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Auction Description for Baldwin's: The Hemisphere Collection of Gold Sovereigns
Viewing Notes:
5th May 10am - 4pm.
Sale Notes:
www.invaluable.com/baldwins

The Hemisphere Collection of Gold Sovereigns

by Baldwin's


203 lots with images

May 8, 2014

Live Auction

11 Adelphi Terrace

Embankment

London, WC2N 6BJ United Kingdom

Phone: +44 (0) 20 7930 9808

Fax: +44 (0) 20 7930 9450

Email: auctions@baldwin.co.uk

203 Lots
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BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Henry VII

Lot 2001: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Henry VII

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Description: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Henry VII (1485-1509), Fine Gold Sovereign of Twenty Shillings, Group IV (c.1502-1504), crowned full robed figure of the King seated facing on ornate throne with high canopy, holding orb and sceptre, initial mark lis at start of legend, legend reads hEnRICVSx xDEIx xGRAx REXx AnGLx ETx FRAnx DnSx hIB'n'xx, rev quartered shield of arms upon Tudor rose, surrounded by beaded and linear tressure of ten arcs, each cusp overlaid with alternating leaf and lis fleury device, beaded circle surrounding, initial mark dragon at top, legend reads xIhESVSx xAVTEMx xTRAnSIEnSx xPERx xMEDIVMx xILLORVMx xIBAT xx*xx, 15.40g (Potter and Winstanley type IV; Grierson class D; SCBI 23:79-80; Schneider 550; North 1692/1; S 2175). A little double struck in the obverse legend, with good detail in the design, one tiny black spot on the reverse inner circle, otherwise good very fine, an impressive example of the art of engraving in the Renaissance, very rare. ex Christies, 26 February 1991, lot 572 ex Samuel King collection, Spink Auction, 5 May 2005, lot 21 and back cover illustration The gold Sovereign was first introduced by King Henry VII, recorded in a commission dated 28 October 1489 to be struck at the Tower of London at a 20-Shilling face value; at a fineness of 23 carats and 3½ grains (0.995 fine gold); and 240 grains in weight (15.552g). The commission further stated that for every pound of gold struck into coin at the Tower, at least two coins had to be gold Sovereigns, which equated in face value terms to £2 in every £22 and 10-Shillings.

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BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Henry

Lot 2002: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Henry

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Description: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Henry VIII (1509-1547), Gold Sovereign of Twenty Shillings, Third Coinage, Southwark mint, crowned full figure of King seated facing on throne, holding orb and sceptre, rose below, inner and outer beaded circles and legend surrounding, mintmark S at start of legend both sides, legend reads S hEnRIC xx8xx DIx xGRAx xAGLx xFRAnCIE xxZxx hIBERnxx REX, rev crowned quartered shield of arms with crowned lion and Griffin supporters, HR ligatured on lis topped banner below, inner and outer beaded circle and legend surrounding, legend reads S IhSx xAVTEMx xTRAnSIEnSx xPER MEDIVMx xILLORx xIBATx, 12.21g (Schneider 611; North 1825; S 2291). Lightly creased with one small dig on the reverse, otherwise well struck on a broad flan with pleasing red tone and a decent portrait, very fine and rare. ex Spink Numismatic Circular, February 1973, item 1092 ex Property of a Lady, Spink Coin Auction 168, 15 April 2004, lot 147 One of the last Sovereigns issued in the reign of King Henry VIII, this example was issued from the Southwark mint in London between 1544 and 1547. The coin depicts an elderly King Henry in the "Holbein style" that students of history typically imagine. The Sovereign still valued at 20-Shillings face value, had been debased by King Henry at this time to only 20 carats of gold (0.833 fine) and a weight of 192 grains (12.441g).

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BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Edward VI

Lot 2003: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Edward VI

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Description: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Edward VI (1547-1553), Gold Sovereign of Twenty Shillings, Second Period (24 January 1549 to 18 December 1550), Southwark mint, crowned full figure of boy King seated facing on tall throne with cherub ornaments, holding orb and sword, linear inner and outer beaded circles surrounding, initial mark Y at start of legend both sides, legend reads Y EDVVARD'. VI: D' G'. AGL': FRAN': ET: HIB': REX:, rose at end of legend, rev crown over quartered shield of arms supported by crowned lion to left, griffin to right, ER on large banner below, linear inner and beaded outer circle, legend reads Y IHS'. AVTEM. TRANSIENS: PER MEDI'. ILLOR': IBAT., 10.12g (Schneider 685; North 1906; S 2433). Some evidence of tooling on the reverse by banner and smoothing on the obverse fields, giving some loss in overall weight, weakly struck at face, otherwise details clear, about very fine. ex Clarendon collection, Part I, Bonhams, 28 March 2006, lot 916 This was the first of three types of gold Sovereign depicting the boy King Edward VI dating to 1550. This second period coinage was only issued once the King was satisfied that the coinage could be sustained at a higher fineness of gold than his Father's debased issues. Therefore this Sovereign was issued at 22 carat fineness (0.917 fine), which we still use for British gold coinage today, and a 20-Shilling face value, though it weighed only just over 169 grains (10.977g), as the country continued to recover from the extravagance of Henry VIII. This example emanates from the Southwark mint where Sir John Yorke was the Under-Treasurer, hence the use of his surname initial Y for the mintmark.

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BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Edward VI

Lot 2004: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Edward VI

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Description: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Edward VI (1547-1553), Fine Gold Sovereign of Thirty Shillings, Third Period (15 December 1550 to 6 July 1553), Southwark mint, crowned full figure of King seated facing on ornate throne, holding orb and sceptre, portcullis below extending to rim, ornate throne back with large pillars, 22 arc tressure and beaded circle surrounding, pellets in arcs, trefoils on cusps, initial mark ostrich head (1 January - 30 June 1551) at start of legend both sides, legend reads EDVVARD'x VI'x Dx xGx AnGLIE FRAnCIEx xZx hIBERnIExx REXxx, outer beaded circle surrounding, rev quartered shield of arms upon Tudor rose, surrounded by beaded and linear tressure of ten arcs, each cusp overlaid with alternating leaf and lis fleury device, two saltires in each spandrel, beaded circle surrounding, legend reads IhESV'x AVTEMx xTRAnSIEnSx xPERx xMEDIVMx xILLORVMx xIBATxx, outer beaded circle surrounding, 15.04g (Schneider 701; North 1926; S 2446). Has been lightly tooled on the dexter side of the obverse field where a previous piercing has been obscured, overall lightly gilt with bright highlights and a pleasant red hue, the detail of the design is still very clear, very fine and of extreme rarity, fewer than ten known to be extant in private hands. ex The late Richard Whitbourn of Godalming, Sotheby, 2 February 1869, lot 230, where described as "mint mark dragon's head" and "pierced", sold for £7 ex, rev Edward John Shepherd (died 1874), Sothebys, 22 July 1885, lot 227, where described as "of excessive rarity, very well preserved but unfortunately pierced", sold for £17/5/- to the dealer Verity ex Evelyn W Rashleigh of Stoketon, Saltash, Cornwall, Sothebys, 21-28 June 1909, lot 811 and plate XII, where described as "fine and exceedingly rare. It has unfortunately been pierced, but is now repaired.", sold for £23 ex The late Dr R T Cassal of Abertillery, Glendinings, 3-4 December 1924, lot 269 and plate 2, sold for £48, no mention of repair ex The late Augustus Thellusson of St Peter's, Broadstairs, Part 1, Glendinings, 19-20 October 1931, lot 43 and plate II, sold for £56 to Seaby ex Christopher Corbally Browne of Bishop's Stortford, Herts, Sothebys, 25 March 1935, lot 252 and plate III, only the obverse illustrated, sold for £70 ex Spink Numismatic Circular, September 1979, item 7936, marked sold and not illustrated ex "Continental Collector", Spink Auction 38, 10-11 October 1984, lot 6 ex The Sheffield Collection, Spink-Noble Auction 43, Australia, 17-18 November 1993, lot 2688 ex St James's Auction 1, 13 October 2004, lot 433 ex The Golden Horn Collection, Stacks, New York, 12 January 2009, lot 4040 ex St James's Auction 14, 30 September 2010, lot 22 This was the earlier and finer of two types of gold Sovereign issued in the third period of King Edward's reign dating to 1551. This Sovereign was issued at a 30-Shilling face value, 23 carat and 3½ grains fineness (0.995 fine gold), reverting back to the original fine standard, weighing in at 240 grains (15.552g). These fine Sovereigns were issued from the Southwark mint for only six months, where Sir Edmund Peckham was the Treasurer, hence the use of the "ostrich" head as a mintmark, thought to be a rebus upon his surname. The whole coinage of the ostrich head mintmark consisting of Double-Sovereign, Sovereign, Angel and Half-Angel totalled approximately £2,778 which was miniscule compared to the quantity of other gold coinage issued in this entire reign. This figure represented a mere ½% of total known gold output for the reign (see Schneider tables 12 and 13). In The Tudor Coinage (published 1978), page 105, Christopher Challis suggests that the issue was perhaps for the use of the King himself, as there is a record in King Edward's Chronicle (8 July, page 135) of the King carrying some of this issue in his progress.

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BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Edward

Lot 2005: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Edward

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Description: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Edward VI, Gold Sovereign of Twenty Shillings, Third Period (15 December 1550 to 6 July 1553), Southwark mint, crowned half-length armoured figure of King right, holding orb with sword on shoulder, linear and beaded circles surrounding, initial mark y at start of legend both sides, legend reads y :EDVVARD'. VI: D': G'. AGL': FRA'. Z: hIB': REX., outer beaded circle both sides, rev crown over quartered shield of arms supported by crowned lion to left, griffin to right, ER on large banner below, linear and beaded circles surrounding, legend reads y.IhS'. AVTE'. TRAnCI'. PER: MEDIV'. ILLORV'. IBAT., 11.16g (Schneider 690; North 1927; S 2450). Struck with a pleasing portrait, small short scratch over the orb cross and once cleaned, otherwise very fine. ex Property of a Lady, Spink Auction 168, 15 April 2004, lot 150 It is interesting to read the footnote from this provenance, where it is speculated that mintmark Y for the third period Sovereign is five times rarer than mintmark tun which is more usually seen for this issue. According to Schneider the contemporary accounts of gold output for the end of this period are missing relating to the initial mark tun, so factual corroboration of this ratio cannot be gleaned for sure. This was the last gold Sovereign issued in the reign of King Edward dating to 1551. This Sovereign was issued in "crown gold" at a 20-Shilling face value and 22 carat fineness (0.917 fine gold), which we still use for British gold coinage today. Weighing 174.6 grains (11.314g), this issue represented an improvement on the second period Sovereign and a further sign of the economic recovery of the coinage after the debasement in his father's reign. The Hemisphere Collection example emanates from the Southwark mint, again with the initial Y as its mintmark for Under-Treasurer, Sir John Yorke.

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BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Mary

Lot 2006: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Mary

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Description: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Mary (1553-1554), Fine Gold Sovereign of Thirty Shillings, Tower mint, dated 1553 in Roman numerals at end of obverse legend (issue period 20 August 1553 to 24 December 1554), mintmark pomegranate in legend both sides, crowned full figure of Queen seated facing on ornate throne, holding orb and sceptre, portcullis below extending to rim, ornate throne back with pellet sides to back and large side pillars, multi arc tressure and beaded circle surrounding, pellets in arcs, trefoils on cusps, mintmark pomegranate after Queen's name, annulet stops in legend, legend reads :MARIA:+: D': G': AnG'o FRA Z: hIB': REGInA: m:D:LIII, outer beaded circle surrounding, rev quartered shield of arms upon Tudor rose, surrounded by beaded and linear tressures of ten arcs, each cusp overlaid with alternating leaf and lis fleury device, linear circle surrounding, legend reads A: DnO+ FACTV: EST: ISTV'o Z: EST: MIRA: In: OCVL': nRIS': with pomegranate between O and F, outer linear circle surrounding, 15.14g (Schneider 704; North 1956; S 2488). Small short crack at centre of the obverse under sceptre hand and at upper left quarter of shield on the reverse, otherwise struck with a good portrait, toned, about very fine. ex Collection of a Southern Gentleman, Stacks, New York, 7 December 1994, lot 2446 ex St James's Auction 5, 27 September 2006, lot 276 Queen Mary issued all her gold coinage to the fine standard of 23 carats and 3½ grains (0.995 fine) and to the weight of 240 grains (15.552g) as originally set by her grandfather, King Henry VII. Mary's HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, are the only issue of this hammered gold coin denomination that carry an actual date, albeit in Roman numerals, either 1553 or 1554.

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BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Elizabeth

Lot 2007: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Elizabeth

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Description: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Elizabeth I (1558-1603), Fine Gold Sovereign of Thirty Shillings, Tower mint, Sixth Issue (1583-1600), crowned full figure of Queen seated facing on ornate throne, holding orb and sceptre, portcullis with pellet decoration below extending to rim, ornate throne back with annulet and pellet sides to back and large side pillars, multi arc tressure and beaded circle surrounding, pellets in arcs, trefoils on cusps, mintmark escallop (14 February 1585 to 30 May 1587) with single stop either side at end of legend, pellet stops in legend, legend reads ELIZABETH. D'. G'. ANG'. FRA'. ET. HIB'. REGInA., outer beaded circle surrounding, rev quartered shield of arms upon Tudor rose, surrounded by beaded and linear tressures of ten arcs, each cusp overlaid with alternating leaf and lis fleury device, beaded circle surrounding, legend reads A. DnO'. FACTV. EST. ISTVD. ET. EST. MIRAB. IN. OCVLIS. NRS', outer beaded circle surrounding, 15.20g (Schneider 781; North 2003; S 2529). Tooled where a crack has been filled and perhaps lightly gilt, weak at face with an even red tone, about very fine. ex Heritage New York Signature Auction Sale 397, 9 January 2006, lot 13,466, in pre-crack repair state. The previous occasion this coin appeared publicly for sale it demonstrated an open crack from rim to centre, up the right side of the portcullis on obverse and between the second S and T in the reverse legend to the lower right quarter of the shield. This crack has since been filled and obscured, and is only more evident on reverse as a "crease" in the fabric of the metal. Queen Elizabeth reverted at the start of her reign to a dual system of gold coinage as per that of her brother Edward VI. Sovereigns, Ryals, Angels, Half-Angels and Quarter-Angels, were issued in fine gold at 23 carats and 3½ grain standard (0.995 fine), and crown gold at the 22 carat standard for the Half-Pounds, Crowns and Halfcrowns. The Hemisphere Collection Sovereign carries the escallop mintmark, produced in the fine gold only period, specifically from February 1585/6 to May 1587, for a total output of £56,562, which was divided amongst the five denominations (see Schneider table 14).

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BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, James I

Lot 2008: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, James I

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Description: BRITISH COINS, HAMMERED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, James I (1603-1625), Gold Sovereign of Twenty Shillings, First Coinage (21 May 1603 to 10 November 1604), first crowned half-length armoured figure of King right, holding orb with sceptre on shoulder, beaded circles surrounding, initial mark thistle (21 May 1603 to 22 May 1604) at start of legend both sides, legend reads IACOBVS. D'. G'. ANG'. SCO'. FRAN'. ET. HIB'. REX., outer beaded circle both sides, rev crown over quartered shield of arms, now incorporating Arms of Scotland, I to left, R to right, beaded circle surrounding, legend reads .EXVRGAT. DEVS. DISSIPENTVR. INIMICI., 10.99g (Schneider vol II, 1; North 2066; S 2608). Slight weakness to parts of legend and at sceptre forearm, one tiny short scratch in upper right obverse field, otherwise well-struck with a good face, toned, good very fine and rare. ex Collection of a Southern Gentleman, Stacks, New York, 7 December 1994, lot 2448 ex Samuel King collection, Spink Auction 173, 5 May 2005, lot 55 King James I was also King James VI of Scotland, since his mother, Mary Queen of Scots, had died in 1567, and was the first monarch to proclaim titles for both England and Scotland on the British coinage. The Hemisphere Collection example is the first issue and mintmark, with the first type of bust dating it to 1603 and was issued in 22 carat fineness (0.917 fine) as our gold Sovereigns continue to be today. This coinage marks the last time a Sovereign is called as such in the hammered gold series, and the name is not used again until the advent of the modern Sovereign for currency in the reign of George III in 1817. The 10-Shilling denomination then continues under other guises as the "Unite" "Laurel" and "Guinea."

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George III

Lot 2009: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George III

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George III (1817-1901), Gold Sovereign, 1817, first laureate head right, coarse hair, date below, legend GEORGIUS III D: G: BRITANNIAR: REX F: D:, no upper right serif to fifth I of legend, rev St George slaying dragon right with broken lance, groundline with BP incuse to left, all within horizontally ruled garter with buckle, W W P incuse on sides of buckle, garter motto HONI . SOIT . QUI . MAL . Y . PENSE ., no upper left serif to I of HONI, no upper serifs to SOIT, raised rim both sides (Bentley 938/-; Marsh 1; MCE 464; S 3785). Surface marks and hairlines, obverse rim nick, otherwise good fine. Calendar year mintage 3,235,239

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George III,

Lot 2010: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George III,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George III, Gold Sovereign, 1818, ascending colon variety in legend, first laureate head right, coarse hair, date below, GEORGIUS III D: G: BRITANNIAR: REX F: D:, raised rim both sides, rev St George slaying dragon right with broken lance (Bentley 384; Marsh 2A; MCE 465; S 3785A). Surface marks and nicks, with hairlines and dig in reverse right field, otherwise bold very fine and rare. Calendar year mintage 2,347,230

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George III,

Lot 2011: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George III,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George III, Gold Sovereign, 1819, by Benedetto Pistrucci, laureate head right, coarse hair, date below, descending colon after BRITANNIAR:, legend GEORGIUS III D: G: BRITANNIAR: REX F: D:, rev struck with inverted die axis, St George slaying dragon right with broken lance, groundline with BP incuse to left, all within horizontally ruled garter with buckle, W W P incuse on sides of buckle, garter motto HONI . SOIT . QUI . MAL . Y . PENSE ., no upper left serif to I of HONI, raised rim both sides, edge milled (Bentley 941, example 8 this coin; Marsh 3 R6; MCE 466; S 3785; BDM, vol IV, p.601; Royal Sovereign, page 44, this coin illustrated). Lightly hairlined with a few tiny flecks, otherwise toned, fine to good fine and the key date to the entire London series of British Sovereigns produced by the Royal Mint, of highest rarity. ex plate coin illustrated in Royal Sovereign 1489-1989, edited by G P Dyer, chapter 3 - the Modern Sovereign, by G P Dyer, page 44. This actual example of the 1819 Sovereign pictured in the Royal Sovereign was shown to the mint personnel via B A Seaby in June 1974, seemingly on behalf of a private individual on the Continent. This appears to be the first time this particular example has ever been offered for auction sale, it having changed ownership only privately since the 1974 appearance. Calendar year mintage 3,574 The the 1819 is one of the hardest dates to find, and this is one of only eight currency examples known. A full listing of the provenance, trailing seven of these currency pieces including that offered here, was traced in the Bentley Collection catalogue in May 2012, of which this was numbered as example eight. A purported "proof "1819 Sovereign (WR 199) was also listed (as number seven) but this has not been recorded anywhere for sale since 1939, and is effectively lost to a generation. The Bentley Collection Catalogue is worth consulting for many relevant facts about this the rarest London issue. One other fresh example of an 1819 Sovereign has emerged since the Bentley sales, which sold in the London trade privately last October. It appears to be of a similar grade to this, but peppered with many surface digs and marks both sides. It is worth re-emphasising here the reason for the rarity of 1819 Sovereigns, which was due mainly to the very low calendar year mintage. This was because specie payments by the Bank of England were suspended at that time, resulting in only £3574 worth of sovereigns being produced in that calendar year. It was only once restrictions on payment of gold were removed by the Bank of England from 1820-1823 that the Sovereign then became more firmly established with the public, and took over as the payment medium of choice from banknotes. Further work in collaboration with the Royal Mint when the Bentley Collection was sold revealed some more interesting factual evidence about the issue of 1819 Sovereigns, also worth repeating here. 3574 were struck, a very small total that could easily have been produced in one "journey" at the mint (one day of striking). However, unusually, the records show this total was struck over five instalments from August to November 1819 and not from gold supplied by the Bank of England in the normal way. The gold to strike the 1819 Sovereigns all emanated from private sources, most likely firms in the City of London, in particular one called "Haldimand and Co." converting gold into current coin, perhaps to pay suppliers or Director's salaries. We know the coins did circulate in commerce, not just on the evidence of the worn coins seen today, but also other contemporary evidence from surveys of coinage conducted in 1829 and 1882. In 1829 the mint, in collaboration with the Bank of England, conducted a survey of the gold Sovereigns in circulation to investigate how much silver was alloyed with the gold. The mint asked the Bank of England to locate 100 examples of each date of the Sovereign then in circulation from 1817 onward. The Bank managed to locate all that was asked from its reserves, except for the date of 1819, of which it could only find two circulated examples in its holdings, only ten years after issue. As a consequence these two examples were excluded from the alloy melting experiment. Further evidence of circulation was provided by another survey carried out by a private banker named Martin in 1882. He conducted a huge survey of some 105,000 Sovereigns then in circulation to see how they were faring as regards condition and weight of the coin, all in an effort to have earlier worn coin withdrawn from circulation. This subsequently happened when pre-1838 dated Sovereigns were made non-legal tender. Mr Martin sourced details on dates and weights of Sovereigns nationally from banks, post-offices, railway stations and anywhere else gold sovereigns were transacted, perhaps 100 pieces or more were surveyed by clerks from each source. Of the 105,000 Sovereigns surveyed only two pieces were reported dated 1819, only 63 years after their issue. The population of known coins has not grown much in the interim with only eight currency coins known, as of the date of the Hemisphere Collection auction, giving another rare opportunity to obtain one of the better surviving examples; perhaps the third finest in quality after the Bentley coin, which sold for £186,000 in May 2013.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George III,

Lot 2012: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George III,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George III, Gold Sovereign, 1820, closed 2, neater smaller date arrangement, second laureate head right, finer engraved hair, date below, 8 and closed 2 spaced apart, ascending colon in legend, only a trace of outer linear circle, rev St George slaying dragon right with broken lance, most letter I's with missing serifs in legend (Bentley 8; Marsh 4; MCE 466; S 3785C). With a very weak rim, surface marks and hairlines, some old sellotape deposit on bust, otherwise good fine. Calendar year mintage 931,994 Total calendar year mintage for the reign of George III = 6,518,037 pieces George III died 29 January 1820

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

Lot 2013: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV, Gold Sovereign, 1821, first laureate head left, b.p. below, legend surrounding reads GEORGIUS IIII D: G: BRITANNIAR: REX F: D:, rev St George slaying dragon right with sword, date in exergue, B.P. to upper right (Bentley 4; Marsh 5; MCE 471; S 3800). Some surface marks and a myriad of hairlines in the fields and upon design, some light nicks and marks around chin and under truncation, scratch on the reverse below cape across sword forearm and scuff by head of the horse, otherwise about extremely fine. Calendar year mintage 9,405,114 Looking at this calendar year total if we allow for Marsh's estimate of 1,170,000 of these being 1820 dated coins of George III then we must reduce this total to 8,235,114. It is interesting to note that the first type Sovereign of King George IV are the only sovereigns ever issued with decorative style lettering with "hatched" compartments.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

Lot 2014: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV, Gold Sovereign, 1822, first laureate head left, rev St George slaying dragon right with sword, date in exergue, no serif to 1 of date (Bentley 13/950; Marsh 6; MCE 472; S 3800). Heavily hairlined with surface marks and dig to right of date, otherwise polished, good very fine. Calendar year mintage 5,356,787

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

Lot 2015: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV, Gold Sovereign, 1823, first laureate head left, rev St George slaying dragon right with sword, date in exergue, weak upper serif on the 1, date figures slightly misaligned (Bentley 14; Marsh 7 R3; MCE 473; S 3800). A myriad of heavy surface marks with some scuffs in the fields and upon design, short scratch by throat, otherwise toned, very fine and very rare. Calendar year mintage 616,770 One of the rarest dates in the currency series of George IV, the 1823 Sovereign is perhaps the second rarest date of the reign after 1828 due to a low calendar year mintage.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

Lot 2016: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV, Gold Sovereign, 1824, first laureate head left, rev St George slaying dragon right with sword, date in exergue, no upper serif on 1 in date (Bentley 15; Marsh 8; MCE 474; S 3800). A myriad of heavy surface marks and nicks both sides, light scratch above cape behind head of St George, polished, otherwise almost very fine, the reverse better. Calendar year mintage 3,767,904

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

Lot 2017: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV, Gold Sovereign, 1825, engraved by Benedetto Pistrucci, first laureate head left, b.p. below, lettering with horizontally ruled interior compartments, legend reads georgius iiii d: g: britanniar: rex f: d:, milled border between linear concentric circles both sides, rev St George slaying dragon right with sword, broken lance on ground to left, light die flaw from tail to lance, wwp in relief below, date in exergue, no serif on the 1 in date, b.p. to upper right (Bentley 952; Marsh 9 R3; MCE 475; S 3800). Some light digs by forehead and other surface marks, light short scratch in front of throat and one at top of head, vertical scratch to left of date and reverse rim bruise, otherwise good fine to about very fine and extremely rare. Calendar year mintage 4,200,343 One of the rarest dates in the currency series of George IV, the 1825 Sovereign, first bust, first reverse type, is perhaps the third rarest date of the reign after 1828. For the year 1825 the bust and reverse type changes, this first type as we have here being phased out and therefore very rare. The calendar year mintage figure unfortunately provides no split between these first and second types for this year, however it is well known that the first type for 1825 is very rare, and must have only been produced up to, or around Easter 1825, accounting for a small fraction of the mintage for this calendar year. It is interesting to note that the year of 1825 with the first type reverse, is the last year this design of St George slaying the dragon is used for 46 years until it is revived in 1871.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

Lot 2018: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV, Gold Pattern Sovereign, 1825, engraved by William Wyon after Francis Chantrey's model, second bare head left, date below, rosette either side, toothed border and raised rim both sides, legend reads georgius iv dei gratia, rev struck with coin die axis, by Jean Baptiste Merlen, crowned quartered shield of arms, with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon, seven hearts in semée of Hanoverian lion, upper left lis of frame around Scottish lion detached only, Irish arms with nine harp strings, legend reads britanniarum rex fid: def:, edge plain (Bentley 17; WR 235 R5; Montagu 929; Murdoch 382; Nobleman 137; DM 158; S 3801). Light tone, some light surface marks and hairlines, otherwise a pleasing proof, practically as struck and extremely rare. ex Union Bank of Switzerland, gold and numismatics auction 51, 21 January 2001, lot 834 The plain edge 1825 seven heart semée pattern Sovereign, was first catalogued properly in the Bentley collection with its different reverse shield to the currency coin. The milled edge 1825 proof carries the usual eight hearts in the Hanoverian Arms like the currency pieces and is therefore likely struck later to the different plain edge piece above. All the denominations issued for the current new coinage of the second type of George IV in 1825 were also produced to proof quality, no doubt to present to officials and very important persons and in addition included a pattern gold Five Pounds, Two Pounds and silver Crown that were not current this year. Additionally William Wyon himself would be able to supply proofs to whomever he pleased or to those who would commission him to do so. These rare proofs of 1825, were obviously in demand as they led directly to the sale of entire Proof Sets in cases from the next year of 1826. Proof Sets then began to be produced on a more regular basis for Coronations, Jubilees and new coinages.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

Lot 2019: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV, Gold Sovereign, 1825, second bare head left, date below, rev crowned quartered shield of arms, with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon, eight hearts in semée of Hanoverian lion (Bentley 18; Marsh 10; MCE 476; S 3801). Scuffed with light surface marks and hairlines, two digs at top of the obverse rim, light rim bruise on the reverse, otherwise about very fine. Calendar year mintage 4,200,343 The calendar year mintage figure unfortunately provides no split between the first and second types for this year, it is well known that the first type for 1825 is very rare, and must have only been produced up to, or around Easter 1825.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

Lot 2020: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV, Gold Proof Sovereign, 1826, second bare head left, date below, rev inverted dies axis, crowned shield of arms, quartered with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon, eight hearts in semée of Hanoverian lion (Bentley 392; WR 237; S 3801). Some evidence of light finger-printing, once polished, otherwise good extremely fine. The 1826 proof Sovereign was one of the coins included in commemorative sets made to present to officials and very important persons and in addition included a pattern gold Five Pounds, Two Pounds and Half-Sovereign as well as the silver and copper denominations from Crown to Farthing. Additionally Pistrucci himself had the right to supply single proofs to whomever he pleased or to those who would commission him to do so. Proof Sets then began to be produced on a more regular basis for Coronations, Jubilees and new coinages.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

Lot 2021: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV, Gold Sovereign, 1826, second bare head left, date below, rev crowned shield of arms, quartered with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon (Bentley 19; Marsh 11; MCE 477; S 3801). Some light black striations on the obverse and hairlines both sides, otherwise extremely fine. Calendar year mintage 5,724,046

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

Lot 2022: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV, Gold Sovereign, 1827, second bare head left, date below, rev crowned shield of arms, quartered with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon (Bentley 20; Marsh 12; MCE 478; S 3801). Small deposit on rim, hairlines both sides with some scuffs, otherwise about extremely fine. Calendar year mintage 2,266,629

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

Lot 2023: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV, Gold Sovereign, 1828, second bust with date below, legend surrounding reads .GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA., engraved by William Wyon after Francis Chantrey's model, rev second crowned shield reverse, quartered with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon, legend surrounding reads BRITANNIARUM REX FID: DEF:, engraved by Jean Baptiste Merlen (Bentley 21; Marsh 13 R4; MCE 479; S 3801). Once lightly cleaned with some light surface marks each side, otherwise extremely fine, an extremely rare date, finer than the Bentley example. Calendar year mintage 386,182 The 1828 Sovereign is considered the key date for the reign of George IV, and is one of the hardest to find in the London series issued by the Royal Mint bar the even the rarer 1819 Sovereign of George III. The reason why the 1828 Sovereign is so rare is not widely known. To make a new dated die is an intensive and laborious process, in both time and cost, and considering the average longevity of a die, the mint considered itself very lucky at the dawn of 1828 when it found a number of 1827 obverse dies were still in perfectly good working order. Therefore, rather than make new dies for 1828 immediately, it was decided to wait until the supply of 1827 dated dies dwindled. This did not finally occur until November of 1828 as it seems there was only a low demand for gold sovereigns this year. It was only in December that 1828 Sovereigns started to be minted and this probably did not last long into 1829, therefore the actual number made dated 1828 can be considered to be a fraction of the calendar year mintage quoted above, perhaps a mere twelfth as an educated estimate. It is surprising perhaps that the 1827 dies were simply not just overstruck to convert them to display 1828, but it seems that over-stamping dates was not common practice until the reign of Queen Victoria. Over-dates during this period are very few and far between in all denominations

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

Lot 2024: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV, Gold Sovereign, 1829, second bare head left, date below, rev crowned shield of arms, quartered with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon (Bentley 22; Marsh 14; MCE 480; S 3801). Cleaned with surface marks and hairlines, otherwise good fine. Calendar year mintage 2,444,652

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

Lot 2025: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, George IV, Gold Sovereign, 1830, second bare head left, date below, rev crowned shield of arms, quartered with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon (Bentley 23; Marsh 15; MCE 481; S 3801). Scuffs and surface marks, scratch behind head, otherwise good fine. Calendar year mintage 2,387,881 Total calendar year mintage of Sovereigns for the reign of George IV = 36,556,308 pieces George IV died 26 June 1830

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV

Lot 2026: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV (1830-1837), Gold Pattern Sovereign, 1830, by William Wyon after Francis Chantrey's model, second bare head right with coarse hair and flat topped, deeply engraved ear, w.w. incuse fully on truncation, nose points to second I in britanniar, legend reads gulielmus iiii d: g: britanniar rex f: d:, finely toothed border and raised rim both sides, coarse bead like border teeth, rev struck with inverted die axis, by Jean Baptiste Merlen, crowned quartered shield of arms, with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon, seven heart semée, Irish arms with eight harp strings, crown with 13 pearls on each arch and five pearls each side of vertical facing upright, inner crown band with nine jewels, legend reads anno 1830 below, finer taller border teeth, edge plain (Bentley 394; WR 260 R5; Montagu 1083; Murdoch 440 (part); Nobleman 203; DM 178; S 3829B). Hairlined, reverse with one light rim abrasion, otherwise practically as struck and extremely rare. It is interesting to see that the second bust rendition was used for this initial pattern dating from the year of accession in 1830. Most current coins from 1831 carry the first bust, whilst the second bust in currency for 1831 is extremely rare, being more wholly adopted from 1832. Therefore the chronology does not follow in reality as their referencing suggests. The second bust turned out to be the most prolific in this reign being used consistently from 1832 till the end of the reign. Both busts must have been used concurrently at times but the only reason they can accurately be called first and second bust is based on when they were phased out rather than when they were first used.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV,

Lot 2027: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV, Gold Proof Sovereign, 1831, by William Wyon after Francis Chantrey's model, second bare head right with coarse hair and flat topped, deeply engraved ear, w.w. incuse fully on truncation, nose points to second I in britanniar, rev struck with inverted die axis, by Jean Baptiste Merlen, crowned quartered shield of arms, with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon, date below, finer taller border teeth, edge plain (Bentley 24; WR 261 R3; Montagu 1084; Murdoch 440 (part); Nobleman 205/6; DM 179; S 3829B). Light fingerprint and small scratch to left of shield on the reverse, rim bruise on the obverse with a few small pinhead-sized digs on cheek, hairline scratch in the obverse field, otherwise good extremely fine and rare. ex Spink Auction 171, 15 November 2004, lot 132, coin illustrated on front cover It is interesting to see that the second bust rendition was used for the proof coin as issued for the Coronation proof sets in 1831. The second bust turned out to be the most prolific in this reign, being used consistently from 1832 till the end of the reign. Both busts must have been used concurrently at times but the only reason they can accurately be called first and second bust is based on when they were phased out rather than when they were first used. For further reading, see an article by Harold Mountain in the Spink Numismatic Circular October 1984, page 255, Two Kinds of William IIII Sovereigns. The Coronation of William IV took place 8 September 1831 and all the denominations issued for the current new coinage for the Coronation year of William IV in 1831 were also produced to proof quality in Coronation proof sets. These undoubtedly were made to present to officials and very important persons, and in addition to current 1831 dated denominations included a proof gold Two Pounds and silver Crown, Halfcrown and Shilling that were not current that year. Additionally William Wyon himself would be able to supply proofs to whomever he pleased or to those who would commission him to do so. The 1831 Proof Set is generally accepted as the second Proof Set available from the Royal Mint.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV,

Lot 2028: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV, Gold Sovereign, 1831, first bare head right with finer hair and round topped ear, nose points to second N in britanniar, w.w. incuse on truncation with indistinct stops, finer toothed border and raised rim both sides, rev crowned quartered shield of arms, with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon, date below, edge milled (Bentley 25; Marsh 16 R2; MCE 489; S 3829). Cleaned and hairlined, with reverse rim bruise, otherwise bold very fine. Calendar year mintage 598,547 Even though 1831 is the initial year of mintage for William IV it is also the lowest calendar output from the mint for this reign and the first bust if therefore very rare. This output is not even five times higher than the extremely rare Victorian 1841 issue. This coin demonstrates the other bust type for William IV with rounded ear and a different arrangement of legend in relation to bust. The design was called the first bust not because of when its use commenced, but rather because of when it was phased out and was in concurrent use with the second bust on coins dated 1831 and 1832.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV,

Lot 2029: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV, Gold Sovereign, 1832, second bare head right with coarse hair and flat topped, deeply engraved ear, w.w. fully incuse on truncation, nose points to second I in britanniar, coarse border teeth, rev crowned quartered shield of arms, with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon, date below, finer border teeth (Bentley 28; Marsh 17; MCE 490; S 3829B). Cleaned with surface marks and hairlines, slight obverse rim bruise, otherwise good fine. Calendar year mintage 3,737,065

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV,

Lot 2030: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV, Gold Sovereign, 1833, second bare head right, w.w. incuse on truncation, rev crowned quartered shield of arms, with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon, date below (Bentley 29; Marsh 18; MCE 491; S 3829B). Cleaned with surface marks and hairlines, otherwise good fine and a rare date. Calendar year mintage 1,225,269

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV,

Lot 2031: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV, Gold Sovereign, 1835, second bare head right, w.w. incuse on truncation, rev crowned quartered shield of arms, with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon, date below (Bentley 30; Marsh 19 R; MCE 492; S 3829B). A couple of nicks in the obverse field to rear of neck, otherwise extremely fine, a rare date. Calendar year mintage 723,441 This year represents the second lowest calendar year mintage for William IV.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV,

Lot 2032: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV, Gold Sovereign, 1836, second bare head right, w.w. incuse on truncation, rev crowned quartered shield of arms, with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon, date below (Bentley 964; Marsh 20; MCE 493; S 3829B). Slight scratch behind neck with dig in field, otherwise extremely fine. Calendar year mintage 1,714,349

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV,

Lot 2033: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, William IV, Gold Sovereign, 1837, second bare head right, w.w. incuse on truncation, rev crowned quartered shield of arms, with the arms of Hanover as an escutcheon, date below (Bentley 32; Marsh 21; MCE 494; S 3829B). Once cleaned with light surface marks, otherwise bold very fine, a rare date. Calendar year mintage 1,172,984 Total calendar year mintage of Sovereigns for the reign of William IV = 9,171,655 pieces William IV died 20 June 1837 The Victorian Young Head Series of Shield Reverse Sovereigns

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria

Lot 2034: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria (1837-1901), Gold Pattern Sovereign, 1837, engraved by William Wyon, small young head left, hair bound with plain double fillet, with raised line depicting edges of fillets, plain truncation ruled with fine lines, close spaced date below slightly double struck, rosette either side, fine toothed border and high raised rim both sides, legend reads victoria dei gratia, more widely spaced from 8 to 4 o'clock, rev struck with inverted die axis, engraved by Jean Baptiste Merlen, crowned quartered narrow shield of arms within laurel wreath tied with bow below shield, twelve pearls on each arch of crown, four pearls vertically arranged on central upright, nine pellets visible on ermine below jewel band, laurel wreath each side consists of 30 leaves per side and terminates in three leaves at top, six harp strings in Irish arms, left string emanates from back of female figure, emblems below, rose at centre, thistle to left, shamrock to right, small rosette either side, legend reads britanniarum regina fid: def:, edge plain (Bentley 397; WR 296 R5; Montagu 1566; Murdoch 499; DM 199). In NGC holder graded PR64 DCAM, lightly hairlined, otherwise practically as struck, extremely rare. This is considered to be the second obverse for the proposed pattern Sovereign for young Queen Victoria for which she granted William Wyon multiple portrait sittings. The head is of a small stature, though larger than the first proposal (see Bentley 33), with plain fillets the legend more widely spaced.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2035: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereign, 1838, first young head left, fine hair bound with double fillet, ponytail terminates in single curved strand of hair, w.w. raised on truncation, date below, fine toothed border and raised rim both sides, legend reads victoria dei gratia, rev crowned shield of arms within laurel wreath tied with bow below shield, narrow crown arches not so acutely angled, each with eleven pearl adornment, five pearls vertically arranged on central upright, wreath of 24 leaves each side, each terminate with two leaves at top, seven harp strings in taller Irish arms, first left string from scroll at back of female figure, emblems below, small rosette either side, legend reads britanniarum regina fid: def:, edge milled (Bentley 36; Marsh 22 R; MCE 499; S 3852). Heavily scuffed and hairlined, otherwise good fine and scarce. Calendar year mintage 2,718,694

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2036: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereign, 1839, first young head left, ponytail terminates in single curved strand of hair, date below, rev crowned quartered crowned shield of arms within laurel wreath, emblems below (Bentley 400; Marsh 23; MCE 500; S 3852). Scuffed and hairlined, once cleaned, otherwise about very fine and very rare. Calendar year mintage 503,695

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2037: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereign, 1841, first young head left, date below, toothed border both sides, unbarred A's in gratia, rev crowned quartered shield of arms within laurel, emblems below (Bentley 970; Marsh 24 R3; MCE 501; S 3852). Hairlined, once cleaned and now lightly toned, reverse with slight rim bruise, otherwise good very fine / about extremely fine, extremely rare. Calendar year mintage 124,054 There being no Sovereigns minted bearing the date 1840, the whole calendar year figure presumably represents 1841 dated coins only, though unspent 1839 dies may have continued at first but is unlikely due to the gap in production. With a relatively low mintage, the 1841 Sovereign does not survive in any quantity, the supply of this date in the coin market has always been out-stripped by demand and examples in recent years for sale have been few and far between. When offered for sale by auction, the 1841 Sovereign has achieved higher and higher realisations recently, as was seen when a mint state example sold at Bonham's in December 2011 for £34,800. Even though few coins exist there are two significant varieties, the full letter A's in the last word on the obverse and the unbarred A variety as we have here, only noted and published within the last decade.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2038: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereign, 1842, open 2 in date, first young head left, ponytail terminates in single curved strand of hair, date below, rev crowned quartered shield of arms within laurel wreath, emblems below (Bentley 971; Marsh 25; MCE 502; S 3852). Hairlined and scuffed with surface marks, otherwise fine and very rare. Calendar year mintage 4,865,375 The more significant variety of 1842 is the rarer open 2 type where the curve of the top of the 2 is not so rounded and shorter. The 4 in this date variety is also a taller and sharper topped figure than the normal 1842 date. Marsh does not list any of the varieties of 1842 in his publication as these have only been noted in the last decade.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2039: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereign, 1843, "narrow shield" variety, first young head left, with double fillet, ponytail terminates in single curved strand of hair, legend reads victoria dei gratia, engraved by William Wyon, date below, rev possibly engraved by Jean Baptiste Merlen, "narrow" crowned quartered shield of arms within laurel wreath of different leaf arrangement, crown with more prominent and acutely angled arches, tied with bow below shield with smaller ribbon ends, twelve pearls on each arch of crown, four pearls vertically arranged on central upright, nine pellets visible on ermine below jewel band, wreath of 21 leaves each side, top of wreath each side terminates in three leaves, seven harp strings in Irish arms, left string emanates from back of female figure above lower scroll, narrower spaced taller emblems below, double shamrock head to right of large central rose, thistle to left, no rosettes, small hyphen either side, legend reads britanniarum regina fid: def: (Bentley 45; Marsh 26A R4; MCE 504; S 3852B). Scuffed with surface marks and hairlines, light reverse rim bruise, otherwise very fine, extremely rare. ex "A Collection of Sovereigns," St James's Auction 7, 8 February 2008, lot 624, catalogued as "one of the finest known." The "narrow shield" variety of 1843 is an extreme rarity in the sovereign series and the Hemisphere Collection happens to contain two examples, this being the finest of the two. The main differences between this variety and the "normal" shield reverse are really the leaf arrangement that consists of 21 leaves in each side of the wreath. The emblems below are quite different however and are much thicker and narrower with a hyphen each side rather than a rosette. The shamrock has two of its distinctive leaves rather than one, the central rose much larger and the thistle appears to have distant thistles beyond. Some of the leaves of the left hand wreath are not fully struck up or more faintly engraved. The shield is therefore not really the narrow part, it is the differing narrow emblems beneath that help the illusion that the shield is different.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2040: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereign, 1843, first young head left, date below, rev crowned quartered shield of arms within laurel wreath, emblems below (Bentley 43; Marsh 26; MCE 503; S 3852). Surface marks and scuffs, otherwise bold fine. Calendar year mintage 5,981,968, including the 1843 narrow shield variety

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2041: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereign, 1843, "narrow shield" variety, first young head left, legend reads victoria dei gratia, engraved by William Wyon, date below, rev possibly engraved by Jean Baptiste Merlen, "narrow" crowned quartered shield of arms within laurel wreath of different leaf arrangement, crown with more prominent and acutely angled arches, tied with bow below shield with smaller ribbon ends, twelve pearls on each arch of crown, four pearls vertically arranged on central upright, nine pellets visible on ermine below jewel band, wreath of 21 leaves each side, top of wreath each side terminates in three leaves, seven harp strings in Irish arms, left string emanates from back of female figure above lower scroll, narrower spaced taller emblems below, double shamrock head to right of large central rose, thistle to left, no rosettes, small hyphen either side, legend reads britanniarum regina fid: def:, raised die flaw at the second N of legend (Bentley 45; Marsh 26A R4; MCE 504; S 3852B). Scuffed with surface marks and hairlines, otherwise bold fine and extremely rare. See footnote to lot 39 for a narrative about the elements of the extremely rare narrow shield design. This example appears to be a later striking than the other piece in this auction in that a raised die flaw has begun to appear at the second N in the reverse legend.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2042: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereign, 1844, normal date, first young head left, date below, rev crowned quartered shield of arms within laurel wreath, emblems below (Bentley 974; Marsh 27; MCE 505; S 3852). Surface marks and scuffs, scratch on neck, otherwise good fine. Calendar year mintage 3,000,445

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2043: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereign, 1845, smaller closer date in arc, first young head left, date below, bulbous 5, rev crowned quartered shield of arms within laurel wreath, emblems below (Bentley 48; Marsh 28; MCE 506; S 3852). Surface marks and scuffs, otherwise good fine, reverse better. Calendar year mintage 3,800,845

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2044: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereign, 1846, first young head left, date below, bulbous 6, rev crowned quartered shield of arms within laurel, emblems below (Bentley 407; Marsh 29; MCE 507; S 3852). Cleaned with surface marks and scuffs, bold fine. Calendar year mintage 3,802,947

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2045: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereign, 1847, first young head left, date below, doubled 1 in date, rev crowned quartered shield of arms within laurel wreath, emblems below (Marsh 30; MCE 508; S 3852). Dig in front of neck, with other surface marks and hairlines, some residual red tone on the reverse, good fine. Calendar year mintage 4,667,126 The residual red tone is typically seen in Sovereigns that have come from sea salvage, and this piece is reminiscent of those that have come from the "Douro Cargo", familiar to this cataloguer, having also worked on cataloguing that auction sale back in 1996.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2046: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereigns (2), 1848, 1849, crosslet 4 in date, second larger young head left, hair bound with double fillet, W.W. raised on truncation, legend surrounding, date below, rev crowned quartered shield of arms within laurel wreath, emblems below (Bentley 411, 57; Marsh 31, 32 R; MCE 509, 510; S 3852C). Both cleaned or polished with associated hairlines and surface marks both sides, these heavier on the first coin, otherwise fine and very fine. (2) Calendar year mintages 2,246,701 and 1,755,399 respectively

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2047: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereign, 1850, second larger young head left, date below, rev crowned quartered shield of arms within laurel wreath, emblems below (Bentley 59; Marsh 33 R; MCE 511; S 3852C). Some black deposit around parts of rim, surface marks and hairlines, about very fine. Calendar year mintage 1,402,039

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2048: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereigns (3), 1851, 1852, 1853, second larger young head left, W.W. raised on truncation, date below, rev crowned quartered shield of arms within laurel wreath, emblems below (Bentley 62, 63, 990; Marsh 34, 35, 36; MCE 512, 513, 514; S 3852C). First and last cleaned, all with surface marks and hairlines, second with many tiny digs on bust and field, otherwise generally about very fine, the second good fine. (3) Calendar year mintages 4,013,624; 8,053,435; 10,597,993 respectively 29 October 1851 marks the day that William Wyon dies aged about 56 and still in the post of Chief Engraver. His son Leonard C Wyon succeeds him. Leonard's cousin James Wyon becomes resident engraver at this time too - he being later called upon to design the first portrait of the Queen at the Sydney mint in Australia (see lots 183-197). The calendar year output for 1853 represents the highest mintage in over 30 years at this point in time, and is the highest mintage for the modern milled sovereign since its inception in 1817. The date is therefore rife with variety not only with aspects like the w.w. on the neck, but also in the date, and rarely in the legend. The variety depicted here is considered the normal type encountered for 1853 with the raised w.w. in relief on the truncation of the neck.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2049: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereigns (3), 1854, 1855, 1856, second larger young head left, ww incuse on truncation without stops, date below, rev crowned quartered shield of arms within laurel wreath, emblems below (Bentley 71, 73, 75; Marsh 37, 38, 39; MCE 515, 516, 517; S 3852D). First and last cleaned, all with surface marks and hairlines, otherwise generally good fine, reverses slightly better on first and last. (3) Calendar year mintages 3,589,611; 8,448,482; 4,806,160 respectively The ww incuse variety for both 1854 and 1855 are what is usually encountered for these dates.

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BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

Lot 2050: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria,

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Description: BRITISH COINS, MILLED GOLD SOVEREIGNS, Victoria, Gold Sovereigns (2), 1857, spread date figures, 1858, smaller date figures, second larger young head left, ww incuse on truncation without stops, date below, weak bars to A's in legend of second, rev crowned quartered shield of arms within laurel wreath, emblems below (Bentley 77, cf 79; Marsh 40, 41; MCE 518, 519; S 3852D). Both cleaned and with surface marks and hairlines, the second with scratch on cheek, otherwise about very fine and good fine. (2) Calendar year mintages 4,495,748 and 803,234 respectively The 1858 mintage is a dramatically lower calendar year mintage figure than previous years, in fact the fourth lowest for the Victoria shield London series, and only seven times higher than the 1841 output. The 1858 Sovereign could be considered rare but does seem to be readily available. This is either because of a high survival rate as perhaps a quantity of the issue was hoarded, coming to the market-place many years later, or some of the 1859 output was dated 1858. However the 1859 output is not that high either being not even double that of 1858. The hoarding theory is most likely.

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