, fingernails and toenails with sheet silver detailing; globe mounted on a tiered pedestal base, hollow to the underside. Cf. Ward Perkins, J. Pompeii AD 79, London, 1976, items 176 and 223. For a similar statue from Saône-et-Loire,Mâcon, France, see The British Museum, accession number 1824,0426.5 Accompanied by an Art Loss Register certificate. 666 grams, 22cm (8 3/4"). Property of a Surrey collector; acquired in the early 1970s. Supplied with a positive X-Ray Fluorescence metal analysis certificate, and accompanied by a copy of positive metallurgic analytical results, written by Metallurgist Dr. Peter Northover (ex Department of Materials, Materials Science-Based Archaeology Group & Department of Materials, University of Oxford"). Luna was the personification of the moon, equivalent to Greek Selene, often shown as an aspect of the Roman triple goddess (diva triformis), along with Proserpina and Hecate. Her billowing robes represent the endless forward motion of the goddess in her celestial chariot, while the silver detailing of the figure evokes moonlight. Her chief temple was on the Aventine Hill in Rome. Her Greek name means, light or radiance, and she was the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia, and sister to Helios, the sun god, and Eos, goddess of the dawn. Several lovers are attributed to her in various myths, including Zeus, Pan, and the mortal Endymion. In classical times, Selene was often identified with Artemis, much as her brother, Helios, was identified with Apollo. The poet Aeschylus calls Selene the eye of the night and other ancient literary references describe her the bright and beautiful haired. The Orphic Hymns give Selene horns and a torch, describing her as all-seeing, all-wise, a lover of horses and of vigilance, and a foe of strife who gives to Nature's works their destined end. Paired with her brother Helios, Selene adorned the east pediment of the Parthenon, where the two framed a scene depicting the birth of Athena, with Helios driving his chariot rising from the ocean on the left, and Selene and her chariot descending into the sea on the right. From Pausanias, we learn that Selene and Helios also framed the birth of Aphrodite on the base of the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. There are indications of a similar framing by Selene and Helios of the birth of Pandora on the base of the Athena Parthenos. Selene also appears on horseback as part of the Gigantomachy frieze of the Pergamon Altar. Due to her association with the moon she was the tutelary deity of magicians and sorcerers.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Testament of Julius Fiddin

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Description: Late 3rd-early 4th century AD. A pair of wooden writing tablets pierced for attachment with a thread or thong, with inked text in Roman cursive script concerning the will of Julius Fiddin; Tablet 1 transcription, side A: sciunt et possidentur (a)equibus partibus dividatis; do dono / Iulio Victori filio meo domum in quam manet Assaratim / cum ianuam suam et cohorte ad se pertinente cum posticium / sicuti cludet; item do dono fidem Victori filio meo Camel/lam quam Arutie hodie habet et oves quatuor cum agnos / duo; do dono Iulio Primo filio meo spatium ubi sibi (a)edi/ficet qui iungitur Iuliano Masiani sicuti terminibus com/clusa est ita ut (a)edificent cui illo fratres eiius materiias / Cinnas, ut de viribus omnioru(m) fratru(m) (a)edificet set et cellam / qui est post posticium centenari qui comparatur de Roman/tiu Romanticahinis. Ad eundem Primum pertineat camellam / meam cum filiam, ad Iulium Primum et Sperantium / fili mei pertinere bolo ut (a)equibus partibus dividant. Item / do dono fidem Primo filio meo oves quinque et capras / Translation: - they shall possess it in equal parts; I give and I donate to my son Julius Victor the house in which Assaratis lives with its entrance door and the fenced yard which belongs to it and with its back door. I also give and donate the camel, which today Arutie has, to my son Victor, and four sheep with two lambs. I give and donate to my son Julius Primus the space where he shall build (a house); it is connected to (the land of) Julianus, son of Masianus, and also enclosed by border stones; and his brothers shall build him (the house) with their building materials. With the manpower of all brothers also shall be erected a room, which is situated behind the back door of the Centenarium, which was acquired from Romantius, son of Romanticahinis. The same Primus shall have my camel with its (female) child. I want that my sons Julius Primus and Sperantius shall have it and that they share it equally. Furthermore I give and donate faithfully to my son Primus five sheep and goats. Side B (Intus, framed side) MAMONIS sertum ++B+P++++++++L++++++L++++ / mionem qui comparatur de NABORE SERVGIS et est / in com VAL T/BECUBILI sertum arbores fici et olivas; do / lego datique ab heredibus meis iubeo Iuliae Crescenti/ae filiae m(e)ae dalmaticas tres cum MASURTIR/MAFURTIR sua afro / claviante purpura libras quatuor in campana; item / do lego fidem Crescentiae filiae m(e)ae oves duae de o/ves meas; do lego Antonillae uxori m(e)ae bene de me/merenti secundum fide strumento in nomine ei/ius comparantes pari cellas possesionis qui comparan/tur a Martide et Victore habeat proprium; do do/no eisdem heredibus meis cribtam [= cryptam] meam PALIARITA / commune habeant, sic tamen paleas ad Primum et Spe/rantium pertin[e]nt. P+NE VERO de frumentum mei Translation: - who bought it from Nabor, son of Serus, and which is in - - - planted with fig- and olive trees; I give and donate and I order that it will be given from my heirs to my daughter Iulia Crescentia three dalmaticae with its African mafortia with purple stripes (?) with a weight of four pounds; I even give and donate to my daughter Crescentia two sheep of my sheep. I give and donate to my well deserved wife Antonilla in confidence the things which were bought in her name, and also the rooms which were acquired from Mars and Victor, shall she possess as her property. I give and donate to my heirs my crypt ---, they shall use it together; but if you will get pale-faced (= die) it also shall be for Primus and Sperantius. - Tablet 2 transcription (incomplete) - accipiat Iulius Victor filius meus / H+++IM+DIOS viginti relicum fructum habeant Pri/mus et Sperantius fili mei et Antonilla mater eoru(m) / super lectilem meum vero++ R bonum et rusticum et / si quid movilia habeant Antonilla uxor mea et Speran/tius filius meus sane vero do dono Iulio Primo filio meo / orcas castillanas quinque et cathedras duas MAGIDAUMA / et chulurrium quem sibi comparabit alitus habeat; do le/go Antonillae uxori mae DES vestes quas hodie infra me ha/beo dalmaticas tres et sticauna et stramenta mea habeat / do lego Antonillae uxori mae oves sex quas propr/ia habeat et quidquid mihi excidit de rebus meis / quod non nominavi ad heredes meos pertineat fa/milia testamenti faciundi erga emit Iulius Iuli/anus, antestatus est Iulius Romantius libripen/de. Iulius Fiddin testamentum factum die et consule s(upra) s(cripta"). Translation: - may take my son Julius Victor - - - twenty of the remaining fruit trees shall have my sons Primus and Sperantius and their mother Antonilla. --- good and solid (furniture) shall have my wife Antonilla and my son Sperantius. I give and donate with clear mind to my son Julius Primus five Orca castillana (some kind of furniture) and two chairs and he shall have the chulurrius which he bought for himself. I give and donate to my wife Antonilla two apparels which I actually have with me, three dalmaticae and other clothes. I give and donate to my wife Antonilla six sheep which she shall have as her property. And all of my things which I did not make a mention of shall belong to my heirs - - - buys Julius Julianus. Witnessed by Julius Romantius as libripens. Julius Fiddin has made his will at the above mentioned day and year. See Münchner Beiträge zur antiken Papyrologie und Rechtsgeschichte, Leopold Wenger Institute (LMU Munich); forthcoming. Accompanied by an Art Loss Register certificate. 151 grams total, 24 x 19cm, 18 x 11cm (9 1/2 x 7 1/2, 7 x 4 1/4"). From an important London collection since 1975; acquired by a London dealer 1973; formerly the property of Monsieur Alain Sfez, a Belgian collector; acquired by gift from his father Albert Sfez, 1965; acquired by Albert in the early 1950s; accompanied by a copy of a witnessed ownership statement from Alain Sfez. [2]

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Roman Tablet Recording Sale of Clothing

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Description: Dated 334 AD. A wooden tabula with three holes to the sulcius to accept binding strips; handwritten ink text recording the sale of textiles in which Julius Julianus buys from a person PRA[...] different kinds of clothing, especially dalmaticae (the standard overgarment of upper-class men).; Side A: signatures of eight witnesses right of the sulcius, (A)emilius Numerianus, Iulius [...], Pomponius Fidentius, Iulius Marartarius, Iul, Quintus, [...]C(?)larinus, [...] lius Quadratianus, Numerius Octavianus with signavi '(I) sealed (it)' after each name; the main text written to the left of the sulcus; consular date (Leonti et Sallustio consulibus = 344 AD), then recording the sale of clothes: Iulius Iulianus [...]emit de PRA[...]MI PIS[...] in VATRINIO [...]Numerio patre [...] pars [...] sicut in F[...] pro C[.]E[...]. (...) auro argento veste lintiam in erebusque aestim[...] ... Iulio Iuli .... albam cum mafortio suo afro clavante folles n(umero) octoginta [...] dalmaticam nativam disimam cum mafortio suo folles n(umero) se[...] confectum dalmaticae STUPLINAE cum [...] folles n(umero) TRIgin ... quinqualium confectum lana +unativa+ dalmaticae folles [...] lineam afram ... folles dece et octo, aliam lin[.]am[...] ... folles non+ FACIALEM alexandrinum folles viginti, SEUDONI[.] M [...] M folles octo ... [...]ADUA folles tes[...] facialem afrum folles octo, Caracallam medio[...]am et FACIALEM [...]DICUM folles tres, CA[.]E[.]IAM ... folles ... folles quadriginta ... quatenos et [...]'; Side B (recessed face) text indistinct, then.[...] 'recte dari sine dolo mal(o) dolus malus abest abe[...] ... Iulius Iulianus ... [...]CVND[..]... pretium ut s(upra) s(cripta) est ... acepisse et habere ... ' and legal formulas typical of Roman sales contracts. For examples of wooden tabulae re-used as a writing surfaces, see Thomas, J. D., Vindolanda: The Latin Writing Tablets, Britannia Monograph Series No 4, London, 1983; for examples of testamentary documents on wooden tablets that have survived, see FIRA III, p.47 for Anthony Silvanus from 142 AD and see BGU VII 1695 for Safinnius Herminus; for another from Transfynydd, North Wales, see Arch. Camb. 150, pp.143-156. See Münchner Beiträge zur antiken Papyrologie und Rechtsgeschichte, Leopold Wenger Institute (LMU Munich); forthcoming. Accompanied by an Art Loss Register certificate. 84 grams, 21 x 25cm (8 1/4 x 9 3/4"). From an important London collection since 1975; acquired by a London dealer 1973; formerly the property of Monsieur Alain Sfez, a Belgian collector; acquired by gift from his father Albert Sfez, 1965; acquired by Albert in the early 1950s; accompanied by a copy of a witnessed ownership statement from Alain Sfez. The contract follows standard Roman legal formulae.

Condition Report: Fine condition. A rare and exceptional legal document, providing a fascinating insight into the functioning of Roman society and its economy.

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Roman Gold Signet Ring with Bird and Boar

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Description: 3rd century AD. A substantial square-section gold hoop with keeled shoulders, discoid plaque with intaglio design of an advancing boar supporting a standing bird. Cf. Ruseva-Slokoska, L. Roman Jewellery, Sofia, 1991, item 183. 11 grams, 27mm overall, 20.69mm internal diameter (approximate size British W, USA 11, Europe 25.0, Japan 24) (1"). Property of a London gentleman by descent; formerly in the Viktor Hruby collection in 1972. Accompanied by a positive X-Ray Fluorescence metal analysis certificate.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Ring of Legio XI Claudia

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Description: 3rd century AD. A gold D-section hoop with expanding shoulders, flat scaphoid plaque with inset red jasper, intaglio inscription 'VET / XI * CL / LEG'. Cf. Ruseva-Slokoska, L. Roman Jewellery, Sofia, 1991, item 246. 26 grams, 29mm overall, 14.26 x 18.35mm internal diameter (approximate size British F 1/2, USA 3 1/4, Europe 4.74, Japan 4) (1 1/4"). Property of a Surrey collector; acquired in the early 1970s. Accompanied by a positive X-Ray Fluorescence metal analysis certificate. The ring was probably awarded to a veteran (VET) of Legio XI Claudia. In the 3rd century this legion took part in the contest between Emperor Gallienus and the Gallic Emperor Postumus, taking the side of Gallienus and receiving the titles Pia V Fidelis V and Pia VI Fidelis VI (Five times faithful and loyal and Six times faithful and loyal"). Elements of the legion fought in Egypt and Mauretania. The stone was examined in detail by Dr. Bonewitz who observed: 'High quality cutting and carving. The lack of wear on the edges of the stone suggest that it was kept as a keepsake rather than worn.'

Condition Report: Extremely fine condition. A large wearable size.

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Roman Gold Military Seal Ring with BELL EV.VI

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Description: 3rd-4th century AD. A gold ring with shank resembling a victory wreath, wide shoulder with acanthus leaf and framing a raised round bezel engraved with BELL EV VI. 11.91 grams, 22.87mm overall, 17.93 internal diameter (approximate ring size British P, USA 7 3/4, Europe 16.23, Japan 16) (1"). UK art market, acquired prior to 2000. Accompanied by a positive X-Ray Fluorescence metal analysis certificate.

Condition Report: Extremely fine condition.

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Roman Gold Military Seal Ring with MA TRA

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Description: 3rd-4th century AD. A gold ring with tapering shank, sloping shoulder and raised square bezel engraved with MA TRA. 6.63 grams, 18.98mm overall, 15.08mm internal diameter (approximate ring size British I, USA 4 1/4, Europe, 7.44, Japan 7) (1"). From an important London collection, acquired in the 1990s.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Ring with VOT HER

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. A gold ring with tapering shank and eye-shaped bezel with granule edge and inscribed to the centre 'VOT HER'. 6.06 grams, 23.17mm overall, 19.41 x 17.57mm internal diameter (approximate ring size British T, USA 9 1/2, Europe 20.98, Japan 20) (1"). Property of a private collector; acquired before 1975.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Ring with Cupid and Dogs

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Description: 3rd-4th century AD. A flat-section gold hoop with filigree ropework exterior, granules to the shoulders, drum-shaped bezel with filigree bands, inset jasper cloison with intaglio Cupid (Eros) and leashed hound chasing a hare. Cf. Ruseva-Slokoska, L. Roman Jewellery, Sofia, 1991, item 222. For a similar ring from Greece dating to the fifth century BC see The Dallas Museum of Art, acc. no. 2006.68.6 6.45 grams, 25mm overall, 19.02mm internal diameter (approximate size British R 1/2, USA 9, Europe 19.69, Japan 19) (1"). From a private UK collection; formerly in a Munich collection formed in the 1970s. Supplied with a positive X-Ray Fluorescence metal analysis certificate.

Condition Report: Extremely fine condition.

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Roman Gold Ring with Eros

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Description: 1st century AD. A flat-section gold hoop with expanding shoulders and flat plaque; applied beaded wire borders and fillet to the underside extending through pairs of pellets and opposed filigree volute scrolls; the bezel an elliptical beaded wire frame with granule detailing, with a modern facing mask of a youthful male, perhaps Eros. Cf. Ruseva-Slokoska, L. Roman Jewellery, Sofia, 1991, item 232. See Kondoleon, C. Aphrodite and the Gods of Love, Boston, 2011, pp. 107-149 for a discussion on Eros in the Greek and Roman world. 12 grams, 26mm overall, 18 x 20.82mm internal diameter (approximate size British W, USA 11, Europe 25.0, Japan 24) (1"). Property of a London collector, acquired before 1980. Eros, (Roman Cupid), was regarded as the deity who awoke the passions and fostered love in the hearts of both gods and mortals. The poet Hesiod sings his praises as the most beautiful of the gods. His worship seems to be much more ancient than that of the winged boy in popular imagination. At Thespiae, in Boeotia, his cult had ancient origins and the main image at his temple was a block of stone, most likely a meteorite, a common object of worship in many of the more ancient cults of Greece. His power to rouse and move the world was viewed by the Orphic Mystery Cult to regard him as the creator of the world. Although there are many visual images of Eros there are surprisingly few literary references to him from ancient times. The only mythological account of the birth of Eros comes from Plato's Symposium, where we learn that he was conceived by Poros and Penia, plenty and poverty. It was not until the seventh century BC that the poet Sappho describes him as the son of Aphrodite. The worship of Eros was not highly organised and, aside from his temple at Thespiae, his worship seems mainly to have been one confined to the home, or in conjunction with Aphrodite at her temples. By the Roman period his image and worship becomes more recognisable and depictions of him are found on many objects; however there was no formal worship of the god and he seems to have been largely worshipped in the home, as in Greece.

Condition Report: Very fine condition. A large wearable size.

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Roman Gold Ring with Dionysus Intaglio

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Description: 2nd century AD. A substantial D-section gold hoop with expanding shoulders, inset carnelian cloison with intaglio image of Dionysus (Bacchus) standing grasping a thyrsus and holding an empty wine cup. Cf. Ruseva-Slokoska, L. Roman Jewellery, Sofia, 1991, item 193 for type. 22 grams, 31mm overall, 19.31mm internal diameter (approximate size British S 1/2, USA 9 1/4, Europe 20.63, Japan 19) (1 1/4"). Property of a Surrey collector; acquired in the early 1970s. Accompanied by a positive X-Ray Fluorescence metal analysis certificate. The god Dionysus appears to have his origins in Thrace, from where he later spread to Greece, and later throughout the Roman Empire where he was the principle deity of one of the mystery cults. The beliefs of this cult was one of rebirth as exemplified through the seasonal growth of nature, but also of revelation through ecstasy. Whereas many of the mystery cults were initiations through 'beholding', such as the secrets that were revealed in the mysteries of Isis, those of Dionysus were initiations through action, such as ecstatic worship through alcohol and trance. The myth of Dionysus' origins tells that he was born from the union of Zeus and Persephone. Zeus designated Dionysus Zagreus as his heir, but the jealous Titans lured him away, dismembered him and devoured all the pieces except for the heart, which was rescued by Athena and preserved. Zeus in anger reduced the Titans to ashes, from which the new race of mankind was created. Thus each human contains a fragment of Dionysus within its 'Titanic' earthly body. From the heart of the god was brewed a love potion and given to the mortal Semele, the lover of Zeus. during one of their meetings Semele asked Zeus to reveal his true, primal form. The epiphany was so overwhelming that she was burnt up by thunderbolts, but the child she was carrying was saved. Zeus enclosed it in his loins until the time came for its birth as the second Dionysus. The young god grew up in Thrace, suckled by goats, and raised by the satyr and Silenus. When he reached maturity he descended to the underworld through the Alcyonian Lake to rescue the soul of his mother and raise her to Olympus. After this he travelled throughout the world with a band of satyrs, maenads and other followers, steadily heading East to India, spreading the knowledge of agriculture, arts and crafts and especially of the vine and wine making. Returning from India he discovered the Cretan princess Ariadne, abandoned on the island of Naxos by Theseus. He made her his bride and together they ascended to the heavens, and he offers a similar blissful reward to his devotees, temporarily in this life, and permanently after death. The stone was examined in detail by Dr. Bonewitz who observed: 'The carnelian is very high quality, as is the standard of the carving. A lovely and impressive stone.'

Condition Report: Extremely fine condition. A large wearable size.

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Roman Gold Ring with Banded Intaglio

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. A gold ring with slightly tapering shank and wide, bulbous shoulders; round bezel set with red and white banded glass. 5.95 grams, 24.95 overall, 18.41mm internal diameter (approximate size British Q, USA 8 1/4, Europe 17.77, Japan 17) (1"). UK art market, acquired prior to 2000.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Ring with Cornucopia Intaglio

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. A gold D-shaped ring with tapering shank and wide shoulders; set with an oval intaglio engraved with a cornucopia. 6.84 grams, 25.14mm overall, 18.63 x 13.78 internal diameter (approximate ring size British P, USA 7 3/4, Europe 16.23, Japan 16) (1"). From an important London collection, acquired in the 1990s.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Ring with Banded Agate

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Description: 3rd-4th century AD. A gold ring ring with tapering shank with central indent; flaring shoulder with scrolled pelta pattern and with hexagonal bezel set with banded agate. 8.52 grams, 24.34mm overall, 18.85 internal diameter (approximate ring size British R 1/2, USA 8 3/4, Europe 19.38, Japan 19) (1"). Property of a private collector; acquired before 1975.

Condition Report: Extremely fine condition.

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Roman Gold Ring with Banded Agate

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Description: 3rd-4th century AD. A gold ring with tapering shank, shoulder and edge of bezel with openwork acanthus leaf pattern and top of bezel set with banded agate. 8.64 grams, 25.94mm overall, 19.04mm internal diameter (approximate size British S, USA 9, Europe 19.69, Japan 19) (1"). From a private collection; formed 1965-1975.

Condition Report: Extremely fine condition. A large wearable size.

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Roman Gold Double Bezel Ring

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Description: 3rd-4th century AD. A substantial gold double ring with rounded polygonal hoop widening at the shoulders with deep flute forming double hoop; decorated with shallow longitudinal flutes which end with volutes near the shield; shield set with lozenge shaped lapis lazuli. 26.61 grams, 29.07mm overall, 21.66mm internal diameter (approximate ring size British Y, USA 12 1/4, Europe 28.05, Japan 27) (1 1/4"). Property of a North American gentleman; previously in a New York collection, purchased from Henry Anavian prior to 1985. Accompanied by a positive X-Ray Fluorescence metal analysis certificate.

Condition Report: Very fine condition. A very large wearable size.

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Roman Gold Ring with Banded Intaglio

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Description: 3rd-4th century AD. A gold ring with tapering shank below the wide sloping shoulders; round bezel set with high banded glass setting in imitation of agate. 9.89 grams, 23.39mm overall, 18.65 x 15.39mm internal diameter (approximate ring size British P 1/2, USA 8, Europe 17.00, Japan 16) (1"). Acquired on the London art market prior to 1980.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Ring with Onyx Cabochon

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Description: 4th-5th century AD. A gold openwork ring with shank flaring at the shoulders and with scrolling pattern; beaded bezel set with a domed banded agate. 10.44 grams, 23.44mm overall, 20.18mm internal diameter (approximate ring size British U 1/2, USA 10 1/4, Europe 23.15, Japan 22) (3/4"). Property of a Mayfair gentleman; acquired by the family during the 1970s.

Condition Report: Very fine condition. A large wearable size.

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Roman Gold Intaglio Ring with Philosopher's Portrait

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. A gold ring with tapering shank, widening at the shoulders to a flat bezel set with a carnelian intaglio engraved with the portrait of a bald philosopher with long beard, possibly Chrysippus. 6.88 grams, 21.76mm overall, 19.40mm internal diameter (approximate size British S 1/2, USA 9 1/2, Europe 20.98, Japan 20) (3/4"). Property of a London gentleman; acquired before 1995. Chrysippus of Soli lived from 279 to 206 BC and was a renowned Stoic philosopher and head of the school in Athens. He excelled in logic, the theory of knowledge, ethics and physics. He created an original system of propositional logic in order to better understand the workings of the universe and role of humanity within it. Chrysippus adhered to a deterministic view of fate, but nevertheless sought a role for personal freedom in thought and action. The stone was examined in detail by Dr. Bonewitz who observed: 'The carnelian is very good quality and the carving is to a very high standard.'

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Intaglio Ring with Antelope and Cornucopiae

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Description: 3rd-4th century AD. A gold ring with D-shaped openwork shank with scrolling ivy leaf pattern in two bands; round bezel set with a green bloodstone engraved with an antelope with head turned back, below a vase with cornucopia to either side. 11 grams, 22.70mm overall, 20.36mm internal diameter (approximate size British V, USA 10 3/4, Europe 23.99, Japan 23) (1"). Property of a private collector; acquired before 1975.

Condition Report: Very fine condition. A large wearable size.

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Roman Gold Ring with Sol Intaglio

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Description: 3rd-4th century AD. A gold ring with tapering shank and flaring at the shoulders to an oval bezel; set with a glass intaglio engraved with the bust of Sol Invictus wearing radiate crown. 9.45 grams, 23.02 overall, 19.06mm internal diameter (approximate size British S, USA 9 1/4, Europe 20.00, Japan 19) (3/4"). From an important London collection, acquired in the 1990s.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Ring with Birds Intaglio

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. A gold hoop of two round-section rods with scrolled shoulders and applied granules, plaque with beaded wire border and inset carnelian cloison with intaglio motif of two birds of prey and a wheel. 3.81 grams, 20mm overall, 18.07mm internal diameter (approximate size British P, USA 7 3/4, Europe 16.55, Japan 16) (3/4"). Property of a Mayfair, London, UK, gentleman; acquired in 1980.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Ring with Figural Intaglio

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. A gold ring with tapering shank, wide, rounded shoulders; bezel set with a carnelian intaglio engraved with the image of a standing man holding a staff and looking at a helmet held in outstretched hand. 4.18 grams, 24.17mm overall, 15.95mm internal diameter (approximate size British P, USA 7 1/2, Europe 16.00, Japan 15) (1"). Private collection, North London; acquired in the early 1990s.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Ring with Cameo

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Description: 3rd-4th century AD. A gold ring with tapering shank, slightly angled at the shoulders which have openwork pelta design; bezel set with onyx cameo with bust of woman with hair pulled back into a bun. 8 grams, 24.12mm overall, 20.74mm internal diameter (approximate size British W, USA 11, Europe 25, Japan 24) (1"). From a private collection; formed 1965-1975. Supplied with a positive X-Ray Fluorescence metal analysis certificate. Cameos first became popular during the Hellenistic period and continued to flourish under the Roman Empire with a mixture of images mostly comprising religious symbolism or busts of private individuals and members of the Imperial family. Cameos were produced with the same basic tools and techniques as intaglios, though inverted, that is to say by cutting away excess stone around the image to create a raised relief. The time and effort needed to carve a cameo is considerably greater than that required to produce an intaglio, not just because more stone must be cut away but also in fashioning a cameo in relief there is considerably less surface contact between the rotating circular tool and the convex surface of the gem.

Condition Report: Very fine condition. A large wearable size.

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Roman Gold Twisted Snake Bracelet

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. A delicate gold bracelet formed as a rectangular-section guilloche with spiked tail and inturned loop head. 4.30 grams, 43mm (1 3/4"). Property of a Swindon, UK, collector; acquired TimeLine Auctions, 1st December 2011, lot 237; formerly UK market, 1980s. Snakes were a popular subject for jewellery from the Greek through to the Roman periods and are possibly associated with the Agathodaimon, or good spirit, that was believed to inhabit each home and protect the family. The snake was also believed to have magic powers and the motif was believed to ward off evil powers. Excavations at the House of the Faun in Pompeii have uncovered two similar bracelets in gold, now in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale, in Naples.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Amphora Drop Earrings

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. A matched pair of gold earrings, each a hook with granule, domed plaque with crimped edge and inset garnet spherical bead, hollow pendant amphora with garnet finial. Cf. Ruseva-Slokoska, L. Roman Jewellery, Sofia, 1991, item 32a. 6.47 grams total, 51mm (2"). From an important Mayfair, London, UK, collection; formed by the family in the 1970s. The amphora would allude to plenty and abundance, but also to the worship of Bacchus, (Greek Dionysus), the god of wine, fertility and rebirth. Bacchus was an ancient Italian deity who became associated with his Greek counterpart during the settlement of South Italy by Greek colonists and the arrival of the mystery religion associated with him which proved to be extremely popular with the wealthy middle class. [2]

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Fretwork Earring with Emeralds

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. A matched pair of gold earrings, each an openwork plaque of radiating ivy-leaf motifs around a twisted wire frame and horizontal emerald(?) bead, transverse ribbed bar below supporting three dangles with glass beads, hook to the reverse. Cf. Ruseva-Slokoska, L. Roman Jewellery, Sofia, 1991, item 50a for type. 8.11 grams total, 54mm (2 1/4"). From a Harley Street private collection of jewellery, formed over 25 years. [2]

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Roman Gold Earring Pair

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Description: 1st-3rd century AD. A pair of gold wire earrings, openwork teardrop shape with gold wire around the lower end and terminal gold bead; gold band across the middle with teardrop-shaped setting with red glass inlay; mounted on a custom-made stand. 17.36 grams total, 40mm including stand (1 3/4"). Property of a North American gentleman; previously in a New York collection, purchased from Henry Anavian prior to 1985. [2]

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Pendant with Empress Cameo

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Description: 1st-3rd century AD. A gold pendant comprising a ribbed loop and plaque with openwork foliate border, central cell with cameo bust of a young female, possibly an empress, with draped robe and mantle. See Marshall, F.H. Catalogue of the Jewellery, Greek, Etruscan and Roman, in the Department of Antiquities, British Museum, London, 1911, item 2726 for type. 8.56 grams, 37mm (1 1/2"). From an important European collection; formerly with a German gallery in the 1970s. Accompanied by a positive X-Ray Fluorescence metal analysis certificate.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Jupiter Pendant

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Description: 1st-2nd century AD. A bust of Jupiter (Zeus) modelled in the round, gold foil over a glass(?) core; mounting loop and short chain above with iridescent glass bead. Cf. Rolland, H. Bronzes Antiques de Haute Provence, Paris, 1965, item 11. 4.05 grams, 66mm (2 1/2"). Property of a London gentleman; acquired before 1990. Jupiter was the supreme god of Rome, and along with Juno, his wife, and Minerva, his daughter, formed a trinity who had their major temple on the Capitoline Hill in Rome. His name is derived from div-pater, meaning father of light, and his form and cult were derived from the Greek Zeus and Etruscan Tinia. On the Capitol he was revered as Jupiter Optimus Maximus, the Best and Greatest. Jupiter also had other epithets such as Fulgur, being the 'thrower of lightning' and Tonans, the 'Thunderer'. As the Roman Empire expanded his warlike functions were more and more extolled and as Jupiter Stator he helped the legions stay their ground in battle, and as Jupiter Victor gave them victory. Jupiter was also closely linked to the power and authority of the Emperor and when each new ruler was invested they made their way to the temple on the Capitoline to offer their thanks. During the time of the Empire the Roman god merged to a large extent with provincial gods such as the Syrian Dolichenus, Egyptian Serapis and Celtic Taranis.

Condition Report: Fine condition, restored.

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Roman Venus Cameo in Gold Pendant with Chain

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Description: 1st-2nd century AD. An amethyst cameo depicting the goddess Venus; set a in later sympathetic gold pendant with granulated border, offered with a gold plaited rope chain with two suspension rings at the ends. 19.84 grams, 36.5cm (14 1/4"). Property of a Suffolk gentleman; acquired before 2000. The stone was examined in detail by Dr. Bonewitz who observed: 'One of the finest pieces of ancient carving I have seen. This deeply three-dimensional cameo is of the finest workmanship. The cutter has used a subtle combination of surface textures to add additional depth and realism. A masterpiece.'

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Chain with Figure-of-Eight Links

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. A gold necklace with openwork links, hook-and-eye closure with plaques, each with beaded wire border, three heart-shaped appliqués and central granule. 5.14 grams, 45cm (17 3/4"). From a Harley Street private collection of jewellery, formed over 25 years.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Gold Crossbow Brooch with VTERE FELIX

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Description: 4th century AD. A gold bow brooch with large kidney-shaped bow with central rib engraved with S-pattern; the knops trimmed with beading; wide cross bar below which runs a bar inscribed VTERE FELIX, framed with pelta loops. For a similar example see The British Museum accession number 1962,1205.1. 38.61 grams, 75mm (3"). From the important collection of Christian artefacts formed by a London gentleman, 1970s-1980s. Accompanied by a positive X-Ray Fluorescence metal analysis certificate. This type of fibula, used to fasten a cloak around the neck, became part of the standard insignia of military personnel during the third century A.D. This example is inscribed in Latin: VTERE FELIX, meaning 'use happily'. The expression utere felix is the second most common inscriptional formula on items from the Roman Empire, and is used to wish good luck, well-being and joy. The brooch would have been made at an imperial workshop and presented as a gift to a senior member of the imperial staff.

Condition Report: Very fine condition. Very rare.

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Roman Gold Inscribed Crossbow Brooch

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Description: 4th century AD. A hollow-formed gold crossbow brooch with three faceted onion-shaped knops, beaded wire collars, hexagonal-section crossbar with slot for the hinged pin, pierced scrolls to the upper face; deep bow with chamfered sides, band of niello-filled triangles to the upper face, D-section rectangular footplate with chamfered sides, reserved volute scrolls, continuation of the niello-filled triangles; lateral slot to the underside; niello-filled insriptions 'VTRFEL' (UT[E]R[E] FEL[IX] 'use [this] with happiness'; VOTAVRPEC (perhaps AURUM 'gold' and PEC[UNIA] 'wealth'"). Cf. Hattatt, R. Iron Age and Roman Brooches, Oxford, 1985, item 505. 24 grams, 63mm (2 1/2"). Property of a private collector; acquired before 1975. Accompanied by a positive X-Ray Fluorescence metal analysis certificate.

Condition Report: Very fine condition, pin absent.

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Roman Gold Plate Brooch with Intaglio

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Description: 2nd century AD. A flat-section lozengiform gold plaque with beaded wire borders returned to form volute scrolls, central cell with beaded wire collar, filigree bands, inset amethyst cloison with intaglio bearded bust with diadem; remains of pin and penannular catch to the reverse. Cf. Hattatt, R. Iron Age and Roman Brooches, Oxford, 1985, item 568A for type. 9.59 grams, 41mm (1 3/4"). From a London, UK, collection; acquired 1990s. Accompanied by a positive X-Ray Fluorescence metal analysis certificate.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Roman Gold Fan-Shaped Brooch

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Description: 2nd century AD. A gold bow brooch with scalloped fan-shaped headplate and eccentrically placed ring-and-dot motifs, D-shaped panel extending to a D-section bow with flange and granulation to the stepped junction, square footplate with curved lateral edges, median cell with lapis lazuli insert, T-shaped finial; hinged pin and catchplate to the reverse. Cf. Hattatt, R. Brooches of Antiquity, Oxford, 1987, item 999 for similar. 16 grams, 58mm (2 1/4"). Property of a New York collector; acquired 1980s.

Condition Report: Very fine condition, usage wear. Rare.

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Roman Dionysus Phalera

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. A silver discoid mount with raised rim, central repoussé mask of Dionysus modelled in the half-round with diadem of leaves and berries above a fringe of curls. 22 grams, 64mm (2 1/2"). Property of an Essex collector; acquired on the European art market.

Condition Report: Very fine condition, rim chipped.

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Roman Cybele Statuette

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Description: 1st-2nd century AD. A silver statuette of the goddess Cybele, seated on a throne with tall headdress, tympanum supported by her left hand, lion sitting at her side. Cf. Rolland, H. Bronzes Antiques de Haute Provence, Paris, 1965, item 148 for type. See Vermuele, C. Greek and Roman Sculpture in Gold and Silver, for a discussion of statues in precious metals. 15 grams, 35mm (1 1/2"). Property of a London gentleman; formerly the property of a Surrey gentleman, acquired 1970s. The polos crown, tympanum and lion by her side identify this figure as the goddess Cybele, an extremely ancient deity who originated in Anatolia, and whose worship would spread across the Roman Empire as one of the Mystery Religions. Her main temple was at Pessinus, Anatolia, now modern day Turkey. Here the goddess was worshipped in the form of a large block of stone, believed to be a meteorite, and her original ancient name would appear to be Kubaba, meaning 'Mountain Mother'. Her worship was adopted by Greek colonists in Asia Minor from where it would spread to mainland Greece in the sixth century BC. In Rome, Cybele was known as Magna Mater (Great Mother"). The Roman State adopted and developed a particular form of her cult after the Sibylline oracle recommended her conscription as a key religious component in Rome's second war against Carthage. Roman mythographers reinvented her as a Trojan goddess, and thus an ancestral goddess of the Roman people by way of the Trojan prince Aeneas. With Rome's eventual hegemony over the Mediterranean world, Romanised forms of Cybele's cults spread throughout the Roman Empire. A temple was dedicated to the goddess on the Palatine Hill close to the Imperial palace, and she also had a major shrine on the Vatican Hill close to the hippodrome of Caligula, present day site of the Vatican City. Her cult was associated with eastern exoticism and most notably the eunuch priests who served the goddess, and as such was often looked upon with suspicion by conservative Romans; the Senate banned any Roman male from joining her priesthood. However, her worship proved extremely popular and continued to flourish well after the adoption of Christianity as the state religion.

Condition Report: Fine condition, right arm and part of tympanum absent.

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Roman Gilt Sol Invictus Buckle with Beast Heads

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Description: 4th century AD. A parcel-gilt silver buckle comprising: scrolled loop with opposed gilt beast-heads; spiked tongue with violin-shaped shield; rectangular plaque with openwork amphora-shaped rear edge, gilt panel with standing nude male figure and legend 'INVICTO / SOLI' (for Sol Invictus"). See discussion in Sumner, G. Roman Military Dress, Strood, 2009. 53 grams, 90mm (3 3/4"). From an old German collection; acquired in Munich in the 1970s. Sol Invictus (the undefeated sun) was one of the military cults of the later Roman Empire. In 274 AD, Aurelian made Sol Invictus an official cult. The god was worshipped by emperors after Aurelian and still appeared on coins until Constantine I.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Roman Military Belt Mount Suite

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Description: 3rd-4th century AD. A set of silver belt fittings in the form of letters spelling V(T)ERE FELIX, 'use with good luck', engraved along the edge and with nail holes to the ends; D-shaped buckle with counter plate bar with loops to the centre. 112 grams total, 54mm average (2 1/4"). Property of a gentleman; acquired in the late 1960s-early 1970s. [11]

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Roman Military Ring with 'Silvano Sancto P'

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Description: 1st-2nd century AD. A flat-section silver ring with ribs to the outer face, vertical bands of points and text in rustic capitals 'SILVANO SANCTO P' (sacred to [the god] Silvanus)'. 7.76 grams, 27mm overall, 23.04mm internal diameter (approximate size British Z+ 1/2, USA 13 3/4, Europe 32.26, Japan 31) (1"). Property of a European gentleman living in the UK; formerly in a private collection formed in the 1990s. Silvanus was the protective deity of woods and field boundaries.

Condition Report: Very fine condition. A very large wearable size.

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Roman Massive Ring with Carnelian

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Description: 3rd-4th century AD. A silver ring with tapering shank with raised bands, and oval to the shoulder; scalloped edge; stepped bezel set with a high flat carnelian. 34 grams, 35.76mm overall, 22.75 x 21.20 internal diameter (approximate ring size British Z+2, USA 13 1/2, Europe 31.31, Japan 30) (1 1/2"). From a private collection; formed 1965-1975.

Condition Report: Very fine condition. A very large wearable size

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Roman Ring with Horse Intaglio

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Description: 3rd century AD. A lentoid-section keeled hoop with expanding shoulders, scrolled edges to the plaque with discoid cell, carnelian insert with intaglio horse-head. Cf. Ruseva-Slokoska, L. Roman Jewellery, Sofia, 1991, item 184. 15 grams, 28mm overall, 20.31 x 16.99mm internal diameter (approximate size British M 1/2, USA 6 1/2, Europe 13.16, Japan 12) (1"). Property of a Surrey collector; acquired in the early 1970s.

Condition Report: Very fine condition. A large wearable size.

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Roman Ring with Garnet Cabochon

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Description: 3rd century AD. A substantial D-section silver hoop with expanding shoulders, vertical ribs developing to scrolled edges of the plaque, tiered central cell with inset garnet cabochon. Cf. Ruseva-Slokoska, L. Roman Jewellery, Sofia, 1991, item 210. 39 grams, 33mm overall, 22.61mm internal diameter (approximate size British Z+1 1/2, USA 13 1/4, Europe 31.0, Japan 29) (1 1/4"). Property of a gentleman; acquired in the late 1960s-early 1970s.

Condition Report: Fine condition. A very large wearable size.

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Roman Ring with Mask Cameo

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. A D-section silver hoop with expanding shoulders, inset moulded glass panel of facing bearded male bust. Cf. Ruseva-Slokoska, L. Roman Jewellery, Sofia, 1991, item 229 for type. 18 grams, 28mm overall, 19.95mm internal diameter (approximate size British U, USA 10, Europe 22.52, Japan 21) (1"). Property of a Surrey collector; acquired in the early 1970s.

Condition Report: Fine condition. A large wearable size.

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Roman Ring with Gladiatorial Scene

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Description: 3rd century AD. A flat-section hoop with chamfered edges, heater-shaped panel to each shoulder, discoid bezel with later incised frame, intaglio murmillo gladiator combatting a standing bear, star above and frond to the rear. Cf. Ruseva-Slokoska, L. Roman Jewellery, Sofia, 1991, item 260. 8.13 grams, 23mm overall, 18.95mm internal diameter (approximate size British R 1/2, USA 8 3/4, Europe 19.38, Japan 18) (1"). Property of a Surrey collector; acquired in the early 1970s.

Condition Report: Very fine condition. A large wearable size.

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Roman Military Ring with Eagle

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Description: Mid-3rd century AD. A square-section silver hoop with broad flat shoulders, discoid plaque; to the shoulders the incised legend 'LEG' 'VIII', to the bezel an intaglio regardant eagle motif. Cf. Ruseva-Slokoska, L. Roman Jewellery, Sofia, 1991, item 226. 5.22 grams, 23mm overall, 18.10mm internal diameter (approximate size British P 1/2, USA 7 3/4, Europe 16.86, Japan 16) (1"). Property of a Surrey collector; acquired in the early 1970s. Legio VIII Augusta accompanied Julius Caesar into Gaul in the 1st century BC. In the 3rd century, the legion fought in Parthia with Septimius Severus (193-211 AD) and his successors.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Roman Marriage Ring with Clasped Hands

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Description: 2nd-3rd century AD. A substantial flat-section facetted silver hoop with broad plaque, beaded wire collar enclosing a high-relief iunctio dextrarum clasped hands motif. Cf. Ruseva-Slokoska, L. Roman Jewellery, Sofia, 1991, item 187. 13 grams, 24mm overall, 20.02 x 16.66mm internal diameter (approximate size British L 1/2, USA 6, Europe 12.34, Japan 12) (1"). Property of a Surrey collector; acquired in the early 1970s.

Condition Report: Very fine condition. A large wearable size.

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