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Buy Now (34 Items)

by Phoenix Ancient Art

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HELLENISTIC GREEK TERRACOTTA HEAD OF AN ACTOR IN A HALF MASK

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: The head, retains many traces of stucco covered in red paint, visible all over the mask. The position of the head, lowered and turned to the left, and the expression of the actor - whose mouth is half open, whose eyes are squinting and whose brows are furrowed - indicate the distress and pain that the man seems to suffer. Except for the mouth and the nose, the rest of the face and the top of the head are covered by a mask, probably made out of pliable leather; a fine thread, fixed behind the ears, attaches the tight fitting mask to the head of the actor. This type of mask, of a type that recall the masks from the Italian "commedia dell'arte" of the 16th century, was not common in Antiquity: few statues of actors playing a scene with a similar mask are preserved. The workmanship of the head and the hair display a remarkably meticulous attention to detail. At points, one could easily confuse the mask with the actual features of the actor: the modeling is precise and realistic, there are minuscule incisions for the wrinkles on the forehead and the brows, the hairstyles of the mask and the actor are differentiated, etc. . Such artistic quality points to an Alexandrian origin for this head.

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Price: $2,100

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HELLENISTIC GREEK PAIR OF GOLD EARRINGS

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Description: These two jewels, entirely made of gold, are practically identical and in all likelihood make up a pair. They consist of a hoop around which many wires have been wound, creating a twisted effect: on one end, the wires were soldered together to form a point, while the other end is modeled in the shape of a female head. The transition between the two elements is covered by a sort of thick “collar” bordered with two rows of small beads. The ring soldered behind each of the heads is part of the closing fixture for the earrings. The presence of the crowns of vine leaves that encircle the heads of the young women allows for their identification: they are probably two maenads, female figures, who, as part of the Dionysiac entourage, accompany the god of wine and his satyrs in their frenzied dancing. Despite the miniature size of these jewels, one can appreciate the sculptural qualities of their faces, the precise rendering of the wreaths as well as the details and volumes of the maenads’ hair, which includes incised locks and long, twisting curls. In the Hellenistic world and later into the Roman period, this subject was particularly prized for funerary jewelry because of the chtonic (from Greek "chtonios" - under the earth) character strongly associated with the cult of Dionysus: in fact, the god of the vine was perceived also as a god of fertility. This is due to the fact that he was supposed to die every year and pass part of his life in the underworld before being reborn in the spring. Among similar subjects frequently used by the Hellenistic jewelers to ornament their treasures are various animal head protomes, such as lions, gazelles, calves, bulls, rams, etc.

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Price: $8,600

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HELLENISTIC GREEK LINEAR-CUT BOWL

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Description: The upright rim of the bowl has a rounded edge; the gently sloping sides curve inward at the middle toward a rounded bottom. A shallow groove is cut into the interior of the bowl beneath the rim, and a band of four cut grooves decorates the exterior. This hemispherical bowl is made of a richly colored amber-yellow glass, the translucency of which is reminiscent of naturally occurring amber, a highly valued and fashionable luxury in the Roman empire. Mold-made or cast bowls, such as this example, first make their appearance in the late Hellenistic period. Mostly of simple shape with grooved decoration on the exterior and interior, such bowls range in date from the 1st century B.C to the 1st century A.D. The shapes are closely paralleled in contemporary pottery and metal-ware. Generally these glass bowls appear to have been cast in molds, either by pouring molten glass into the preheated molds, or by melting powdered glass within them. The rounded rims were finished by grinding and polishing after the vessel cooled, and the grooved decorative surface was produced by careful grinding. Most bowls show signs of rotary polishing on the interior, while their exteriors were “fire-polished,” which produced a finely finished surface that was buffed in conjunction with reheating the cup. Southern Syria seems to be the primary center for the production of these bowls, and the type has been found at Syrian and Palestinian sites. Some varieties of the linear-cut bowl occur only in the West, where the main production centers were probably located in northern Italy, although some pieces may have been made in the Rhineland and elsewhere.

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Price: $4,600

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HELLENISTIC GREEK LINEAR CUT GLASS BOWL OF AMBER COLOR

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: The upright rim of the bowl has a rounded edge; the gently sloping sides curve inward at the middle toward a rounded bottom. Decorative shallow grooves are cut into the interior of the bowl beneath the rim and two bands of cut grooves decorate the base and side of the bowl. This hemispherical bowl is made of a richly colored glass, the translucency of which is reminiscent of naturally occurring amber, a highly valued and fashionable luxury in the Roman Empire. Mold-made or cast bowls, such as this example, first make their appearance in the late Hellenistic period. Mostly of simple shape with grooved decoration on the exterior and interior, such bowls range in date from about the 1st century B.C to the 1st century A.D. The shapes are closely paralleled in contemporary pottery and metal-ware. Generally these glass bowls appear to have been cast in molds, either by pouring molten glass into the preheated molds, or by melting powdered glass within them. The rounded rims were finished by grinding and polishing after the vessel cooled, and the grooved decorative surface was produced by careful grinding. Most bowls show signs of rotary polishing on the interior, while their exteriors were “fire-polished,” which produced a finely finished surface that was buffed in conjunction with reheating the cup. Southern Syria seems to be a primary center for the production of these bowls, and the type has been found at Syrian and Palestinian sites. Some varieties of the linear-cut bowl occur only in the West, where the main production centers were probably located in northern Italy although some bowls may have been made in the Rhineland and elsewhere.

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Price: $43,200

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HELLENISTIC GREEK GOLD RING SET WITH A CITRINE

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: The ring is elliptical and hollow: it was made by hammering two thin gold ribbons that were then soldered together at the edges. The oval bezel is of light amber colored citrine.

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Price: $7,600

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HELLENISTIC GREEK GLASS BOWL

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Description: This is a beautiful example of a Hellenistic grooved bowl, probably produced in the Syro-Palestinian coastal zone, which, under the reign of the Seleucid kings, became one of antiquity’s most prolific producers of glassware. This bowl is hemispherical in shape and is decorated with lathe-cut grooves just below the rim. Like many glass vessels of this type, the glass is naturally translucent but somewhat “muddy” in appearance as the glass is a fragile material and easily affected by exterior conditions.

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Price: $5,900

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HELLENISTIC GREEK DEEP BLUE GLASS BOWL

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: This handsome Hellenistic bowl represents a popular class of glass drinking vessel widely distributed throughout the Graeco-Roman world. Glassware before the 1st century was usually manufactured by a casting procedure similar to the method of casting bronze. The body is deep and almost cylindrical, enabling it to stand alone on a flat surface. The rich blue shade of the glass is rendered by the addition of cobalt to the silica-based glass mixture, but also suggests the precious lapis lazuli imported from Asia Minor. The horizontal grooves around the rim and the incision on the lower part of the body are typical of the linear decoration found on similar bowls known to have been manufactured in Syria and the eastern Mediterranean during the second half of the 2nd century B. C.

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Price: $37,800

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HELLENISTIC GREEK CORE-FORMED GLASS HYDRIA

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: This small cobalt hydria is of slender, elegant form, a miniature example in glass of the water jars, the bigger vessels of the same shape in terracotta. The glass, which surface is weathered and covered by the iridescence, is primarily cobalt blue, with decorative threads of opaque white and yellow. One of its small white horizontal handles has been broken. Core-formed (also known as sandcore) vessels were created by trailing decorative threads of molten glass over a core of sand, mud or clay, to form a vase. Once the glass was in place, the threads could be dragged into decorative patterns, such as a the zig-zagged pattern on the body of our hydria. In this case, handles and additional threads of decorative glass (the rings of yellow around the rim and shoulder, as well as the upper portion of the white zig-zagged pattern) were applied after the vessel was originally made. The hydria is a shape intended for collecting and pouring water (its name derives from the Greek "hudor" - water); its two horizontal handles were used to lift the vessel, while its longer vertical handle was used to pour off the liquid inside. This smaller, glass version of the hydria was not made to carry water like the larger examples in terracotta, but to hold perfumed oil.

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Price: $10,800

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HELLENISTIC GREEK CORE-FORMED GLASS AMPHORISKOS

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: A core-formed glass amphoriskos, this piece is elegant both in its form and its decoration. The vessel is a dark navy blue, decorated with jasper red and opaque white threads of glass. These colors encircle the neck, shoulder and lower body of the vessel in spiraling bands and are formed into zigzag or feathering patterns on the body. There are small areas affected by iridescence and the handles are missing. Core-formed (also known as sandcore) vessels were created by trailing decorative threads of molten glass over a core of sand, mud or clay, to form a vase. Once the glass was in place, the threads could be dragged into decorative patterns, such as the feathered pattern on our amphoriskos. The amphoriskos (literally, little amphora) is a miniature of the amphora, a popular shape used throughout antiquity, and was probably used as a storage vessel for oils, perfumes or cosmetics.

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Price: $9,400

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HELLENISTIC GREEK CORE-FORMED GLASS ALABASTRON

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: This piece is a cylindrical alabastron with small lug handles. The glass is primarily a deep cobalt blue, ornamented with a rich mustard yellow and opaque white, which are applied in thin feathered bands. A thin thread of white glass spirals up the alabastron's slender neck to the wide rim. Core-formed (also known as sandcore) vessels were created by trailing decorative threads of molten glass over a core of sand, mud or clay, to form a vase. Once the glass was in place, the threads could be dragged into decorative patterns, such as a the feathered pattern on our alabastron. Alabastra are vessels with elongated, cylindrical bodies and broad rims. These vessels are not only beautiful, but functional: alabastra were containers for perfumed oils, their wide rims allowing their precious contents to be dispensed easily in small quantities. As the name suggests, these vessels in glass are probably modeled after those made in alabaster.

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Price: $17,300

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HELLENISTIC GREEK BRONZE STATUETTE OF A HUNCHBACK

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: The posture of this statuette is remarkable and not often seen: the body seen in a three-quarter view, the face represented in profile and the shoulders sharply angled. The man, who is of thin build, appears to be older: he walks with a perceptible limp to the right. His arched back presents an unusual growth right on the left shoulder blade, clearly visible beneath the fabric of his clothes; the thin, slightly bentlegs take a large, unsteady step forward (he is perhaps in the middle of dancing?). He is dressed in a short chiton, tied about the waist with a belt, which forms a thick horizontal fold. The right arm, nearly entirely uncovered, is extended and bent: in the right hand, the man may have held a stick to help him walk; the left arm is wrapped in fabric. Sadly, the condition of the surface of the metal does not allow us to determine if the figure was bald (except for a curl standing up on top of the head) or if the head was covered by a pointed cap, accentuating the elongated shape of the head. His face resembles those of grotesques, even if the features are less exaggerated than usual, notably the absence of wrinkles on the cheeks and on the forehead. The frontal view of the face is very narrow. Neugebauer has published some very precise parallels for this piece (originating in Egypt): he interprets them as images of a clown who entertains at a banquet for the amusement of the guests. He bases his hypothesis on a text by Lucien (Symposion XVIII). Whether one interprets the figure as physically handicapped or as a dancing clown, this statuette is nevertheless a very attractive example of Hellenistic realism being applied to the minor arts: in spite of the less than " noble " subject and a certain wearing of the surface, this is still evidently a piece of remarkable quality.

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Price: $28,000

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HELLENISTIC GREEK BRONZE FIGURINE IN THE SHAPE OF YOUNG CROUCHING AFRICAN

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: The figurine is solid cast. Here, the boy is naked and holds his head straight, with the fists clenched on either side of his jaw. This miniature example, rendered much squatter than usual, is perfectly shaped to be easily held in a child's hand: it may have been a toy or a small gaming piece.

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Price: $14,600

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HELLENISTIC GREEK BRONZE FIGURE OF SERAPIS SEATED ON A THRONE

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: The man is characterized by the copious hair and thick beard which frame his face and largely cover his neck. The face, with its severe, distant expression, is that of an adult male in the prime of life, with well structured features. He was seated on a throne and pressed his feet on a small stool, still preserved; he wears a short-sleeved tunic partially hidden by the himation covering his left shoulder and his legs. This figure should certainly be identified with the Greco-Egyptian god Serapis, whose cult was introduced by Ptolemy I Soter (late 4th century) in order to establish a patron god for the city of Alexandria; this deity also brought together the Greeks, newly arrived from Egypt, and the natives. Serapis combines the characters of Egyptian gods (Osiris and Apis) with different figures of the Greek pantheon (Zeus, Hades, Asclepius), which gave him the ability to please many faithful and to be widely worshiped: he was a god of fertility and abundance, closely linked to the Chthonic sphere, who also healed the disabled and pronounced oracles. From an iconographic point of view, his appearance owes much to the Greek god Hades: abundantly coiffed and bearded, he sits on a throne, or stands upright, and wears a chiton and a himation; his most usual attribute is the cylindrical headgear (kalathos in Greek, modius to the Romans), a symbol of agrarian fertility, sometimes coupled with the cornucopia that the god holds in his left hand, as it was probably the case for this statuette. Serapis enjoyed great popularity during the Hellenistic period, going as far as to replace Osiris ; his large temple was located in Alexandria, but he had another famous temple in Memphis. His cult was very successful in the ancient world and spread throughout the Mediterranean basin. The iconography of this small bronze, attested by a large number of similar figures, probably corresponds to that of the cult statue housed in the Alexandria temple, commissioned by Ptolemy II to the sculptor Bryaxis the Younger.

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Price: $19,400

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HELLENISTIC GREEK BLUE AND YELLOW GLASS AMPHORISKOS

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: The amphoriskos is a class of small vessels which were widespread in the world of ancient glassware (approximately between the 6th and the 2nd century B.C.): there are two types that are morphologically and chronologically well differentiated. This piece belongs to the second group, the most recent, which has replaced the classical shape from the late 3rd and 2nd century. In all probability, they were designed to store and transport small quantities of valuable substances such as cosmetic products; other examples could serve as offerings or as elements of funeral furniture; in view of their miniature size, they could also be used as toys for children. This core-formed example is made of a dark blue glass and has partially retained its shiny surface. The neck is long and cylindrical, the belly is ovoid and elongated, and the bottom is equipped with a pointed, twisted mass of glass; the vertical handles are large in dimension, and are attached to the shoulder and just below the lip. Slightly incised vertical lines furrow the body. The decoration is composed of a single yellow thread which, beginning under the lip, winds spirally around the neck, forms a band of several zigzags and finally draws other lines at the bottom of the amphoriskos. The shape of this Hellenistic type closely recalls that of the wine amphorae, of which it could be a miniature imitation. The core-forming technique of glass manufacture, which is very old, was already known in Mesopotamia and Egypt in the early 2nd millennium B.C. In the Greek world, this process has first been applied by Rhodian workshops (6th century B.C.), and later in Italy and Alexandria; it was gradually abandoned in the late Hellenistic period, due to the concurrence of blown glass. The general shape of the container was obtained by modeling, first, roughly purified clay (the core): this core was attached to a rod and dipped into molten glass, while the form was given by the rolling and/or stretching of the mass on a flat slab; the malleability of the glass was maintained through a constant re-heating of the mass. The distinctive decoration of these containers was produced by incorporating, into the surface, different colored glass threads that could be dragged with a metal pin into a zigzag or feather pattern. The clay core was removed mechanically after the cooling of the vessel. Our piece is among the finest example of this class of perfume vases: as with many other shapes of miniature vases, glass examples are considered a luxury version of the great mass production, which was simply made of terracotta.

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Price: $4,300

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GREEK TERRACOTTA STATUETTE OF A STANDING ACTOR

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: The coroplath (a term that indicates an artisan who specializes in the production of terracotta statuettes) used two different techniques for the fabrication of this piece: the modeling by hand of the body and the molding of the head and face. At the beginning of the 5th century B.C., this procedure is known especially from two regions of continental Greece: Corinth and Boeotia. The figurine represents a standing man whose balance is assured by two legs partially painted black and red and by a pointed tail; on the shoulders, he wears a sort of sunburst cloak, fashioned from a long thin piece of fabric, rounded at the ends. The two arms hold the cloak around him, but they are completely covered. Contrary to the body, which is executed in a summary fashion, the head is very well modeled, as well as being very large: the remarkable three-dimensional qualities of the mask - the anatomic details are either modeled or finely incised - add to the effects of the bichromy (red for the face, ears and hair; black for the beard and mustache). The man has a long pointed beard while a mass of thick wavy hair frames his brow; his ears are made from two clay buttons, modeled separately and slightly hollowed. A small group of three statuettes in the Cleveland Museum of Art, probably originally Boeotian, and some other pieces from the British Museum in London (attributed to Corinthian artists) figure among the best parallels for this image: he is related to the satyrs (identified by the general typology of their faces and especially their pointed ears), who, because of their energetic movements and sharp gestures, seem to be in the middle of performing in a satyr play, a theatrical genre about which we know very little. In spite of the obvious connections, it is not certain that this figurine represents a satyr, but may perhaps be a human or divine figure: his face recalls Dionysiac masks that were suspended from Hermaic pillars.

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Price: $20,500

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GREEK CORE-FORMED GLASS AMPHORISKOS

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: This amphoriskos, or “miniature amphora,” is a bottle that contained scented oils or perfume. The custom of using delicately made glass vessels to hold valuable commodities began in the late Bronze Age in western Asia and Egypt, and was revived in Mesopotamia in the early Iron Age. Their small size and pleasantly rounded shape makes it possible to hold these vessels comfortably in one’s hand. The shape also occurs in terracotta, and rarely, metal, but ultimately this form copies that of the large transport amphorae of 6th century B.C. date, which were used for distribution of wine and olive oil throughout the Mediterranean. Resting on a knob base, this finely designed and beautifully decorated amphoriskos is made of a deep cobalt-blue glass. Ovoid in shape, the amphoriskos is pointed at the base, with rounded shoulders, a cylindrical neck and inward sloping disk rim. Threads of opaque yellow glass wind spirally around the body, beginning at the neck of the amphoriskos, which is yellow on one side; a larger thread of opaque turquoise glass encircles the body at its widest point, and has been combed with a tool into a zigzag pattern along with threads of yellow glass. A yellow and turquoise thread of glass is applied to the edge of the rim; handles of translucent blue glass extend from the shoulder to the neck, just below the rim. The core-forming technique of glass manufacture consists of building up a core of removable material – probably a mixture of clay, mud, sand and an organic binder – around a metal rod. The core is then covered with molten glass, either by dipping or by trailing a thread of glass over the core as it is rotated. The vessel is repeatedly reheated and marvered, or rolled, on a flat stone slab. Decoration in the form of glass threads is then trailed on and pressed into the surface by marvering, usually after being combed or dragged with a metal pin or hook into a zigzag, feather, or other pattern. The metal rod is subsequently removed and the vessel is annealed. After the core is scraped out, the rim, handles, and base-knobs are applied after further reheating.

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Price: $7,000

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GREEK BRONZE FIGURE OF A MAN WEARING A CHLAMYD

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: The statuette is solid bronze. It represents a standing male figure, dressed in a short coat (which the Greeks called the chlamys) fastened on the right shoulder by a round fibula. The man's right arm is pointed towards the viewer, while the left is completely hidden under the coat. In the visible hand,a tight fist, he held an attribute. His feet are shod with high boots, tied with laces incised. Hair; cut short, covers the head like a cap; a few strands are indicated by regular prints. There is a button on the skull from the center probably used to fix a hat. The coat was certainly woven thick wool, as evidenced by its texture, indicated by small incised dots, and especially his way of falling rigid and straight, as if the weight prevented the formation of waterfalls typical folds of linen fabrics. In Greek iconography, this coat characterized travelers: the statue could be a votive offering by a man accustomed to accomplish trips, such as a merchant. But his iconography is particularly close to that of two famous travelers of antiquity, the god Hermes (who was the divine messenger and also the god of merchants and trade) and Ulysses, the hero protagonist of the Odyssey. Here the young age of the character and presence boots are a look for Hermes: it is likely that the right hand is holding the long bag (which contained the money for the trade) or the caduceus (the stick), and on his head he wore the pétase (big hat worn by the god).

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Price: $9,950

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GREEK BRONZE APPLIQUÉ DEPICTING A SEATED PHILOSOPHER

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Description: The elderly figure is seated upon a rock clothed only in a himation, or cloak, extending from his left shoulder across the lower back to the waist and then gathered in deep folds that drape down from his lap. He supports his head with chin resting on the hand of the left arm, which is sharply bent at the elbow and placed upon his knee; the right arm is also bent and the hand clasps the elbow of the left arm. The legs of the figure are bent at the knees. Both the arms and legs are positioned in a pose typical for this type. He has a long beard and moustache, with long hair hanging down at the sides. The emotional and intellectual intensity of the figure is conveyed in an expressive face that looks out to the viewer. The body language of the figure – the crossed legs, position of the arms, and forward leaning pose – evoke the impression of a thoughtful individual. Although this lifelike image of an elderly seated man appears as a spontaneous creation, the distinctive and individualized appearance of the figure associates it with the representation of Hellenistic portraits of philosophers and poets and their seated sculptural type that became popular during the fourth century B.C. An imagery that most ancient Greeks would recognize, the figure’s expression of deep concentration combined with the seated pose, beard, and draping himation, all contribute to the identification of this older male figure as a philosopher or poet. The seated posture in particular appears to be the format of choice for representations of then contemporary poets or those of the distant past. The faces of these figures employ a distinctive, traditional portrait style similar to those used in the fourth century B.C. for the bearded elderly figures depicted on grave reliefs. They have powerfully lined, realistic faces that, although showing signs of old age, are typically infused with a look of visionary inspiration that was believed to embody the “poetic enthusiasmos,” one of the best examples of which is the so-called Pseudo-Seneca type that most agree is an image of the poet Hesiod. Noting that Socrates taught that the inspiration of poets is a form of enthusiasm, the term was applied by the Greeks to manifestations of divine possession and inspiration by the gods, such as Apollo or Dionysus. The appliqué is solid cast and flat at the back; an indentation in the bronze that extends across his upper forehead may have held a fillet or similar adornment for the head. For a seated philosopher, see D. Mitten and S. Doeringer, Master Bronzes from the Classical World (Cambridge, MA 1967), 252, no. 241; and the standing statuette of a philosopher (Metropolitan Museum of Art, acc. no. 1910.10.231.1) in A. Kozloff and D. Mitten, The Gods Delight: The Human Figure in Classical Bronze(Cleveland 1988), 154, no. 26. For a marble statuette of the seated philosopher type (Metropolitan Museum of Art, acc. no. 24.73), see G. Richter, Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 20 (1925): 104, fig. 1.

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Price: $11,800

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GEOMETRIC GREEK BRONZE SPHERICAL PENDANT

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: This pendant is nearly intact; the surface of the bronze is covered with a beautiful green patina. It is composed of three elements: a small cylindrical and long stem supported by a disc base; the sphere in openwork technique, with triangular incisions at the top and bottom, and vertical ones in the central part; the suspension system in the shape of a triangle, with the upper stem pierced and slightly curved. This example, the size of which is a bit larger than the average, belongs to a class of pendants largely widespread during the later stages of the Late Geometric period in the Northern Balkan world, but also in mainland Greece (especially in Macedonia, Thessaly and Boeotia), in the Peloponnese and in the Aegean islands. Their typology is extremely diversified, since the sphere can be full cast or decorated in openwork, while other examples are completed by the statuette of an animal (horse, bird, monkey), by a head, by a seated human figure, by a simple triangle or by a suspension ring, etc. The exact purpose of these objects is unknown: as pendants, they could hang from a belt, according to a custom practiced by the Celts with statuettes of stylized animals, or given to a sanctuary and suspended from an altar or a tree.

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Price: $1,700

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GEOMETRIC GREEK BRONZE PENDANT PYXIS

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Description: This pyxis is intact and complete, with the original lid, and in a perfect condition. Linear incisions ornament the vessel's body. The pyxis is a beautiful example of the “sickle” type, so named because the shape of the vessel resembles that of a sickle. This type was most probably used to hold perfumes or smaller precious objects. Pyxides of this type generally are found in necropoleis. In the grave, the positioning of such pieces provide evidence that they were suspended from the belt of the deceased. The type most likely originated in Macedonia, although two such pyxides were found at Samos.

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Price: $15,000

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GEOMETRIC GREEK BRONZE BULL

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: This finely made bull was cast in one piece with its rectangular base or plinth. Horns curve upward from the bull’s head, which has a rounded muzzle. The eyes of the bull are indicated by small protrusions of bronze, as are its pointed ears. The animal’s anatomy is more fully modeled than earlier dating examples from the Geometric period: the legs of the bull are carefully rendered, and its slim, elongated body is well modeled with shoulders and haunches subtly indicated. Made of solid bronze in the lost wax technique, this figure is unique, since it was produced from the original wax model that was destroyed in the casting process. Bronze animal figures were most often presented as votives in sanctuaries dedicated to Zeus, and sometimes Poseidon, since both gods were associated with this animal. Our knowledge of Greek religious practices attests to the importance that animals played in ritual sacrifice, bulls being the most significant among them. Bronze figures of bulls were likely offered in place of actual animals, but either living or bronze animals would have been appropriate for the gods. In many Greek sanctuaries different size bull figures are found, which must have been regarded as representatives of actual sacrificial offerings. In his descriptions of Delphi and Olympia, Pausanias mentions large scale statues of standing bulls that were erected at these important sanctuary sites, and countless literary references emphasize the fame of Myron’s bronze sculptures of bulls on the Athenian Acropolis. Like other bronze animal figures that served as votive offerings, the bull’s significance in ancient Greece is also related to economic aspects of the society. Epic poetry of the period leads us to believe that cattle possessed real economic value and were a major source of food in the early Iron Age, all of which is reinforced by archaeological findings. A noticeable decline in popularity of bull figurines after the 8th century B.C. reflects the economic environment of Greece in the early Iron Age, which was progressing from a pastoral lifestyle, based on the rearing of stock animals, to a society of settled farmers with closer ties to their land.

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Price: $9,700

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BOEOTIAN BLACK GLAZED KANTHAROS

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: Drinking vessel shaped calyx, the kantharos has two flat handles that form a loop much higher than the lip. Widespread in Viotia region, famous among all for the worship of the god of wine, this vase is one of the most common attributes of Dionysus. This example, the slender proportions and flared body, based on a long trumpet-shaped upper with a protruding ledge. A plastic edge brand all around the vase, where the height is lower attachment handles that, at the top, are attached to the lip. These are raised and each shaped into clay ribbon. The shape and decoration (the vase is completely covered with a glossy black paint) kantharoi mimic metal.

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Price: $5,000

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BACTRIAN BRONZE CAMEL

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: This charming bronze ornament faithfully reproduces a Bactrian camel (two humps), a species that was known to roam Central Asia, in the region of what is now modern day Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and eastern Iran, in ancient times. Domesticated early on for its utility as a hardy pack animal and as a mode of transportation – the camel was particularly well adapted for the dry, open terrain of the Central Asian highlands. The flattened shape of this ornament and the openwork character of the design suggest that it may have been suspended, perhaps from the harness of a camel, as an ornament.

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Price: $11,900

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ATTIC GREEK WHITE-GROUND LEKYTHOS

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: The lekythos is the archetypal vessel for funerary oils in Attic pottery: the variant with a cylindrical, elongated body and a disc-shaped foot was introduced in the last decades of the 6th century B.C. and became the dominant form in the following century. The subject represented, of funerary nature, is typical of the white-ground Attic style: at the center of the picture, a young woman dressed in a chiton and a himation walks towards a small altar, on which a fire burns. She is about to offer a crown or a garland that she holds in her hands. Behind her hangs a large fabric, whose edge is adorned with fringes. A few lines, indicating the ground, and a frieze of meanders frame the scene; a frieze of languettes decorates the shoulder. Despite the slightly stereotypical subject, the style of the drawing is of a very good artistic quality: the figure, seen in profile, is drawn in a confident, accurate manner, her clothes are indicated by undulated lines that suggest the forward movement.

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Price: $16,200

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ATTIC GREEK OINOCHOE IN THE FORM OF A FEMALE HEAD

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Description: At the end of the Archaic period and throughout the Classical period, Greek potters produced a number of fascinating sculptural or plastically rendered vases called “head vases,” which took the shape of female heads or the heads of exotic looking foreigners. Mythological beings such as satyrs, the god Herakles, and the goddess Aphrodite were also represented. The shapes of these vases, usually in the form of oinochoai (wine pitchers) and sometimes kantharoi (wine cups with high vertical handles), were associated with wine drinking and the symposium. As is standard for the production of these vases, the top part of the vessel is wheel-made and takes the form of a trefoil oinochoe, having a high, curving handle, with a mouth pinched into a trefoil shape. The mold-made head of the woman functioned as the body and foot of the oinochoe. The back of her head, the handle, neck and mouth of the vessel is covered with a deep black, mirror-like glaze. The woman’s eyebrows are also indicated by black glaze and her eyes are outlined in black with the sclera of the eyes in added white. Her hair is wrapped in a scarf-like cloth, a sakkos, which is also black and therefore blends in with the black of the handle and mouth of the vessel. It is made evident by the rounded, bulging form at the nape of her neck and, above her forehead, contrasting with bangs that emerge from the sakkos in an arch of curly hair framing the upper part of her face. The band of black encircling the vessel’s foot accentuates the base, and may indicate the neckline of the elegant woman’s garment. The face of such a female figure – with perfectly formed features, her full lips and straight nose adding to her classic appearance – may indicate that she represents the most beautiful among women, the goddess Aphrodite. Additional evidence for the identification of such female figures as Aphrodite is provided by comparison with similar head vases that take the form of this goddess of love. Organized in the lists of the scholar of Greek vase-painting, J. D. Beazley, this oinochoe is classified as his Type 1. Select Bibliography: J. D. Beazley, “Charinos: Attic Vases in the Form of Human Heads,” Journal of Hellenic Studies 49 (1929): 38-78; M. Trumpf-Lyrizaki, Griechische Figurenvasen des Reichen Stils und der späten Klassik (Bonn, 1969), 60-65, pls. 23-25; F. Croissant, “Collection P. Canellopoulos: Vases plastiques,” Bulletin de correspondence hellénique 97 (1973): 205-225; E. Reeder, Pandora: Women in Classical Greece (Princeton, 1995), 212-15, nos. 47-48.

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Price: $20,500

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APULIAN RED-FIGURE KANTHAROS WITH A FIGHT SCENE BETWEEN A HORSEMAN AND A FOOT SOLDIER

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Description: The vessel is whole with the exception of minor chips and a lost fragment from one of the handles. It is decorated in the red-figure technique, invented in Athens in the late 6th century B.C. and repeated, much later, in the colonial territories of Southern Italy and Sicily. The background, painted in black, still retains part of its original luster. The figures are depicted in red (the color of the clay), with added white, bronze-yellow, and red paint details. A female head is stamped at the base of each handle, each directed toward the interior of the container. This kantharos, a relatively rare shape in the Apulian repertory, features a fight scene between a horseman and a soldier on foot on the obverse face. The soldier is dressed in a short tunic and uses his sword to defend himself from a spear wielded by the horseman. They each wear pointed helmets and only the hoplite wears greaves (shin-guards). Two shields lie on the ground; the smaller one is painted in bronze and rests at the feet of the hoplite and the larger one is painted in gold and is located under the warrior. The horse is overpainted in white and raises its forelegs to emphasize its rapid motion. On the reverse side, the scene depicts a subject which is more usual in Apulian iconography: a young nude man is seated on a boulder, and holds two flat phiales in the right hand and a leafy branch in the left hand. The vase has been attributed by A.D. Trendall and A. Cambitoglou to the Group of Bari 5981, composed of artists who belonged to one of the last active Apulian workshops in the production of red-figure containers, the White Sakkos Workshop. In this group, the painting, which is rather hasty and coarse, contrasts with the high technical quality that characterizes the work of the potters which is characterized by balanced, refined forms and glossy black glaze with many polychromatic highlights.

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Price: $17,800

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ARCHAIC GREEK BLACK FIGURE TERRACOTTA LYDION WITH ROOSTER

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Description: This small vessel is painted in black figure: two friezes of ivy leaves frame the principle frieze. The principle frieze is decorated with a large triple palmette and two roosters parading to the left. Usually lydions are decoration with lines and bands: figural scenes are extremely rare. The lydion is one of a number of shapes dedicated to holding perfume during the Archaic period. Originating in Lydia, this form was imported to and imitated throughout the Greek world (including Ionia, Laconia, and Attica) as well as in Etruria. The shape seems to have been made to hold a semi-solid product, like a pomade: the large opening would make it easy to get at such a product either with the fingers or a rod. A stopper, in wax or cork, probably covered the vessel. This piece is published in Phoenix Ancient Art 2005, n. 1 (p. 91, n. 70)

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Price: $7,500

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ATTIC GREEK BLACK FIGURE LEKYTHOS

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Description: This lekythos is shaped squat and rounded. There is a loop above the shoulder. The mouth is tapered and cylindrical with an elongated neck. The body is circular and hollow. The lekythos is the vase for funeral oils,Attic pottery: it was intended to contain perfume oils offered to the deceased and used during funeral rites. This rare variant is still close to traditional copies of previous decades and was abandoned in the fifth century. This container is of very good quality, the success of this form was quite difficult and time consuming such that the potters and the painters decreased quality of execution to keep the growth in demand. The vessel is decorated using the technique called black-figure, widely used by painters throughout the sixth century BC. Red highlights emphasize certain details. The main stage, which occupies the central part of the body, shows three figures: two men standing in profile and draped in long coats, surround a panther. The size is disproportionate to the men, marching to the right lifting a foreleg; he turns his head and looks straight at the viewer. On the shoulder, are an ivy leaf and two lotus buds drawn stylized manner.

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Price: $5,600

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ARCHAIC GREEK PAIR OF GLAZED TERRACOTTA LYDIA

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Description: Despite some chips, it is complete and in good condition. The veiled feminine head emerges in very high relief on the plate with the edges bent downwards. The two vertical edges, visible on the lower part of the plate, indicate the edges of the veil. The elongated and elegant face of the woman is finely worked, with well-shaped and nuanced surfaces: the almond-shaped eyes, the profile of the right and precise nose, the mouth slightly contracted in the typical expression of figures of the 6th century , Which is called the "archaic smile." Its rich ornament consisting of a flat diadem, which supports the veil, and circular earrings. Protopes of this type have had great success in the Greek world, in Attica but also in eastern Greece and in the western colonies, between the 6th and the beginning of the 5th century B.C. They were offered to female divinities (especially Hera and Aphrodite) in the sanctuaries, where they were suspended by a hole pierced above the head; Sometimes they come from necropolises.

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Price: $27,000

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ARCHAIC GREEK TERRACOTTA KORE

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Description: This charming little example of an Archaic kore displays the artist’s attention to drapery and form. This piece is modeled after larger statues, such as the contemporary marble korai from the Acroplis and East Greece. The end result is a well-composed, pleasing terracotta votive that would have graced the altar of a temple as a dedication to a goddess, symbolizing eternal service and worship. The kore, though small, is a substantial figure, modeled in the round. The head sits atop of strong, rounded shoulders that flow gracefully down to the trunk of the body. The three-dimensional qualities of the cast are conveyed through the solid, rounded masses of the body and the head. The figure is standing upright with the left foot forward. The right arm is down, clutching the folds of the dress. The left hand holds a bird, possibly a partridge, to her chest as an offering to the gods. The kore wears a flowing chiton with a shorter himation, or mantle, on top. The folds on the gathered skirt and the drape of the himation create the effect of parallel diagonals, which, along with the asymmetrical posture, help combat the strict, static nature of the stiff frontal pose. Underneath the cloth, the curves of the breasts and legs are subtly suggested. This piece is published in Phoenix Ancient Art 2006 No. 1 (p. 103, n. 35)

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Price: $25,000

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ARCHAIC GREEK VOTIVE TERRACOTTA PROTOME OF A WOMAN WITH AN “

Ships From: New York, NY US

Description: Despite some chips, it is complete and in good condition. The veiled feminine head emerges in very high relief on the plate with the edges bent downwards. The two vertical edges, visible on the lower part of the plate, indicate the edges of the veil. The elongated and elegant face of the woman is finely worked, with well-shaped and nuanced surfaces: the almond-shaped eyes, the profile of the right and precise nose, the mouth slightly contracted in the typical expression of figures of the 6th century , Which is called the "archaic smile." Its rich ornament consisting of a flat diadem, which supports the veil, and circular earrings. Protopes of this type have had great success in the Greek world, in Attica but also in eastern Greece and in the western colonies, between the 6th and the beginning of the 5th century B.C. They were offered to female divinities (especially Hera and Aphrodite) in the sanctuaries, where they were suspended by a hole pierced above the head; Sometimes they come from necropolises.

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Price: $8,000

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ARCHAIC GREEK WHITE GROUND ALABASTRON

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Description: This distinguished alabastron from the late Archaic period is notable for its use of the white-ground technique, whereby the potter applied an additional layer of his best clay mixed with water, producing a compound known as a “slip,” to the surface area of the vessel. Unlike the undiluted Attic clay, which fires to a distinctive orange-red, the diluted mixture fires to varying degrees of whiteness. Our piece shows both the rich golden yellow hue of the slip on the undecorated sections of the body, as well as the original red clay in the mild flecking around the lip. During the Classical period, the white-ground technique was perfected, as potters became more adept at removing impurities from the clay. Later examples of white-ground technique succeed in producing a truly white background, ideal for colorful painting. The technique was intended to reproduce the whiteness of marble, or in some cases of calcite alabaster, from which this class of pottery takes its name. The alabastron shape, with its broad lip, short neck, and elongated ovular body, originated in Egypt, but had become a characteristic form within Greek pottery by the 8th century B.C. They were used in Greece for storing viscous liquid, such as olive oil or perfumes. The alabastron is frequently seen in connection with the athletic activities of the Greek gymnasium, where men rubbed their bodies with olive oil as part of their hygienic practice. Functional alabastra were sealed with a stopper, and typically included small pegs extending from either side of the body, around which users would wrap leather thongs. These thongs enabled Greeks to carry the alabastron with them to the gymnasium and hang them up when not in use. It is possible that the decoration of our piece reflects in some way these accoutrements of the athlete. In addition to the unusual decoration on the body, the shoulder of the alabastron is decorated with a frieze of meanders, a motif that dates to the early Geometric period. Lines demarcating the panel, applied on the white ground in a brown wash paint, introduce a third color and serve to enliven the frieze. The workmanship, though imperfect, shows overall an energetic interest in patterns and color contrast. This piece is published in Phoenix Ancient Art 2005, n. 1 (p. 19, n. 13)

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Price: $20,000

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HELLENISTIC GREEK MONOCHROME LINEAR-CUT BOWL

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Description: This cup, made of a gold-yellow glass, is complete and in excellent condition; only the surface, which was certainly polished, is partially weathered and covered with iridescent traces due to a prolonged stay in the soil. It was made in the casting technique and is decorated only with thin horizontal lines which were lathe-cut on the interior side of the wall. The wide, low body is hemispherical in shape; the lip is simply rounded. Cups of this type were among the most popular shapes of glass drinking vessels during the early Imperial period, between the last decades of the 1st century B.C. and the early decades of the following century; they are attested in the great number of ancient sites in all areas of the Western (Italy, France, Spain) and Eastern (Greece, Asia Minor) Mediterranean. The production workshops were probably located in the major centers of the Levantine coast and in different cities of the Italian peninsula. Despite their quite simple morphology, there is a large variety of similar linear-cut bowls, differing mostly in size, in the number of lines incised on the body and in the color of the glass: many examples are of a more or less dark blue color, but the attested color palette ranges from aubergine-purple to brownish- or golden-yellow, to green, not to mention the mosaic glass cups, etc. Many examples were made of uncolored transparent glass. The replacement of clay by glass as a raw material of choice for the manufacture of all types of containers is to be considered as a major technological revolution in the Classical world: this evolution occurred gradually between the late Hellenistic period and the first centuries of the Imperial times. With a versatility like no other known material in Roman times, abundant availability, lightness and ease of use, glass enabled the imitation of a wide range of other materials (especially precious metals), whether in the form, the design or the color. Furthermore, and the ancients had certainly noticed this fact, glass is a chemically neutral substance, what makes it particularly suitable for the storage of food, but also of cosmetics or pharmaceutical products.

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Price: $4,200

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APULIAN BLACK GLAZED MUG

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Description: A blaze glazed mug for serving wine, it has an straight body, low foot and a vertical handle that end beneath the flaring rim of the vessel. The back glaze is beautifully preserved. A tiny repair on the rim. Early Greek colonists in south Italy imported their pottery from Athens until the end of the 5th century B.C., after which they began to produce their own vases to supplement imported ware. Although heavily influenced by the styles and shapes of Athenian pottery, South Italian vases possess their own unique qualities. Most examples of the pottery type are in the form of skyphoi, sessile kantharoi, lekanides, nestorides, oinochoai, and mugs.

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Price: $2,200

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