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Auction Description for Profiles in History: Property of A Distinguished American Private Collector Pt 3

Property of A Distinguished American Private Collector Pt 3

by Profiles in History

Platinum House

217 lots with images

December 19, 2013

Live Auction

26901 Agoura Road

Suite 150

Calabasas Hills, CA, 91301 USA

Phone: 310-859-7701

Fax: 310-859-3842

Email: Info@profilesinhistory.com

217 Lots
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Adams, John. Letter signed

Lot 1: Adams, John. Letter signed

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Description: 1. Adams, John. Letter signed (“John Adams”), 1 page, (9.87 x 7.25 in.; 251 x 184 mm.), (“Massachusetts”), 20 February 1818, to “LeRaydechaumont, Esquire, LeRaysville, Jefferson County, State of New York; paper loss on integral address leaf where wax seal was affixed.Reminiscing back to his fruitful days as minister to France, the 82-year-old former president must admit that he is now...at length reduced to the eternal complaint of Voltaire “Vieux et malade.”Executed in the hand of his granddaughter, Adams’ letter reads in full: Dear Sir Unfortunately, by some irregularity in the Post Office, your address arrived before your letter, of the 4 of February. I wrote you my thanks immediately. Some week or fortnight afterwards I received your kind letter. I recollect to have given you familliarly [familiarly] and jocosely certain English bones to pick at a time when I thought you an ingenuous and promising youth and when I wished to turn your attention to the study of that language. And I feel a pride in the recollection that forty years ago I contributed in the smallest degree to the accomplishment of a Gentleman who has been so eminently friendly and useful to my country, which he has made his own as I am at length reduced to the eternal complaint of Voltaire “Vieux et malade” and am obliged to have recourse to the delicate fingers of my little Granddaughter to write what mine are too parralitick [paralytic] to effect. I am Sir with great Esteem your obliged humble Servant. John AdamsThe addressee is probably James Donnatien le Ray de Chaumont, the son of his old acquaintance Jacques Donnatien le Ray de Chaumont (1725-1803), a French capitalist who vigorously supported the American cause during the American Revolution. Le Ray de Chaumont speculated in contracts for supplying the Continental Army and outfitting American naval vessels.Attached to the letter is the address overleaf, with Adams’s free frank John Adams written next to the address and the word Free in his hand in the upper right-hand corner. $10,000 - $15,000

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Adams, John. Book signed.

Lot 2: Adams, John. Book signed.

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Description: 2. Adams, John. Book signed: A Defense of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America, London, 1787. (8 ¼ x 5 in.; 210 x 127 mm.). Original boards, blank interleaves; general wear to boards.First edition, presentation copy inscribed and signed by John Adams to Richard Henry Lee and also signed by John Quincy Adams. Adams inscribes the blank leaf just before the title page: “Mr. Lee’s acceptance of this is requested. It is sent him in Boards interleaved that at his Leisure Mr. Lee may make his Remarks in it, and communicate them if he will be so good to the Author.” Also signing the blank leaf is “John Quincy Adams”. The title page contains the bold signature of “Ludwell Lee.” Adams’ book A Defense of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America was to contain Adams’ defense of the constitutions of the various American states, and was to clarify the true and proper basis of sound government. It was Adams’ hope that the work would establish beyond question the principle of separate and balanced branches by using the lessons of history and the writings of philosophers to defend his arguments. It was his major work - an anthology or disquisition on the nature of true government. Adams’ wife, Abigail, wrote to her son John Quincy, that the work was “an investigation into the different forms of government both ancient and modern - monarchal, aristocratical, democratical, and republican - pointing out their happiness or misery in proportion to their different balances.”Feeling the need to finish the work as soon as possible, Adams, in London as Minister to Great Britain, completed the work in a few short weeks, but due to his haste, the finished product was haphazard, disorganized, and filled with errors. Nonetheless, Adams had effectively stated his main theme. He wrote: “Without three orders and an effectual balance between them in every American constitution, it must be destined to frequent, unavoidable revolutions; though they are delayed a few years they must come in time.” Adams supported a free government with a solid democratic base in the form of a popular assembly responsive to the people. He asserted the need for “democratical branches” or popular assemblies in government that represented the mass of the citizens of the state. The response to the book was favorable - and considerable. It sold very well, and appeared in a number of editions, which were widely read and hotly debated. It was the first extensive examination by an American of the nature of government. The book was Adams’ longest work, and his only multi-volume work - as long as all the other published works in his lifetime. It was also the last great statement of a certain political school of thought - the classical Republican.In January of 1787, Adams sent off a rough manuscript copy of his Defense to the printer for a limited printing. When the printer returned printed copies, Adams discovered many typesetting errors, but proceeded, in any case, to get copies off to Jefferson and Lafayette, as well as a number of close friends in America, including Cotton Tufts, President Willard of Harvard, Professor Williams, Tristram Dalton, Richard Cranch, John Thaxter, General Warren, Samuel Adams, and Francis Dana. He also sent copies to each of his sons, and 30 volumes to a Boston bookseller chosen by Tufts. The blank sheets in the present volume were probably purposely inserted by the book binder, as Adams puts it in his inscription to Lee: “It is sent him in boards interleaved that at his Leisure Mr. Lee may make his Remarks in it, and communicate them if he will be so good to the Author.”This particular volume is the first edition of Adams’ London edition, and appears to be the actual copy that Adams personally gave to Richard Henry Lee (1732-94) - a Virginia delegate to the Continental Congress (1774-79) and a fellow signer of the Declaration of Independence - and a man whom Adams had pronounced to be “a masterly man” when the two first met at the Congress of 1775 in Philadelphia. At that time, Lee and Adams agreed that it was time that the colonies adopt their own governments. [At Lee’s suggestion, Adams was encouraged to draw up his Thoughts on Government (1776).] Lee was instrumental in urging the resolution (formally presented on June 7, 1776 - then adopted on July 2, 1776 and formally endorsed on July 4, 1776) that became known as the Declaration of Independence - the manifesto in which the representatives of the 13 American colonies asserted their independence and explained their reasons for their break with Britain, with the words: “...these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.”The date when Lee received the book from Adams is probably April or May, 1787, when copies of the work first reached Philadelphia, though there is a slight chance that it might have been later - between 1789 and 1792 - when Adams and Lee were together on virtually a daily basis - Adams serving as Vice-President and Lee as a member of the Senate. (Lee wrote to Adams in September, 1787 from New York that Adams’ book was “here”, though he may not have been referring to this particular presentation copy, but to the fact that the book was now in this country.)Ludwell Lee (1760-1836), son of Richard Henry, has signed the book across the title page. Apparently, the book passed down from Richard Henry to his son. It is interesting to note that Ludwell’s son, also named Richard Henry (1802-65), carried on a sizeable correspondence with John Adams’ son, John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) during the years 1824-43. The book is not only signed by John Adams (signing as “the Author”), but is also signed by his son John Quincy Adams. It is highly likely that, at some time c. 1830-40, Ludwell’s son Richard Henry, who received the book from his father, asked John Adams’ son John Quincy to sign the book (note John Quincy’s shakey hand). The book has gone “full-circle”, so to speak, “signed” by both Adams (first by the father and then, much later, by the son), inscribed to Richard Henry Lee (the father), signed by his son Ludwell Lee, and passed on to his son Richard Henry.The book is also signed and dated 1846 (beneath John Adams’ inscription and John Quincy Adams’ signature) by John Strohm (1793-1884), a Pennsylvania congressman (March, 1845 - March, 1849). The route of the book from Lees to Strohm is undetermined, though the book was either acquired directly from Richard Henry Lee (or his heirs) or perhaps, from John Quincy Adams (who would have received the book from either Ludwell Lee or his son, Richard Henry Lee). There is also no available information on specifically why the volume passed out of the hands of the Lee family. There is some additional handwritten content in the volume. On a blank leaf bound between the Table of Contents and the first page of text, there is a quotation (in French) in an unidentified hand taken from and attributed to Memoires de Commines, regarded as one of the classics of medieval history, written by the French chronicler Philippe de Commines. The passage states: “Entre toutes les Seigneuries du monde dans j’ai connaissance, ou la choice publique est mieux trait‚e, & ou regne moins de violence sur le peuple - c’est l”Angleterre”.Excessively rare in original boards and the associations with two generations of the Adams and Lee families is nothing short of extraordinary.Provenance: Francis K. Gaskell (bookplate). $20,000 - $30,000

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Adams, John Quincy. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 3: Adams, John Quincy. Autograph letter signed ("John Quincy Adams").

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Description: 3. Adams, John Quincy. Autograph letter signed (“John Quincy Adams”), 2 pages, (8.87 x 7.37 in.; 225 x 187 mm.), St. Petersburg, 14 August 1811, as Minister to Russia, to Oliver Wolcott, New York; with integral address leaf attached with red wax seal intact; skillful reinforcement of vertical fold, seal tear on integral blank, light yellowing.My good offices [are] to facilitate as much as I can, the fair commerce of our country....Adams writes in full: I have received the original duplicate and triplicate of your favour of 7 May, together with those of the same date from Mr. Mumford the President of the Columbian Insurance Company and certain Documents relating to the vessels Eliza, Pamptico and Fox, and their Cargoes. I delivered one copy of the letters and Certificates, into the hands of Mr. Hazard, lately appointed Consul of the United States at Archangel, and who a few days since pass’d through this City on his way thither. When he left St. Petersburg the Fox had not arrived at Archangel, but I requested him if she should arrive to take all the measures within his competency to obtain her admission without delay. I delivered a second copy of the Certificate and statement to Mr. Gourieff the Minister of Commerce to whose Department this subject belongs, and sollicited of him an order for the admission of the Fox, when she should arrive. This was all that could be done previous to her actual arrival, of which I have not yet heard. If any further step should be necessary after her arrival, and my being apprized of it, I shall pay immediate attention to it. I flatter myself, that if any other occasion should occur in which it may be in my powers to render a service to you or to any of our friends, the question whether it be regular or not, will never occupy a moment of your consideration. My good offices to facilitate as much as I can the fair commerce of our Country here are due to all my Countrymen having occasion for them, and if they were not, the request in which you take an interest, will need no other evidence of its regularity. I am with high respect and esteem, Dearest, your very humble and obedt. Servt John Quincy Adams. $4,000 - $6,000

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Adams, John Quincy. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 4: Adams, John Quincy. Autograph letter signed ("J. Q. Adams").

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Description: 4. Adams, John Quincy. Autograph letter signed (“J. Q. Adams”) as U.S. Representative from Massachusetts, 2 pages (10 x 8 in.; 254 x 203 mm.), Washington, 17 April 1831, to Richard Rush Esquire, York Pennsylvania; with integral blank docketed Mr. Adams, April 17, 1831; small split along vertical fold. Writing to his dear friend Richard Rush, former President John Quincy Adams ridicules the current “British Revolution” spearheaded by the British Whigs. Adams writes in full: Dear Sir. I leave to acknowledge the receipt of two kind Letters from you - one of the 24th ulto· and the other of the 12th inst. -the latter accompanied with newspapers containing the second Dissertation of Britannus, and the reply of Temple. I had already received though I know not from whom the paper containing the Article of Britannus, and had been amused with his defence of the English Whigs. They are a Class of People ‘Lui generis’ almost as much as the Gypsies, of whom I suppose you occasionally have met some in England. The Gypsies are the Romancers of Beggary. The whigs are the Romancers of Liberty. What the Gypsies would do with the Country if his Majesty King, William the fourth, should compose his Cabinet Council of them is not easily imagined, but if they should display as much ignorance of the world, and of their own Country, with as much self-sufficiency, and a propensity to blunder as signal, as the whigs have done when in power for the last half century, no doubt their administration would be equally short. Since the commencement of the Reign of George the third [1760], once in ten, fifteen or twenty years the whigs have obtained possession of the Government, and hold it just long enough to demonstrate to the conviction of the Nation that they are utterly incompetent to the task of managing the Public Affairs. Their present experiment does not appear likely to last longer than those which preceded it, and the House of Commons is already exhibiting majorities against them upon propositions of their Chancellor of the Exchequer. This Lord Althorp [John Charles Spencer (1782-1845), the leader of the Whig opposition who became the Chancellor of the Exchequer and a leader in the House of Commons (December, 1830)] begins his career by proposing a duty of a penny a pound upon raw Cotton from the United States - which may be considered as an indication of the ministerial feeling towards this Country. It would seem from the movements at Manchester and in London after the proposition was made in Parliament, that this Step had been taken, without previous consultation of the great interests at home to be affected by it; and it remains doubtful whether it will yet be carried into effect. But the great and absorbing interest for the present appears to be concentrated in Lord John Russell’s [Lord John Russell (1792-1878), the champion of the Reform Act of 1832] Plan of Parliamentary Reform. The retrenchment of nearly two hundred members from the House of Commons, with the substitution of nearly an equal number through the medium of Elections really popular, will be in itself so great a Revolution in the British Government, that I can scarcely realize that it will yet be effected. It is a curious spectacle to see a convict for Sedition in Ireland at the same moment seizing the first Rank as the Champion of Reform in the English House of Commons.I propose within three or four days to leave this place for my Residence at Quincy - where I hope often to hear from you. Remaining with constant Respect and Attachment. your friendJ. Q. AdamsThe Great Reform Act of 1832. In 1830, the Whig cabinet of Earl Grey succeeded the Tory cabinet of Wellington. The existing system of representation reflected gross inequalities, the result of ancient provisions. On the eve of the reform, not more than one-third of the House of Commons were freely chosen. Abuse of the electoral system was widespread. Grey’s ministry undertook to reform this situation by redistributing parliamentary seats and extending franchises.On 22 March 1831, the First Reform Bill, the work of Lord John George Lambton and Lord John Russell was passed on second reading by a majority of one, but defeated by amendment in the committee stage. A month later, on 19 April, Grey secured a dissolution of parliament, followed by a bitterly fought election with public opinion warmly supporting “The Bill, the whole Bill, and nothing but the Bill”. The April election was a major Whig triumph. The Second Reform Bill passed the new House of Commons on 21 September 1831, with a majority of 109, but the House of Lords threw the measure out on second reading (8 October). A new bill was prepared. On 23 March 1832, the commons passed the Third Reform Bill with a larger majority. Known as the Great Reform Act, it greatly altered parliamentary constituencies and increased the size of the electorate. The vote was given to almost all members of the middle class, and introduced a uniform 10 franchise in the boroughs.The Whig government capitalized on the middle class by enfranchising a large mass of merchants and manufacturers, professional and trades people, who came to regard themselves as making up a “middle class” between aristocrats and common people. Separate representation was removed from a large number of depopulated boroughs, giving it instead to important new industrial towns like Manchester and Birmingham. The Act identified political power with economic achievement. Until 1832, parliamentary representation had been a haphazard jumble of legal and historical rights, without any logical order or precise discrimination. After 1832, the right to vote was identified with certain definite economic categories.Frustrated by the desertion of their middle-class allies, the working classes took up the torch of revolution by attempting to open up the political structure of the state. However, the whole reform movement soon collapsed with the return of economic prosperity after 1848, leaving the British upper classes even more complacent about their ability to inoculate themselves against that continental epidemic.At the advent of Britain’s “Era of Reform,” former President John Quincy Adams reflects on those in power––the blundering British Whigs––“The Romancers of Liberty”––who have come to power, but know not what to do with their power and influence once it is theirs. He marvels at the reforms fomenting in Britain, though he is doubtful that the “British Revolution” will be successful: The retrenchment of nearly two hundred members from the House of Commons, with the substitution of nearly an equal number through the medium of Elections really popular, will be in itself so great a Revolution in the British Government, that I can scarcely realize that it will yet be effected. $4,000 - $6,000

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Adams, John Quincy. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 5: Adams, John Quincy. Autograph letter signed ("J. Q. Adams").

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Description: 5. Adams, John Quincy. Autograph letter signed (“J. Q. Adams”), 4 pages (10 x 8 in.; 254 x 203 mm.), Quincy, Massachusetts, 12 October 1835, to Russell Freeman Esqr, Boston; some staining, crude tape repairs to vertical and horizontal splits, minor paper loss partially affecting a few characters. Ex-President John Quincy Adams, a member of the House of Representatives, sums up his political philosophy in a remarkable lengthy handwritten letter that pledges his allegiance to his country and its principles, never to a partisan political body.He writes in full: Dear Sir: I received with pleasure your friendly Letter of the 6th inst and have always been assured of your kind disposition personally to me. It is undoubtedly true that the Republican Party in this Commonwealth by admitting to its communion the Hartford Convention federalists enabled them to recover the ascendancy which they had long held and abused and finally lost. The Essex Junto was a half-breed, begotten by a Tory father upon a whig mother in our Revolutionary War. From the Essex Junto descended Hartford Convention federalism. The misrule of that faction sunk the whole Federal party in irretrievable ruin. The pure and moderate portion of it abandoned their standard and uniting with the moderate portion of the Democratic Party constituted the National Republican party. This was the era of good feelings - and when the Hartford Conventionals found themselves and their cause sunk in the mire of infamy. They heard and were abash’d, and up they sprung upon the wing - And as, wheresoever the Carcase [Carcass] is, there will the Eagles be gathered together; they joined the National Republican party abjured the Hartford Convention and all its works, and of all their unto principles retained in appearance nothing but a ravenous appetite for Office.During the whole course of my political life I have held myself bound in allegiance to no party, but to my Country, my whole Country, and nothing but my Country. I have acted with all parties, in every measure which I have deemed beneficial to my Country, and have to the extent of my ability resisted the action of all Parties, which I believed injurious to the interests of the whole community. Such a course, it might be foreseen must necessarily bring a man in violent collision from time to time, with all the Parties, successively holding their little brief authority. I had settled that matter in my mind, before I entered on the public Theatre. I did not expect to have a Life of ease, quite, or popularity. I determined that it should be an honest Life. I have adhered to that purpose.I have at all time taken as little part as possible in elections. Of late years none at all. But I have adhered to principles, and as far as possible consistently with public principles to my friends.Mr. Pearce had been ever I have known him personally and politically my friend. I had seen him deserted, betrayed and persecuted by the compound of Hartford Convention federalism and Royal Arch Masonry, and then I had seen them charge him with the treachery which was in truth their own. I saw them on the point of breaking him down, because he had been a Republican, and was an Antimason. Yet I took no part in the recent Rhode Island election while it was before the People. When their judgment had been pronounced by his Election, I indulged my feelings of friendship, and of patriotism, in answer to a communication of the fact from him, by a sincere and cordial congratulation. My Letter was not written or in­ tended for publication, but there was nothing in it which I could wish to suppress or disguise. The publication of it was in some part forced upon him by that same compound party, who now with such felicitous ingenuity charge it upon me as a Sin of ingratitude to them. Precious friends to be sure they have been to me, and to my father before me!”With regard to the suggestions in your Letter respecting the approaching Elections, I have little to say - the Whigs have adopted here as well as in Pennsylvania the Anti-Masonic Candidate for Governor. The Anti-Masons have adopted the Jackson Candidate for Lieutenant Governor. Nothing but Whig treachery can defeat the Election of Mr· Everett; but how, if he and Mr· Foster should both be elected, how will it be possible for the Whig Trumpeters to shout Victory! Victory! The glorious Victory of the Whigs!!! That some of the Whigs are labouring in the vacation of the compound, the handbill of the ‘Independent Whig’ is evidence which you can estimate perhaps better than I can. As to the Presidential Election, I have never for an instant, since the 4th of March 1829 expected or desired to be again a Candidate myself, nor would I ever be a Candidate, with a certainty of defeat before me. With this determination, I shall not make myself the partisan of any other man. I hope the People will themselves settle the question - but if the Election should go into the House of Representatives and I should be there, my vote will be dictated by the principles which have governed my Life.Please to consider this letter as confidential and be assured of the respects of your friend.J. Q. AdamsThe Hartford Convention (15 December 1814 – 5 January 1815) was a gathering of Federalist delegates from New England, called by invitation of the Massachusetts legislature (17 October 1814) ,who were opposed to the War of 1812 with Great Britain. The more radical members wanted to secede from the Union and negotiate peace with Great Britain. However, the moderates prevailed. They recommended Constitutional amendments that were aimed at limiting the power of the South in the Federal government and allowing the states to control their own military. News of the victory of Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans and the signing of the Treaty of Ghent brought an abrupt end to the work of a committee of three appointed by the convention to negotiate with the national government; the Hartford Convention became the subject of popular ridicule.An extraordinary letter relating to John Quincy Adams’ lifelong commitment to his country. $4,000 - $6,000

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Adams, John Quincy. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 6: Adams, John Quincy. Autograph letter signed ("J.Q. Adams").

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Description: 6. Adams, John Quincy. Autograph letter signed (“J.Q. Adams”), 1 page (9.87 x 8 in.; 251 x 203 mm.), Quincy (Massachusetts), 1 July 1829, to Joseph Blunt of New York; with integral blank; tape reinforcement to vertical fold, verso integral blank affixed to cardstock frame.John Quincy Adams writes about his adoration for the American Flag and what it symbolizes. He writes in full: Dear sir, I have received your Letter of the 25th alto, and have read with much pleasure the pamphlet upon the Relations between the Cherokees and the Government of the United States.There is Reason, Justice, Benevolence and Humanity in your observations---I hope they will not be forgotten in our future Relations with The Cherokees.I am glad to be informed with certainty of the authors of the Lyric Poem upon the American Flag—a Poem which I prophecy will last as long as the flag itself—I mean as the durable portion of the flag—For Congress to my grievous affliction has enacted that the flag shall change, with the accession of every new State—By my good will the flag should remain till the last conclusion of nature, as it was assumed in 1776—I have no relish for change of Standards.Did you tell Mr. Hallack that I should be grateful to him if he would write us a few Sailor’s Songs in the Style of his Alnwick Castle but without the Ten and six pence Sterling? Our navy wants Legislation of the Minstrel to reform that of the Capitol--And if Halleck would write the Songs, anybody might draw the Be it enacted. Your friend, J.Q. Adams George Washington called John Quincy Adams “the young man who would prove to be the ablest diplomat in the American Service.” This remarkable letter was written just a few months after leaving the Presidency. Adams was the truest form of an American patriot, and the sentiments expressed in this letter toward the American flag, that so many have died to defend, is indicative of his entire life. $4,000 - $6,000

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Adams, John Quincy. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 7: Adams, John Quincy. Autograph letter signed ("J. Q. Adams").

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Description: 7. Adams, John Quincy. Autograph letter signed (“J. Q. Adams”), 1 page (9.25 x 7.62 in.; 235 x 194 mm.), Washington, 3 December 1826, to his brother, Thomas B. Adams, Esquire of Quincy; small paper loss affecting one character of one word of text, marginal small paper loss repaired.John Quincy Adams on his family’s ancestry.To his brother Thomas, John Quincy writes in full: Your Letters of the 26th ulto: with the one from President Kirkland endorsed in it and your answer were received yesterday. I suppose the genealogical narrative in your Letter contains all the information that he may desire. It comprizes as much of the family as we have to tell for a century preceding the birth of your father. The short and simple annals of the poor. If I had leisure I should devote some of it to acquire more knowledge of the lives of the characters of those who preceded us although what we do know of them is a sufficient indication that what we could possibly discover would be facts of no interest to any other than lineal descendants. There would be nothing more which it can import that the world should know, than is contained in your statement to Kirkland.The fragments of my father’s diary in 1765 which contain his notices of his appointment with Gridley and Otis to appear for the Town of Boston before the Governor and Council, are in the hands of my son George, to whom I will write to communicate them to the Revd. President as he desires.I rejoice to learn that you will find yourself with your family so comfortably situated at present with regard to your determination for the Spring. As it is fixed, I have only to assure you of my wishes that its result may prove advantageous to you and your family.Present me kindly to them and believe me to be your ever affectionate brother J. Q. AdamsA wonderful letter with Quincy Adams commentary on his own family history. $4,000 - $6,000

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Adams, John Quincy. Autograph manuscript unsigned, as Congressman from Massachusetts.

Lot 8: Adams, John Quincy. Autograph manuscript unsigned, as Congressman from Massachusetts.

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Description: 8. Adams, John Quincy. Autograph manuscript unsigned, as Congressman from Massachusetts, 3 pages (8.62 x 6.87 in.; 219 x 175 mm.), [Washington, 1842]; repair to horizontal and vertical folds.Adams composes a eulogy in genuine poetic prose on behalf of colleague, Samuel L. Southard.In part: ... He is gone! Full not of years but of honors in which had the undiscerning shaft of death pierced another bosom instead of his own it would have elevated him to the summit of power in this union and made him at this moment, the chief ruler of the land. [At this point Adams is referring to the proximity of Southard to the Presidency. At President Harrison’s death, Southard was chosen by his peers to be President of the Senate, and thus became next in line for the President’s post, then filled by Tyler.] Earthly honours and earthly powers for him are deposited in that Tomb, to which we are about to follow his earthly remains. During the period of six years while we were united as colleagues and fellow servants in the Executive department of the Government, my personal relations with Mr. Southard necessarily became of daily occurrence, intimate and in the highest degree confidential and they opened to my attentive observation of his character a mine of intellectual and moral worth richer than diamonds or rubies.This is the original draft, with corrections, of a eulogy given in Congress by ex-President Adams, concerning the death of Samuel L. Southard (1787-1842). Southard was former Secretary of the Navy (1823-29) under Adams and New Jersey Governor from 1832 to 1833. Adams generously praises Southard for his integrity and outstanding career. He reviews this career from its youthful beginnings in New Jersey, to Monroe’s Cabinet (which he shared with Adams), to Adams’ Cabinet, and beyond. $3,000 - $5,000

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Barton, Clara. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 9: Barton, Clara. Autograph letter signed ("Clara Barton"), 2 pages (8 x 4.87 in.; 203 x 124 mm.).

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Description: 9. Barton, Clara. Autograph letter signed (“Clara Barton”), 2 pages (8 x 4.87 in.; 203 x 124 mm.), Washington, 10 March 1883 to [Marion] Talbot, daughter of the prominent Boston physician, Dr. Israel Talbot.The iconic American shows no signs of slowing down at age 61 and almost two years after the successful founding of the American Red Cross.In part: Your welcome letter is just at hand. I am glad you do not give me up for I am anticipating the repetition of my visit to Boston as one of the bright outlooks of these busy days. You will naturally conclude that it must be something of a press which could crown all the extra labor of the Red Cross Call for the Ohio Valley into the filled full cup I had arranged for myself when I last saw you. I shall probably fall a little short; and be compelled to slide over into April, but just how far I cannot now determine -- the Mississippi having caught the infection and gone to behaving naughtily too. Must prolong the work. It is safe to say, not quite for the 31st but as soon after as I can make the end come here. I really do not know what I could say to a literary club. I am growing very rutted and ought to change my occupation just for that cause. Every day I promise myself the pleasure of a chat with your precious mother, her...letter looks up...in my face from time to time, and reminds me that the way is open. Great love to her & to all please. If you were the ‘richer for my visit,’ I grew princely upon it...Lovingly Clara BartonTogether with:Barton, Clara. Letter signed, 1 page (5 x 8 in.; 127 x 203 mm.), Johnstown, Pennsylvania, 10 June 1889, to E.L. H. Edington, with original envelope. Barton writes in part: Please accept thanks for your contribution of old linen . . . It was a thoughtful gift, and you will be glad to know that the calls for such material further are likely to be less, as the wounds attending this catastrophe were not many among the survivors . . . Barton, Clara. Typed letter signed, 2 pages (8.38 x 11 in.; 213 x 279 mm.), Washington, D.C., 16 December 1898, to Judge Alexander Terrell of Austin, Texas. Barton writes in part: There is a touch of real knowledge of the situation of an historic event which your letter reveals, that most of the pleasantly said things which will go back to my publisher will not contain. What a grave-digger time is, and how carefully he covers over with verdure the wrongs as well as the body that lie hidden away. But nothing will bury out of my memory the sturdy faithfulness of the unbending minister who stood faithfully by me in every trial through every day . . . Barton, Clara. Typed letter signed, 1 page (8 x 10.5 in.; 203 x 267 mm.), Glen Echo, Maryland, 28 December 1909, to Charles Seabury, First Vice President of the Sterling Debenture Corporation. She writes in part: I come to thank you most earnestly for the kindly courtesy shown me by your repeated offers of shares of stock in your establishment in my own state and among my own people . . . I do not feel able to make an investment . . .Barton, Clara. Typed letter signed, 1 page (8.5 x 11 in.; 216 x 279 mm.), Galveston, Texas, 23 October 1900 to Mr. Harriet Reed. She writes on the relief effort after the Galveston tidal wave of 8 September 1900, in part: . . . The Galveston work is getting straightened out and we are beginning to see what we can do with the mainland, which is in many instances as badly damaged as the island . . . $4,000 - $6,000

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[Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant de.]

Lot 10: [Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant de.]

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Description: [Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant de.] Highly important telegram signed (“G.T. Beauregard”) by a telegraph clerk, 1 page (7.75 x 4.25 in.; 19 x 10.79mm.) Charleston, South Carolina, 26 August 1863, to Confederate President Jefferson Davis. Received at Richmond, Virginia; reinforced on verso.To Jefferson Davis, General Beauregard vows to hold iconic Ft. Sumter at all costs.Beauregard writes in full: Charleston 26, Pres J. Davis. Genl Gilmour [i.e., Jeremy Francis Gilmer––in charge of the Savannah and Charleston defenses] has gone to Savannah. He has been teleghed. to return. everything practicable with our Means has been done to protect Sumter it shall be held if necessary with muskets & Bayonets P.T Beauregard Genl CommdgFederal attempts to retake Fort Sumter began on 7 April 1863 when Rear-Admiral Samuel Francis DuPont (1803-1865) led a naval attack with nine Federal ironclads that he expected would recapture the fort with little delay. With the new monitor Weehawken, under Captain John Rodgers (1812-1882), at the head of the line of ships, the battle began at 2:50 pm and ended at 4:30 pm, when DuPont signaled his ships to withdraw from action, intending to resume the following morning. It was the worst naval defeat of the Civil War. The heavy bombardment was largely ineffective, though the ironclad nearest Sumter, the Keokuk, struck 90 times, the Passaic 35 times, the Montauk 14 times, the Patapsco, 47 times. The armored gunboat Keokuk was so damaged that she sunk the next day. Five of the monitors were temporarily put out of action. The fleet fired 139 projectiles and was hit 411 times, being struck almost three times for each round that it discharged.A second assault by the Federals was attempted 4 months later. On 17 August, Major General Quincy Adams Gillmore’s (1825-1888) guns––five immense Parrott guns––opened fire on Fort Sumter. The Federal army advanced, parallel by parallel, toward Battery Wagner at the end of Morris Island. The bombardment lasted for seven days. The object of the assault: to force the surrender of the Fort and thus affect an entrance into Charleston. Though the Fort was reduced to a pile of brick dust and debris, it did not surrender. The Federals were to get no further in their assault.In this historic telegram, Beauregard is fully aware of the symbolism of holding onto Fort Sumter, vowing to defend it despite the fact that it has already been reduced to rubble. In reply, Davis confirmed Beauregard’s decision to fight to the last. The Confederates held onto Fort Sumter, under almost constant heavy bombardment, until mid-February, 1865. $4,000 – $6,000

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Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant de. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 11: Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant de. Autograph letter signed ("G.T. Beauregard").

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Description: 11. Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant de. Autograph letter signed (“G.T. Beauregard”), 1 page (8 x 4.87 in.; 203 x 124 mm.), Charleston, South Carolina, 25 February 1864, to Mrs. M. Stanard, Richmond, VA., on HEAD-QUARTERS, Department of S.C., Ga., and Fla. letterhead stationery; with integral blank.Still confident of the South’s ultimate victory, General Beauregard is elated over the heroism shown in the Confederate defense of Ft. Sumter.Beauregard writes in full: Dear Madam, Permit me to send you herewith six photographic views of the Interior of Fort Sumter, taken on the 8th of September last, - during a very heavy bombardment of that work by the Enemy’s land & naval Batteries. They will be a “memento” hereafter of the heroism displayed by its Garrison in its defence against such great odds. So long as our Soldiers are animated by such a noble spirit of resistance, our success must be certain. Reverses we may meet with - but final failure, never! Resply Your Obt. Servt G. T. BeauregardIn April of 1863 the Federals made their first attempt at retaking Fort Sumter when Rear-Admiral Samuel Francis DuPont led a naval attack with nine ironclads and expected he would recapture the Fort quickly. It was the attack that ended quickly with DuPont withdrawing his ships with very little damage done. A second attempt was made later that year in July. Federal troops were landed on nearby Morris Island with the goal of taking Fort Wagner. This would bring Union siege guns close enough to pound Charleston. The two assaults would fail, the second being the famous charge of 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry––one of the first Official African-American units. Although the unit reached the parapets, Fort Wagner held. The Union Army and Navy bombarded Fort Sumter and by September the Fort was in ruins, but Fort Sumter held.Together with:Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant de. Letter signed three times (“G.T. Beauregard”), at the conclusion of his letter on page five and twice with his initials following his notes and postscript on the last page, 9 pages (11 x 9.25 in.; 279 x 235 mm.), New Orleans, 9 December 1854, to U.S. Senator John Slidell, concerning the reorganization of the army. Headed Private and marked Copy To be returned.Beauregard lays out his ideas for a reorganization of the U.S. Army and national defense.The message of the President recommending an increase of the Army by two Regiments of Infantry and two Mounted Regiments reminds me that I have been intending for some time past to call your attention to two very important facts relative to our Army Organization and National Defences which are still maintained in pretty nearly the same condition in which they were many years ago, without regard to the important improvements and modifications which have taken place in five arms since that system was first adopted. But my numerous occupations have caused me to delay addressing you until I can but hastily gather the facts I wished to lay before you. The idea of still maintaining our ‘heavy-infantry’ Organization, and even increasing it, is not, I think, the most advantageous one--for if we look to the nature of the service it is principally called upon at present to perform on our Western borders--it will be seen that it is entirely inadequate to the purposes for which it has been sent there. Its wily foes possess over it, advantages which cannot be overcome by bravery and military discipline--and an Indian War at present in our Western Territories would be attended with the same delays, expenses, and ill-success that were met with in our ever memorable Florida War. What would be required in such a contest-would be celerity of movement-and deadliness of Aim-at long range-which are the distinguishing traits of Indian Warfare. These qualities give them in a broken and wild country decided advantages over regular troops, which are generally intended to act in solid phalanxes--slowly but surely.What then is the kind of troops best adapted to overcome such a foe? and, indeed , from the nature of our Institutions, the intelligence and habits of our people, to meet with honor and success any other enemy bold enough to set a hostile foot upon our shores? A little reflection ought to convince us that the Mounted Rifle Regiments and the ‘Chasseurs de Vincennes’ armed with Minié Rifles ought to form the basis of our Army Organization-for the brilliant services of the latter in the ‘Guerre d’Afrique’ and the contest at present going on in the Crimea, establish beyond a doubt their great superiority over all other forces, and no doubt their number will soon be increased tenfold in all European armies. (See note A.)At the Battle of the Alma, Marshal St. Arnand is said to have exclaimed in the hottest of the fight ‘Oh that I had the rest of my “Chasseurs d’Afrique” on the field!’--which shows the importance he attached to their services--and at the Siege of Sebastopol the Russians are said to complain that at 400 yards the fire of these Riflemen is so deadly that the gunners cannot serve at their pieces, and temporary blinds made of timber, have to be used to conceal them from view whilst loading. At the Battle of New Orleans on the 8th of January 1814, thirty six hundred men, composed principally of Volunteers from our Southern and Western States, armed with common Rifles and stationed behind a canal hastily dug, defeated in about three hours over ten thousand of the best troops Europe had ever marshalled together ‘Veterans of an hundred Battles’-slaying and wounding twenty one hundred of their men with a loss, on their side, in killed and wounded of only 13.During our late War with Mexico, at the Battles of Cerro Gordo-Contreras­ Chusubusco-Chapultchee -and the Garitas of Belen and San Cosme-our Rifle and Voltigueur Regiments spread terror into the enemy’s hearts, wherever they happened to open their deadly fire upon them, and I then and there said to my brother officers ‘If we only had 5,000 such men with a due proportion of Mounted Rifles, light and heavy artillery, we could march with perfect impunity from one end of the Republic to the other.’ After mature reflection on that subject I am confirmed in that opinion, and I now say, that with 10,000 such men-and a proper proportion of the other two kinds of arms, we could in less than three months take possession of Cuba notwithstanding the Allies of Spain and her 30,000 men.Then why should we not benefit by the examples I have named to reorganize our Army on the most efficient footing? Is it because certain ‘old Fogies in Epaulettes,’ will oppose such an innovation? Or because we have to await the decrees of European monarchs before daring to adopt a military system of our own? If in other respects we had waited upon the pleasure of England & France before presuming to think for ourselves we would have made but little progress in the useful arts, and we might as well to this day have remained their obedient Colonies.From our earliest history the Rifle has been the national weapon, and with it we have more than once caused the slavish soldiery of European despotism, heroes of many a hard fought battle, to recoil with fear and trembling from our destructive and rapid fire; and this, too, with troops, generally, whose ears were only used to the sound of their own Rifles, when pursuing the wild beasts of the forest--or procuring a daily sustenance for their families. Are we not then to adopt as the principal arm in our military Service this, our national arm, because European Governments have not thought proper to sanction its use? Indeed it is high time that, in our Military as in our Civil Organization, we should begin to think and act as though we were no longer under the tutorship of England and France.In battle it is estimated that only one musket shot in about 100 takes effect-(that is, that each man fires on an average per hour about 30 shots) which would take about 3 hours 20 minutes before hitting his adversary if he were alone and it is next to useless for him to begin firing before the latter has reached within 200 or 250 yards of him-this being considered the extreme effective range of a musket ball (this accounts for the small loss experienced by a storming column when marching at double quick time), whereas with the Minié Rifle in the hands of well drilled troops at that distance, at least half the balls ought to tell and they can be thrown with effect at 1200 yards-with certainty at 750 yards--(the point blank range of a 24 pounder)-and with deadly certainty at 500 yards (See Note B). With the improvements which our American ingenuity would ere long introduce in this arm, so as to make it fire five or six times without stopping to reload, what a force of English or French troops would it not require to dislodge a body of about 20,000 American troops (Western Men) armed with such Rifles and stationed behind hedges, fences, canals, or broken grounds where cavalry could not take them in flank and rear? To meet the latter contingency, and to act as columns of attack, or to repel the latter under certain conditions, these Rifles should be provided with ‘Yatagan’ bayonets, and the Rifle Regiments should be drilled also as heavy-Infantry. Each Corps should also be provided with its proper quota of light artillery and Cavalry nearly as at present adapted in our service. If thought advisable (altho’ I must confess I do not see the necessity of it) about one half of our present Regiments of heavy Infantry could be maintained for a nucleus hereafter if required-but all our Volunteer Corps (Militia) ought to be armed and drilled occasionally as Riflemen-that is-this should be our National Arm--for, recruits could be made ten times as efficient as Riflemen, in one half the time required to make them good and efficient Infantry Soldiers-and our Indian Wars would then be only a school of practice for our citizen soldiery.Hence if called upon for an opinion on this subject, I would recommend without regard to what has been one heretofore or to what now exists. First That all our Infantry Regiments at present on duty in our Western Territories be armed and equipped as Riflemen on the principle of the ‘Chasseurs d’Afrique’ or ‘de Vincennes’ besides the two new Regiments to be added to them-or ten in all. If it were not for the almost insurmountable obstacles to obtaining the passage of such a Bill, and the difficulty and cost of maintaining such a large body of mounted troops in the almost barren and inaccessible regions of some parts of our Western Territories, I would recommend also that these Regiments should be organized as mounted Riflemen; but in all things we must only propose what is feasible, or what will meet with the approval of those who are to decide upon any important measure it is desirable they should adopt at as early a period as possible. Second-That our two Regiments of Dragoons besides the present regiments of mounted Riflemen and the two new ones recommended to be added to them by the President, be all organized as mounted-Riflemen to be armed and equipped with Colt’s Rifles, or such other repeating Rifles (Sharp’s or Porter’s) as experiment will prove the best. Third-That our four Artillery Regiments be maintained in their present organization as heavy-Infantry, with one light Battery to each Regiment.I will now refer in a few words to the other obsolete system which we are still maintaining in our National Defences when experience tells us that we are only constructing and arming our Forts to see them become an easy prey to an energetic enemy, and a source of useless expenditure to the country. I refer to the manner of arming our first and second class Forts with only 48, 32 and 24 Pounders the heaviest being usually placed in the lower tier of casemates and the last in Barbette-that is-uncovered, according to the plan followed on board a Man of War--as tho’ there existed the same reason for diminishing the weight of the guns as they rise above the surface of the water or ground-whereas in Fortification the heaviest guns can just as well be put on the top of the work as below­ thereby increasing their range and efficiency. Moreover, from the improvements that have been going on latterly in the construction of the heaviest ordnance, and the increased facilities acquired in their transportation, our Forts will now be exposed to the heaviest kind of Siege Artillery-and breaches will now be made in our exposed walls at from 1000 to 1500 yards instead of about 350 yards-as being demonstrated at this time by the Allies at Sebastopol. Hence it becomes incumbent upon us to arm our first and second Class Forts protecting our larger and more important sea-ports-and harbours-only with the heaviest kind of Paixhaur and other guns that can be manufactured, so as to force an attacking party to commence his operations and to construct his breaching - batteries at such a distance from the works as to afford ample time for a relieving Force to come to the assistance of the Garrison. Our present small armaments can either be transferred to our smaller works, or sold under the hammer of the Auctioneer, or even given away to our enemies, on condition that they will consent to use no heavier pieces against our Forts.In our system of Fortifications we ought to complete entirely, arm and equip-.all the defences of our main Seaports & harbor and Naval Depots, before expending one solitary cent on Secondary localities-leaving these to take care of themselves, or to their own insignificance, until they can be regularly attended to as the others are completed. I have now given you my general views on these two important questions and had I your eloquence, ability, and position, I would stake my reputation as a Statesman upon their adoption...Beauregard then writes “Notes A and B” to which he has previously referred in his letter. Note A-Page 2. I do not wish to be understood as saying that we ought to give up entirely the use of cavalry and Infantry-no indeed-but this would depend upon circumstances and the numerical force of our Army. I would, however in all cases most surely, arm our Infantry with Minié Rifles and teach them to ‘keep cool and fire low’, for it is perfectly absurd to be firing in the air-to make a noise merely, when your enemy is within light and advancing upon you with the most deadly intentions. The great improvement which remains to be made now in Military Service is ‘not to throw away your shots’. The greatest Military writer of the day (Jominé--précis de l’art de la Guerre-vol 1. p. 113) said in 1837-‘The armament of armies is yet susceptable of many improvements, and the one which will take the initiative in this amelioration will possess immense advantages over all others. Field Artillery has nearly reached its culminating point, but the Armament of the Infantry and Cavalry deserve all the solicitude of a foreseeing Government. The new inventions which have taken place in the last 20 years seem to threaten a great revolution in the organization, the armament, and even the tactics of Armies. Strategy alone will stand upon its invariable principles, which were the same under the Scipios and the Caesars, under Frederick the Great, Peter the Great, and Napoleon the Great, for those principles are entirely independent of the organization of Armies and of their Armaments.’ He then adds-With regard to recompense and promotions, it is essentially necessary to protect seniority of Service-altho’ leaving an opening to merit-three fourths of the promotions ought in peace to be made according to date of commission and the other fourth left to those whose merit and zeal shall have distinguished them. In war however, the order of promotion by date of commission ought to be suspended or reduced to one third of the casualties-leaving the other two thirds to remarkable deeds and services which cannot be called into question. Note B, page 3d. The carabine or Rifle first used by the ‘Chasseurs de Vincennes’ had a barrel 36 inches long with a bore of 3/4 of an inch diameter-which had 4 gro[o]ves completing one revolution or twist in 18 feet. The chamber was capable of containing 6 1/2 grams (avoirdupois) of powder. The barrel is provided with two lights-one fixed and the other moveable for long ranges-the rammer has a hollow cylindrical head to fit over one conical ball and the piece is provided with a ‘sabre bayonet’ 18 inches long having the form of ‘yatagan,’ its total weight being about 11 pounds-and total length about 6 feet inclusive of bayonet. The Rifle, however, has since been improved upon by a French officer named Minié whose name has been given to it to distinguish it from the other. Finding that the ball could not always be forced into the mouth of the chamber to the same extent-and with the same regularity, and that the motion of the ball was not sufficiently great to overcome its tendency to deviate from its true trajectory, be suppressed the chamber and substituted in its place a stationery conical point or pin at the bottom of the bore-occupying its exact centre, and on the point of which the ball is forced in loading, so as to cause its sides to fill up the grooves of the back and prevent any windage--the space around this conical point, the barrel, and the bottom of the ball forming the chamber which is made sufficiently large to contain a pretty full charge of powder without the necessity of cleaning it out until after firing about 50 rounds. The increased rotation of the ball around its axis was obtained by increasing the inclination of the grooves of the bore, so as to complete one revolution in 6 1/2 feet instead of 18 feet. This rotary motion and the range of the ball are also increased by making the grooves deeper at the bottom of the bore so as to diminish its windage still more as it leaves it.The ball is cylindro-conical, the cylindrical or near portion being cut into angular grooves so as to direct it on its trajectory on the same principle that the arrow is directed by its feathers--and the resistance of the air to a downward motion from its elongated form, gives it a horizontal trajectory which is assimilated very much to that of a cannon ball, and consequently becomes the more dangerous-its range is also wonderfully increased-(at 700 yards, nearly the point blank range of a 24 pounder,) the ball invariably hit a mark 4 feet by 7 feet-at 850 yards it went thro’ 5 thicknesses of Oak-plank 3/4 inch thick, placed at about 7 feet from each other-at 1250 yards the ball could be still thrown with some degree of accuracy and random balls of this kind have been thrown to the surprising distance of 1600 yards. A charge of 4 1/2 grains (avoirdupois) of powder of the first quality will give to the ball an initial velocity of about 315 yards per second. A still later improvement in the above Minié Rifle has been made to obviate the difficulty of cleaning the rifle due to that conical piece at the bottom of the bore--this improvement consists in removing entirely the said conical piece and introducing a similar one at the bottom of each ball-into which it is forced by ramming the ball down. In strong wind the ball on account of its elongated form is more or less deflected from its true trajectory but this can to a certain extent be obviated by having one of its lights graduated and so arranged as to slide horizontally to the right or left as may be required.Beauregard’s postscript concludes the letter: N.B-At the battle of Alma 35,000 Russians defended their position for about 3 hours-during which about one half of their number 17,500 must have fired at the rate of 30 shots per hour for each man, making in all 1,575,000 to kill and wound about 4000 of the Allies or at the rate of 394 shots per casualty. At the battle of New Orleans 3,600 Americans defended the lines for about 3 hours-during which about one half of their number (1800) must have fired about 162,000 shots to kill and wound 2100 men or at the rate of about 77 per casualty. At the battle of Chusubusc 16,000 Mexicans defended their positions for about 3 hours also-during which only about 1/4 of their number (say 4,000) must have fired about 360,000 shots to kill & wound 1100 men or at the rate of about 327 per casualty”Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant de. Autograph manuscript, in pencil, 2 pages (6.25 x 8 in.; 159 x 203 mm.), [1865].The manuscript is headed, Life of Jeff. Davis & Stonewall Jackson. Acct. of the Escape from Rich[mon]d & subsequent capture of Jeff. Davis by an officer of his Staff. Beauregard’s description covers the period from April 10, 1865, up to about the end of the month. Left Danville at 5h p.m. on Monday 10th April/65. Arrived at Greensboro [at 5h] a.m. Tuesday 11 [April/65]. No one there ever suspected Lee’s surrender -- We arrived early in the day. Both J[ohnston] & B. [McCutter] first brig in com [man]d. there were soon with Mr. Davis. The interview was short & evidently only a preparatory one. G[enera]I B[reckenridg]e joined us at Greensboro (12th p.m.) & brought details of Lee’s surrender. Soon after his arrival he & Mr. Davis G[enera]ls J[obnston] & B[reckenri]d[ge] had a prolonged consultation ( ). It was held on a slope of a little hill just off the railroad track. The little hill was itself historic &c. On good Friday (14th) orders were given to evacuate Greensboro &c. We camped in a wood near Jamestown & had a soaking soldier’s night of it. Next morning (15th )..Breck[enridg]e accom[panicd] by Reagan, returned to Greensboro. What Johnston might choose to so agree on, in his conversation with Sherman, was matter [ofJ which needed looking into. The terms first submitted were Bre[ckenrid]ge’s These were [respected]. They were the only terms Johnston was authorized to make, so far as Mr. Davis could give him authority. The compromise terms afterwards allowed by Br[eckenridg]e. were not app[rove]d at Wash[ington ] & after waiting two days (to 18th), Br[eckenridg]e consented to permit G[enera]l J[ohnston] to do the best he could . The first positive information received in Charlotte as to Johnston ‘s surrender came in the form of a telegram to his wife, then staying there. It advised her to remain in Ch[arlotte] & he, on parole, would soon join her. I should mention that Gen[era]J Br[eckenridg]e teleg, among other things to Ch[arlotte], [stated] the mere fact that Pres[iden]t Lincoln was killed. The circumstances were not known until our arrival, for nothing was easier than his escape as Br[eckenridg]e & Wood & the writer of this knows, & by meeting no interception themselves, have proved. $6,000 - $8,000

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Burr, Aaron. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 12: Burr, Aaron. Autograph letter signed ("AB"), 1 page (8.5 x 14.5 in.; 216 x 368 mm.) February [1804].

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Description: 12. Burr, Aaron. Autograph letter signed (“AB”), 1 page (8.5 x 14.5 in.; 216 x 368 mm.) February [1804]. To David Gelston, Collector of the Port of New York. With the integral docketed leaf attached. An interesting letter, written only two days before his fateful nomination for New York governor. During that unsuccessful campaign, Burr’s simmering quarrel with Alexander Hamilton culminated in their fatal duel, on 11 July.Burr and John Jacob Astor speculate in New York City real estate.In part: : By the Letter of Mr Astor herewith enclosed you will see that he offers not quite 2500 dolrs. for the lots - but with the deduction of 500 & odd dolrs. which I owe him. This debt was created by an error in our accounts of his own creating. He convinced me of the error; but the money had been paid to me & was appropriated. It was therefore left as a debt. Those lots are really worth 300 Drs. apiece & will sell for that in the Course of the summer. What now prevents a fair Sale is that they are included in a mortgage with other lots which were sold to Mr Astor & the money left in his hands to pay the whole mortgage for doing which I have his Covenant; but all this could not be explained at auction. If you choose to take the lots yourself, you may have them for 2500 Drs. if not you may sell them at the offer of Astor in case nothing better offers. Dr Browne will execute the Deed I shall then owe you 7 or 800 Drs. which I will pay as soon as possible...In July, Burr’s duel with Hamilton effectively ended his career in politics. John Jacob Astor, having made substantial sums in the fur-factoring trade, began at this period to make large purchases of city real estate which later formed the bulk of the Astor family fortune.Provenance: David Gelston (1733-1828) of Long Island, delegate to the Provincial Congress in New York and to the Constitutional Convention, appointed Collector of the Port of New York by Jefferson in 1801––A direct descendant of the above (sale, Christie’s New York, 19 December 1986, lot 24)––to the present owner (sale Christie’s New York, 14 May 1992, lot 43).Together with:Burr, Aaron. Autograph letter signed (“A Burr”), 1 page, (8 x 10.75 in.; 203 x 273 mm.), 1 June 1798, to the Honorable John Laurance U.S. Senate, regarding controversies between Samuel Bayard and Moses and Joseph Hunt of Ulster County over payment claims; paper loss at margin of horizontal fold and on the integral address leaf. Two fine letters completely in Burr’s hand. $4,000 - $6,000

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[California Gold Rush.] Edwin R. Bishop. Important autograph letter signed.

Lot 13: [California Gold Rush.] Edwin R. Bishop. Important autograph letter signed.

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Description: 13. [California Gold Rush.] Edwin R. Bishop. Important autograph letter signed, 4 pages (9.5 x 7.5 in.; 242 x 190mm), Placerville Eldgrado Co. Cal, 23 December 1850, to his wife and daughter, Mary & Paulina; minute paper losses at intersecting folds, smudging, light browning. An extraordinary window into the quotidian realities of life in California during the Gold Rush.A dramatic eyewitness account of a lynching during the California Gold Rush.Edwin R. Bishop begins his letter with a report of his ill-health (replete with spelling errors uncorrected): I . . . was very sick for aspell it has been two months since I have been able to labor any. you can tell folks that want to come to California they had beter stay at home or they not be sick for after a person gets so he can eat a little they can’t find it to eat without paying fifty times as mutch as it is worth & 1/2 ounce for every visit of the doctor I got so I could prospect a little a few days ago & set a man to work for me and then I was taken with the Rhumatism & now done nothing since. Doctor Bill & my being not able to work has been six hundred Dollars damage to me for I did not get much dirt throwed up . . . if I could have my health a year I could make a little money but there is hundreds and hundreds that dont any mor than pay their way. I expect you hear of some making a pile that is tru once in a while; but jist take a look at the number of miners in this little town. it is estimated that there is six thousand here. the digins are dug over & over again . . . . Bishop then recounts the lynching he witnessed: The day after I maild my last leter there was a litle gambler cald Dick Staud another one of the miners took him a way from the Sherif & stretched his neck, they hung him to an oak limb & me could see the job done from our house . . ..A chilling account of the hard times of those seeking fortune during the California Gold Rush. $4,000 - $6,000

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Colt, Samuel. A fine group of materials from the American inventor.

Lot 14: Colt, Samuel. A fine group of materials from the American inventor.

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Description: 14. Colt, Samuel. A fine group of materials from the American inventor including: Colt, Samuel. Autograph letter signed (“Sam Colt”), 1 page (10 x 8 in.; 254 x 203 mm.), Hartford, Connecticut, 10 December 1855, to Peter D. Vroom, the U.S. Minister in Berlin. Colt writes in full: I take the liberty of introducing to you my agent Mr. Charles Caesar who visits Europe to look into my business and to further my interest. Let me ask you for such assistance in furthering his views as you may have it in your power to render him, and he may find it necessary to require. Colt, Samuel. Autograph letter signed (“Sam Colt”), 1 page (4.25 x 7.87 in.; 108 x 200 mm.), Hartford, 1 January 1860, to Col. William R. Dunkard. Colt writes in full:Will you do me the favor to send me a copy of the new Army and the new Navy Register so soon as they are published & much obliged. [Colt Firearms Co.]. Printed Broadside, in French, 2 pages, (15 x 10 in.; 381 x 254 mm.), being a French advertisement for Colt pistols with a fine engraved illustration of one of the models. $4,000 - $6,000

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Custer, George Armstrong. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 15: Custer, George Armstrong. Autograph letter signed ("G A Custer").

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Description: 15. Custer, George Armstrong. Autograph letter signed (“G A Custer”), 3 pages (8 x 6.5 in.; 203 x 165 mm.), West Point, 13 June (1859), to Minnie. 19-year-old West Point Cadet George Custer apologizes to a young lady for not answering her letters as final examinations had begun.Custer writes in full: Dear Minnie, Your letter has lain unanswered several days. I would have answered it when I received it but our examination had just begun and I was very busy preparing for it. I have been examined on Mathematics & Ethics and will be examined on French today, which will close my examinations for this time. You must not expect a long letter from me this time (turn?) and I will make up for it when I see you by talking. I cannot tell definitely on what day I will reach Buffalo. I think it will be about the 27th of this month perhaps later and it is highly probable that I will get there much sooner. If you and Henry still propose going to Monroe which I sincerely hope you do. I wish you would make your arrangements so that you could be able to start for Monroe at [any?] time as I would rather spend the time in Monroe than in Buffalo because I am better acquainted there than in B____ I am waiting anxiously for the time to come when I shall meet old friends once more. I wish you would write to me when you get this and let me know whether you intend going to Monroe or not and whether you are going by boat or [land?] also how long you propose to remain in Monroe and whether Henry is going or not – write soon. Hoping to see you soon remain your true friend & cG A CusterStorm clouds were gathering over the Republic and in a few months John Brown would execute his infamous raid on Harpers Ferry. But for now, the young Cadet’s mind was occupied with exams, young ladies and friends…Graduation, the coming war between the states and Little Bighorn were all for another day. $4,000 - $6,000

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Custer, George Armstrong. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 16: Custer, George Armstrong. Autograph letter signed ("Armstrong").

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Description: 16. Custer, George Armstrong. Autograph letter signed (“Armstrong”), being the concluding pages of a love letter to an unknown sweetheart, 3 pages (8.12 x 5 in.; 206 x 127 mm.), in pencil, no place or date. It is most probable that this letter was written to Custer’s first true love Mary Holland, whose father had forbade them from seeing each other.Overcome with emotion, George Armstrong Custer bids farewell to a young woman with whom he was passionately in love.Custer writes in full: ...to be to each other more than what we now are, if in the course of time, probably soon, we are to separate with no reciprocal claim’s if you are to pursue one faith and I another why not let fate decide where and how this shall all be, even then it will be painful enough to submit to what cannot be avoided. Fate alone, unassisted and ununited, will do all perhaps more than you never propose. I have said enough perhaps too much, would that I could recall every word spoken to you. I leave every thing with you and shall abide by your decision whatever it may be. If you decide that it is best for us to be with each other no more I have one and only one request to make it shall be my last and this shall be my last intercourse with her who I now and ever shall love more than all the world besides. My request is this return to me every article I ever gave you even if it is but a scrap of paper, do not refuse me. This may appear unreasonable but it is not. If I am to bid adieu to you and your memory I could not successfully attempt it so long as I believed that you retained the slightest esteem or kind feeling towards me. So long as you retain those trifling pieces of paper which were once mine, so long would I feel that you felt some little interest in me. I should feel that each article acted as an anchor to my hope holding me to you. This cannot must not be I must feel that there is no Lie existing between us no feeling which ‘binds me to thee. ‘ And this is why I have made this one simple request. You have seen the following lines often but they are so appropriate to my feeling that I must report them ‘let fate do her worst these are relics of Joy. Bright dreams of the past which she cannot destroy. And which come in the night time of sorrow & care. To bring back the feature that Joy used to wear. Long long be my heart with such memories filled. Like the vase in which roses have once been distilled. You may break, you may ruin the vase if you will, But the scent of the roses will hang around ii still. ‘ If this is to be my farewell May you be happy and may you never during the entire course of your life feel the sorrow I do at this moment. This is for you alone. Ever faithfully and devotedly yours Armstrong ‘Farewell’.Prior to meeting his future wife Libby Bacon, Custer met a young woman by the name of Mary (“Mollie”) Holland while boarding with her family during a teaching stint in Cadiz Township, Ohio, in the summer of 1856. He immediately fell in love with the teenage girl, much to her father ‘s chagrin. The two would secretly meet upstairs near (or on) a trundle bed, and they talked of marriage and a future together from early on. Whether the two were ever involved sexually remains a matter of debate; however, once Mollie’s father, Alexander Holland, got wind of the relationship he immediately saw to it that Custer was moved out of the house.This did not stop the irrepressible young suitor, though. He moved nearby, taking a room in the house of Cadiz resident Henry Boyle. The two lovers continued to see each other, against her father’s wishes, until the elder Holland arranged for Custer to be accepted to West Point through his friend and Custer’s congressional intercessor, John A. Bingham. Holland figured that with Custer removed to the military academy for five years, his passions would most likely subside. By January 1857, the appointment was granted and Custer left for New York that June, still speaking of marriage to Mollie.From the tone and content of the letter, it would appear that it was written about this time, circa late 1856 to spring 1857. A refreshing departure from the bulk of his extant letters (many of which are official in nature), it shows a wonderful side of the future cavalryman, revealing his unbridled passion for a young woman. $4,000 - $6,000

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Davis, Jefferson. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 17: Davis, Jefferson. Autograph letter signed ("Jeffer. Davis").

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Description: 17. Davis, Jefferson. Autograph letter signed (“Jeffer. Davis”), 3 pages (9.75 x 7.75 in.; 248 x 197 mm.), Washington D.C., 13 April 1850, to F.H. Elmore; with transmittal envelope addressed in Davis’ hand to F. H. Elmore Esqu., Charleston, South Carolina, with Davis’ free frank in the upper right-hand corner. In the face of charges that the South will secede from the Union, Senator Jefferson Davis, a firm supporter of states rights, supports the upcoming Nashville Convention.Davis writes in full: Dr. Sir: Since the receipt of your letter we have had some consultation in relation to the proposition you submitted in relation to the Nashville Convention. The prevailing opinion is to leave the matter entirely in the hands of the people. My own view is and has been that the convention should meet for preventive purposes. That it is necessary to begin an organization of the South the want of which has left us a divided people, when union and cointelligence was necessary for our safety. The charge which was been made of a design to server the Southern states from the Confederacy but increases the propriety of meeting. If we had no other purpose than to redress past wrongs it would be proper to wait until the measure of our grievances was full; but to check aggression, to preserve the Union, peaceably to secure our rights requires prompt action. We should no doubt have greater unanimity higher resolve if called upon to avenge the blow, than if only required to paralyze the arm upraised to strike. Then it would be the energy of revolution, now it is the preservation of the Constitution. A postponement is in my opinion equivalent to abandonment of the Southern convention and to being hereafter branded as disunionists who were arrested in their purpose. It is needless to add that I cannot aid in the object of postponement. Long since I resolved that if the measure was abandoned it should be by no agency of mine, and have believed that the toryism we now see was only to be put down by the action of the faithful. If a few meet, man will rue the day when they opposed us, and our strength will increase thereaforward. I write freely to you whose aim and feelings I know to be such as I cherish. If a different course be adopted from that which I approve, my cordial wish is that my opinions may prove to have been those of an excited mind. As ever yr. Friend.The Nashville Convention, a convention of nine slave states, was called to meet at Nashville on 3 June 1850. A previous convention held in Mississippi, in October 1849, called for a southern convention to assemble in Nashville in June 1850 to declare a united resistance to northern aggression. The Mississippi declaration seemed to herald the fruition of John C. Calhoun’s long-cherished dream to present an ultimatum to the North. However, before the convention could assemble in Nashville, Henry Clay stepped forward with his Missouri Compromise and the possibility of southern unity evaporated. Southern Whigs turned against the convention, seeing the opportunity to seize the promise as a political platform that would stand in the South. As well, many feared that Nashville would produce an attempt at nullification or secession.Nashville became a symbol for an unnecessary radicalism, for nullification, for secession. It is these sentiments that Davis seeks to counter, when he states in his letter to Elmore: The charge which has been made of a design to sever the Southern states from the Confederacy but increases the propriety of meeting. On the 10th, the states represented adopted a resolution calling for the extension of the Missouri Compromise line westward to the Pacific. As the delegates left Nashville, the fate of Clay’s compromise and the future configuration of southern politics remained in doubt. Later in the year, a second convention on 11-18 November 1850 denounced the Compromise and asserted the right of secession.Frank Harper Elmore served as President of the Bank of the State of South Carolina (1839-50) and served as a U.S. Representative from 1836-39. In 1850, he was appointed as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of John C. Calhoun (31 March 1850); he served from 11 April 1850, two days before Davis’ letter, to his death on 29 May 1850. $4,000 - $6,000

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Davis, Jefferson. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 18: Davis, Jefferson. Autograph letter signed ("Jeffer. Davis").

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Description: 18. Davis, Jefferson. Autograph letter signed (“Jeffer. Davis”), 1 page (4.5 x 7.5 in.; 114 x 191 mm.), 1 August 1864, on an imprinted message form of The Southern Telegraph Companies, to Colonel W[illiam] M. Browne, the commander of Georgia conscripts in charge of raising troops; marginal fraying, skillful reinforcement on verso with mounting remnants on verso.Jefferson Davis shows concern over the recruiting of additional troops for the defense of Atlanta.He writes in full: I did not propose to interrupt your operations but to object to your being relied on as a permanent part of the enrolling organization. I have now two Aides and my private Secretary h[a]s returned so that the pressure is diminished. Genl. Cobb is relied on to direct & control enrolments in Georgia as far as consistent Jeffers Davis.Jefferson wrote this message ten days after the Union army was repulsed in the battle of Atlanta. On 22 July 1864, the Confederates defending Atlanta had attacked the Union forces and defeated them, but casualties ran as high as ten thousand for the Southerners. Although Union casualties were not as high, General James B. McPherson was killed during the encounter. Thus began the siege of Atlanta, which did not fall until it was evacuated on 1 September. Davis, who was aware of the heavy toll on his troops and the impending attack on his prize city, needed to find reinforcements for Atlanta to even conceivably withstand a Union attack. William M. Browne, the commander of Georgia conscripts, was in a position to help direct more troops to Atlanta (Davis would later appoint him Brigadier General during William Tecumseh Sherman’s “March to the Sea”). Howell Cobb, a staunch secessionist and originally a member of the Provisional Congress before he became a military general, was eventually placed in command of the District of Georgia. Like Browne, he was in a position to help Davis supply more troops to the Atlanta area. $4,000 - $6,000

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Franklin, Benjamin. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 19: Franklin, Benjamin. Autograph letter signed ("B. Franklin").

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Description: 19. Franklin, Benjamin. Autograph letter signed (“B. Franklin”) twice, 2 pages (12.62 x 8 in.; 321 x 203 mm.), London, 23 & 25 May 1765, to an acquaintance and his wife in Philadelphia; washed, some marginal chipping, splitting along horizontal folds, repair to tear lower left, and approximately 2 ½ by 1 ¼ inch rectangle cut from letter, no indication there were characters present.Benjamin Franklin writes to his wife singing the praises of Mrs. Rollof, a woman worthy of friendship.Franklin writes in full: Dear Madam, London May 25, 1765The Bearer, Mrs. Rollof being quite a stranger in Philadelphia I hope you take the liberty of recommending her to your Civilities & requesting you could favour her with your Advice and Countenance, particularly on the Business to follow among us. She is recommended to me by Persons of worth here, as a woman of unspotted reputation and every way deserving the Friendship of those who know her. I therefore make no Apology as if this was giving you Trouble because I know that affording you an opportunity of doing this As Kindness to good people, is one way of obliging you; and I am glad to embrace every Occasion of showing the great Esteem and Regard with which I am,Dear MadamYour most obedient humble SevtB. FranklinPray remember meby affectionate regards to Mr. and Mrs. Duffield and to my young namesakesMy dear Child, London May 23, 1765The Bearer, Mrs. Rollof goes to Philadelphia, with a view of following her Business there which is that of a Mantle - maker. She is recommended here by Persons of worth as a woman of Reputation, and in every way deserving the Countenance and Friendship of those that know her. As such I recommend her to you and to Sally and I know you will do everything in your power by your Advice and Recommendation to promote and serve her.I amYour affectionate husbandB.Franklin $6,000 - $8,000

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Gatling, Richard Jordan. Letter signed (

Lot 20: Gatling, Richard Jordan. Letter signed ("RJ. Gatling").

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Description: 20. Gatling, Richard Jordan. Letter signed (“RJ. Gatling”), 2 pages (8.87 x 5.75 in.; 225 x 146 mm.), Cataract, Indiana, 21 February 1898, to William J. Dornup; mounting remnants top recto first page.The inventor of the infamous “Gatling gun” vehemently articulates his disdain for alcohol and narcotics: when used to excess are sure to destroy the manhood and usefulness of those who indulge, weakening and clouding the intellect -- until all the manhood is gone!Gatling writes in part: In answer to your inquiries regarding the use of alcohol and narcotics -- I would say that in my opinion they are the most injurious and prejudicial to both the body and mind. There may be times when stimulants and narcotics, in individual cases become somewhat of a necessity -- and for a time increases strength, but in the end and when used to excess are sure to destroy the manhood and usefulness of those who indulge, weakening and clouding the intellect -- until all the manhood is gone! -- Man, under the influence of the demon alcohol -- will do that which at other times he would scorn to do, and will lose his ideas of right and wrong; will lie and even steal with impunity. It is in my opinion the cause of more than half the crime and poverty in the land. I really think there should be asylums provided at public expenses -- for taking care of that class of people who are afflicted with this disease -- (for it is a disease of the most terrible kind). They should be treated and cared for as the insane are; -- inasmuch as the Government license the sale of liquor and derive a fine revenue from it...In 1861, Doctor Richard Gatling patented the Gatling gun, a six-barreled weapon capable of firing a phenomenal 200 rounds per minute. The Gatling gun was a hand-driven, crank-operated, multi-barrel, machine gun. The first machine gun with reliable loading, the Gatling gun had the ability to fire sustained multiple bursts. Richard Gatling created his gun during the American Civil War, he sincerely believed that his invention would end war by making it unthinkable to use due to the horrific carnage possible by his weapons. At the least, the Gatling gun’s power would reduce the number of soldiers required to remain on the battlefield. The 1862 version of the Gatling gun had reloadable steel chambers and used percussion caps. It was prone to occasional jamming. In 1867, Gatling redesigned the Gatling gun again to use metallic cartridges - this version was bought and used by the United States Army.Born 12 September 1818 in Hertford Count, North Carolina, Richard Gatling was the son of planter and inventor, Jordan Gatling, who held two patents of his own. Besides the Gatling gun, Richard Gatling also patented a seed-sowing rice planter in 1839 that was later adapted into a successful wheat drill. In 1870, Richard Gatling and his family moved to Hartford, Connecticut, home of the Colt Armory where the Gatling gun was being manufactured. Later in his life, Gatling patented inventions to improve toilets, bicycles, steam cleaning of raw wool, pneumatic power, and many other fields. He was elected as the first President of the American Association of Inventors and Manufacturers in 1891, serving for six years.A fine letter with significant content by Gatling. $3,000 - $5,000

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Gerry, Elbridge. Manuscript letter in a secretarial hand docketed.

Lot 21: Gerry, Elbridge. Manuscript letter in a secretarial hand docketed.

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Description: 21. Gerry, Elbridge. Manuscript letter in a secretarial hand docketed and with a few emendations by Elbridge Gerry, 4 pages (12.5 x 7.75 in.; 318 x 197 mm). Watertown, 20 June 1775 to Hone. Massachusetts Members of the American Continental Congress just three days after the Battle of Bunker Hill on 17 June 1775; margins reinforced, light browning.A detailed eyewitness account of the Battle of Bunker Hill to the Massachusetts Members of the American Continental Congress emended and docketed by Elbridge Gerry. The text of this historic letter, in full:I Recd. The Letters, with which you were pleased to favor me by Mr. Fessenden, on Saturday last being the 18th Instant, at a Critical Time for the Army posted at Cambridge. The Evening preceding Orders were Issued in Consequence of a Consultation between ye General Officers an Committee of Safety to take possession of Dochester Hill and Bunkers hill in Charlestown which I must confess gave me most Sensible Pain on hearing, more especially as it had been determined about Ten Days before by ye Same Council & a Junction of the Committee of Supplies by their desire, that it would be attended with a great expence of Ammunition by Ordinance and that therefore it was inexpedient & hazardous.As soon as it was discovered by ye Enemy on Saturday Morning a firing began from the Lively in Charlestown River & also from ye Batteries in Boston, which was returned against the Latter by the American Forces until it Subsided on their Side of ye Enemy & only one Man was lost in ye Morning. Our Forces exerted themselves in getting entrenched & Soon discovered that a Warm engagement must take place: notwithstanding which Care was not taken to place a Sufficient Number of Artillery & Cannon on ye Hill to defend it. At Noon the Enemy bro’t in Two or Three Ships of the Line with which the Lively, & Batteries at Boston, they endeavored to Dislodge our Forces. Soon after they landed about 3000 Regulars & a warm Engagement began, in which our Forces in the Intrenchment behaved like Heroes, but were not Sufficiently provided with Artillery nor timely reinforced from Cambridge. They soon found it necessary to Abandon an intrenchment on a Hill to the Eastward of Bunkers Hill & Made a Stand at ye Lines on the Hill last mentioned. The Town then being put in Flames by the Enemy the Enemy advanced by a Furious Fire kept up for sometime on both Sides until ye Enemy Forced ye Lines & depended on pushing their Bayonets. Our Forces after being overpowered in ye Intrenchments left them to the Enemy who are now posted there, and retreated about 3 Quarters of a Mile toward Cambridge where they have four One of which is on a high Hill opposite or near ye Stone House 7 so situated that with good Conduct we expect an Efectual Stand. Our good, our beloved Friend Doctor [Joseph] Warren was on Bunkers Hill when the Lines were forced & is no more. He was two Day before Chosen Second Major General, Accepted on Friday & on Saturday dyed like a Hero. We can only drop a Tear for our worthy Brother & Console ourselves with ye. Consideration that his Virtues and Valour will be rewarded in Heaven. The Reports relative to our loss in variant from 20 to 80 Killed & wounded but I cannot think we shall find it quite so inconsiderable & from ye best Judgment wh. I can form at present believe it will turn out about 150 or 200—this is a Matter we decline noticing here at present, Altho we don’t neglect to Speak of ye Loss of the Enemy which I suppose is fully equal to our own. We labour, we are retarded, we suffer for want of a General at Cambridge. Ward is an honest Man but I think wants the Genius of a General on every Instance, Command, order, spirit Invention & Discipline are deficient; what then remains that produced this Choice, I know not. General [John] Thomas is from his Character & Conduct a fine fellow, his camp at Roxbury is always in order without trouble to Congress or their Committees, ye other at Cambridge ever wanting & never right. I hope We shall not suffer from this Accident. Colo. [James] Fry of Andover is in ye Cabinet intended a Major General & Colo. [William] Heath first Brigadier General and I suppose will be chosen and Commission this Day, but we must have the Assistance of Military skill wherever to be found on the Continent. It will I fear be difficult intirely to drop [Artemus] Ward. If he is superseded by Washington & posted at Cambridge with him and General Thomas &c. at Roxbury I cannot but think we shall be in a Good Situation provided it is timely effected. General [Charles] Lee must be provided for & heartily engaged in the Service without being Commissioned at present. He is a Stranger & cannot have the Confidence of a Jealous people when struggling for their Liberties. He will soon become familiar & be courted into office. I revere him as an Officer and wish he had been born an American. It affords Consolation that the Congress have or are taking Command of these Matters. We notice their Resolve in wh. The Army is Called the American Army. May the arrangement by happy & Satisfy each Colony as well as afford us good General.Medicine is much wanted & Docr. [Benjamin] Church has given us an Invoice of necessary Articles, which we beg may be ordered here from Philadelphia as soon as possible. I notice what is said relative to powder. No Exertion has been wanting in the Committee of Supplies since I have been acquainted with it, to procure this Article. Colo. Bower we depended on for 200 half Barrels & were disappointed, & the plan of fortifying lines with heavy cannon was not then in Contempation. We must hold our Country by Musketry principally until Supplies can be got to expel the stance of the Humanity of the Enemy after they had obtained ye Hill; not Satisfied with burng. The other part of Charlestown they proceeded to set Fire to Houses on the Road to Winter Hill. The Newhampshire & Connecticut Forces as well as ye Massachusetts in the Heat of Battle suffered much. I suspect some of our inferior Officer are wanting & one is under Arrest. We have lost Four pieces of Artillery & nothing more at present. We are in a worse situation than we shall in future Expeience in many Instances, & great exertions are necessary. The Committee of Supplies have a Good Share at present from Sunrise to 12 at Night constantly employed for several Days but we have now a little abatement. Hall of Medford was excused from ye Committee on Acc. Of a Weak Constitution & the Congress Judiciously chose one of a Strong Constitution to supply the place. Another Engagement is Hourly expected may the great controller of Events order it for the Happiness of these Colonies. I have just Recd. A Letter which puts it beyond Doubt that ye Enemy have sustained a great Loss. Capt. [John] Bradford is an Intelligent Man but whether the Loss is equal to 1000 I cannot say. I inclose you ye the Original itself. Complaints from all Quarter of Disorder in the Camp at Cambridge, that it is more like an unorganized Collection of People than a Disciplined army. I cannot rest on this precipice; & engaged as the Commee. Is shall find time to move this Day that a Committee of Observation be immediately chosen to enquire into & assist in & Rectify the Disorder of the Camp untill they shall subside.Good G-d that a Congress so vigilant should have chosen a lifeless T—for such an Important trust. Will ye Hona. Mr. Hancock assist ye Committee in having the Invoiec sent us forthwith—ye Notes of ye Colony can be made as payment without delay. They carry 6 pCent Interest are negotiable & received in all ye Government accts. Readily & without Hesitancy. The committee of Supplies are greatly obliged by his proposal relative to the Du[t]ch. Docr. Church proposes ye Boston Donations for this Purpose since the Notes are equal with the Cash in this Colony. An extraordinary contemporary eyewitness account of a major event in American history, written just three days after the Battle of Bunker Hill emended and docketed by the signer of the Declaration of Independence from Rhode Island. Provenance: The Collection of Philip D. Sang, Sotheby’s, New York 26 April 1978, lot 101. $8,000 - $12,000

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Grant, Ulysses S. Autograph manuscript signed (

Lot 22: Grant, Ulysses S. Autograph manuscript signed ("U.S. Grant"), as Brigadier General.

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Description: 22. Grant, Ulysses S. Autograph manuscript signed (“U.S. Grant”), as Brigadier General, 2 pages (4.87 x 8.12 in.; 124 x 206 mm.), 14 February 1862, to Flag Officer Andrew H. Foote, who was later appointed Rear Admiral.Grant issues the battle order to Flag Officer Andrew Foote to land troops north of Fort Donelson which would fall just two days later.He writes in full: Flag officer Foote, Please direct the troops to debark and march around under escort of the bearer. I will communicate with you immediately upon teaming of your arrival. The troops referred to are those supposed to have been convoyed by the gunboats. They should come unaccompanied by baggage leaving six men to each company to get off their teams, rations and forage and to follow with that; all other baggage to be left on the steamers until otherwise ordered. It will be sufficient direction to send this note to Col. Thayer, comdg. the entire force., or should he not be along, the Cmdg. officer of troops on boat transports. Respectfully your obt svt U.S. Grant Brig. Gen.This battle order was written during Grant’s attack on Fort Donelson which resulted in the capture of the garrison and Confederate force of 14,000 under General Buckner [12-16 February, 1862]. Grant’s force was camped at Fort Henry until the night of 11 February, then started overland for Donelson, arriving on the 12th, at which time be was joined by a third brigade under Lew Wallace on the 13th, at a point on the Cumberland north of Donelson. Foote’s gunboats arrived after dark on 14 February, but were repulsed by shore batteries that severely wounded Foote from which he never recovered, dying 16 months later. On 15 February, the Confederates attacked early in the day to the south below the town of Dover, beyond which lay roads south to Clarksville and Nashville. By noon, the Yankees were giving way and the Confederates opened a route of withdrawal toward Clarksville. Grant, who had been absent, conferring with Foote on the gunboats, returned to take personal command of the field. Later in the afternoon he moved forward with reinforced troops, and since Pillow had already started a retreat, the Federals advanced without resistance to their original lines. Outnumbered almost two to one, the Confederates were in a helpless situation and surrendered the garrison on 16 February. Grant answered Buckner’s request for surrender with his famous Unconditional Surrender message. This federal victory with raw troops heralded the rise of Grant to prominence and set the stage for the splitting of the entire Confederacy by a drive down the line of the Mississippi to Vicksburg. $6,000 - $8,000

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Grant, Ulysses. Autograph letter signed, 1 page (8.75 x 7.75 in.; 222 x 197 mm).

Lot 23: Grant, Ulysses. Autograph letter signed, 1 page (8.75 x 7.75 in.; 222 x 197 mm).

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Description: 23. Grant, Ulysses. Autograph letter signed, 1 page (8.75 x 7.75 in.; 222 x 197 mm). City Point, Virginia, 2 December 1864. Written to Maj. Gen. Halleck, Chief of Staff; a few marginal tears. Highly important civil war directive from General Grant after Hood’s defeat at the Battle of Franklin (and just two weeks before Hood’s defeat at Nashville): Grant writes in full: Is it not possible now to send reinforcements to Thomas from Hooker’s Dept.? If there are new troops, organized State Militia or anything that can go, now is the time to annihilate Hood’s Army. Gov. Bramlett might put from five to ten thousand horsemen into the field to serve only to the end of the campaign. I believe if he was asked he would do so. U.S. Grant Lt. Gen.With the fall of Atlanta (1 September), Hood devised a plan to divide Sherman’s army with the hope that he could defeat Sherman in the mountains. Sherman countered by detaching both Thomas and John McAllister Schofield (1831-1906), in command of the Army of the Ohio, against Hood, who was outnumbered. Forced to abandon his campaign against Sherman, Hood instead launched operations against Thomas and Schofield in Tennessee, hoping to take that key Union base as well as reinforce Lee in Virginia. He suffered heavy defeats at Franklin (30 November) and Nashville (15-16 December).An important Civil War letter showing Grant’s overall philosophy of taking the battle decisively to the enemy and a clear understanding of the opportunity that had presented itself. With the defeat of Hood, the Army of Tennessee ceased to be a threat to the Union.   $4,000 - $6,000

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Grant, Ulysses S. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 24: Grant, Ulysses S. Autograph letter signed ("U.S. Grant"), 2 pages (9 x 5.5 in.; 229 x 140 mm.).

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Description: 24. Grant, Ulysses S. Autograph letter signed (“U.S. Grant”), 2 pages (9 x 5.5 in.; 229 x 140 mm.), Washington, D.C., 31 May 1873, on Executive Mansion stationery, to his sister, Mrs. Mary Cramer; with integral blank; mounting remnants on integral blank.President Grant writes his sister concerning the imminent death of his father.Grant writes in full: Dear sister: I am just in receipt of your letter speaking of fathers rapid decline. Of course I will go home at any day that it may be necessary for me to do so. I have been absent so much this Spring that business has accumulated so that I cannot go very well just now and next Thursday I have arranged to take us all to Long Branch. Any time after that I can go as well as not, and would not let that interfere if there should be a necessity. Don’t fail to keep me advised of father’s condition. Jesse you know is in California, alone feeling very big. Buck has returned from Europe and is at Harvard preparing for his examination. Fred is about starting for the Yellowstone region where he will be gone all Summer, with an expedition for the protection of surveyors and builders of the Northern Pacific rail-road. All send love....Yours truly, U.S. GrantThe business that occupied Grant when he wrote to his sister about his “fathers rapid decline” was that of a replacement for Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase who had just died. He was going to nominate Roscoe Conkling who was so talented and so honorable. But the New York Senator disappointed his champion and declined the offer, as did Senator Timothy Howe of Wisconsin. Rebuffed, Grant had no other grand choice in mind. Instead, personal matters crowded in on him. Old Jesse Grant died in Covington at seventy-nine. He had been born in the same year as Justice Grier; ancient ties to the eighteenth century were breaking. We can only speculate about the sense of relief, mingled with guilt that Grant must have felt at being at last not beholden to a father. Grant went to the funeral and then to Long Branch; meanwhile, all spring and summer and into the fall, rumors spread about whom he would name as chief justice. Jesse, Buck and Fred were Grant’s three sons. $4,000 - $6,000

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Greene, Nathanael. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 25: Greene, Nathanael. Autograph letter signed ("N Greene"), 1 page (8.87 x 7.25 in.; 225 x 184 mm.).

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Description: 25. Greene, Nathanael. Autograph letter signed (“N Greene”), 1 page (8.87 x 7.25 in.; 225 x 184 mm.), Coventry, [Rhode Island], 29 September 1778, to Colonel Ephraim Bowen, Deputy Quartermaster General and Quartermaster General of the Rhode Island militia; ink splotch at upper left corner.The censorious times will require double diligence to save yourself from reproach . . .He writes in full: Dr sir, Mrs. Greene will be exceedingly oblige[d] to you to get a good stove made for her. She wishes it to be lined with tin. The sooner you can get it done the greater will be the obligation. If you have any safe conveyance please to forward it. I hope you have sent off all the horses, agreeable to the conversation you and I had the other day. The censorious times will require double diligence to save yourself from reproach and there are not a few who wish to find you tripping. My best regards to your good Lady your Cousin & his Lady. I am with sentiments of regard your most obedt humble sert N. GreeneIn the winter of 1777-78, a serious attempt was made in Congress to displace George Washington in favor of Horatio Gates. Among the malcontents was Quartermaster Thomas Miffllin. In Mifflin’s absences from his post, Washington had tended to rely more and more upon the energy and sagacity of Greene in matters of supply. When the Conway Cabal failed of its purpose, Greene was in a position to call attention to the sad condition of the Quartermaster’s department. Greene reluctantly became Quartermaster General in February of 1778; and when he took the post, he stipulated that the appointment of subordinates should be in his own hands. Thus it was his duty to caution Colonel Bowen, lest any further charges of incompetence and inefficiency be brought against the beleaguered department. $4,000 - $6,000

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Hancock, John. Important letter signed as President of the Continental Congress.

Lot 26: Hancock, John. Important letter signed as President of the Continental Congress.

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Description: 26. Hancock, John. Important letter signed as President of the Continental Congress, 2 pages (12 ¼ x 7 ½ in.; 311 x 191 mm.), Philadelphia, 15 March 1776 to The Provincial Convention of New York, the body of the letter in the hand of Jacob Rush; light browning and corner chipped.Aware that war with the British is unavoidable, John Hancock, the President of the Continental Congress, exhorts New York, a major battlefield during the Revolutionary War, to expedite the raising and arming of Battalions for the defense of the colony against the British.The letter reads in full: As it is now apparent, that our Enemies mean to prosecute this cruel and unjust War, with unrelenting Fury; and as every Intelligence assures us, that they mean to bend their Force against your Colony, I would not do you the Injustice to suppose, there will be any occasion to use Arguments, to stimulate you, to exert your most strenuous Endeavours, to expedite the raising and arming the Battalions ordered to be raised in your Colony, for its Defence.  Enclosed I send you the Commissions for the Field Officers.  If any of them are provided for in Canada, they are to continue there, and others will be elected in their Room.  Such of them as are in Canada, and unprovided for, have orders immediately to repair to their respective Regiments. Lest our Enemies should come upon you before the Continental Troops can be in Readiness to receive them; or in Case they should come with superior Force, the Congress have thought proper, to empower the Continental Commander at New York, to call to his assistance the Militia of your Colony, and that of Connecticut, and New Jersey, agreeably to the enclosed Resolve: and I have it in Command to request you, to hold your Militia in Readiness, to march in such Numbers, and at such Times, as he may desire. The Congress have ordered five Tons of Powder for the Use of the Troops employed in your Defence, which will be forwarded with the utmost Expedition.   In a postscript, Hancock alludes to objections of Rudolphus Ritzema being appointed a command position but Ritzema won command of the 3rd New York Battalion on March 28, 1776 and served until November of 1776.  Subsequently, he joined the British Army. It was the Second Continental Congress (1775-81), with John Hancock at its helm as President (1775-77) that guided the thirteen colonies to rebellion, and eventual military victory.  Convening in Philadelphia on 10 May 1775, the 2nd Continental Congress, faced with armed conflict in Massachusetts and the British refusal to redress American grievances, had no other choice but to act as a national government.  Following the Battle of Lexington and Concord, the delegates organized the Continental Army (with George Washington serving as Commander-in-Chief after July of 1775).  While making a conciliatory gesture to King George III in the Olive Branch Petition (July, 1775), an overture of peace, the Congress proceeded with its plans for war, the numbers growing of those who no longer believed in the King as America’s advocate.  The Continental Congress showed its resolve to resist in its “Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms.”  A Continental Navy was organized, and attempts were made to win Canada to the cause.  In May of 1776, two months after Hancock’s letter to the New York Provincial Convention, Congress authorized the colonies to replace their governments based on royal authority with those grounded in the people.  In June of 1776, Richard Henry Lee made his famous motion for independence, foreign alliance and confederation.  There was a vote for independence (2 July 1776) followed by the adoption of the Declaration of Independence (4 July 1776).Though perhaps the most conservative of all the colonies, New York was the first to suggest an intercolonial congress, known as the Albany Congress (1754), to resist British measures.  At the time of this letter from the Continental Congress, the New York Provincial Convention, counting as its members the elite in the colony, guided and controlled the populace.  New York was not to approve the Declaration of Independence until 9 July 1776 though a large, indeterminate number of New Yorkers remained loyal to the British Crown.  New York’s colonial status was not to come to an end until 20 April 1777, when the Provincial Congress created and approved a state constitution.  New York was to become a major battlefield during the Revolutionary War.  Nearly one-third of all Revolutionary War engagements were fought in New York. This is an historically important letter, a letter of exhortation and assurance, from the Continental Congress President to the Provincial Congress of the colony of New York. Provenance: Sotheby’s New York, 7 November 1994, lot 52. $8,000 - $12,000

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Hardin, John Wesley. Autograph letter signed twice (

Lot 27: Hardin, John Wesley. Autograph letter signed twice ("John W. Hardin").

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Description: 27. Hardin, John Wesley. Autograph letter signed twice (“John W. Hardin”) at the head, 1 page (14 x 8.5 in.; 356 x 216 mm.), Texas State Prison at Huntsville, 3 July 1887, with sepia ink on prison stationery, to his son.While in prison, John Wesley Hardin offers touching words of encouragement and sincere advice to his son.Hardin writes in full: My dear Son. Your father is again permitted to write his noble his brave boy. Then with gratitude to god for this privilege together with the many blessings and benefits received by me during these many years. I offer with reverence that divine one, my sincere thanks, and bestow upon him my praises with the hopeful assurance that his blessings his comforts will not be withdrawn from me or mine in the near or distant future. Now my dear boy you remember several years ago I sent you a pair of boots. Oh how your young heart leaped with joy, how you boasted of your good fortune for being good enough for a prints [prince] indeed you had a right to be proud of those boots for they were given to you by your father, not so much for the purpose of adorning your feet, but to make your young strong heart leap with joy, and as a memento of your father’s love.Now my son your father’s affections for you have not decreased with the advance of years, but have rather grown brighter and brighter his love for you is as high as the thoughts of man, and they reach to heaven. I have no jewels to send you my boy to adorn to deck your shapely form but I wish to speak to you of principles which if you will observe cling to them will be of far more value than the boots or any jewel I could send you even if I was able to crown you from head to foot with brilliant diamonds of the first waters. Truth my son is a rare and precious gem. It has nothing to hide. It lifts a burden from the heart. It illuminates the face. It is all sunshine and glee. It is brave, it fears no foe and dreads no danger. It is self sustaining and is respected by all. There is nothing a man a boy can do which will strengthen his own judgment, that will gain for him the respect the admiration of all who know him as a strict adherence to the truth. Then pluck it my boy, and carry it with you to your work, to school, at home, lie down to rest with it, get up with it, keep it, and it will keep you. Justice is a gem rich and rare, a full brother to truth, implying in its general sense meaning to give to every one his due rights. The common meaning or acceptation is the duty of being fair and honest in all our dealings, but it has another meaning which not only requires us to deal fair in matters of property but requires urges us to respect the feelings and character of others. If you take an unfair advantage in a trade by misrepresentation or otherwise you cheat, if you take property or goods without the consent of the owner you steal. If you by force take away a man’s money his goods or property you rob him. Now in the 1st you are a fraud a cheat. In the 2nd you are a thief a scoundrel. In the 3rd you are a robber a villain. These are all acts of injustice for which human laws provide punishment. There will be few comparatively speaking who will commit these crimes. Yet there are persons who would be horrified at the idea of cheating stealing robbing a person of his wealth, that would not hesitate to cheat another out of his good character, stealing away his good name or robbing him of his fair fame. But my dear son it is just as bad in the one case as the other and on. Justice demand it, but while human laws protect property the all seeing eye of justice guards the dearer the more precious rights and possessions of the heart. He that steals my purse steals trash but he that robs me of my good name leaves me poor indeed. Now my son there is but one way to protect the character ...wealths you possessions, and that is by a strict adherence to truth to justice. Then let me today urge upon you the great necessity of observing and adhering to truth and justice. These will make you the most noble the most generous the most manly the bravest boy in you neighborhood! Just what your father would have you be, and by the love of god you can be. Then you will be the pride of your father, your mother, the joy of your sisters and you will be respected and admired by all who know you. Engrave this upon your heart and embrace your mother and sisters with a kiss, for your father. Hardin was an American outlaw in the late 1800’s. At age 12, he murdered a slave, and by age 24, he killed at least 23 (and as many as 40) men. He married his sweetheart, Jane Bowen, in 1872, and fathered 3 children on his rare trips home; she died in 1892. During his only trial for the murder of Sheriff Charles Webb in Brown County, Texas, 1874, an eloquent speech to the jury in his defense resulted in only a second-degree murder conviction. Hardin was sentenced to 25 years hard labor and was paroled in l894. He was shot in the back of the head while playing poker by Old John Selman, a marshal, and died.At the time of this writing, Hardin was in prison for nine years. The deprivation of contact with his family is painstakingly evident throughout this letter. $4,000 - $6,000

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[Inquisition of Mexico and Florida]. Printed broadside signed, 1page (17 x 12 in.; 432 x 305 mm.).

Lot 28: [Inquisition of Mexico and Florida]. Printed broadside signed, 1page (17 x 12 in.; 432 x 305 mm.).

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Description: 28. [Inquisition of Mexico and Florida]. Printed broadside signed, 1page (17 x 12 in.; 432 x 305 mm.), In Spanish, “Printed in Mexico in the house of Henrico Martinez,” 1 December 1601. A decree aimed particularly at the Jews in Mexico and the Spanish provinces in Florida, accusing them of heresy which will be dealt with due punishment.The Inquisition had formally begun in the West Indies in 1569 when Philip II established tribunals of the Holy Office at Mexico and Lima. It was specifically charged with vigilance against Moors, Jews, and New Christians. The great privileges it exercised and the dread with which Spaniards generally regarded the charge of heresy made the Inquisition an effective check on dangerous thoughts, whether religious, political, or philosophical. The Inquisition largely relied on denunciations by informers and employed torture to secure confessions. Indians were originally subject to the jurisdiction of Inquisitors but were later exempted because as recent converts of supposedly limited mental capacity they were not fully responsible for the deviations from the faith. The first execution occurred in 1574, and by 1596, the tenth took place. Many of the victims of the Holy Office were amongst the Portuguese settlers, who were persecuted for political rather than religious reasons. It was a symptom of the political and religious status of the country that such a court could flourish in an atmosphere where the greatest occupation of mankind might well have been the subjugation of nature, and the development of a normal Christian state.The present broadside is headed, CONSTITUTION OF OUR MOST BLESSED LORD CLEMENT BY THE DIVINE PROVIDENCE POPE THE EIGHTH Against those who, not having been promoted to the sacred order of Priesthood, boldly take the authority of the Priests, dare and pretend to celebrate the Mass, and administer to the faithful the Sacrament of Penance. POPE CLEMENT THE EIGHTH AD PERPETUAM REI MEMORIAM.The text of the broadside reads in part: Although at other times Pope Paul, our predecessor of happy memory, in order to refrain and repress the evil and sacrilegious temerity of some men, who not having been ordained priests, take daringly the priestly powers and presume the authority to celebrate the Mass and the administration of the Sacrament of Penance; having determined that such delinquents should be delivered to the Judges of the Holy Inquisition, to the Curia and secular body so that due punishment would be administered to them; and after Pope Sixth the Fifth of venerable memory, also our predecessor, had ordered that the so-mentioned decree be renewed and be kept and followed with all care; but the audacity of these men has gone so far that giving the pretext of ignorance of these decrees, the penalties, as has been stated, should be imposed against the transgressors who think they are not subject to them, and who pretend to liberate and exonerate themselves from them. For this reason we consider these persons to be lost and evil men, who not having been promoted to the Holy Order of Priesthood, dare to usurp the right to the celebration of the Mass; these men not only perform external acts of idolatry, in regard to exterior and visible signs of piety and religion, but inasmuch as it concerns them, they deceive the faithful Christians (who accept them as truly ordained and believe that they consecrate legitimately), and because of the faithful’s ignorance they fall into the crime of idolatry, proposing them only the material bread and wine so that they adore it as the true body and blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ; and that the same hearing the Sacramental Confession not only do not appreciate the dignity of the holy Sacrament of Penance, but also deceive the faithful, perversely taking the priestly role and the authority of absolving the sins with great danger, and causing the scandal of many.For this reason, so that the ones who commit these very serious heinous deeds be punished with due penalty, in the proper manner and with our scientific certainty and mature deliberation, and with the fullness of the Apostolic power, in accordance with the conscience of the Judges of the Holy Inquisition, and so that from now on no one can doubt the penalty that has to be imposed on those such delinquents, following the steps of our predecessors, for this constitution of perpetual value, we determine and establish that anyone, who without being promoted to the Sacred Order of Priesthood, would find that he who has dared to celebrate Mass or to hear Sacramental Confession, be separated from the Ecclesiastic body by the Judges of the Holy Inquisition, or by the seculars, as not deserving the mercy of the Church; and being solemnly demoted, from the Ecclesiastic Orders, if he had achieved some, is later to be turned over to the Curia and secular body, in order to be punished by the secular judges with the due penalties . . . .A handwritten statement that “It agrees with the its original” and signature of the notary appears at the conclusion of the text.The history of the first half of sixteenth century Florida was marked by conflicts and unsuccessful settlements by the Spanish, French and English, who were all vying for possession of peninsula. Finally, in 1565, a colony of Protestant Huguenots established on the St. Johns River was wiped out by Spaniards, who boasted of slaughtering the French, not for their nationality but for their religion. This Spanish expedition founded St. Augustine near the decimated settlement. Shifting alliances and allegiances continued during the following centuries, until the acquisition of East and West Florida by the United States in the nineteenth century. $4,000 - $6,000

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James, Frank. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 29: James, Frank. Autograph letter signed ("Ben"), 2 pages (10.5 x 8 in.; 267 x 203 mm.).

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Description: 29. James, Frank. Autograph letter signed (“Ben”), 2 pages (10.5 x 8 in.; 267 x 203 mm.), Gallatin, Missouri, 8 May 1883, to his wife, Annie James; with original envelope. James used the alias, Ben, to prevent the letter from falling into reporters’ hands or into wrong hands.The infamous brother of Jesse James writes his wife from prison.James writes in full with misspellings uncorrected: When I last wrote I told you that I expected it might be the last. I know you did not belive it, did you? I have been out to the well this morning and drawed three buckets of water stayed until breakfast. The morning air felt ‘so good’. I am feeling splendid and when my precious darling comes I will be just as happy as a man could possibly be. I am so anxious to have you here with me. Hope you will come sooner than you expected. I think if I were you that I would make my own selection of a hat Mrs. Kenny can fix you up in style. I want you to get a dandy wont you? I guess you want a nice pair of shoes or slippers wont you? Get the very best of everything, I want our little man fixed up just a little nicer than any bodys boy. You and he is all I have in this world to love and I desire that you both look charming. Bless your dear life you know just as wife is so will the husband be so you fix and look sweet and huby may do so too. You dont think you will ware the satin hoods until I get out. I will try and see that you do. Wont we be fine when we get on our good clothes. I will be sure to live to death. I know you think I am a regular monky, but no matter I think you a daisy. There was only eight young Ladys to see me last Sunday, one of them gave me a nice boquet with this line ‘Accept the flowers -- their sweet breath has a language more eloquent than words’. Yet with all this I would not give my little common sense wife for all the women in the world. I want you to remember I am awaiting your coming very impatiently. I will now put my arm around you and kiss you good bye. Write often I beg to remain, your true and devoted Husband, Love to all the family BenJames wrote this letter in jail where he was awaiting trial for the murder of Frank McMillan, a stone quarry laborer, whom he allegedly murdered during the robbery of a Rock Island train in Missouri, 1881. He was a fugitive from justice for six months before his capture. In the ensuing trial, the state sought to prove that Frank was seen near the scene of the crime, masquerading under the name of Woodson, and that he fatally shot McMillan. However, they had to contend with a formidable witness, Confederate General and peerless rebel cavalry leader, Joseph O. Shelby, who was known for his sincerity and maintained a loyalty to any man who fought under him. The James boys had, at various times, served under William Clarke Quantrille, the notorious guerilla, who operated under Shelby’s command. The James boys fought and campaigned for Shelby on several occasions. At the Battle of Lonejack, the Yankees captured a faithful Negro named Billy Hunter who happened to be Shelby’s body servant. Shelby was forever grateful to the James boys as they recovered the servant. When he was called to the stand, Shelby testified that at the time of the train robbery, he met Jesse James, Dick Liddil and Bill Ryan at his home and James was not with them. The general’s testimony held tremendous weight with the people and created a sensation, and it was ultimately responsible for Frank’s acquittal. $4,000 - $6,000

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James, Frank. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 30: James, Frank. Autograph letter signed ("Ben"), 4 pages (8 x 5 in.; 203 x 127 mm.), written from jail

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Description: 30. James, Frank. Autograph letter signed (“Ben”), 4 pages (8 x 5 in.; 203 x 127 mm.), written from jail in Gallatin, Missouri, 6 August 1883, to his wife, Mrs. A. F. James; with stamped transmittal envelope. In jail on murder charges, the falsely accused Frank James, brother of notorious outlaw Jesse James, is disgusted with those who visit to satisfy their morbid curiosity.James writes in part with misspellings uncorrected: I was out yesterday and just thirty two men by actual count was asking me question at the same time, if free once more not one single human being do I want to be introduced to unless it is known to a certainty they are in sympathy with us. I never was so tireed of any thing in my life. The majority that come do so simply to satisfy their morbid curiosity. It will do me so much good when I get out to pass the majority as I would a dog. It is no trouble for us to know our friends, for each and every one that are such have shown their hand in some way...Well Thank God after this week I can count the time by days instead of weeks. I wish my trial had commenced to day...…Your true and loving Hubby. Ben. Frank James and his outlaw brother, Jesse James led the James Gang from 1866-79, robbing banks and trains from Arkansas to Colorado and Texas. Jailed for murder, Frank James’ trial began on 21 August 1883 where he was found not guilty and released.A long and interesting letter written just two weeks before Frank James went to trial. $4,000 - $6,000

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Jefferson, Thomas. Letter signed (

Lot 31: Jefferson, Thomas. Letter signed ("Th: Jefferson"), as Governor of Virginia.

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Description: 31. Jefferson, Thomas. Letter signed (“Th: Jefferson”), as Governor of Virginia, containing three words penned in his hand (Jefferson specifies the number of militia called up - “seventy three” and the name of the addressee - “Berkley”, written at the bottom left of the first page), 2 pages (11.87 x 7.25 in.; 302 x 184 mm.), “In Council” [Richmond, Virginia], 4 September 1780, to the Lieutenant of Berkeley County, Virginia; browned, large stain affecting several lines in the body of the letter, minor paper loss.After the disastrous defeat at Camden, South Carolina of 16 August 1780, Governor of Virginia Thomas Jefferson calls up the Virginia Militia to aid in the War in the South.Jefferson writes in full: Sir, The late misfortune to the southward, renders it necessary that we send a reinforcement of militia from this state to assist in stopping the progress of the enemy should they be able to do no more. I have in the first place required the counties, which lately sent militia to the southward, to furnish now so many as failed to march then of the quota called on, but to make up a substantial aid, other counties must contribute. I am therefore to require seventy three of your militia to proceed as soon as possible ... to Hillsborough in North Carolina, at which place they must be by the 25th of October, or as much sooner as may be, because by the last day of that month the time of service of the militia now in Carolina will be expired. They are to continue in service three months from the time of their getting to the head quarters of the commanding officer to the southward, in requiring their quota from you we have been governed by the proportion called for by the general assembly on the late occasion from the other counties, and have endeavoured to make allowance for the numbers withdrawn from you by the last draught, and also for those sent, or to be sent to the western country. You will be pleased to make return to me of the names of those, who shall be ordered to march, and of those who shall fail; and as to the latter to spare no endeavours to take and send them on to duty, as justice to the counties, on whom, we shall be obliged to call hereafter in the course of rotation requires that we repeat our calls on the counties, to whose turn it falls previously, until they shall have actually sent their full number into the field. I enclose you a power of taking provisions, waggons, and other necessaries for the men on their march, with an extract of the act of assembly authorizing it, which I would recommend to you to put into the hands of some discreet person of the party capable of doing the duties of Quarter Master and Commissary. Arms will be provided at Hillsborough. I am, Your very humbel Servt Th: JeffersonBerkeley County, Virginia (located between the Alleghany and Blue Ridge Mountains, now the most eastern county in West Virginia), called for militia troops from that County to assist the Continental Army fighting in the Carolinas after the disastrous defeat of General Horatio Gates at the Battle of Camden, South Carolina on 16 August 1780). $10,000 - $15,000

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Jefferson, Thomas. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 32: Jefferson, Thomas. Autograph letter signed ("Th: J") as Secretary of State.

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Description: 32. Jefferson, Thomas. Autograph letter signed (“Th: J”) as Secretary of State, 1 page (9 x 7.37 in.; 229 x 187 mm.), New York, 11 April 1790, to H. E. the Count de Florida Blanca, the Spanish Foreign Minister; light browning. Under direction from George Washington, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson announces William Carmichael to the post of Chargé d’affaires to the Spanish Foreign Minister with the goal of improved relations with Spain.Jefferson writes in full: Sir The President of the United States [George Washington] having thought proper to name mr. William Carmichael their chargé des affaires near his Catholic Majesty [King of Spain], I have now the honour of announcing the same to your Excellency, & of praying you to give credence to whatever he shall say to you on my part. he knows the concern our republic takes in the interest & prosperity of Spain, our strong desire to cultivate it’s friendship, & to deserve it by all the good offices which esteem & neighborhood may dictate. he knows also my zeal to promote these by whatever may depend on my ministry. I have no doubt that mr Carmichael will so conduct himself as to merit your confidence, & I avail myself with pleasure of this occasion of tendering to you assurances of those sentiments of respect & esteem with which I have the honor to be your Excellency. most obedient & most humble servt. Th: J.At a time when relations with Spain were tenuous at best, this is Jefferson’s letter of “credence” [i.e., credentials] for Mr. William Carmichael, Chargé d’affaires of the United States at Madrid, Spain who served from 1790 to 1794. Jefferson soon learned that his letter of credence was improper - according to the U.S. Constitution. He explained his error in a letter to William Short of 30 April 1790 who had served as Jefferson’s private secretary in France during Jefferson’s term as Minister to France, and was to serve with Carmichael as Joint Commissioner to Spain and then succeeded Carmichael as Chargé d ‘affaires: I had not the time to examine with minuteness the proper form of credentials under our new Constitution: I governed myself, therefore, by foreign precedents, according to which a charge des affaires is furnished with only a letter of credence from one Minister of Foreign Affairs [i.e., Jefferson] to the other [i.e., the Count de Florida Blanca]. Further researches have shown me, that under our new Constitution, all commissions (or papers amounting to that) must be signed by the President . . . On the same day that Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson wrote this letter of credence to the Spanish Foreign Minister, the Count de Florida Blanca, introducing William Carmichael as the new Chargé d’affaires of the United States at Madrid, he wrote one to Carmichael, mentioning the above letter: ...You will also receive herewith a letter of credence for yourself to be delivered to the Count de Florida Blanca after putting thereon the proper address with which I am unacquainted. In that same letter, Jefferson also inquired as to whether Carmichael had ever received John Jay’s letter of 9 September 1788, concerning inconveniences which the States bordering on the Floridas experience from the asylum afforded to their fugitive slaves in those provinces of her Catholic Majesty. Continuing, Jefferson detailed an incident illustrating the dramatic need for improved relations with Spain. In 1787, two American vessels (the Columbia, captained by John Kendrick, and the Lady Washington, captained by Robert Gray) left Boston on a voyage of discovery - partially with the intent of trying a fur trade with the Russian settlements on the Northwest coast of the American continent. The two vessels were expressly forbidden to touch at any Spanish port. Storm damage, however, to the Columbia necessitated that it stop for repairs in the Juan Fernandez Islands (just west of Chile), commanded by Don Blas Gonzalez. For his act of “common hospitality”, Gonzalez was “deprived of his government” and was “still under disgrace”. Jefferson deplored the Spanish government’s policy: “...We pretend not to know the regulations of the Spanish government as to the admission of foreign vessels into the ports of their colonies. But the generous character of the nation is a security to us that their regulations can in no instance run counter to the laws of nature; and among the first of her laws is that which bids us to succour those in distress. For an obedience to this law Don Blas appears to have suffered: and we are satisfied it is because his case has not been able to penetrate to his majesty’s ministers, at least in its true colors ...we would wish you to avail yourself of any good opportunity of introducing the truth to the ear of the minister [the Count de Florida Blanca], and of satisfying him that a redress of this hardship on the Governor [Don Blas Gonzalez] would be received here with pleasure, as a proof of respect to those laws of hospitality which we would certainly observe in a like case, as a mark of attention towards us, and of justice to an individual for whose sufferings we cannot but feel. $15,000 - $20,000

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Jefferson, Thomas. Manuscript document unsigned, 1 page (10 x 7.75 in.; 254 x 197 mm.).

Lot 33: Jefferson, Thomas. Manuscript document unsigned, 1 page (10 x 7.75 in.; 254 x 197 mm.).

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Description: 33. Jefferson, Thomas. Manuscript document unsigned, 1 page (10 x 7.75 in.; 254 x 197 mm.), 31 August 1790, Jefferson wrote a listing of items bound for Monticello, with a ghosting of an apparently unpublished memorandum in Jefferson’s hand as an ink offset on the blank portions of the note on verso in a contemporaneous hand “Mr. Jefferson’s Instructions”; reinforcement to the folds on verso.Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson inventories his goods bound for Monticello as the new American government moves from New York to Philadelphia. Jefferson writes in full: No 1. Paper press. 26.I [nches]. Cube. 10 cubs. feet 2. Pembroke tables. 36I.26I. 31I. 15 ½ [cubic feet] 3. Press under part. 57I. 26I. 27I. 23 ¼ [cubic feet] 4. [Press] upper part. 58I.56I. 18I. 34 ½ [cubic feet] 5. Side board. 64I. 42I. 32I 50 [cubic feet] 6. Dining tables 58I. 33I. 26I. 31[cubic feet] 7. Chair 56I. 29I. 29I. 25 ½ [cubic feet] 8. Working table 39I. 33I. 7I. 3 ¾ [cubic feet] 9. Cask of coffee containing about 100 lb. 10. Box earthen ware, some chine [sic], candlesticks, four barrels/one box containing 58 bacon hams, a hogshead, about a gross of empty bottles, 10 bottles cyder [sic], handirons &c, mattresses, Servants beadsteads, kitchen tables, 5 pr. simple chairs, mahogany in mats[?] 6. arm chairs d[itt]o, 1 green stool, 30 green chairs & 1 green stool, two boxes of Mr. Madison’s.The temporary seat of federal government from March 1789 to December of 1790 was in New York. Following Washington’s August 30 departure from Mount Vernon, Jefferson prepared for his own return to Monticello on the first of September. Accompanied by James Madison, Jefferson spent nearly two months in Virginia before establishing himself at the new seat of the federal government in Philadelphia. In light of this relocation, the inclusion of two boxes that belong to his travel companion, James Madison, and the fact that Jefferson lists only 18 Windsor chairs in his plans for the layout of the small Philadelphia residence, the present inventory found its way to Monticello after its shipment from Paris. Records at Monticello indicate that 28 Windsor chairs were found in the waiting hall of Jefferson’s sprawling Virginia home add further evidence that this list is bound for that residence. $6,000 - $8,000

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Jefferson, Thomas. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 34: Jefferson, Thomas. Autograph letter signed ("Th: Jefferson") as President.

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Description: 34. Jefferson, Thomas. Autograph letter signed (“Th: Jefferson”) as President, 1 page (10 x 8 in.; 254 x 203 mm.), 20 July 1804, Washington, to James Maury, Esquire, a childhood friend of Jefferson’s, who was then living in England; with integral address leaf; mounting remnants on verso of first page and integral blank.President Thomas Jefferson writes to one of his most cherished childhood friends presently living in England. Jefferson writes in full: Dear Sir Having occasion to make some remittances to Europe, I have procured from my friend Mr. Madison three sets of Exchange on you, to wit For 200. Dollars infavor of Joseph Uznardi at Cadiz250. Dollars infavor of Thomas Appleton of Leghorn300. D. infavor of William Jarvis at Lisbon750. Dollars all at 60. days right. These bills leave this now for their several destinations, will come round to you in due time and will we trust be duly honored.I have at several times received packets of newspapers which I perceived came from you, and which, altho’ my occupations have long obliged me to abandon the reading all European newspapers, yet they conveyed to me proofs of your kind attentions, and nourished the cordial recollections of our antient intimacies. I have found, in my progress through life that the friendships of our earliest years are those which are the deepest seated and inspire the most perfect confidence. I assure you that mine for you has never abated, altho’ my incessant occupations have prevented the repeating expressions of it. Your worthy brother, the parson, was well the last time I heard from him. His health was for some time unpromising but it got better. We are filled with anxiety for the crisis internal as well as external thro’ which your adopted country is going. Our business is a vigorous and faithful neutrality, to which we will certainly adhere, but it is impossible for us to look on the present state of things between France and England without the most lively solicitude. Accept I pray you my affectionate salutations, and assurances of my constant friendship and respect. Th: JeffersonFrom ages 14-16, the future President attended the rural log schoolhouse run by Maury’s father in Fredericksville Parish, approximately twelve miles from Jefferson’s home in Shadwell. As a boarder with the Maury family, Jefferson became fast friends with the young Maury, and maintained a warm and intimate correspondence with him throughout his life - even after Maury had relocated to Liverpool, England. President Jefferson wrote the present letter during a time of increasing hostilities between the U.S. and the warring nations of France and England. In spite of Jefferson’s attempts to preserve the rigorous and faithful neutrality, relations with Great Britain steadily worsened and reached a dramatic crisis in 1807 with the British navy’s seizure of an American naval vessel, the USS Chesapeake, and the illegal impressment of some of her crew. $10,000 - $15,000

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Jefferson, Thomas. Autograph letter with integral signature (

Lot 35: Jefferson, Thomas. Autograph letter with integral signature ("Th: Jefferson") as President.

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Description: 35. Jefferson, Thomas. Autograph letter with integral signature (“Th: Jefferson”) as President, 1 page (6.62 x 5 in.; 168 x 127 mm.), 15 January 1805; browning with skillful reinforcement to margins and horizontal fold. Jefferson laments the death of a prisoner at the Bastille whom he had visited years before.Jefferson writes in part: . . .Poor old Latude, who passed more than a third of the last century in dungeons and in irons, whom I believe you knew, died about a month ago. not long before his death he left with me two of his books, containing the memoirs of his captivity and two prints of his picture, requesting that I should forward the whole to you. I that you should present one of them to Congress. I thereby comply with one of the last and most earnest desires of this singular old man. it may be of some importance to humanity, under our mildest and best of governments, to know that there has existed a government in the old world equal to confining a man 35 years, without being regularly judged and condemned and at the same time to behold the resemblance of the man, who was capable of undergoing such a punishment without any decay of either health or spirits.After the French Revolution, Jefferson, while in Paris, visited the famous Bastille. While there, he came across a prisoner named Latude. Years later, Jefferson was notified of the death of Latude, as he had been so moved and touched by his visit with the prisoner. $8,000 - $12,000

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Jefferson, Thomas. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 36: Jefferson, Thomas. Autograph letter signed ("Th:Jefferson"), 1 page (9.87 x 7.75 in.; 251 x 197 mm.)

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Description: 36. Jefferson, Thomas. Autograph letter signed (“Th:Jefferson”), 1 page (9.87 x 7.75 in.; 251 x 197 mm.), Monticello, 2 July 1812; light browning. A retired President makes arrangements for a new spinning machine to be delivered to Monticello.Jefferson writes in full: I received yesterday your favor of the 26. and lose no time in replying to it. if a conveyance by a coasting vessel to Norfolk or Richmond can be found it is so much the simplest that I should prefer it, notwithstandg the risk brought on by the war. But the enemy have not yet had time to spread their privateers on our coast, nor have their ships of war as yet had time to catch our swift sailing . . . boats to arm them as London and be able to take every thing in-shore. I think therefore there is but little danger as yet. I do not know who is the correspondent of Gibson & Lefferson at Norfolk. I know they have one there, whom the master of the vessel will readily find out & receive his freight & other charges on the delivery of the box. Mr. Herrick writes me he paid 3.D. for cartage of it to Hudson, and as there have doubtless been some small ex-pences at N. York, of wharfage, drayage, storage etc. I take the liberty of inclosing you a 5.D. bill of Washington currency, not doubting it can be changed with you, out of which I wish Mr. Herrick to receive his 3.D. and for which I have desired him to get some friend to call on you; so that you may not have any trouble of remittance to him. should a conveyance by water become desperate, I am told there is a line of conveyance from N. York to Philadelphia. I am told there is a line of conveyance from N. York to Philadelphia through Amboy & Burlington for heavy packages, & at Philadelphia mr John Vaughan would receive it for me. but such a complicated line, renders the conveyance by sea preferable if practicable. No insurance is necessary as the loss of the machine, not of it’s price is the only thing regarded. The clothing establishment of my family is suspended till I get it. I return you abundant thanks for your kind attention to this and apologies for the trouble. with them accept the assurance of my great esteem and respect. Th:JeffersonThe English mechanic, Richard Arkwright (1732-1791), had invented a water-powered spinning frame that was an improvement on the spinning jenny. The machine played an important role in the growth and mechanization of the textile industry in England and the America. Ebenezer Herrick of West Stockbridge, Massachusetts, had perfected and patented a similar, but smaller, spinning device he named the Domestic Spinner, which Jefferson believed to be usefully adaptable to the needs of small farmers and plantation owners. The War of 1812 had begun (the official declaration of war by Congress was signed by President James Madison on 18 June 1812) and Jefferson herewith makes detailed arrangements to have his spinning machine delivered to Monticello before the war prohibits its delivery. On the same day Jefferson wrote the present letter, he also wrote a letter to Ebenezer Herrick requesting the new spinning machine be sent to him at Monticello, which sold at Christie’s New York on 14 June 2005, lot 308. $10,000 - $15,000

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Johnson, Walter. Exceptional group of nine (9) autograph letters signed.

Lot 37: Johnson, Walter. Exceptional group of nine (9) autograph letters signed.

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Description: 37. Johnson, Walter. Exceptional group of nine (9) autograph letters signed (“Walter Johnson”, “Walter J.” and “Walter”), total of 11 pages of various sizes, Germantown, Maryland, 3 January to September 1940 to Eleanor Fleitman; with envelopes; slight soiling in 3 letters.Walter Johnson writes nine letters to a woman sharing his philosophy about baseball, politics and life on his farm. Some excerpts from the letters:Jan. 3, 1940; in part:You really have asked me some interesting questions and I wish it were possible this cold night to sit in front of the fireplace and talk a little baseball. I guess it’s cold in Kansas City tonight more so than here I guess…I was born down on a farm about one hundred miles from K.C. A great many pitchers care little about their batting and usually get fooled regardless of what comes up a curve or fast one. I used to hit one once-in-a-while and most of the time I would do as you say ‘let’er come’ then hit or try to hit what I saw. Again some times when an experienced pitcher was out there I would try to figure out what I would throw if I were in his place. Then again some hitters knowing that the catchers give the signs try to think with the catcher. Some catchers wanted curves at a certain stage and some fast ones and were no score to call for their favorite pitcher that the batter could do a pretty good job questioning what was coming. Baseball like every thing else has changed and it’s a little hard to compare the old time player with the present day one. For my part I like the game with close scores like we used to have. 1 to 0 and 2 to 1. I have always believed that broadcasting helped baseball by keeping people interested, the ones who couldn’t get to the game. I enjoyed broadcasting the ball games here last year and I am once I didn’t keep any one away from the game. Was a little hard starting as I am not much of a talker. When I pitched and found myself in trouble I had to pitch my way out so when I got in trouble on the mike it was bad. I have done a lot of talking here and paid very little. I hope next time I can do a better job announcing.April 24, 1940; in part: I have been away from home so much lately seems like I am back in baseball. The spring games were good weren’t they? But all the pitchers who did so well the first day have been batted out since. July 16, 1940; in part: You know if I hadn’t seen your picture and you came walking down the road I would just have gone up to you put my arms around you and kissed you a couple of times. I would have known you any place. Try me out on that. I see your K.C. club will be sold to Jim Farley. I have an idea. You buy the club they, you and I will go out and scout for young ball players up in the mountains in the summer time and down south in winter. I expect the Yanks will be in front this time next month.In the present correspondence Johnson writes nine autograph letters to Eleanor Fleitman of Kansas City between 3 January and September 1940. It appears that Johnson and Fleitman had been introduced either by friends or chance, but it doesn’t appear that they had actually met in person. Regardless, the tone of the letters is warm and occasionally playful as Johnson describes his post baseball Hall of Fame career working on his Germantown farm and as a politician. He writes about his cattle and fox hounds, as well as the weather and teases Ms. Fleitman that they should hitchhike across the country towards one another, except that she would get all rides and he would be walking and never get out of Montgomery County before she reached him. He also discusses traveling and meeting her in St. Louis in September, having answered her questions about him and discussing what he knows about her: 28, never been married, brown hair, weight about 135. Johnson occasionally mentions baseball, largely in the context of how he approached hitting; his love of low, close scoring games; how he likes the games being broadcast but that was not much good at broadcasting himself. He mentions the impending war in just one letter, that the Germans are too much for the countries over there. Oddly, he makes no mention of his five children. His wife, Hazel, died in 1930. Johnson died from a brain tumor at the young age of 59 on 10 December 1946, and it is not known if he and Eleanor were ever able to meet before his death. It appears from records found that Eleanor did marry a gent by the name of Bronstein and passed away in 2006 at the age of 88.One of the greatest pitchers of all time, Walter Johnson won 417 games (including 110 shutouts) and one World Series championship in his career for the Washington Senators (a perennial second division team), still, second on the all-time career wins list. He was one of the first five players to ever be elected to the Hall of Fame in 1936, with Babe Ruth, Ty Cobb, Honus Wagner and Christy Mathewson. A lifelong Republican and friend of President Calvin Coolidge, Johnson was elected as a Montgomery County commissioner in 1938. His father-in-law was Representative Edwin Roberts, a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1940 Johnson ran for a congressional seat in Maryland’s 6th district, but came up short against the incumbent Democrat, William D. Byron, by a total of 60,037 (53%) to 52,258 (47%).A rare and informative group of autograph letters from the beloved Hall of Famer. $4,000 - $6,000

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Knox, Henry. Partially printed document hand signed.

Lot 38: Knox, Henry. Partially printed document hand signed.

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Description: 38. Knox, Henry. Partially printed document with non-printed elements accomplished in a fine secretarial hand signed, (“H Knox”), 4 pages (13.25 x 8.12 in.; 337 x 206 mm.), War Office of the United States, Philadelphia, 23 March 1792. As Secretary of War, Henry Knox provides army recruiting rules: No negro, mulatto, or indian to be recruited. Addressed to Captain John H. Buell of the 2d Regt. of Infantry, Knox’s instructions state: You are immediately to commence the recruiting service in the State of –Connecticut-The principal rendezvous will be at –Middletown-You will recruit one hundred men ...furnished by Chauncey Whittlesea... Among the general rules and principles established to avoid the errors of this business is the order that No negro, mulatto, or indian to be recruited. Other instructions include matters concerning the length of service; pay, expenses and rations; the age, physical condition, character and integrity of recruits; their conduct and duties; and mutiny and desertion. $4,000 - $6,000

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Lee, Richard Henry. Important autograph letter signed, 2 pages (13 ⅜ x 8 ¼ in.; 340 x 210 mm.).

Lot 39: Lee, Richard Henry. Important autograph letter signed, 2 pages (13 ⅜ x 8 ¼ in.; 340 x 210 mm.).

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Description: 39. Lee, Richard Henry. Important autograph letter signed, 2 pages (13 ⅜ x 8 ¼ in.; 340 x 210 mm.), “Baltimore,” 17 January 1777 to John Page of Williamsburg, Virginia; left margin of first page reinforced, repair to lower horizontal fold, integral address leaf.Lee provides a detailed report of General Lee’s capture, including mention of General Washington crossing the Delaware North River with his troops. Lee writes in full: I do not recollect that I have heretofore given you any of the particulars of General Lees captivity, and therefore I will do it now, as I know you take great share in what concerns that brave and worthy Officer. When Gen. Washington crossed North river with the Southern Troops, he left Gen. Lee with the Eastern men to guard the passes on Hudson’s river, where he remained until the enemies progress thro the Jersies occasioned him to repair thither, which he did with about 1700 men. He was joined in the Jersies by as many militia as made his number about 3000. With these he continued on the enemies rear constantly expecting that reinforcements of militia would soon enable Gen. Washington to push the enemies front so as to put it in his power to distress their rear greatly. And in the mean time he proposed to harrass them with desultory war. But at length he received peremptory orders to join the General as the militia came too slowly forward. He was on his rout for this purpose thro the western parts of Jersey, intending to cross Delaware above Trenton, when he received an Express from Gen. Gates which he expressed a desire of answering, and wished for a house to do this business in.Now there happened a man, one Vanhorn who hearing this, and being considered as a foe to the British army from the heavy complaints he made against their procedure, informed the General of a house near (about 2 miles off) where he might securely do his business. It was a Whigs house it seems, and the proposal was accepted. The Villain Vanhorn pushed away in the night and gave information to the enemy who were posted, a body of them, about 20 miles from the place. They detached 70 light horse under the command of Colo. Harcourt, who riding very hard got up to the place where Gen. Lee was, in the morning, surrounded the house and made him prisoner. Took him off with great precipitation, and with him a french Gentleman, a Lt. Colonel in the service of france, who had landed to the Eastward and was on his way to offer his service to Congress. The General had a guard of 20 men with him, who being dispersed when the Horsemen arrived, never collected or defended their General in the least. The Congress, pursuing the custom of Europe, offered Six Hessian field officers in exchange for him, but afterwards, hearing that Gen. Lee was committed to the Provost, a military Goaler, under the idea of his being a British Officer, became the Tyrant, had not accepted his resignation in order that if-they got him, they might avail themselves of the law martial for his condemnation; the Congress notified to Gen. Howe that if the proffered exchange was not accepted, they should detain Six Field Officers, of whom Col. Campbell would be one, that they might in their persons undergo exactly the same treatment in every respect that should be shewn to Gen. Lee.I have been the more particular in this relation that you may do the brave General justice if any licentious tongue your way, should, as they have done in other places, calumniate by base insinuation a great character, whom some hate for the reasons that all good men love, I mean an attachment to, and ability to serve the cause of American liberty. By a Gentleman who passed thro our army at Morris Town in Jersey on the 8th instant, we learn that the Men were in good spirits, that he judges their number to be about 12000, that he understood they were under marching orders, and that their destination was towards Elizabeth Town, which is between the main body of the enemy and N. York. That Gen Heath was expected to join the army on the 9th with between 2 & 5 thousand men. That he met large bodies of Militia going towards the Jersies, and upon the whole it seemed probable from his relation that either the enemy must soon quit the Jersies, or do worse. But unhappily the force of our Army is chiefly militia and their stay very uncertain, which renders the speedy reenforcement of regular Troops absolutely necessary.An important, unpublished account of General Lee’s capture providing abundant information on the movements of Generals Washington, Howe and Gates during a crucial time of war. $8,000 - $12,000

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Lee, Robert E. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 40: Lee, Robert E. Autograph letter signed ("R E Lee"), 4 pages (9.87 x 7.75 in.; 251 x 197 mm.).

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Description: 40. Lee, Robert E. Autograph letter signed (“R E Lee”), 4 pages (9.87 x 7.75 in.; 251 x 197 mm.), San Antonio, Texas, 26 September 1860, on blue-lined stationery, to “My dear Major”, an unidentified subordinate officer in the Texas Department, probably Major Earl Van Dorn.Unhappy with his command of the Department of Texas, and separated from his family, a melancholy Robert E. Lee ponders his routine duties, including the director of retaliatory attacks upon plundering raids by the Indians.He writes in part: My dear Major I have recd both of your letters 3rd & 17th Sept: I was glad to learn by the former that as you had to take the field, you would take the opportunity of examining the Concha County without waiting for more formal instructions…I confess I am dissappd at the result of your examination, though was somewhat prepared for it by the information recd from Fitz Lee, who had first returned from there. I still hoped that you might find a better state of things. Have you satisfied yourself on the subject, & do you think there is no suitable place for a Post, which would command the head waters of the Concha, give protection to the travel on the present mail route, & still furnish the requisites of water wood grass & buildg materials for a Post……I am very sorry you could not overtake the Indians you went to pursuit of, though I am convinced you did everything in your power to do so. When you go out however, I always feel confident of the result & give up all anxiety on the subject, & enjoy the consolatory reflection, that my red brethren will have attention paid to them. I will need wait for the next occasion.And now I come to the most painful subject (to me, I hope it is not to you) of your letter. Your application for a leave of absence. you will see my reply to your official request. I really am very sorry for the view I felt obliged to take of it. I know how hard it is for you to be separated from your family, & how agreeable it is for them to have you with them. After Genl [Albert Sidney] Johnston’s return & my liberation from here the objection will not be so great. How would you like to have your family with you at [Fort] Mason [just NW of Austin, Texas] this winter? I think you might all be very comfortable there. You could meet them at the Coast or at New Orleans. you are the first Major now, so you must claim some of the perquisites of the second…Goodbye, truly yours R E Lee.After congress created several additional Army regiments in March 1855, Superintendent of the Military Academy Robert E. Lee learned that he was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel of the new 2nd Cavalry under Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston on 3 March 1855. From mid-1855 to early 1861, Lee was in Texas, usually at Brownsville, but sometimes at San Antonio. He soon found himself shackled with responsibility for the Army’s Texas Department. On 6 February 1860, Lt. Col. Lee was assigned temporary command of the Department of Texas, according to his brevet rank. It was a distinction to have command of a department, but, due to the fact that it was an accidental appointment (no Colonel of the Army was in Texas), Lee considered it unimportant. During this period, Lee was conducting a large expedition (authorized by the War Department) against the Indians in northern Texas, where they had led a number of plundering raids. During his final months in Texas, Lee was overcome by a sense of melancholy and despair, partially due to his slow promotion in the ranks and his homesickness for his family. He was the father to four unmarried daughters and a husband to an invalid wife. His depression was also due to America’s deepening sectional crisis. The disaster that Lee predicted, the secession of several Southern states from the Union, directly followed after the election of Abraham Lincoln as President in November 1860. Lee foresaw the mounting political danger in 1857, during a return trip to Virginia. But, through it all he hoped and prayed that there should be no North, no South, no East, no West, [but] the broad union in all its might and strength, present and future…I know no other country, no other government than the United States and their Constitution. For Lee, disunion could not be justified. He considered secession akin to revolution. There was nothing he could do as the Union unraveled. Lee finally left San Antonio on 19 December 1860 for the comparative isolation of Ft. Mason, the headquarters of the 2nd Cavalry, as he received reports on the nation’s politics. $4,000 - $6,000

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Lee, Robert E. Letter signed (

Lot 41: Lee, Robert E. Letter signed ("R.E. Lee General"), 2 pages (9.25 x 7.12 in.; 235 x 181 mm.).

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Description: 41. Lee, Robert E. Letter signed (“R.E. Lee General”), 2 pages (9.25 x 7.12 in.; 235 x 181 mm.), Camp near Fredericksburg, Virginia, 18 December 1862, to His Excellency F.W. Pickens, Gov. of South Carolina; few ink splotches not obscuring text.General Robert E. Lee mourns the death of Brigadier General Maxcy Gregg, considered by his superior, General Ambrose P. Hill, to be the invincible pillar of my strength.He writes in full: Sir: While So. Carolina is mourning the loss of her gallant and distinguished son Genl. Maxcy Gregg, permit me to join in your sorrow for his death.From my first acquaintance, when you sent him with his gallant regiment to the defence of our frontier in Virginia, I have admired his disinterested patriotism and his unselfish devotion. He has always been at the post of duty and of danger & his services in this Army have been of inestimable value and his loss is deeply lamented. In its greatest triumphs and its bloodiest battles he has borne a distinguished part. On the Chickahominy, on the plains of Manassas at Harper’s Ferry, Sharsburg and Shepherdstown he led his brigade with distinguished skill and dauntless valour. On the wooded heights of Fredericksburg he fell in front of his brigade in close conflict with the advancing foe. The death of such a man is a costly sacrifice, for it is to men of his high integrity and commanding intellect that the country must look, to give character to her councils, that she may be respected and honored by all nations. Among those of his state who will proudly read the history of his deeds, may many be found to imitate his noble examples. I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obt. servt. R.E. Lee General.Francis Wilkinson Pickens guided his state during its secession from the Union while he was Governor of South Carolina from 1860-62. Lee’s sincere letter of condolence mourns the death of Brigadier General Maxcy Gregg, who died by a rifle ball at Fredericksburg on 13 December 1862. He lingered in agony for two days before his death.At the start of the Civil War, Maxcy Gregg was appointed Colonel of the 1st Regiment of South Carolina Volunteers. On 14 December 1861, he received his commission as Brigadier General and commanded a brigade of three South Carolina regiments. In the Seven Days’ Campaign (25 June-1 July 1862), fighting at Frayser’s Farm, Malvern Hill, Gregg’s South Carolinian’s suffered more casualties than any other brigade in Major General Ambrose P. Hill’s Light Division. On 9 August 1862, Gregg’s brigade was assigned a reserve role at Cedar Mountain and fought bravely three weeks later at Second Bull Run on 30 August 1862, where he was wounded in the leg. During the battle, Gregg walked along the brigade’s line, fearlessly exposing himself and encouraging his men. Hill, his superior, commented that Gregg was “the man for me.” The following month, at Antietam, Gregg was slightly wounded by a Federal volley, and his horse was shot out from under him. Three months later, at Fredericksburg, Gregg’s brigade held a reserve position behind a dangerous gap in the Confederate lines on the right. When the Union forces stormed into the hold, Gregg hurriedly rallied his unprepared command, who, fearing no attack, had stacked arms. Riding toward the front, he was killed by a rifle ball that entered his side and passed through his spine. In addition to his words of praise for the fallen officer in the above letter to the South Carolina Governor, Robert E. Lee also to commented: In Brigadier Generals Gregg and [Thomas Reade Rootes] Cobb, (who also died from wounds received at Fredericksburg (13 December 1862); while defending the “sunken road” at Fredericksburg, Cobb’s thigh was shattered by a musket ball and he bled to death in a nearby dwelling) the Confederacy has lost two of its noblest citizens and the army two of its bravest and most distinguished officers… T.J. “Stonewall” Jackson added his words of praise for Gregg: Gen. Gregg was a brave and accomplished Officer, full of heroic sentiment and chivalrous honor. He has rendered valuable service in this great struggle for our freedom, and the country has much reason to deplore the loss sustained by his premature death. $4,000 - $6,000

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Lee, Robert E. Letter signed (

Lot 42: Lee, Robert E. Letter signed ("R E Lee Genl") as Commander in Chief of the CSA.

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Description: 42. Lee, Robert E. Letter signed (“R E Lee Genl”) as Commander in Chief of the CSA (Confederate States of America) Army, 1 page (9.37 x 8 in.; 238 x 203 mm.), Head Quarters C.S. Armies, 16 March 1865, to George A. Trenholm, CSA Secretary of the Treasury; letter mounted on cardstock.With the end of the war in sight, shortly before the fall of Petersburg, General Lee makes an eloquent appeal on behalf of his troops: I doubt not that the army will bear the evils that the government is unable to prevent, with the patriotic fortitude that it has shown under all hardships. Lee writes in full: Sir, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 11th instant: and to return you my sincere thanks for the solicitude you manifest for the interests of the Army. I have never doubted, nor I believe have the intelligent officers and men under my command, that the delay of their payment proceeded from causes beyond your control, and I highly approve of the wisdom of the policy from the adoption of which the inconvenience has arisen. I doubt not that the army will bear the evils that the government is unable to prevent, with the patriotic fortitude that it has shown under all hardships, and will rely without complaint upon your zealous efforts to minister to its wants. With Great respect. Your Obt. servant. R.E. LeeLee wrote to the President of the CSA, Jefferson Davis, many times on the subject of lack of subsistence for his troops. Lee was very troubled by the weakened state of his troops and their inferior numbers at the time the present letter was written. Here, Lee makes an eloquent appeal for funds for his troops that are facing the closing hours of a hard-fought war. To the bitter end, Lee put his troops above all else, even himself and his own safety. When Lee finally surrendered to Grant on 9 April at Appomattox Courthouse, his sole concern was the safety and welfare of his troops. $4,000 - $6,000

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Lincoln, Abraham. Autograph document signed (

Lot 43: Lincoln, Abraham. Autograph document signed ("Logan & Lincoln").

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Description: 43. Lincoln, Abraham. Autograph document signed (“Logan & Lincoln”), 1 page (12.5 x 7.5 in.; 318 x 191 mm.), Sangamon County, Illinois, 1842 July; docketed on integral blank; skillfully repaired, verso of first page and recto of second page reinforced with tissue.A legal brief entirely in the hand of Abraham Lincoln.In the case of William Dormady versus Thomas Kavana [i.e Cavanaugh], Lincoln writes up the declaration of the plaintiff, William Dormady who is owed $500 for goods, wares, merchandize, groceries and provisions from Thomas Kavana who refuses to pay his debt.A fine manuscript completely in the hand of Lincoln during his earlier years as a lawyer.Provenance: Sotheby’s New York, 26 October 1988, lot 107. $5,000 - $7,000

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Lincoln, Abraham. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 44: Lincoln, Abraham. Autograph letter signed ("A. Lincoln"), 2 pages (9.87 x 8 in.; 251 x 203 mm.).

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Description: 44. Lincoln, Abraham. Autograph letter signed (“A. Lincoln”), 2 pages (9.87 x 8 in.; 251 x 203 mm.), Springfield [lllinois], 10 July 1856, written to James Berdan, Esq. Four years before winning the Presidency, Abraham Lincoln discusses political strategy for a Republican victory over James Buchanan in Illinois in the 1856 Presidential election by banding together with the third party Know-Nothings (a.k.a. the American Party), whose candidate was former President Millard Fillmore.Lincoln writes in full: My dear Sir: I have just received your letter of yesterday; and I shall take the plan you suggest into serious consideration. I expect to go to Chicago about the 15th, and I will then confer with other friends upon the subject. A union of our strength, to be effected in some way, is indispensable to our carrying the State against Buchanan. The inherent obstacle to any plan of union, lies in the fact that of those Germans which we now have with us, large numbers will fall away, so soon as it is seen that their votes, cast with us, may possibly be used to elevate Mr. Filmore [sic]. If this inherent difficulty were out of the way, one small improvement on your plan occurs to me. It is this. Let Fremont and Filmore [sic] men unite on one entire ticket, with the understanding that that ticket, if elected, shall cast the vote of the State, for whichever of the two shall be known to have received the larger number of electoral votes, in the other states. This plan has two advantages. It carries the electoral vote of the State where it will do most good; and it also saves the waste vote, which, according to your plan would be lost, and would be equal to two in the general results. But there may be disadvantages also, which I have not thought of. Your friend, as ever A. Lincoln.Incumbent President Franklin Pierce failed to gain the re-nomination by the Democratic Party, due in part to his support of the controversial Kansas-Nebraska Act, which would allow the people of the new territories of Kansas and Nebraska to determine whether they would allow or prohibit slavery to flourish within their borders. The issue divided the Democratic Party along regional lines. Instead they chose James Buchanan, foreign minister to the United Kingdom, who claimed that the Republicans were extremists and, rightly, predicted civil war if they were elected. Running on the Republican ticket, the first ever-presidential candidate from that party was “The Great Pathfinder,” John C. Frémont, an ardent opponent of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and slavery in general. Frémont ran under the slogan, “Free Soil, Free Men. Frémont!”Lincoln’s unique strategy for victory was for the Republicans to unify with the Millard Fillmore-led “Know-Nothings” The, who remained neutral on the slavery issue, focusing their ire on Roman Catholics, both native and immigrant, and the Irish and German immigrants streaming into the country. Lincoln proposes Fillmore and Frémont to unite on the entire ticket with the proviso that, if elected, the man receiving the greater number of votes from the other states would win the electoral votes for Illinois. In the end, Buchanan won the election, but the results showed that Illinois was not a fully Democratic state and, if the Republicans could secure the electoral votes of two more states, they could secure victory in the 1860 election. Four years later, Lincoln, himself, garnered the Republican victory due to the concentration of votes in the free state, which together controlled a majority of the presidential electors. This letter is published in: References: Basler, The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, volume II, pages 347-348. $30,000 - $50,000

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MacArthur, Douglas. The intimate correspondence of Douglas MacArthur with his first wife, Mrs. Louise Brooks MacArthur comprising sixty-four autograph letters signed (

Lot 45: MacArthur, Douglas. The intimate correspondence of Douglas MacArthur with his first wife, Mrs. Louise Brooks MacArthur comprising sixty-four autograph letters signed ("Douglas MacArthur," "Douglas," "Doug," "Demon," "Doug," "Hubby," "Dapple," "Deemie

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Description: 61. MacArthur, Douglas. The intimate correspondence of Douglas MacArthur with his first wife, Mrs. Louise Brooks MacArthur comprising sixty-four autograph letters signed (“Douglas MacArthur,” “Douglas,” “Doug,” “Demon,” “Doug,” “Hubby,” “Dapple,” “Deemie,” “Lonely,” “Kid B,” “He Wasza,” and “Dapp”), over 400 pages various sizes, various locales, to Louise Cromwell Brooks MacArthur being private and revealing love letters including the very first letter he ever wrote to her in October 1921, four months before their marriage; with envelopes. A stunning cache of (64) love letters from Douglas MacArthur to his first love and first wife. The largest archive of MacArthur letters ever to be sold at auction and with staggering content revealing extraordinary details of his personal life with his first wife and his professional life with Commander-in-Chief John Pershing, Secretary of War, John W. Weeks and others.An extraordinary archive of handwritten letters from Douglas MacArthur to Mrs. Louise Cromwell Brooks MacArthur, covering the period of his courtship, engagement, and marriage on 14 February 1922. The letters form a complete whole: from October 1921, the time of their first meeting through June 1925 after their return from Manila and during MacArthur’s command of the IV Corps Area in Atlanta, Georgia. It is clear he is madly in love with her from the very beginning - With you disaster has no power to harm. Without you success has no power to please. (23 October 1921). She totally disarmed him with her charm and vivacity: I am tired of Kings and Dukes and Princes. I wish that I might take you by the hand to lead you to the garden and watch the bees buzz round the roses. I love you. (23 October 1921). A giddy romantic the warrior MacArthur has become: I have been drunk with the intoxication of you all day. The caress of your eyes, the tenderness of your lips, the sparkle of your wit! The gleam of your smile makes my pulse shiver, the touch of your hand my head whirl, the warmth of your mouth suffocates my gasping senses and leaves me stunned and shaken with the glory and wonder of you as I enter into Paradise. (27 October 1921). MacArthur writes to her that his mighty hand that once killed wears an engagement ring, and looks different to him now: I have watched it as it fought for me on many a bloody field, I have heard its trigger fingers release the leaden load, I have seen’ it close on more than one sinewy throat, I have felt it drive the steel home...But today its sight thrills me, rapture shivers shake me as I muse on it, it seems to point no longer pistol or dirk but towards the immortal road to Paradise... (15 November 1921). His motto (the West Point motto) has been forever modified: ...my motto ‘Duty, Honor, Country, ‘reads from now on - ‘Duty, Honor, Country, Louise.’ (28 October 1921). The passion overflows: Are you really mine, you beautiful white soul -you passion breeding woman -you mirth making child -you tender hearted angel- you divine giver of delight- you pulsing passionflower- you exquisite atom of crystalline purity? Are you really mine? This I know. There can be no Heaven for me without you. (8 November 1921). His pet names for her abound: My darling, My adorable, Sweetest of Women, My Angel Girl, Lovely Lady, 0 Sunshine of my Life, You Adorable Piece of Loveliness, Breath of my Life, Sweet Lady of My Dreams, Exquisite One, My Wonder Girl. The effect is MacArthur’s full surrender: The pressure of those tender fingers, the warmth of those soft palms, their sweet scent of perfume, thrills that captive trio -my heart, my soul, my spirit, - with an ecstasy of shaking surrender that only those who have felt can know. (29 November 1921). He is entirely convinced - due to the suddenness of the emotion flooding his heart - that they are destined to be together for life: Was ever such a romance in this entire world before! Were we to tell the story no one would ever believe. I am no fatalist- but somehow, in this case I can but believe that God intended it so. He made us to be mates and when by accident we failed to join he intervened and brought us together. In no other way can I explain the instant love that overwhelmed me when my eyes first met yours...I believe that our life together is to be one of those beautiful consecrations made in heaven and lived on earth...All my life I shall love you, and glorify you, and worship you... (18 December 1921).In the midst of all the ethereal poetry, MacArthur also writes with great clarity of his reassignment by Pershing to Manila from his post at West Point, and shows his great anger with the forces at work - Secretary of War John W. Weeks and Chief of Staff John J. Pershing: My relief before the end of my tour will be regarded throughout the service and the country as an effort to discredit me and the progressive policies I introduced. It will arouse a bitterness of resentment...Hundreds of thousands of men- the American Legion, the educational world, the athletic world, and a large part of the press­ all will fail to see anything other than the venting of a personal spite. (No date, probably mid-late January, 1922). Earlier, he had advised her on how to deal with jealous “suitor” Pershing: I am sorry the C.I.C. [Commander-in-Chief Pershing] is worrying you. Sorry he is such a bully – such a black guard as to try and blackmail you...He is trying to break your spirit. Don’t let him. If you do, you are gone. Ignore him, do not let him come to your house, do not let him telephone you, do not dance with him, do not let him speak to you except when unavoidable. Such treatment will kill him. See the Secretary of War [Weeks] yourself and tell him the entire story. Omit no detail. He will be shocked beyond words. This will disarm Pershing’s case if he ever tries to poison Weeks’ mind. (15 November 1921). In assisting Louise in her defense against the personal accusations about her “relationship” with Pershing, he explains, point by point, the details of Pershing’s “attack” and his reassignment. He concludes: Whatever may be the underlying motives, the Army, the public, will see only the brutal application of official power applied with the approval of the Secretary to get rid of an officer who was in the way as a rival for your heart and hand. (No date, probably mid-late January, 1922, at the time of Pershing’s announcement of MacArthur’s replacement by Sladen.) MacArthur even reveals to Louise his personal thoughts about leaving West Point: My leaving West Point is a matter of complete indifference to me. My work of reconstruction is almost done. On the ashes of Old West Point I have built a New West Point- strong, virile, and enduring. (10 November 1921).The first group of letters (1-23) includes twenty-three autograph letters signed written between 21 October 1921 and 31 January 1922 from West Point- from MacArthur’s very first to Mrs. Louise Brooks after their first meeting in the fall of 1921 up to the last one before their marriage on 14 February 1922. Additionally, there is one letter (24), dated 13 July 1922, which was written to Louise (now Mrs. MacArthur) when she was apart from Douglas, visiting her family (c/o Mr. E. T. Stotesbury), prior to their departure for the Philippines. The second group of seven letters (25-31) are dated 28 March 1923 to 7 May 1923, all written to Louise in either Pennsylvania or New York, during the period that the MacArthur family returned to the United States after Douglas was cabled of his mother’s grave illness. A third group of eleven letters (32-43), dated 29 March to 28 April 1925, are written by the newly appointed Major General MacArthur during his one month in Washington, just after his return from the Philippines. The last group (44-64) includes twenty-one autograph letters signed, written between 29 March and 6 June 1925 from Atlanta, Georgia, after MacArthur’s return stateside from the Philippines to the U.S. where he briefly served as commander of the Fourth Corps Area before his assumption of the command of the 3rd Corps Area in Baltimore. The letters, now virtually void of romantic content, stop at this point. Perhaps these are the final letters he wrote to her, as their estrangement deepened and divorce became inevitable.An itemized inventory of the letters is available upon request. $80,000 - $120,000

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Madison, James. Letter signed (

Lot 46: Madison, James. Letter signed ("James Madison") as Secretary of State.

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Description: 46. Madison, James. Letter signed (“James Madison”) as Secretary of State, 3 pages (9.75 x 8 in.; 248 x 203 mm.), Department of State, 23 July 1802, to Rufus King, United States Minister to Great Britain; splitting along vertical fold between pages.Madison argues Great Britain’s proposed harsh taxes will only encourage competition among American manufacturers.Madison writes in full: Sir, Your three letters of May 3, 5 & 7 have been duly received. On the subject of the first, to wit, the refusal of Byrd. Savage & Byrd to make an advance on your requisition in favor of Mr. Lenox, I find on conferring with the Secretary of the Treasury, that the rule laid down by the Department for limiting their disbursements, has been misunderstood. The rule was not meant to interfere with the usual course of advances made with your sanction. Mr. Gallatin will write to Byrd, Savage and Byrd, if he has already written, in order to rectify their misconstruction of his former letter on this subject. The bill imposing a greater duty on British exports to America, than on like exports to other places, which is the subject of your letter of the 5 May, is regarded by the President in the same light in which your comments placed it. It is impossible indeed not to see in it an infraction of the Treaty of 1794 (Jay Treaty), which expressly prohibits such discriminations against the United States; and it may be fairly expected from the good sense and good faith of the British Government, that the just and strong ground of complaint given by this regulation, will be removed on the earliest opportunity that can be found. This unjustifiable step, is the more remarkable, as it is so much at variance with the Spirit of the British Government towards the country, manifested in other instances; as it is so evidently and so utterly destitute of the plea for the convoy-discrimination, of which it is to take place; and as it departs so widely from the ordinary policy of that government, which systematically invites instead of taxing the demands of distant markets. The only explanation that can be given of this experiment, is, that it is tempted by a peculiar incapacity ascribed to this country of rivaling the manufacturers of Great Britain, and by the supposed security with which she may therefore, levy an extra tribute on our consumption. But besides the restraint which good faith imposes on the attempt in the present case, the British Government is too enlightened not to perceive on reflection, that every duty which it imposes on her exports to the United States, is a bounty on the exertions of her manufacture’s and with the charges incident to the distance the two countries, in stimulating the process of this branch of industry in the United States. And altho’, for reasons sufficiently obvious, our demand, or in an absolute sense, may not be lessened, by moderate imposition checking the growth of demand for British, must outweigh the advantage accruing of her Treasury. It will only be added, that it deserves the serious considerations of the British Government also how far so naked an effort to draw revenue from American pockets into her own Treasury, may add the force of resentment and indignation to other motives for lessening the dependence of our consumption on a country disposed to make such use of it.The subject of your letter of May 7, namely your correspondence with Lord Hawkesbury on the cession of Louisiana and the Floridas to France, will receive from the President all the consideration which its great importance demands; and as soon as an answer can be founded on the result of his reflections, no time will be lost transmitting it. With great respect and consideration I have the honor to be Sir your obt Serv James MadisonSecretary Madison communicates the Jefferson administration’s policy reaction to Great Britain’s proposed harsh taxes on exports to the United States and argues that such taxes will only encourage American manufacturers to compete. He concludes the letter by confirming that President Jefferson considers cession of Louisiana to France to be an issue of great importance. Jefferson was apprehensive that Great Britain might interfere with Spain to thwart his attempt to purchase New Orleans and East Florida. Rufus King played a key role by reporting his confidential conversations and news from the French and Spanish capitols on the situation with regard to Louisiana. $6,000 - $8,000

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Madison, James. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 47: Madison, James. Autograph letter signed ("James Madison"), as Secretary of State, 2 pages.

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Description: 47. Madison, James. Autograph letter signed (“James Madison”), as Secretary of State, 2 pages (10 x 8 in.; 254 x 203 mm.), Washington, 9 May 1804, addressed in Madison’s hand to: Thomas Swann Esqr., Alexandria - a prominent Washington lawyer; with (unattached) address overleaf containing Madison’s Free Frank Dept of State, James Madison; tape reinforcement along vertical margin (where the letter and address leaf were attached).As he was to do later as President, Secretary of State James Madison supports James Monroe in his time of financial distress.Madison writes in full: Dear Sir I have recd. your favor of the 6th. I wish I could speak to you more satisfactorily on the debt of Mr [James] Monroe to the Bank of Alex[exandri]a. of which you are an endorser. The best I can do is to recommend that you write on the subject to Judge [Joseph] Jones of whom Mr· M. is the nephew, and who may have the means of interposing with effect, as I am sure he will have the disposition. Mr M. must certainly have calculated on some resources to meet the event of an exhaustion of the notes of which you honored the series. I have understood that his agent Major James Lewis near Charlottesville was empowered to this part of property in order to satisfy the engagements of his principals but I have no reason to suppose that such a sale has been effected. I have seen Mr. [Lewis] Deblois since I recd. your letter. His goodness is prepared for every friendly act, and if his concurrence of any sort should be necessary & sufficient to reclaim you from the position which the affair has taken he will readily give it, but it would be more agreeable if he should not not [sic] be resorted to. Should circumstances however render this necessary, I have told him that I will eventually guaranty him from loss on that account, and I repeat it here, as also that I am ready to superadd [put in as extra] any farther security which may be required, or desire for the purpose. With very sincere regard & respect, I remain Dr. Sir, Yr. Obedt. Servt. James MadisonSecretary of State Madison writes in response to Swann’s letter of 6 May 1804, in which Swann stated that a note, belonging to James Monroe was now due at the Bank of Alexandria. Before he left for France where he served as U.S. Minister to France, James Monroe had purchased a 3,500-acre plantation adjacent to Monticello. On the property, known as the “Highlands” or “Highland,” he built a one-story, six-room frame structure into which he moved in 1799 December. It remained his home for the next 20 years. Due to his continuing financial difficulties, Monroe was unable to erect a grander house on his property. His salary as Minister to France of $9,000 a year, plus an allowance for his passage to France, had been entirely inadequate to meet the payments on his property. While in France, the annual salary had been woefully inadequate for him to live in the style then the rule for foreign emissaries in European capitals. So, upon his return, Monroe was forced to mortgage his Albemarle lands at unfavorable interest rates - and he sold his first tobacco crop as soon as it was harvested for a price lower than he would have received if he had been able to hold it until later in the year. Monroe also tried to alleviate his debt by selling his old farm near Charlottesville, but he refused to part with it as no offers were proportionate to its value. He was forced to borrow money from some relatives of his wife in Philadelphia. [During these years, Monroe acquired the first portion of the debt that was to grow larger and larger - year after year - as he continued in public service.]Monroe’s mission to France (1803) as Envoy Extraordinary to negotiate the Louisiana Purchase further added to his personal debt, as the appointment did not offer any financial advantages. Special missions were not allowed outfits––the equivalent of one year’s salary––due to the fact that the appointments were not considered permanent and the temporary envoys did not need to establish a permanent residence. Hence, Monroe received only an annual salary of $9,000 and a quarter’s salary to defray the cost of his return. As in the past, he entrusted his financial affairs to his friends; however, his uncle, Judge Joseph Jones, was too old, and both Jefferson and Madison were too busily engaged in public affairs to supervise his Albemarle holdings. Monroe selected Colonel John Lewis as manager of his plantation––an inefficient choice, it turned out––while Madison and Monroe’s uncle agreed to meet the payments on his debts, for which Monroe allocated his first year’s salary. Monroe was also forced to sell all his plate and much of his china and furniture to Madison, since he hoped to order replacements while in Europe. $6,000 - $8,000

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Malcolm X [Malcolm Little]. Typed letter signed (

Lot 48: Malcolm X [Malcolm Little]. Typed letter signed ("Malcolm X.") , 1 page.

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Description: 48. Malcolm X [Malcolm Little]. Typed letter signed (“Malcolm X.”) , 1 page (11 x 8.5 in.; 279 x 216 mm.), East Elmhurst 69, New York, 25 January 1955, to Elijah Muhammad; with transmittal envelope.A fascinating letter between Malcolm X and his teacher, Elijah Muhammad, where Malcolm X discusses the progress of spreading their beliefs. He writes in full: As—Salaam—Alaikum: In the name of ALLAH, the Beneficent, the most Merciful, the All-Wise One, to whom all praise is due: and in the name of His Last and Greatest Prophet, the Honorable ELIJAH MUHAMMAD. My Dear Leader and Teacher, Greetings from Philadelphia. I went to #6 with Bro Isaiah Friday night, and think they are doing well there. They have a fine spirit, and the officials all seem to be working with him, and that is half the battle. I met Bro James (the former minister there). He seemed like a nice person. However, once a rooster has been allowed to crow, its hard for him not to do so, and two roosters in the same barnyard usually clash with each other without even realizing it. And since it is the nature of Roosters to Crow, and let the others know that the LIGHT IS HERE, we can’t reprimand them, but we can look ahead and never let two good roosters spend too much time in the same barnyard at the same time. That Bro Isaiah is a hard and tireless worker. He is one of the most co-operative Bros I’ve ever worked with, and is the most receptive to advice that is good for progress.At #4 Sunday we had 16 lostfounds. That Temple is also coming up. Bro Lucius is slow, but I can see the Fruit of his effort there; many young and new faces. The spirit there has really picked up. All praise is due to Allah.The only sore spot there (in my opinion), is the Bro who is assisting him. He probably is a good Muslim, but as he was opening up I watched the people, and they aren’t with him. And the lostfounds are restless all the while he is speaking. I don’t know why Bro Lucius continues to use him, for it really does hamper the progress, for even many more would be coming BACK.I don’t know if this is true, but I have heard that Sis Clara (Benjamin’s wife) says she has your permission to travel along the East Coast here and instruct the new Sisters in the Temples. I hope this is not true. Sister Mary Elizabeth in #7 is also well-qualified, but knowing her “attitude” on other things I’m afraid to use her for the same reason. Sisters like that can make these new ones very rebellious, and gossip-mongers. If they believe in ruling their husbands, they’ll sow the same seeds into the minds of the new ones, and our battle will start all over again. That is one of the faults with #1 (in the past).Bro Isaiah’s wife, Sister Laura, is a very meek and humble Sister. She is in his corner one hundred percent, or he couldn’t labor like he does. She believes in helping her husband. She is not perfect, but I do study these Sisters, and of them all she seems to be the most like YOUR WIFE (in actions and attitude) than any of these others. If I had my choice of Sisters from the old Temples to instruct the New Sisters, I’d feel more safe having them around Sister Laura than any of these others. But on the other hand, I want you to know that I’ll accept anyone you sanction. I just wanted these few facts to be called to your attention, because the attitude of the majority of the Sisters in a Temple usually determines how well the Temple progresses, and how much peace EXISTS.Everything at #12 seems to be going fairly well. I asked them in Boston to withdraw from the competition of the highest donor to the Saviour’s Day Gift, because I doubt that their total contributions will exceed the cost of the Prize…and I’m going to do the same thing here in #12 tomorrow. Bro Lucius had 29 lostfounds at #7 Sunday, and I think he continued on up to #13 and #11. I advertised his coming for two weeks so he should have good attendance in both places. Nothing beats correct ADVERTISEMENT. No one at #4 knew I was coming until I got there. Then I had to start cracking my own whip to make sure I’D have some lostfounds, and thanks to ALLAH, there were some. But I do believe Bro Lucius could have been more cooperative. I had to talk two hours with him to get him to go to Newark, Springfield and Boston, after having the things all set up for him, and that is not good. I’m going to write him a letter and tell him about this, because I think the only way we can really make any progress out here is to work TOGETHER, and for each other. Also, if I thought a person wasn’t working with me to the best of his ability, and I didn’t mention it, he’d never have a chance to justify himself. So I believe in putting things like this on the table, then If I’m wrong, the person can rectify the thing.The second Sunday (or the first Sunday, rather) in February I’m going to trade with Isaiah at #6. I want to see if I can get his flock to make it possible for him to stop working for the devil, for if that Bro can accomplish as much as he does for the nation while slaving for the devil, think what he could do were he free to devote all his time to the nation. I think that Bro is real sincere in his heart. The only Bro I’ve met who surpasses him in sincerity (in my opinion) is Bro Joseph in New York. I don’t think you have anyone who can compete with him [handwritten is “Joseph” above him]. He is the Backbone of the Temple there, before the 26th, I’m going to bring him back over here for a week, and also may send him up to Boston for a week. He can teach the Sisters in both places how to cook, and the Bro how to be MEN.I’m very very tired again, and know you must be even moreso, thus I’ll bring this BOOK to a close. May Allah be with you and all your loves ones, as I send you the Greetings from all your follower out this way. As-Salaam-Alaikum: Your Brother and Servant.This letter comes just three years after Malcolm X became a devout follower of Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad was the leader of the Nation of Islam and eventually made Malcolm a minister and national spokesman. During this time, Malcolm X was able to spread the word and more than quadrupled the amount of followers. Here, Malcolm X is informing his leader of the progress of all the temples Malcolm X began or oversaw. The numbers refer to the individual temples he visited as they were numbered rather than named. Malcolm X’s demise would be a falling out with Muhammad when Malcolm X questioned his integrity and devotion after rumors swirled to Muhammad’s infidelity, a direct conflict with the teachings. $6,000 - $8,000

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Morris, Robert. Letter signed (

Lot 49: Morris, Robert. Letter signed ("Robt. Morris").

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Description: 49. Morris, Robert. Letter signed (“Robt. Morris”), 1 page (9.5 x 7.62 in.; 241 x 194 mm.), Office of Finance, 15 August 1781 to John Jay; verso of integral blank affixed to card stock.Robert Morris writes to John Jay on the fraught subject of the payment of bills.Morris writes in full: Enclosed you have a List of sundry Bills of Exchange drawn on you. I wrote you relatively to these Bills on the twenty ninth day of July last with sundry enclosures explanatory of my letter. I am now to inform you that the advices contained in that letter must from particular circumstances be totally disregarded. Should any of the Bills mentioned in the enclosed List come to your hands you will be pleased to protest them and assign if you please as a Reason therefore that you have express Instructions to that Purpose. The uncertainty whether you have receivd my cypher prevents my using it on this occasion. The importance of the subject obliges me to write and as I send many copies the risque of capture and inspection is too great to be more particular. - The Gazettes will furnish you with our latest Intelligence. That of New York announces the arrival of near 3000 Hessian Troops and the Capture of the Trumbull Frigate. Neither of these are very agreeable Circumstances. However we must wait the course of events and struggle as well as we can against adverse Fortune. Our Affairs to the South wear no unpleasing aspect and altho it is impossible at this distance to determine what effect European movements may have on American politicks. Our Government acquires daily a firmness and stability which will not be easily shaken.At the time of this letter, John Jay had just joined sole peace negotiator John Adams in Paris. Previous to that, Jay was Minister of Spain. Though he was courteously treated in Spain, American independence was not recognized, and the Spanish would neither join in alliance nor lend substantial funds. Jay found himself in an embarrassing position when Congress drew bills upon him for half a million dollars, on the assumption that he would have obtained a subsidy from Spain before they would become due. Jay reluctantly accepted the bills, some of which were afterward protested. The Spanish court only advanced money for a few of them. It was not until Benjamin Franklin borrowed money from France that they were finally paid. It is concerning the sticky subject of these bills that Morris, then the Superintendent of Finance (1781-84), writes and counsels Jay. The letter also contains some fascinating content relating to the Revolutionary War. Morris refers to the latest discouraging events in New York - the reinforcement of General Clinton’s forces headquartered there. A little over one month later, 9000 Americans under Washington and 7000 French under Rochambeau were to begin the siege of Yorktown, ultimately forcing General Cornwallis to surrender, thus ending all British hopes for victory in America. Together with:Morris, Robert. Letter signed (“Robt Morris”), 4 pages (9.37 x 7.75 in.; 238 x 197 mm.), Philadelphia, 26 May 1797, to Alexander Wilcocks and James Gibran; browning, wax remnants on signature page not affecting any characters.Robert Morris on his debts and the threat of imprisonment.Morris writes in part: Some of the parties who have obtained judgements, have taken out Casas in the Expectation that the dread of Imprisonment would force me into Exertions for the Payment of their Debts, and they have thought (knowing the difficulty of raising money) that the laid hold of me would be the first paid--I hope that there is not a Citizen of the United States who knows anything of me that does not believe that I have been or ever shall be ready and willing to pay all just Debts when I have the means of doing it. A practice of punctuality for near forty years ought to be admitted in proof of this Truth--I have made great sacrifices to acquire the means of satisfying judgements ...A letter of significant content in which Morris discusses his debts and the threat of imprisonment. One of the great financiers of the American Revolution and a primary force during the Revolutionary period, Robert Morris was financially ruined by land speculation in the early 1790’s. In this letter to his lawyers, he attempts to forestall his imprisonment and defends his intentions to repay his debts: In great detail, Morris instructs his lawyers to delay payments for some months, until he can raise the capital. Despite his efforts, he was imprisoned in 1798 for his debts and remained in prison for over three years, finally released in poor health and broken spirits. A fine pair of letters. $4,000 - $6,000

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Onassis, Jacqueline Kennedy. Autograph letter, unsigned.

Lot 50: Onassis, Jacqueline Kennedy. Autograph letter, unsigned.

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Description: 50. Onassis, Jacqueline Kennedy. Autograph letter, unsigned, 1 page (10.5 x 7.25 in.; 267 x 184 mm.), Pebble Beach, California, 9 November 1959, on DEL MONTE LODGE, Pebble Beach, California letterhead stationery.Jackie Kennedy attacks a magazine article that gives a favorable spin on the Presidential primary campaign of one of JFK’s opponents. Mrs. Kennedy writes in full:Fierce Competitor ?Time Nov 9, 1959I would like to take issue with Time - re the SS cover story Nov. 9. How can Time describe Stuart Symington as “a fierce competitor with a wild hatred of defeat” while admitting that the Senator will explain away a possible defeat in the Oregon primary with the excuse that “he was not even trying to win”. If Symington is not willing to enter Democratic primaries to secure the nomination, then he lacks those qualities of backbone & mind essential to the next President –This letter is accompanied by a letter of provenance on “UNITED STATES SENATE” letterhead stationery being a one-page memorandum stating, in part: This letter was brought back to the Senate Office Building in the Senator’s brief case, where it was discarded. $4,000 - $6,000

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