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Auction Description for TimeLine Auctions: TimeLine Auctions- Antiquities, Day 1
Auction Description:
Auction Venue (Day 1 - 2):   Emmanuel Centre, 9 - 23 Marsham Street Westminster London SW1P 3DW   Antiquities - Tuesday 21st February 2017 (Day 1) 10:00 - Egyptian Antiquities (lot 1 - 46) - Greek Antiquities (lot 47 - 50) - Gold Greek Antiquities (lot 51 - 76); with Lindsey Gundersen - Greek Antiquities (lot 77 - 99) - Roman Antiquities (lot 100 - 192) - Gold Roman & Byzantine Antiquities (lot 193 - 220); with Lindsey Gundersen - Byzantine Antiquities (lot 221 - 233) - Arms & Armour (lot 234 - 271) 13:30 - Lunch 14:00 - Christian Antiquities (lot 272 - 295) - Stone, Bronze & Iron Age (lot 296 - 333) - Germanic & Saxon Antiquities (lot 334 - 361) - Viking Antiquities (lot 362 - 363) - Gold Viking Antiquities (lot 364 - 379); with Lindsey Gundersen - Viking Antiquities (lot 380 - 447) - Gold Medieval Antiquities (lot 448 - 465); with Lindsey Gundersen - Medieval Antiquities (lot 466 - 481) - Gold Post Medieval Antiquities (lot 482 - 506); with Lindsey Gundersen - Post Medieval Antiquities (lot 507 - 523) - Natural History (lot 524 - 538) Antiquities - Wednesday 22nd February 2017 (Day 2) 10:00 - Western Asiatic Seals (lot 539 - 591); with Tim Wonnacott (Bargain Hunt) - Western Asiatic Antiquities (lot 592 - 678) - Chinese Antiquities (lot 679 - 742); with Peter Bufton - India & Region (lot 743 - 775) - Pre-Columbian & Islamic (lot 776 - 822) 13:30 - Lunch 14:00 - Coins & Medals (lot 1001 - 1376)     Auction Venue (Day 3 - 5):   The Old Court House, 363 Main Road, Harwich Essex, CO12 4DN   Antiquities - Thursday 23rd February 2017 (Day 3) 10.00 - Egyptian Antiquities (lot 1401 - 1520) - Greek Antiquities (lot 1521 - 1584) - Roman Antiquities (lot 1585 - 1750) 13:30 - Lunch 14:00 - Roman Antiquities (lot 1751 - 1835) - Byzantine Antiquities (lot 1836 - 1900) - Arms & Armour (lot 1901 - 1980) - Christian Antiquities (lot 1981 - 2020) - Stone Age Antiquities (lot 2021 - 2077) - Bronze Age Antiquities (lot 2078 - 2108) - Iron Age Antiquities (lot 2109 - 2127) Antiquities - Friday 24th February 2017 (Day 4) 10.00 - Germanic & Saxon Antiquities (lot 2128 - 2169) - Viking Antiquities (lot 2170 - 2262) - Medieval Antiquities (lot 2263 - 2350) - Post Medieval Antiquities (lot 2351 - 2392) - Natural History (lot 2393 - 2480) 13:30 - Lunch 14:00 - Natural History (lot 2481 - 2564) - Western Asiatic Antiquities (lot 2565 - 2743) - Chinese Region Antiquities (lot 2744 - 2800) - India & Region Antiquities (lot 2801 - 2836) - Islamic Antiquities (lot 2837 - 2876) Coins (part 2)- Saturday 25th February 2017 (Day 5) 10.00 - Coins & Medals (lot 3001 - 3718)   - Numismatic Books (lot 3719 - 3764)

TimeLine Auctions- Antiquities, Day 1 (538 Lots)

by TimeLine Auctions


538 lots | 518 with images

February 21, 2017

Live Auction

London, United Kingdom

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Egyptian Polychrome Sarcophagus Mask

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Description: 21st-23rd Dynasty, 1000-800 BC. A large wooden sarcophagus mask, with polychrome decoration; to the chin, a black false beard; wearing a striped yellow and blue tripartite wig with black decoration at the ends, a large black scarab on the top of the head, with a striped yellow, crimson, and blue broad collar; the details of the eyes, cosmetic lines, brows and ears added in black; attached to a cloth bound backing board. Jacobs, J. Pertinent and Impertinent, Arts and Antiquities Magazine, 1976, p.18-19, illustrated p.19; accompanied by a copy of the article. Accompanied by an Art Loss Register certificate. 6.1 kg, mask 51.5cm (20 1/2"). Property of an English gentleman; acquired Bonham's, New Bond Street, London, 28 October 2009, lot 263; previously the property of an American collector; acquired from the Samuel Haddad Gallery, Bloomingdales, New York, 1976; formerly acquired by Samuel Haddad from the Egyptian government of Anwar Sadat; accompanied by a copy of the signed certificate from Samuel Haddad, entitled 'Works of Art, with The Secret Eye'. This mask was part of possibly the largest collection of Egyptian antiquities ever sold; some eight thousand pieces were sold to Samuel Haddad by the Egyptian government of Anwar Sadat.

Condition Report: Fine condition, some restoration.

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Egyptian Imsety Canopic Jar

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A limestone canopic jar with gently tapering body and wide flat base; lid in the form of the human-headed Imsety with large bag wig and necklace band at the throat. 7.68 kg, 33cm (13"). Property of a Jerusalem gentleman; inherited from his father who acquired them in the 1970s. Imsety was the human-headed son of Horus, who protected the liver of the deceased and was in turn protected by the goddess Isis. It seems that his role was to help revive the corpse of the dead person, as he is asked to lift them up by Horus: You have come; betake yourself beneath him and lift him up, do not be far from him, in your name of Imsety. To stand up meant to be active and thus alive while to be prone signified death. In Spell 151 of the Book of the Dead Imsety is given the following words to say: I am your son, Osiris, I have come to be your protection. I have strengthened your house enduringly. As Ptah decreed in accordance with what Ra himself decrees. Again the theme of making alive and reviving is alluded to through the metaphor of making his house flourish. He does this with the authority of two creator gods Ptah and Ra. Spell 148 in the Book of the Dead directly associates all four of Horus's sons to the four cardinal points. Imsety was associated with the south. [2]

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Egyptian Duamutef Canopic Jar

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A limestone canopic jar with tapering body and wide flat base; lid in the form of the jackal-headed Duamutef wearing a bag wig. 6.31 kg, 30cm (12"). Property of a Jerusalem gentleman; inherited from his father who acquired them in the 1970s. Duamutef was the the jackal-headed son of Horus who protected the stomach of the deceased and was in turn protected by the goddess Neith. It seems that his role was to worship the dead person, and his name means literally he who worships his mother. In the Coffin Texts Horus calls upon him, Come and worship my father for me, just as you went that you might worship my mother Isis in your name Duamutef. Isis had a dual role. Not only was she the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus, but she was also the consort of Horus the Elder and thus the mother of the sons of Horus. This ambiguity is added to when Duamutef calls Osiris, rather than Horus his father, although kinship terms were used very loosely, and father can be used as ancestor and son as descendant. In Spell 151 of the Book of the Dead Duamutef is given the following words to say: I have come to rescue my father Osiris from his assailant. The text does not make it clear who might assail Osiris, although there are two major candidates. The obvious one is Set, the murderer of Osiris. Somehow the son who worships his mother Isis is able to assist in overcoming Set. The other possibility is Apophis, the serpent demon who prevents the Sun's passage and thus the resurrection of Osiris. Either way, Duamutef through his worship of Isis has the power to protect the deceased from harm. Duamutef was also considered one of the four pillars of Shu, a rudder of heaven, and was associated with the east.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Egyptian Hapi Canopic Jar

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A limestone canopic jar with tapering body and wide flat base; poor fitting lid in the form of the baboon-headed Hapi wearing bag wig and flared collar round the neck. 8.65 kg, 35cm (13 3/4"). Property of a Jerusalem gentleman; inherited from his father who acquired them in the 1970s. Hapi was the baboon-headed son of Horus, who protected the lungs of the deceased and was in turn protected by the goddess Nephthys. The spelling of his name includes a hieroglyph which is thought to be connected with steering a boat, although its exact nature is not known. For this reason he was sometimes connected with navigation, although early references call him the great runner: You are the great runner; come, that you may join up my father and not be far in this your name of Hapi, for you are the greatest of my children – so says Horus In Spell 151 of the Book of the Dead Hapi is given the following words to say: I have come to be your protection. I have bound your head and your limbs for you. I have smitten your enemies beneath you for you, and given you your head, eternally. Spell 148 in the Book of the Dead directly associates all four of Horus's sons, described as the four pillars of Shu and one of the four rudders of heaven, with the four cardinal points of the compass. Hapi was associated with the north.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Egyptian Imsety Canopic Jar

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A limestone canopic jar with columnar body and wide flat base; lid in the form of the human-headed Imsety wearing bag wig and false beard. 5.77 kg, 29cm (11 1/4"). Property of a Jerusalem gentleman; inherited from his father who acquired them in the 1970s. Imsety was the human-headed son of Horus, protected the liver of the deceased and was in turn protected by the goddess Isis. It seems that his role was to help revive the corpse of the dead person, as he is asked to lift them up by Horus: You have come; betake yourself beneath him and lift him up, do not be far from him, in your name of Imsety. To stand up meant to be active and thus alive while to be prone signified death. In Spell 151 of the Book of the Dead Imsety is given the following words to say: I am your son, Osiris, I have come to be your protection. I have strengthened your house enduringly. As Ptah decreed in accordance with what Ra himself decrees. Again the theme of making alive and reviving is alluded to through the metaphor of making his house flourish. He does this with the authority of two creator gods Ptah and Ra. Spell 148 in the Book of the Dead directly associates all four of Horus's sons to the four cardinal points. Imsety was associated with the south.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Egyptian Qebehsenuef Canopic Jar

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A limestone canopic jar with columnar body and wide flat base; lid in the form of the hawk-headed Qebehsenuef wearing striated wig. 6.08 kg, 30cm (12"). Property of a Jerusalem gentleman; inherited from his father who acquired them in the 1970s. Qebehsenuef was the falcon-headed son of Horus, and protected the intestines of the deceased. He was in turn protected by the goddess Serket. It appears that his role was to revive the dead person, and his name means literally he who libates his siblings. Horus commands him, Come refresh my father; betake yourself to him in your name of Qebehsenuef. You have come that you may make coolness for him after you. Libation or showering with cool water was a traditional form of worship in Ancient Egypt. There are many images of the pharaoh presenting libation to the gods. There is a sense of a dual function of cleansing and refreshing them. After Set murdered Osiris he cut the body into pieces and scattered them around the Delta. This was anathema to the Egyptians and the service that Qebehsenuef gives to the dead is to reassemble their parts so they can be properly preserved. In Spell 151 of the Book of the Dead he is given the following words to say: I am your son, Osiris, I have come to be your protection. I have united your bones for you, I have assembled your limbs for you. I have brought you your heart, and placed it for you at its place in your body. Qebehsenuef was the god associated with the west.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Egyptian Duamutef Canopic Jar

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A limestone canopic jar with columnar body and wide flat base; lid in the form of the jackal-headed Duamutef wearing tripartite wig. 6.31 kg, 36cm (14"). Property of a Jerusalem gentleman; inherited from his father who acquired them in the 1970s. Duamutef, the jackal-headed son of Horus, protected the stomach of the deceased and was in turn protected by the goddess Neith. It seems that his role was to worship the dead person, and his name means literally he who worships his mother. In the Coffin Texts Horus calls upon him, Come and worship my father N for me, just as you went that you might worship my mother Isis in your name Duamutef. Isis had a dual role. Not only was she the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus, but she was also the consort of Horus the Elder and thus the mother of the sons of Horus. This ambiguity is added to when Duamutef calls Osiris, rather than Horus his father, although kinship terms were used very loosely, and father can be used as ancestor and son as descendant. In Spell 151 of the Book of the Dead Duamutef is given the following words to say: I have come to rescue my father Osiris from his assailant . The text does not make it clear who might assail Osiris, although there are two major candidates. The obvious one is Set, the murderer of Osiris. Somehow the son who worships his mother Isis is able to assist in overcoming Set. The other possibility is Apophis, the serpent demon who prevents the Sun's passage and thus the resurrection of Osiris. Either way, Duamutef through his worship of Isis has the power to protect the deceased from harm. Duamutef was also considered one of the four pillars of Shu, a rudder of heaven, and was associated with the east.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Egyptian Gold Crowned Falcon Amulet

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Description: New Kingdom, 1550-1070 BC. A gold inlay in the form of Horus as a standing falcon wearing the crown of upper and lower Egypt. 1.11 grams, 17mm (1/4"). Property of a London gentleman; acquired from a major Mayfair gallery; acquired on the London art market before 2000.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Egyptian Gold Falcon Amulet

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A gold amulet in the form of a sitting falcon on a square base; suspension ring to the back. 2.11 grams, 11mm (1/4"). Property of a London gentleman; acquired from a major Mayfair gallery; acquired on the London art market before 2000.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Egyptian Gold Bird Amulet

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Description: 18th Dynasty, 1550-1292 BC. A gold figurine of a bird with bifacial hatched wings. See The Baron Empain collection, Christies, 14 March 2011, for similar pieces. 0.90 grams, 11mm (1/2"). From a French private collection; 1920s, thence by descent.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Egyptian Gold Snake Ring

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Description: Ptolemaic Period, 332-30 BC. A D-section coiled gold hoop with punched scale detailing, broad lozenge-shaped head with lentoid eyes, double-looped tail. Cf. Taylor, G. & Scarisbrick, D. Finger Rings from Ancient Egypt to the Present Day, Oxford, 1978, item 79. 7.91 grams, 19mm overall, 14.53mm internal diameter (approximate size British G 1/2, USA 3 1/2, Europe 5.55, Japan 5) (3/4"). From a private collection; formed 1965-1975.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Egyptian Wedjat Eye in Gold Ring

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Description: Third Intermediate Period, 1069-664 BC. A composite Eye of Horus pendant set in modern gold ring with hoop shank and shaped bezel to fit amulet. 4 grams, 19.47mm overall, 16.45mm internal diameter (approximate ring size British L 1/2, USA 6, Europe 11.87, Japan 12) (1/2"). Property of a London gentleman; acquired before 1970.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Egyptian Gold Plaque with Osiris Presentation Scene

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A gold plaque with a scene with Osiris seated on a throne wearing the atef crown, holding a crook, flail and was sceptre; in front a tall column with lotus flowers tied to the top; an offering table in front of the column with two tiers of food, vases at the base; in front of the table a male and female, both wearing long robes and wigs, arms upraised in worship; vertical bands of hieroglyphs to the top of the scene; mounted in a custom-made frame. 182 grams total, 13cm including frame (5"). From an important European collection; formerly with German gallery in the 1970s. The scene shows the deceased and his wife entering the halls of paradise where they greet, and worship, the god Osiris, enthroned as the Lord of the Afterlife. Such scenes were common for copies of the Book of the Dead, being the ultimate goal for all Egyptians as they traversed the perilous path to the next world; representations on gold are rare and must have been made for a wealthy member of Egyptian society. Osiris, along with his brother Seth, and sisters Isis and Nepthys, were the offspring of Geb, the Earth, and Nut, goddess of the sky. Being the first born Osiris was destined to be the ruler of the world, along with his sister Isis, whom he took as a wife. Seth, in his jealousy of the power of Osiris, murdered him and dismembered his body, throwing the remains into the Nile. Isis and Nepthys search for the remains, gathering each part and eventually mummifying the body, where they mourn over the dead king. Isis, through her magical powers, brings Osiris back to life and conceives a child, Horus, whom she nurtures in the swamps of the Nile Delta to protect him from Seth. When Horus comes of age he engages his uncle in a battle and defeats him, thus becoming the rightful ruler. The story is an allegory for the triumph of good over evil, the power of the sun over darkness, a preoccupation of the Egyptians with maintaining the stability of the Universe that could be achieved by worshipping the gods.

Condition Report: Fine condition. Very rare.

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Egyptian Gold Panel with Maat before Isis

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A rectangular gold repoussé plaque with seated goddess Isis holding a staff-sceptre, wearing vulture and sun disc crown, kneeling figure of Maat with wings extended, hieroglyphs in three columns above. 0.66 grams, 39mm (1 1/2"). From a private UK collection; formerly in a Munich collection formed in the 1970s. Repoussé plaques such as these would have been placed amongst the wrappings of a mummy to ensure that it was protected against the malevolent powers that could hinder the soul reaching the afterlife, and the resurrection of the body. Maat was the goddess personifying all the elements of cosmic harmony by the creator god at the beginning of time, including truth, justice and moral integrity. She is shown as a lady wearing an ostrich feather as a crown and often has wings that are spread protectively. Maat was crucial in helping the deceased reaching paradise and it is she who presides over the judgement of the dead, along with Osiris, Thoth and Anubis. In the Hall of the Two Truths, the dead person's heart is placed in a pair of scales to balance against the feather of Maat. Should the heart be lighter than the feather then the deceased can enter paradise. But if the heart is heavier than the feather, the deceased is condemned to an eternal death in the jaws of the creature called Ammit. Isis also had an important role for the deceased, being the protector of the dead and the goddess who leads the soul to paradise.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Egyptian Amun-Re Amulet Necklace

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A restrung necklace of segmented cylindrical beads, mostly glazed composition, featuring a pendant amulet of Amun-Re; modern clasp. Cf. Andrews, C. Amulets of Ancient Egypt, London, 1994, item 9(a) in seated pose. 8.35 grams, 40cm (15 3/4"). Ex Gibbons collection; acquired in the early 1980s; thence by descent. [No Reserve]

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Egyptian Poppy Head Amulet Necklace

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Description: Middle Kingdom, 2133-1797 BC. A restrung necklaced featuring nine carved carnelian 'poppy head' amulet pendants, with later smaller opaque red glass beads between; modern clasp. 23 grams, 43cm (17"). Property of a London gentleman; acquired on the London art market before 1980.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Egyptian Poppy Head Amulet Necklace

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Description: Middle Kingdom, 2133-1797 BC. A restrung necklace of twenty-one 'poppy head' amulet pendants including a flat-backed pendant at the centre, with small cylindrical carnelian beads; modern clasp. 28 grams, 56cm (22"). Ex Philippe Mariaud de Serres, Paris; acquired before 1980. The use of the poppy as a decorative element, and as an amulet, extends back to the end of the Old Kingdom and was favoured by all levels of society. They reached their peak in popularity during the New Kingdom, particularly during the Amarna Period, (1353-1336 BC), and are commonly made from carnelian, as well as faience. Real poppy heads, along with flowers, were strung together and worn by the living as well as decorating the mummies of the deceased. The exact purpose of the amulets is not known, but they may have a connection to the power of the sun god Ra, as well as associations with resurrection.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Egyptian Amethyst and Crystal Bead Necklace

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Description: Middle Kingdom, 2133-1797 BC. A restrung necklace of large double cone-shaped amethyst beads, with possibly later rock crystal beads; modern clasp. 161 grams, 45.5cm (18"). From an important London, W1, collection; acquired 1960-1980s. The chief source for amethyst was Wadi el-Hudi, eighteen miles south-east of Aswan, being predominantly exploited from the Middle Kingdom; older workings have been found near Abu Simbel. Although a few beads of this material pre-date the beginning of the First Dynasty, the period of its greatest popularity was in the Middle Kingdom, when amethyst beads were strung into necklaces, girdles and anklets, bracelets and carved into amulets. Amethyst is found infrequently in the New Kingdom, but continued to be used until the Roman period, when it was probably mined in the Safaga district of the Red Sea coast. Quartz was mined in Nubia, near the Toshka quarry, as well as a few miles north of Aswan, in the Sinai, and between the Faiyum and the Baharia Oasis, though it was also given as tribute from Syria. Quartz had been used during the Early Dynastic Period for pendants, and during the Middle Kingdom for inlays and beads.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Phoenician Figural Cup

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Description: 4th-3rd century BC. A silver repoussé vessel with wide, irregular shaped mouth with chevron pattern to the short neck; to the body four high relief arched panels each with the figure of a naked male holding offerings. 99 grams, 85mm (3 1/4"). Property of a London gentleman; acquired from a major Mayfair gallery; acquired on the London art market before 2000.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Egyptian Box Hasp with Glass Inlay

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Description: Ptolemaic Period, 332-30 BC. A bronze rectangular finial with two slender leaf-shaped attachments to the top, five rows of tear and U-shaped decoration filled with white and blue inlay; mounted on a modern rod. 131 grams, 12.6cm (5"). Property of a London gentleman; acquired from a major Mayfair gallery; acquired on the London art market before 2000.

Condition Report: Fair condition. Very rare.

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Egyptian Shrew Sarcophagus

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A hollow-formed bronze miniature sarcophagus for the mummy of a shrew with rib below the rim, to the upper face a shrew modelled in the round; one short face open to accept the mummy. 62 grams, 60mm (2 1/2"). Property of a Swedish collector; previously in a European collection; acquired before 1980. [No Reserve]

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Egyptian Osiris Statuette

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A bronze figurine representing Osiris with flail and crook in his crossed arms, plaited beard, atef crown to his head. See O'Connor, D, Abydos: Egypt's First Pharaohs and the Cult of Osiris, London, 2009, for a discussion on the role of Osiris in Egyptian religion and society. 79 grams, 13cm (5"). From the private collection of a New Jersey, USA, private collector; previously acquired on the USA art market before 1980. Osiris was both ruler of the underworld and judge of the dead, and represented the nocturnal aspect of the sun in its journey. He was connected to the fertility of the land and the production of crops, as well as to the annual flooding of the Nile. His main cult centre in Egypt was at Abydos which was believed to be his burial place. In the Greek and Roman periods of rule in Egypt he became associated with the god Serapis in the Mysteries of Isis, his consort.

Condition Report: Fine condition, feet absent.

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Egyptian Osiris Statuette

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A bronze statuette of Osiris standing with crook and flail in his crossed hands, wearing atef crown; mounted on a custom-made stand. Cf. Andrews, C. Amulets of Ancient Egypt, London, 1994, item 12(d"). 74 grams, 11.5cm including stand (4 1/2"). From an early 20th century collection.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Egyptian Osiris Figurine

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A bronze figurine representing Osiris with flail and crook in his crossed arms, plaited beard, atef crown to his head. See O'Connor, D, Abydos: Egypt's First Pharaohs and the Cult of Osiris, London, 2009, for a discussion on the role of Osiris in Egyptian religion and society. 59 grams, 10.6cm (4 1/4"). From the private collection of a London gentleman, acquired prior to 1985. Osiris was both ruler of the underworld and judge of the dead, and represented the nocturnal aspect of the sun in its journey. He is also a deity connected to the fertility of the land and the production of crops, as well as the annual flooding of the Nile. His main cult centre in Egypt was at Abydos which was believed to be his burial place. In the Greek and Roman periods of rule in Egypt he became associated with the god Serapis in the Mysteries of Isis, his consort.

Condition Report: Fine condition, repaired.

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Egyptian Nes-Khonsu Worker Shabti

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Description: Third Intermediate Period, 21st Dynasty, 1077-943 BC. A pale blue glazed composition shabti of a worker with black painted detail to the eyes, brow fillet, flails and seed-bag on the reverse; to the lower body a black-painted hieroglyphic text 'chantress of Amun, Nes-Khonsu'. 100 grams, 11.5cm (4 1/2"). Property of an Essex gentleman; acquired 2011 from a London auction house; previously in a London collection; acquired on the London art market in 1977. Shabtis are small figures of adult male or female form inscribed with a special formula to be recited (Shabti formula), or figures representing the function expressed in that spell, namely, to carry out heavy manual tasks on behalf of a person in the afterlife. [No Reserve]

Condition Report: Fine condition, repaired.

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Egyptian Hieroglyphic Shabti

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A pale blue glazed composition shabti with tripartite wig, false beard, agricultural tools in the crossed hands, seed bag to the left shoulder, dorsal pillar, rectangular base, circumferential band of hieroglyphic text to the waist and vertical band to the lower body. Cf. Berman, L.M. Cleveland Museum of Art Catalogue of Egyptian Art, New York, 1999, item 350; and The Petrie museum, accession number 28415. 81 grams, 14cm (5 1/2"). Ex Dubois collection; acquired Paris, 1970s.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Egyptian Pale Blue Hieroglyphic Shabti

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Description: Late Period, 30th Dynasty, 380-343 BC. A pale blue glazed composition shabti with tripartite wig, false beard, implements in the crossed hands, seed-bag on the left shoulder, dorsal pillar, horizontal and vertical bands of hieroglyphic text. 75 grams, 13cm (5"). Property of a private collector; formerly in a 19th century collection.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Egyptian Blue Glazed Shabti

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Description: Ptolemaic Period, 332-30 BC. A large blue glazed shabti with black detailing to the wig, eyes, beard and implements; square base and plain dorsal pillar. 168 grams, 17cm (6 3/4"). Acquired on the London art market in the 1970s; property of a North London collector by descent.

Condition Report: Fine condition, repaired.

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Egyptian Winged Scarab and Four Sons of Horus Set

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Description: Ptolemaic Period, 332-30 BC, or later. A group of glazed composition amulets consisting of a scarab with detailed carapace and legs, sides pierced for attachment, separate wings with detailing of feathers and pierced for attachment; four mummiform figures of the Sons of Horus. 53 grams total, 40-65mm (1 1/2 - 2 1/2"). From a collection formed in the early 20th century.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Phoenician Scarab with Winged Figure

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Description: 5th-4th century BC. A brown glazed composition scaraboid with incuse winged figure standing beside an ankh within a raised border; accompanied by (A) a note on British Museum embossed paper stating The scarabacus is of Phoenician work, representing a winged figure, behind which is the Egyptian symbol [ankh] life. Date B.C. 600-500. and a pencil sketch ankh on the reverse; (B) a manuscript letter on similar paper dated 20th June 1891 stating Dear Sir, Your note has been referred to me as I answered the former. I passed your question(?) as to the scarab to Mr. Renouf who generally agrees with my reply. 1. I cannot say if the scarab was part of a necklace. 2. The winged figure does not correctly represent any Egyptian divinity, male divinities not being winged. It is an imitation. 3. I am sure that the scarab is of Phoenician work, where made I cannot say, nor can anyone. 4. The substance is I think terracotta but any good archaeologist could tell it (e.g. Canon Greenwell"). 5. Neither Mr. Renouf nor I would call the scarab common, but museums are poor in such works, Phoenician imitations, as they are not sought after. Collectors value notable so after scarab. 5. I would find much on this subject in the Petries volumes in the Transactions of the Egypt Exploration Fund (Naucratis I especially"). Yours faithfully, Reginald Stuart Poole, Keeper of Coins. with a pencil sketch ankh on the last page. 8.49 grams total, scarab: 17mm (3/4"). Property of a Scottish gentleman; formerly in a 19th century collection; accompanied by an original signed and embossed letter and identification slip, both hand-written by Reginald Stuart Poole and dated 20 June 1891.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Egyptian Large Eye of Horus Amulet

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Description: Third Intermediate Period, 1069-702 BC. A large glazed composition amulet of the Eye of Horus with rounded body, eyebrow formed of smaller Eye of Horus; pierced for suspension. 16.91 grams, 39mm (1 1/2"). From a collection formed in the early 20th century.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Egyptian Horus Amulet

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Description: 26th Dynasty, 664-525 BC. A substantial glazed composition amulet of Horus in the form of a standing hawk, on a rectangular base, wings folded over the back; wedjat details to the face; suspension ring to the back. Cf. Andrews, C. Amulets of Ancient Egypt, London, 1994, p. 28. 6.72 grams, 29mm (1 1/4"). From an early 20th century collection. His name, Har in Egyptian, is probably to be interpreted as 'the high' or 'the far off', and relates to the falcon hovering up in the sky in search of its prey. evidence for Horus in complete hawk-form, is on monuments from the late Predynastic period, such as the palette showing a number of sacred creatures attacking the walls of fortified towns. He continues to appear in total falcon form throughout Egyptian civilisation, but his form, anthropomorphic to the shoulders with the hawk head becomes the most usual iconography. Horus is the symbol of divine kingship and the Pharaoh was believed to be the earthly manifestation of the god bringing justice and order to the world. The god takes on many forms, such as Harpocrates, or Horus the Child; Harsomtus, Horus the Uniter, one of two deities who were believed to bring stability to the two kingdoms of Egypt under the rulership of the king; and Har-nedj-intef, Horus the Saviour of his Father, the avenging form of the god who overcomes his evil uncle Set and restores order to the cosmos. Horus also takes on the role of a sun god where he is known as Harakhti, the Horus of the Horizon.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Egyptian Funerary Cone from the Tomb of Amunemhat

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Description: 26th Dynasty, 664-525 BC. An asymmetrical terracotta temple cone with impressed text to the base mentioning 'the chief steward and overseer of chamberlains of the Divine Adoratrice, Amunemhat'; below a representation of a solar barque, two kneeling figures of Amenenhat worshipping and flanking two vertical double symmetrical inscriptions; the full inscription reading: Overseer of the scribes, overseer of the chamberlain of the Divine Adoratrice, Amunenhat. Cf. N. de Garis Davis, and M.F.L. Macadam, A Corpus on Egyptian Funerary Cones, Oxford, 1957, no.598; G. Dibley, and B. Lipkin, A Compendium of Egyptian Funerary Cones, London, 2013, p.181; for an illustrated article on funerary cones, see: Peter A. Clayton, The Name's Over the Door, Egyptian Funerary Cones, in Ancient Egypt, vol.14, issue 9, August/September 2013, pp.36-40. 633 grams, 15.5cm (6"). Ex Janssen collection, Netherlands; formerly with Sands of Time, Washington DC, USA with accompanying certificate EC6131. This double-line style of textual layout is unusual, as is the square format of the impression; most funerary cones have a circular impression. Early examples have been found from the Eleventh Dynasty, however, they are generally undecorated. During the New Kingdom, the cones were smaller in size and inscribed in hieroglyphs with stamped text typically bearing the names and titles of the deceased person, often including additional biographical data and epitaphs, as well as a short prayer. Funerary cones were normally inserted in rows above the entrance to the tomb. While the Theban necropolis has yielded most known funerary cones, they have also been discovered in a few other locations including as far south as Nubia. Any number of cones might exist for any one person, and they provide us with a considerable amount of the information on many non-royal ancient Egyptians. The name Amunemhat means 'Amun is in Front' and was a popular name for Pharaohs during the Twelfth Dynasty, and for high officials from the New Kingdom onward. The owner's tomb number at Thebes is not known.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Egyptian Funerary Cone from the Tomb of Surero

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Description: 18th Dynasty, reign of Amenophis III, 1386-1349 BC. The major part of a conical terracotta funerary cone with the remains of a four-line hieroglyphic inscription to the base reading “The Osiris, the royal scribe, fan-bearer on the right of the King, Surero, true of voice” [i.e. deceased]. Cf. Theban Tomb 48, west bank at Luxor, Khokha area; N. de Garis Davis, and M.F.L. Macadam, A Corpus on Egyptian Funerary Cones, Oxford, 1957, no. 477; G. Dibley, and B. Lipkin, A Compendium of Egyptian Funerary Cones, London, 2013, p.51; for an illustrated article on funerary cones, see: Peter A. Clayton, The Name's Over the Door, Egyptian Funerary Cones, in Ancient Egypt, vol. 14, issue 9, August/September 2013, pp.36-40. 430 grams, 98mm (4"). Property of a Swedish collector; formerly in the Malte Nilsson collection; acquired 1950s-1960s; thence by descent. [No Reserve]

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Egyptian Inscribed Offering Table

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A limestone square offering table with slightly chamfered edges, the lower part roughly carved; the top carved with four panels, the upper two with representations of offerings, the lower with two recessed panels for food offerings either side of a long channel which projects slightly for liquid offerings. 8.16 kg, 30 x 33cm (12 x 13"). Property of a Jerusalem gentleman; inherited from his father who acquired them in the 1970s. Offerings of food were basic to the continued existence of the gods and the dead alike. They were often presented to them on special tables. In the homes these might stand in niches in a room used as a domestic shrine, in temples in rooms dedicated to offerings and in tombs below ground if there was an accessible chapel, otherwise it was placed on the ground on top of the grave or in specially built funerary chapels. During the Old Kingdom food offerings were presented to the deceased lucky enough to have a substantial tomb on stone platters or offering tables in front of their funerary stele or false door, but for most the offerings were probably, a loaf of bread and a cup of beer placed on top of a mat. The stone offering tables of the wealthy imitated these simple reed mats and were decorated with food stuffs and inscribed with the offering prayers, which would nourish the deceased through their magic, if real foodstuffs were not provided. In depictions the offering tables are laden with a great variety of exquisite foodstuffs, and quite possibly that was the quality and quantity of offerings customary among the rich. The offering table was often placed in front of the false door in the funerary chapel, through which the soul of the deceased person was believed to pass so that they could partake of the offerings. In the Middle Kingdom offering tables fell out of fashion in favour of models of food, along with models of servants and buildings that were required by the deceased, and which were believed to magically come to life in the next world.

Condition Report: Fair condition.

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Egyptian Cosmetic Palette

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Description: Pre-Dynastic Period, 3rd millennium BC. A finely carved flat stone palette in a form of a blade with a circular attachment loop. 38 grams, 11.9cm (4 3/4"). Property of a London gentleman; acquired from a major Mayfair gallery; acquired on the London art market before 2000.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Egyptian Lotus Amulet

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Description: New Kingdom, 1550-1070 BC. A large carved lapis lazuli bifacial amuletic pendant of a lotus flower with ribbed lug above. 5.65 grams, 34mm (1 1/4"). From an early 20th century collection.

Condition Report: Extremely fine condition.

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Egyptian Meroitic Sceptre Fitting

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Description: 10th century BC. A dioritic stone sceptre fitting(?), flaring to the bottom and flat to the base, hollowed through the centre for insertion over a wood core. 68 grams, 40cm (1 1/2"). Property of a London gentleman; acquired from a major Mayfair gallery; acquired on the London art market before 2000.

Condition Report: Very fine condition. Extremely rare.

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Egyptian Amun Ra Ram Head Fitting

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Description: Late Period, 664-332 BC. A carved stone head of a ram with tripartite wig, horns curving round ears, finely detailed eyes and small false beard below the mouth; socket to the top of the head for attachment of separate crown. 829 grams, 11cm (4 1/4"). Property of a Jerusalem gentleman; inherited from his father who acquired them in the 1970s; accompanied by a copy of the Israel export licence. Amun was the state god of Egypt from the early New Kingdom until his popularity declined during the Late Period, and had his chief shrine at the enormous temple complex of Karnak in southern Egypt. He was seen as the creator god, but also the power behind the throne and the symbolic father of each Pharaoh. His name means 'The Hidden' and he was believed to move through the cosmos as a divine wind that brought peace and order. He could take on a number of forms such as a human, a goose or a ram. The ram was associated with fertility, one of the functions of the god bringing fertility to the earth, and he is represented as such in the ram headed sphinxes that lined the processional route from Karnak to Luxor temples. Despite his decline as a state god of Egypt in the Late Period he continued to be worshipped in the Ptolemaic and Roman periods as a manifestation of Zeus and Jupiter, and being depicted as a bearded Classical god but with rams' horns curving round his ears. His main shrine during the Ptolemaic and Roman periods was at the Siwah Oasis in the Western desert, where he was worshipped in the form of a ram and which was famed for its oracular powers. It was here that Alexander the Great was proclaimed to be the son of Amon (and therefore Zeus) and was destined to conquer the world.

Condition Report: Fine condition, repaired.

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Phoenician Bead Group

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Description: 3rd millennium BC. A mixed group of beautifully banded fusiform-shaped beads, one cut as a cabochon revealing an 'eye' with lateral hole; possibly from further east. 26 grams, 21-33mm (3/4 - 1 1/4"). Property of a North West London gentleman; formerly with a central London gallery in 1990. [5]

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Egyptian Dynastic Macehead

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Description: Early Dynastic Period, 3rd millennium BC. A silaceous conglomerate stone macehead pierced through the middle for attaching to haft. 204 grams, 55mm (2 1/4"). Property of a London gentleman; acquired from a major Mayfair gallery; acquired on the London art market before 2000.

Condition Report: Very fine condition.

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Coptic Bone Bead Necklace

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Description: 6th-7th century AD and later. A restrung bone necklace consisting of numerous flat disc beads, cylinder beads and elongated tube beads with two Indian carved elephant beads to the side, and in the centre a pierced ring with melon bead between. 33 grams, 53cm (20 3/4"). Property of a gentleman; acquired in the late 1960s-early 1970s.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Egyptian Coptic Bone Doll

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Description: 7th-8th century AD. A D-section carved bone doll with stylised face, saltire and transverse bars to the upper body, round socket to the groin, stub arms and legs with notched ends. 42 grams, 10.5cm (4"). From an old German collection; acquired before 1980. The exact purpose of bone dolls is not fully understood, though the most obvious is that they were toys for children. Throughout the Roman empire a number of dolls have been found associated with children's graves, most famously the ivory doll found with a mummified girl in a tomb in Rome. However, in antiquity not all figurines and dolls were children's toys and votive figurines which resemble dolls are common. The votive dolls are more schematic with an emphasis on the hips and pudenda, such as in this example. It is likely that they were offered at shrines or used in fertility rituals to assist women conceive and in childbirth.

Condition Report: Fine condition; cracked, one arm absent.

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Egyptian Servant Figure

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Description: Middle Kingdom, 2133-1797 BC. A carved wooden figure from a funerary scene with black hair pigment, red flesh and white kilt; sockets to the shoulders for attachment of separate arms. Cf. Taylor, J.H. Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt, London, 2001, items 66, 67 for type. 21 grams, 16.5cm (6 1/2"). From an early 20th century collection.

Condition Report: Fair condition.

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Egyptian Worker Figure

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Description: Middle Kingdom, 2133-1797 BC. A carved wooden figure from a funerary diorama, kneeling kilted female with pegs for attachment of separate arms, stud to the underside. See Taylor, J.H. Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt, London, 2001 for discussion. 48 grams, 14.5cm (5 3/4"). From an early 20th century collection. Adequate provisioning for the afterlife was a paramount concern to Egyptians of all social and occupational class. While funerary offerings and activities of everyday life were most often portrayed in relief during the Old Kingdom, small painted models placed in the tomb became increasingly prevalent during the Middle Kingdom as a more effective way of perpetually ensuring the necessities and pleasures of life.

Condition Report: Fair condition.

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Egyptian Worker Figure

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Description: Middle Kingdom, 2133-1797 BC. A carved wooden figure from a funerary diorama, standing kilted female with legs flexed, pegs for attachment of separate arms. See Taylor, J.H. Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt, London, 2001. 55 grams, 23cm (9"). From an early 20th century collection. Wooden tomb models were an Egyptian funerary custom throughout the Middle Kingdom in which wooden figurines and sets were constructed to be placed in the tombs of the wealthy. These wooden models represented servants, farmers, other skilled craftsman, armies, and religious rituals. The different types of models served as symbols and were believed to perform various functions for the deceased. Each model had a different purpose in the belief of the Egyptians and was provided to perform its specific function. Model houses were included to ensure existence in the afterlife. Farmers, artisans, and craftsmen models were said to increase the material wealth of the individual. If the tomb's resident needed to perform a specific task in the afterlife, a wooden model would be included to perform that task for him. During the New Kingdom these models were replaced by the more familiar shabti figures.

Condition Report: Fair condition.

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Eastern Greek Youthful Head of a Kouros

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Description: 575-550 BC. A carved marble youthful head of a Kouros with close-fitting cap, band of curls to the forehead, braided hair falling to the shoulders, broad brow and cheeks, large lentoid eyes, pert lips held in an enigmatic smile; with steel mounting socket to the underside. Cf. Richter, G.M.A. Korai: Archaic Greek Maidens, (London, 1968) fig.368, for similar treatment of the hair, fig.128 for parallel; Guralnik, E. (1978) ‘The Proportions of Kouroi’, American Journal of Archaeology 82.4, p.461-472; Payne & Young: Archaic Marble Sculpture from the Acropolis, p.37; also Sounion Kouros, NAM Athens, acc.no.2720; Saite figure, Louvre, Paris, acc.no.E5345; for a colourful kore, see see the sculpture known as ‘Kore 675’, NAM Athens; the ‘Nikandre Kore’, NAM Athens, acc.no.1; ‘Antenor Kore’, Acropolis Museum, Athens, acc.no.681; the ‘Rayet Head’, Ny Carlsberg Glyptothek, Copenhagen, acc.no.418; similar kore, Acropolis Museum, Athens, acc.no.643. Accompanied by an Art Loss Register certificate. 35 kg, 35cm (13 3/4"). Property of a Hampshire gentleman; previously in the Collins collection; acquired from the McKenna family collection in 1998; formerly from a collection in Geneva, having been sent to America in the 1980s for exhibition by Harri Burki of Zurich. The earliest monumental marble sculpture to be found in Greece is that depicting the kouros (pl.kouroi) meaning 'youth', and his female counterpart, the kore (pl. korai), meaning 'maiden.' They are attested across the Greek mainland and islands, as well as in some of the colonies founded by the Greeks, and stand as one of the Archaic period’s most iconic art forms. They appear to have had a dual purpose as either grave markers or temple dedications, in common with most major statuary of the Archaic period. As grave markers they show a degree of personal or family wealth from the city states whose economic resources remained concentrated within a small group of wealthy, aristocratic families. The quality of dedications from temples was partly determined by the splendours of the sanctuary in which they stood and which they had to match. The monumental early sixth century BC kouros discovered at the temple of Poseidon at Cape Sounion, Attica, is an excellent example of such equivalence. Standing at over 3 metres tall in its restored state, and exquisitely sculpted, it was most appropriate to stand in a prominent temple much used by seafarers from across the Greek-speaking world. Kouroi and korai first appeared in the middle of the seventh century BC and seem to be partly influenced by Egyptian art styles that were encountered by Greek settlers in Egypt, at such places as Naukratis, an early Greek trading post, where they formed a militia within the Egyptian army and actively traded across Egypt and the Mediterranean. Indeed, many of the early kouroi clearly display Egyptian art styles in the rendering of the body, hair and facial features. Many kouroi and korai display a hairstyle arranged both in front of and behind the shoulders, reminiscent of an Egyptian tripartite wig. The characteristic striding stance had been typical of Egyptian figurative sculpture for over a millennium and was still prominent in the sculpture of the Saite period (664-525 BC), roughly contemporary with the kouroi and korai. The figure of a Saite official, now held in Paris, shows particularly close parallels to the kouros type, not least in proportion and the treatment of facial features. Eleanor Guralnik, using stereophotogrammetric analysis, showed very close similarities in the proportions of both Greek and Egyptian sculptures of this period. It is attested that Saite-period Egyptian sculptors used a grid system of twenty-one and a quarter squares, with twenty one squares used for the majority of the sculpture- the feet to the eyes. The grid was applied to the block due to be carved. It is entirely plausible that visiting Greek sculptors, passing through Naucratis, would have seen and learned this simple system, taking it back to their own workshops. By the sixth century BC, the kouros type continued to display the same pose and proportions as earlier examples but developed increasingly naturalistic facial features, with parts of the body becoming more accurately rendered, particularly the musculature. By the late sixth century the more recognisable elements of early Classical art could be discerned in a more fluid representation of form. The Kouros statues of the late Archaic period can in fact be seen as precursors to the Classical athlete statues, such as Myron’s iconic Diskobolos and in particular Polykleitos’ Doryphoros, which shows a dynamic progression from the kouros’ typical striding pose. The specific feminine variation on the kouros-type, the kore, showed a marked variation from her male counterpart in that she was invariably represented fully clothed rather than an athletic nude, in keeping with Greek culture’s specifically gendered social roles. Where the kouroi were often associated with Apollo, the korai became linked to his twin sister Artemis, a chaste, virginal goddess, and the weight of their clothing was emblematic of modesty and virtue. It was typically brightly decorated, and some korai retain their colourful decoration to this day. From the earliest forms, in which the kore’s drapery amounted to little more than a solid column, as seen on the ‘Nikandre Kore’, the treatment of the clothing progressed in keeping with the kouros’ increasingly naturalistic musculature. By the late sixth century BC, sculptures such as the ‘Antenor Kore’ show a sophisticated level of sculptural skill in their drapery. The clothing of the ‘Antenor’ pre-empts the fine, transparent-seeming outfits of later classical sculptures in the deftly-worked folds of the mantle, the hand gathering the garment into pleats, and thenarrow skirt appearing to cling to the young woman’s legs. The soft features of the face of our example and the treatment of the hair would suggest a date in the late Archaic period, the second half of the sixth century BC. With its large, almond-shaped eyes,soft, regularly-arranged curls, and full, fleshy cheeks, it bears notable similarities to the 'Rayet' kouros head from Athens, dating to 520 BC. The treatment of the eyes and hair also has parallels with a kore head held in Athens, which has been speculated to have been carved by the same sculptor as the Rayet head, a man possibly named Endoios (see Payne and Young"). [A video of this lot is available on the TimeLine Auctions website]

Condition Report: Very fine condition. Very rare.

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Description: No Lot.

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Scythian Rhyton with Animal Head

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Description: 2nd-1st century BC. A silver rhyton in the shape of a conical horn with beaded rim to the top and two further collars to the body with beaded decoration; the end in the form of a ram head with horns curving round ears, small hole to mouth, one eye inlaid with gold pupil. See Martha L. Carter, Arts of the Hellenised East: Precious Metalwork of the Pre-Islamic Era, London, 2015; another example with Ram's head terminal illustrated in: Ellen D. Reeder, Scythian Gold, 1999, no.163; also a Scythian example of circa 350-325 BC, from Sololeva Mohyla, near village of Hirniat'ske. 330 grams, 33cm (13"). Property of a London gentleman; acquired from a major Mayfair gallery; acquired on the London art market before 2000. Elaborate bowls, animal-headed drinking vessels, and rhytons are vessels which have a hole at the front from which liquid flows, and were highly valued in ancient Near Eastern society. During the pre-Achaemenid, Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanian periods, examples made of silver, gold, and clay were used throughout a vast area extending both to the east and west of Iran. The animals on these vessels included the ram, horse, bull, ibex, supernatural creatures, and female divinities; some were engraved with royal inscriptions. Rhytons made of precious materials were probably luxury wares used at royal courts. Both the rhyton and the animal-headed vessel were adopted by the Greek world as exotic and prestigious Oriental products.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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Greek Campanian Figural Bell Krater

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Description: 5th-3rd century BC. A large ceramic bell krater with pedestal base, bell-shaped body, square handles and broad everted rim; the rim with a band of vine-leaves to the underside of the exterior; the body with two figural scenes separated by painted palmettes beneath the handles, running scroll beneath; Side A: a bare-chested male seated on a stool with white garland to the brow, neck and shoulder, white armring and bracelets, right hand extended towards a standing female with stephane and mantle to the left shoulder and arm holding a necklace in the left hand, frond in the right facing a second standing female with fan and frond; Side B: two males in loosely draped robes facing a female with one leg raised. Accompanied by an Art Loss Register certificate. 7 kg, 44cm (17 1/4"). From the estate of a deceased north country collector; acquired over a 30 year period from the early 1970s. South Italian vases are ceramics, mostly decorated in the red-figure technique, that were produced by Greek colonists in southern Italy and Sicily, the region often referred to as Magna Graecia. South Italian vases are divided into five wares named after the regions in which they were produced: Lucanian, Apulian, Campanian, Paestan, and Sicilian. South Italian wares, unlike Attic, were not widely exported and seem to have been intended solely for local consumption. Each fabric has its own distinct features, including preferences in shape and decoration that make them identifiable, even when exact provenance is unknown. Campanian vases were produced by Greeks in the cities of Capua and Cumae, which were settled by Greek colonists fleeing political unrest in the Sicilian city of Syracuse; both cities however remained under native control. Capua was an Etruscan foundation that passed into the hands of Samnites in 426 B.C. Cumae, one of the earliest of the Greek colonies in Magna Graecia, was founded on the Bay of Naples by Euboeans no later than 730–720 BC It, too, was captured by native Campanians in 421 BC, but Greek laws and customs were retained. The workshops of Cumae were founded slightly later than those of Capua, around the middle of the fourth century BC. The range of subjects is relatively limited, the most characteristic being representations of women and warriors in native Osco-Samnite dress. The armor consists of a three-disk breastplate and helmet with a tall vertical feather on both sides of the head. Local dress for women consists of a short cape over the garment and a headdress of draped fabric, rather medieval in appearance. The figures participate in libations for departing or returning warriors as well as in funerary rites. These representations are comparable to those found in painted tombs of the region as well as at Paestum.

Condition Report: Fine condition.

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