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The Property of a Distinguished American Private Collector

by Profiles in History

Platinum House

298 lots with images

December 18, 2012

Live Auction

26901 Agoura Road

Suite 150

Calabasas Hills, CA, 91301 USA

Phone: 310-859-7701

Fax: 310-859-3842

Email: Info@profilesinhistory.com

298 Lots
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Dickens, Charles. Autograph Letter Signed, 1 page, (9 x 7 3/8 in.; 229 x 187 mm.)

Lot 152: Dickens, Charles. Autograph Letter Signed, 1 page, (9 x 7 3/8 in.; 229 x 187 mm.)

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Description: 152. Dickens, Charles. Autograph Letter Signed, 1 page, (9 x 7 3/8 in.; 229 x 187 mm.), “London,” 1 September 1842 to Thomas C. Grattan, the Irish novelist and British Consul at Boston; address leaf on verso of integral blank.  Dickens writes to Thomas Grattan “cursing” income taxes in America. Dickens writes in full: As I had a kind note from you before leaving America (which is still unanswered) let me report that we are all well and happy, as I shall hope to hear you are--that everybody is cursing the Income Tax, except the men to whom it gives places--and that there is nothing else new in this hemisphere.  You will have seen that I followed up the International copyright question, and that they have forged a letter under my hand in the American Papers --which does not surprise me in the least.   Nothing but Honesty or common sense would startle me from such a quarter. If you should foregather any of these odd days with Braham, commend me to him heartily, and pray do the like with all manner of remembrance from Mrs. Dickens to Mrs. Grattan--and to your sons and daughter. The older Longman is just dead. He fell from his horse and never recovered. I have not heard to whom he has bequeathed his valuable collection of authors’ skulls.... His remarkable first trip to America was a disappointment for both guest and hosts. The adored English novelist fell from grace almost immediately upon his arrival in Boston when, at a dinner given in his honor, he pleaded for an International Anglo­American copyright law.  For Sketches by Boz, The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, and Oliver Twist, all American best sellers, Dickens had not received a penny. To the Americans, the writer had disgraced his hosts and himself by raising the subject of money.  For Dickens, the constant harassment by the press, crowds and politicians, made his stay, and even a visit to the White House, unbearable. He happily returned to England in June, in time to find that Peel had instituted a tax on income over £150 a year. John Braham was the great English tenor who, in the twilight of his career, made a largely unsuccessful trip through America from 1840-1842. The publisher Thomas Longman had died just three days prior to Dickens’s letter, and the sardonic comment on “authors’ skulls” is a reference to the large number of writers, whom Longman published, including Scott, Coleridge, Wordsworth, and Southey. The integral address leaf is unusual in that Dickens has noted that the letter is to be sent, By the Great Western (the first regularly scheduled transatlantic steamship) Second September 1842.  In addition, there are two British postmarks, one of which states, “Ship Letter,” and the other is a cancellation stamp--”New York Ship, Sept. 18”.

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Dickens, Charles. Fine autograph letter signed, 2 pages, (8 x 5 in.; 203 x 127 mm.)

Lot 153: Dickens, Charles. Fine autograph letter signed, 2 pages, (8 x 5 in.; 203 x 127 mm.)

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Description: 153. Dickens, Charles. Fine autograph letter signed, 2 pages, (8 x 5 in.; 203 x 127 mm.), “London,” 19 July 1859, on imprinted stationery Office of All the Year Round/ A Weekly Journal Conducted by Charles Dickens, to Thomas Adolphus Trollope; slightly torn along central vertical fold. An admiring letter from Dickens to Trollope. In 1859, Trollope’s A Decade of Italian Womenwas published. He then submitted works for publication in Dickens’s All the Year Round. Dickens writes in part: I beg to enclose a cheque . . . for the articles I have had the pleasure of publishing on these pages. Circumstances rendered it necessary to shorten the Revolution paper; but I hope you will do me the favour to understand that its condensation was an unavoidable necessity, not in the least agreeable to me. It will give me the greatest pleasure to receive any other contributions from you. They cannot well be too numerous, and they are most acceptable . . . I cannot close this short without thanking you for the Decade of Italian Women. I have just now been reading it with attention in the country, and I have bee charmed with it.  It strikes me a very remarkable work, in its combination of knowledge, picturesquesness, plain speaking about that wicked old Babylonian woman of ill fame, and union of a genuine spirit of romance with real philosophical wisdom . . . A wonderful letter between two of the most prominent English authors of the nineteenth century.

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Dickens, Charles. Highly important autograph manuscript, marked as printer's copy, of

Lot 154: Dickens, Charles. Highly important autograph manuscript, marked as printer's copy, of "In Memoriam"

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Description: 154. Dickens, Charles. Highly important autograph manuscript, marked as printer’s copy, of “In Memoriam,” being his obituary of William Makepeace Thackeray for the Cornhill Magazine, 12 pages in slips of various sizes, cut from 5 sheets of paper, and numbered by the printers “1” to “11” (the slip between “6” and “7” is present but skipped in the numbering); written in blue ink on one side only, authorial corrections and alterations throughout. Together with: a short covering autograph letter signed to the publisher, George Smith, returning the corrected proofs, Gad’s Hill Place, Higham by Rochester, Kent, 15 January 1864, on mourning stationery. The evocative and important autograph manuscript of “In Memoriam,” Dickens’s obituary tribute to Thackeray, his old comrade and brother in arms. After Thackeray’s death on 23 December 1863, George Smith approached Dickens with the request that he might contribute an obituary of Thackeray to the Cornhill Magazine, of which Thackeray had been the first editor (1860-62).   Dickens agreed on the condition that he receive no payment, and his article was completed three weeks after Thackeray’s death. In the letter which accompanies the manuscript, Dickens writes, I send you my proof, corrected.  You will see that I have made it no longer, and that the tail-piece will come in as you originally purposed. The “tail-piece”Dickens alludes to is the last paragraph, describing Thackeray’s funeral. In the manuscript and in the proof itself it had ended with a startlingly captious final reflection on Thackeray’s snobbery, a side of him least sympathetic to Dickens: His funeral will always be as memorable to me in that wise, as for its shabby representation of that order usually called “the Great”: upon which he, a man of genius, perhaps had sometimes condescended to bestow too much of his attention.  This is cancelled entirely in the Cornhill text, and in all other texts subsequently printed; this most significant of deletions was made as well to the proof, which is described in The Free Library of Philadelphia exhibition catalogue of Dickens, June, 1946, item 151. In the main text Dickens relates that Thackeray and he had known each other nearly twenty-eight years, since Thackeray proposed to become the illustrator of my earliest book. I saw him last, shortly before Christmas, at the Athenaeum Club...  Although Dickens is generous here in his praise of Thackeray’s character, the course of their friendship had not been a smooth one they had barely spoken from 1858 until three months from the end. Dickens alludes only briefly to their quarrel, We had our differences of opinion, which was in fact one of the most celebrated literary fallings-out of the nineteenth century, to which ‘In Memoriam’ may be one of the handsomest, if saddest, resolutions.  The cause of the rift between them had been Dickens’s support of Edmund Yates in the Garrick Club Affair.  Yates had written a severe attack on Thackeray in Town Talk, for which Thackeray demanded a public apology; when this was not forthcoming, Yates was expelled from the Garrick Club at Thackeray’s instigation.  Dickens took Yates’s side against Thackeray in the bitter dispute which ensued.  They were not to be on friendly terms again until their last meetings just months before Thackeray’s death. Dickens devotes considerable space to the fiction which Thackeray was at work upon at the time of his death, his unfinished novel Denis Duval. He writes herewith in glowing terms of this last story: I believe it to be much the best of all his works and refers to the last line he wrote, and the last proof he corrected . . . the condition of the little pages of manuscript where Death stopped his hand shows that he had carried them about, and often taken them out of his pocket here and there, for patient revision and interlineation. The last words he corrected in print, were, “And my heart throbbed with an exquisite bliss.” The obituary, by the great Victorian novelist appeared in the February, 1864, issue of the Cornhill Magazine. An extraordinary tribute from one great writer to another.

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Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge,

Lot 155: Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge, "Lewis Carroll." Autograph letter signed ("C.L. Dodgson"), 3 pages

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Description: 155. Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge, “Lewis Carroll.”Autograph letter signed (“C.L. Dodgson”),3 pages, (5 3/8 x 3 ½ in.; 137 x 89 mm.), “Oxford,” 22 February 1888, to Miss Webb. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) writes to a friend thanking her for assistance and questions her about an upcoming visit to a family.  Dodgson shows his understanding of children as he prepares for a visit to a family and the questions he asks Miss Webb to assist him with before the visit.  Dodgson writes in full: Thank you very much, for your kind help in the matter of the Martins.  I find that I sent books to Rose & Georgina, & that I got a joint letter of thanks, in which they told me Edith’s name was down also for a book, Alice.  I then sent her it, & also a copy (though Rose had it already) of the facsimile Alice, because I happened to have written her name in it by mistake, but no acknowledgement reached me.  Would you ascertain if she got them, & also the year & day of her birth?  Thanks for kindly offering to go with me to the house: but I think I’d better go alone.  Where children are concerned, the more the number of visitors the more formal the visit. What hours in the day are the children most likely to be at home? Is the father alive? What trade? (I hope you don’t mind my bothering you with so many questions!) I’ll call, & tell you about my visit, if I may.

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Hume, David. Autograph letter signed, 1 page (9 1/8 x 7 ¼ in.; 232 x 184 mm.)

Lot 156: Hume, David. Autograph letter signed, 1 page (9 1/8 x 7 ¼ in.; 232 x 184 mm.)

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Description: 156. Hume, David.  Autograph letter signed, 1 page (9 1/8 x 7 ¼ in.; 232 x 184 mm.), Saturday, [1746] to Sir James Johnstone, regarding his tutorship of the Marquess of Annandale, with crossings out and corrections; with integral address panel, sealed and franked for posting; repair to right margin and seal tear on integral address leaf. A difficult engagement as tutor to the Marquess of Annandale. Hume was engaged to become tutor to the Marquess of Annandale in 1745. He accepted the post, knowing the Marquess was renowned for  his eccentricity, and  for some time, all went well. “By  September, however, difficulties began to arise, both foreseen and unforeseen.  The Marquess, as had been anticipated, became more violent and more intractable.  He developed the habit of deliberately vomiting after meals and had to be constantly watched.  His companion, consequently, was forced to become more a keeper than a tutor” (Mossner, pp. 165-166).  Even then, Hume would have possibly found the situation tolerable, had it not been for the strange behaviour of Captain Philip Vincent, a cousin of the family, who had been instrumental in hiring Hume,  and whom, it appeared, was trying to wrest  the  running of the estate from Sir James Johnstone.  “In the course of time, David Hume became convinced that these ‘dark intricate designs’, included the ousting of Johnstone as family adviser and eventually the lifting of the estate, or some part of it, from the Dowager Marchioness herself.  Whether this was  actually true to the extent that Hume imagined it or not cannot now be determined, but there was unmistakable evil in the house” (ibid., p. 167). Hume articulates his disquiet: I did write you the very first occasion after I came out hither.  But I find my letters have great difficulty to reach you: for which reason, I shall put this into the post myself, to prevent such Practices, as I suspect are us’d, in this Family.  I have some reason also to think that spies are plac’d upon my most indifferent actions... What a scene is this for a man nourished in Philosophy & polite letters to enter into all of a sudden, & unprepared!  But I can laugh; whatever happens; & the newness of such practices rather diverts me.  At first they caus’d Indignation & Hatred; & even (tho’ I am asham’d to confess it) Melancholy & Sorrow” Hume was dismissed in mid-April, 1746; but later brought a successful lawsuit against the family for non-payment of £75.00, stated in his contract as being payable for a quarter, even if he left before.  The dispute was eventually resolved in 1761 when presumably matters, “were then settled out of court to Hume’s satisfaction, for he would never have let the matter drop, no matter how well-off he had become in the meantime... The accumulated funds of the Annandale estate, tied up in litigation, ultimately rose to the staggering sum of £415,000!  There seems to be no good reason why a philosopher should not be permitted to collect his debts as well as a businessman” (ibid., p. 172). Letters in Hume’s hand are extremely rare. References: Published in Murray, Letters of David Hume, Edinburgh, 1841 and in Greig, The Letters of David Hume, 1932; see Mossner, The Life of David Hume, pp.163-176.

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Johnson, Samuel. A Dictionary of the English Language, 1755. Two volumes, (16 ½ x 10 ¼ in.)

Lot 157: Johnson, Samuel. A Dictionary of the English Language, 1755. Two volumes, (16 ½ x 10 ¼ in.)

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Description: 157. Johnson, Samuel. A Dictionary of the English Language: in which the words are deduced from their originals and illustrated in their different significations by examples from the best writers. London: W. Strahan for J. and P. Knapton, T. and N. ongman, C. Hitch and L. Hawes, A. Millar, and R. and J. Dodsley, 1755. Two volumes, (16 ½ x 10 ¼ in.; 419 x 260 mm.), Titles in red and black, woodcut tailpieces. Contemporary calf; some wear. A fine copy in contemporary bindings. References: Courtney and Smith page 54; Chapman & Hazen page 137; Fleeman 55.4D/1a; PMM 201; Rothschild 1237. (2). Provanance: Earl of Dartmouth (bookplate).

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Lawrence, Thomas Edward. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 158: Lawrence, Thomas Edward. Autograph letter signed ("T E Shaw"), 1 page, (13 ¼ x 8 ¼ in; 337 x 210 mm)

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Description: 158. Lawrence, Thomas Edward.  Autograph letter signed (“T E Shaw”), 1 page, (13 ¼ x 8 ¼ in.; 337 x 210 mm.),  “Drigh Road, Karachi, India,” 5 January 1927, to an unidentified correspondent; repair to tears at foot of page. T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) explains to another writer that he will never again use the name of Lawrence in public or private.   Lawrence, using his pseudonym T E Shaw, writes in full: I have sworn a great oath never to use or countenance the use of the name ‘Lawrence’, as referring to me, again, in public or private.  So that would settle the question of my introducing your book, I’m afraid. Of course I write, or rather I try to write, occasionally: unsigned articles, or articles signed by virgin names.  They are worth two guineas a thousand words, which I am told is a better rate than usual.  They cost me more than that, in trouble, even at my R.A.F. rate of 3/6 a day! And no publisher would be moved to publish your work, because it had an unknown man’s introduction before it. But why should you think an introduction necessary? You used to read always Leopardi, and Simonides, and they are good people.  Probably the right man will take what you have written on its merits, and that should be much more gratifying than to be helped.  I did twice, in the old days, help people by introducing their books: but one, Richard Garnett, was dead, and that pardoned the offence.  The other, Doughty, was a special case: I had been trying to persuade all London to reprint him, and at last one beginning publisher said ‘I will, if you preface if: - and what could I do?  Doughty was very nice about it: but it felt like scratching one’s name on Westminster Abby. Introductions to publishers I will (and do) willingly give.  Several people with good stuff have been helped by me into print.  It’s a matter of knowing the proper tradesmen.  Have you tried Cape? He is enterprising, and the best producer of commercial books in London (for format). If you will send me a sample of your stuff I’ll see that it reaches his reader (Edward Garnett, a critic of genius) with my opinion. I have no doubt that it’s the right stuff: and it should be exactly right for the particular public.  If Cape says ‘NO’, I’d suggest Faber and Gwyer for second string: but Cape an easy first. Seeker is too difficult: and the big men too staid.  Do send me a copied chapter (not registered: by ordinary post) and I’m sure we can pull it off easily. An extraordinarily long letter with important content.

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Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding. In Four Books.

Lot 159: Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding. In Four Books.

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Description: 159. Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding. In Four Books. London: Printed by. Eliz. Holt for Thomas Basset, 1690. Folio, (12 3/8 x 7 ½ in.; 314 x 191 mm.), Title vignette of printer’s ornaments; some light soiling; full calf; rebacked, spine laid down. First edition, first issue. A fine copy of the most renowned treatise of its time. Locke worked for nearly two decades on his investigation of “the certainty and the adequacy of human knowledge,” concluding that “though knowledge must necessarily fall short of complete comprehension, it can at least be ‘sufficient’; enough to convince us that we are not at the mercy of pure chance, and can to some extent control our own destiny” (PMM.), The significance of his Essaywas immediately recognized: it quickly ran to several editions and was popularized on the Continent by French translations. “Few books in the literature of philosophy have so widely represented the spirit of the age and country in which they apeared, or have so influence opinion afterwards” (Fraser). References: Attig228; Garrison-Morton 4967; Wing L-2738; Grolier One Hundred 72; Grolier English 36; Pforzheimer 599; PMM 164; Norman 1380.

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More, Thomas. [Utopia:] Basel: Johann Froben, March 1518. Quarto, (8 3/8 x 6 ¼ in.)

Lot 160: More, Thomas. [Utopia:] Basel: Johann Froben, March 1518. Quarto, (8 3/8 x 6 ¼ in.)

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Description: 160. More, Thomas. [Utopia:] De optimo reip. statu, deque nova insula Utopia . . .Epigrammata  . . . Thomae Mori . . . Epigrammata Desiderius Erasmi Roterodami. Basel: Johann Froben, March 1518. Quarto, (8 3/8 x 6 ¼ in.; 213 x 159 mm.), Three parts in one volume. Roman and Greek types, Utopian alphabet. Three woodcut architectural title borders by Hans Holbein on a1 recto, c1 recto and L1 recto, one by Urs Graf on x1 recto, full-page woodcut map of Utopia by Ambrosius Holbein, half-page woodcut scene depicting John Clement Thomas More, Raphael Hythlodaye and Pieter Gillis by Ambrosius Holbein, title to More’s epigrams within fool and satyr border by Urs Graf and the Holbeins, one of three printer’s devices at the end of each section; a few leaves very lightly soiled or damp-stained, several early manuscript annotations by Anthony Rous and others, eighteenth century English tree calf gilt; joints worn, yellow edges, modern quarto morocco box. The December 1518 edition of Utopia. The present Froben edition represents the fourth edition of Utopia and the second of Epigrammata of More. The Epigrammata of Erasmus, who had dedicated Moriae Encomium with its punning title to More, were first printed in 1506. The three parts were issued together by Froben but are often found separately. More is said to have revised this fourth edition of the Utopia, the second to be printed by Froben, yet further after the revisions of the first and third editions of 1516 and 1518. References: Gibson, More, 4; Fairfax Murray, German, 304. Provenance: Possibly Anthony Rous (d. 1620), friend of Sir Francis Drake and one of his original executors with contemporary inscription on title Possessor Antho. Rous 2d; Lord Dacre, with his bookplate and inscribed to him This Book formerly Mr Capels given me by the Revd. Mr. Collins of Ledbury his Executor D.; Albert Ehrman, Broxbourne Library, with bookplate (sold Sothbey’s London 14 December 1977, lot 63)--George Abrams, with bookplate (sold Sotheby’s London 17 November 1989, lot 194).

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Shakespeare, William. The Tragedie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke.

Lot 161: Shakespeare, William. The Tragedie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke.

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Description: 161. Shakespeare, William. The Tragedie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke.  Excerpted from a copy of the First Folio, pages 152-156, 257-80. London: Isaac laggard and Ed.Blount, 1623. First Folio edition of Hamlet. Half blue morocco with marbled boards and endpapers.  Recto of first leaf backed, covering page[151], the text of the play beginning on verso. Two additional facsimile leaves at the front: Ben Jonson’s verse “To the Reader,” and the title-page to the First Folio, with text altered by pasted slips to read: “Mr. William Shakespeare’s Tragedie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke. Published according to the True Originall Copies.” The leaves of the text, although trimmed, provide ample margin outside the printer’s rules and are in good condition throughout; final leaf extended at inner margin.  In a quarter morocco folding case. The First Folio Hamlet. The publication in 1623 of the 36 plays of Shakespeare, known today as the First Folio, was a monumental event in the history of world literature, collecting the theatrical works of an author who is universally recognized today as one of the greatest minds and poets who ever wrote.  Of all of the plays of Shakespeare, moreover, none has provoked more discussion and instilled itself in the mind of modern man, than his dark and brooding drama Hamlet. Indeed, the character of Hamlet has become the very symbol of modern consciousness and generation after generation of new readers have responded to the Prince of Denmark and to his predicament more intensely than to any other of Shakespeare’s creations.  References: STC 22273; Grolier Hundred 19; Jaggard, page 495; Pforzheirner 905; PMM: 122. Provenance: Florence and Edward Kaye (bookplate).

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Stevenson, Robert Louis. Autograph letter signed, 1 page, (7 7/8 x 4 3/8 in.; 200 x 111 mm.)

Lot 162: Stevenson, Robert Louis. Autograph letter signed, 1 page, (7 7/8 x 4 3/8 in.; 200 x 111 mm.)

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Description: 162. Stevenson, Robert Louis.  Autograph letter signed, 1 page, (7 7/8 x 4 3/8 in.; 200 x 111 mm.), “Vailima Samoa,” 18 August 1894 to “Rev. S. R. Crockett” - Samuel Rutherford Crockett (1860-1914), a Scottish novelist who abandoned his Free Church ministry for novel writing (1895); mounting remnants verso. Stevenson’s attitude towards the ticklish gentry. Stevenson writes in full: Do not bother yourself any more about the matter. It is of no moment one way or the other.  On the subject of the Cameronians [followers of Covenanter Richard Cameron] I had no idea you were so far advanced and can only wish you well out of that difficult business which you may be sure I do sincerely.  I fear you misunderstand my attitude about these ticklish gentry.  I have but little use for them except in so far as they were sincere and are picturesque.  Excuse this very brief note, as we are in the midst of war here and I am leaving tomorrow for the front.  Yours truly R. L. Stevenson 

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Thackeray, William Makepeace. Document Signed, 2 pages, (9 7/8 x 7 1/8 in.; 225x 182 mm.)

Lot 163: Thackeray, William Makepeace. Document Signed, 2 pages, (9 7/8 x 7 1/8 in.; 225x 182 mm.)

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Description: 163. Thackeray, William Makepeace. Document Signed (“W M Thackeray”) in dark brown ink in a legal band on front and back of a single sheet, 2 pages, (9 7/8 x 7 1/8 in.; 225x 182 mm.),  “London,” 25 January 1847; small marginal ink stain, small fold crease.   Memorandum of agreement between Thackeray and his publisher Bradbury & Evans, regarding the publication of Vanity Fair. The first part of Thackeray’s masterpiece, which he had begun writing before May, 1845, appeared in the same month as this document. The manuscript had been turned down by Henry Colburn, but was accepted by Bradbury & Evans on the terms outlined in this document. The document states in part: The said William Makepeace Thackeray hereby agrees with the said William Bradbury and Frederick Mullet Evans, to publish a work in Monthly Parts to be called Vanity Fair, Pen & Pencil Sketches of English Society . . . undertakes to furnish by the 15th of every month sufficient matter for at least Two printed Sheets, with two Etchings on steel, and as many drawings on Wood as may be thought necessary--The said William Bradbury and Frederick Mullett Evans agree to pay to the said William Makepeace Thackeray the sum of Sixty Pounds every month on the Publication of the Number... The rest of the contract deals with profits, with the publishers receiving the first £60 and further earnings to ire divided between them and the author, and the copyright, which was to be jointly owned. The agreement is witnessed by A Owen, the Word “Witnesss” being in Thackeray’s hand. The first edition in book form appeared in 1848 under the title Vanity Fair: A Novel without a Hero, but the parts were issued under the title given above. Bradbury & Evans apparently had some misgivings about the work when it was first proposed to them in 1846, but the success of Thackeray’s Snobs of England in Punch seems to have reassured them. In fact, both Thackeray and the publishers expected more profit from Vanity Fair than they received. “In October 1847 he complained that ‘it does everything but sell . . . The publishers are at this minute several hundred pounds out of pocket by me.’  Years later, in 1859, he estimated his total profits from the novel at £2000” . References:John D.Gordon, William Makepeace Thackeray:  An Exhibition in Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of  Vanity Fair. NYPL. 1947, page 18.

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Thackeray, William Makepeace. Thirteen (13) pen and ink illustrations, signed for The Newcomes

Lot 164: Thackeray, William Makepeace. Thirteen (13) pen and ink illustrations, signed for The Newcomes

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Description: 164. Thackeray, William Makepeace. Thirteen (13) pen and ink illustrations, signed (“JDC”)for The Newcomes, the author’s novel which was published serially in 1853-1855; 13 pages, (7 x 10 3/8 in.; 178 x 264 mm.), Undated. Nine of the illustrations bear titles which are descriptive of the scenes they depict: The Infant, The Schoolboy!, The lean and slippered Pantaloon, The last stage of all[i.e.death], The Town Crier!, The Babes in the Wood -- The Cruel Uncle & the two Villains!, Bristol Theatre 1877, An Eligible partner! and The Legend of Margery Dawe Virgin and Martyr who sold herb[s]  for the benefit  of the poor and Margery Dawe reclining upon straw. The untitled illustrations depict two horses pulling an open carriage with two men in it, a man leading a workhorse and cart, and a woman serving refreshments in a farmyard to three gentlemen, one of whom is on a horse.  There is also a composite drawing of a horse, two riders on two horses, a dog, two figures of men, and five other portrait sketches. A charming collection of illustrations by Thackeray.

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Tolkien, J.R.R. The Hobbit. George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971. Octavo (7 1½ x 5 in.; 191 x 127 mm.)

Lot 165: Tolkien, J.R.R. The Hobbit. George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971. Octavo (7 1½ x 5 in.; 191 x 127 mm.)

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Description: 165. Tolkien, J.R.R. The Hobbit. George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971. Octavo (7 1½ x 5 in.; 191 x 127 mm.), Original cloth with dust jacket skillfully repaired. Third edition, sixth impression, signed by the author. The present copy was signed by Tolkien for Fred Archer who moved the author from Bournemouth to Merton Street in March 1972. References: Hammond A3i (sixth impression).

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Churchill, Winston S. Typed letter signed, 2 pages (9 ½ x 7 ½ in.; 241 x 191 mm.)

Lot 166: Churchill, Winston S. Typed letter signed, 2 pages (9 ½ x 7 ½ in.; 241 x 191 mm.)

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Description: 166. Churchill, Winston S. Typed letter signed, 2 pages (9 ½ x 7 ½ in.; 241 x 191 mm.), [London], 19 October 1925 to Lord Beaverbrook; light rust stains from two paper clips. Churchill voices his discontent over the way in which Lord Beaverbrook described his attitude the night Germany declared war on Russia. Churchill comments on passages relating to him in Lord Beaverbrook’s present and upcoming writings. Churchill writes in full: I am very much obliged to you for sending me through Freddie the passages in your Book which relate to me.   You will not expect me to agree with all of them, but I have no complaint to make about any.  I do not think you are accurate in saying that I proposed a consultation with you before the Budget.  It was on the morrow of that event.  Otherwise, I have no comments. You once told me that you had written some account of our talk together with F. E. at the Admiralty the night Germany declared war upon Russia, and I was a little alarmed at the description you gave of my attitude.  I gather that you are not dealing with this episode in the present volume, but if you should do so perhaps you would let me see the reference. My view was that if war was inevitable this was by far the most favourable opportunity and the only one that would bring France, Russia and ourselves together.  But I should not like that put in a way that would suggest I wished for war and was glad when the decisive steps were taken.  I was only glad that they were taken in circumstances so favourable.  A very little alteration of the emphasis would make my true position clear.  I gather however you are holding the earlier and more fateful volume of your Memoirs in suspense. A fine letter revealing Churchill’s attempts to be portrayed fairly and accurately in writing.

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George III. Highly important series of nearly 140 autograph letters, mostly signed, some 146 pages

Lot 167: George III. Highly important series of nearly 140 autograph letters, mostly signed, some 146 pages

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Description: 167. George III. Highly important series of nearly 140 autograph letters, mostly signed (“G. R.”), some 146 pages, nearly all quarto, Kew Windsor and elsewhere, 1766-68 and 1782-83, to the 2nd Earl of Shelburne with the majority written to Lord Shelburne as leader of the government negotiating peace with American after the War of Independence one written in pencil, nearly all with integral blanks, a few with address leaves, some written on paper with the distinctive ribbed watermark of the Montgolfier Brothers’ factory (also favored by Marie Antoinette), the second letter with traces of formerly have been bound, one or two other early letters slightly browned, but overall in fine and fresh condition. An extraordinary archive of George III letters of exceptional historical importance regarding peace negotiations with America after the War of Independence. I cannot conclude without mentioning how sensibly I feel the dismemberment of America from this Empire and that l should be miserable indeed if I did not feel that no blame on that Account can be paid at my Door and did l not also know that knavery seems to be so much the striking feature of its Inhabitants that it may not in the end be an evil that they will become Aliens to this Kingdom. The first eighteen letters written to Shelburne while serving as Secretary of State for the Southern Department in Chatham’s second administration, between 2 September 1766 and 17 September 1768; the remainder written between 24 March 1782 and 22 March 1783: of these 58 (including one memorandum) are written to Shelburne when Secretary of State of the Home Department under Rockingham (but effectively leader of the government [see note below], 51 Shelburne was First Lord of the Treasury the remaining eleven written after Shelburne’s resignation but before the formation of  the North-Fox coalition that replaced him; eleven letters signed by the King in full (“George R.”), over 80 signed with initials (“G. R.”), the remainder - as was more usually his custom - left unsigned. The bulk of the letters are addressed by George III to Lord Shelburne while leader of the administration that replaced Lord North’s after the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown, and which was charged with negotiating peace with America: Shelburne serving firstly as Home Secretary under Rockingham, having refused to serve as premier (although the King persisted in treating him as such), and secondly as First Lord of the Treasury (the post occupied by the King’s First Minister, now known as Prime Minister).  Among the series is the letter written on the evening of Rockingham’s death in which the King offers Shelburne the premiership: Lord Shelburne must remember that when in March I was obliged to change my Ministry, I called upon Him to form a new one and proposed His taking the Employment of first Lord of the Treasury which He declined to accommodate Ld. Rockingham; the Vacancy of that Office makes me return to my original idea and offer it to Him on the present occasion... (6:09pm 1 July 1782). These letters bear on many subjects - the state of Ireland, victories as sea (especially Rodney’s Battle of the Saints), the Spitalfield riots, party politics, parliamentary procedure, the emerging figures of Charles James Fox and the Younger Pitt - and are full of the minutiae of government at the highest level.  But coloring all is the dreadful price exacted from the King by his American colonies after twelve years of personal rule through Lord North. The letters tell their own story.  The dramatis personae include Lord North, the outgoing First Minister; Sir Guy Carleton, last British Commander-in-Chief in America; Henry Laurens, American diplomat captured by the British, later Peace Commissioner; John Adams, American Peace Commissioner, later second President; Richard Oswald, Shelburne’s official agent and later British Peace Commissioner; Benjamin Vaughan, Shelburne’s unofficial agent and friend of Franklin; Charles James Fox, Foreign Secretary under Rockingham and Shelburne’s rival; Thomas Grenville, Fox’s agent; Sir George Saville, Fox’s supporter; Thomas Townshend, Shelburne’s Home Secretary; Lord Camden, President of the Council; Lord Grantham, Shelburne’s Foreign Secretary; William Pitt the Younger, Shelburne’s Chancellor of the Exchequer; Alleyne Fitzherbert, negotiator with American’s allies France and Spain; and, of course, Dr. Benjamin Franklin himself. The final act of the drama begins with the resignation of Lord North and the accession of Shelburne to effective power: I have wrote to Ld. North that He is to give notice to the Cabinet to attend at St James’s and resign before the Levee that the ground may be clear before the presentations take effect... (8:22am 27 March 1782). The writer of the paper that accompanies this has not afforded new matter but a melancholy confirmation of the American dependency on France.  Undoubtedly the sooner Sir Guy Carleton can be dispatched to America the better...(2:40pm[?] 29 March 1782). The Account of the Conversation with Mr Laurens is very curious and I should from thence suppose him not improper to be sent to Mr Adams; the getting Mr Oswald at the same time to sound Mr Franklin cannot be improper.  I was thoroughly resolved not to open my mouth on any Negociation with America, but as if falls to the share of Ld. Shelburne, the very handsomne part He has acted in the whole Negociations for forming the present Administration, obliges Me now and then to give an hint...(6:30pm 5 April 1782) The Letter to Dr Franklin seems very proper and certainly there does not occurr to Me the smallest doubt of its being perfectly safe for Ld. Shelburne to send it without any alteration; I am glad Ld. Shelburne’s Zeal for my Service has so far exceeded his natural aversion to being mixed in the transactions of Peace at the present hour; to make him intend to keep Mr Oswald at Paris, which cannot fail of being an useful check on that part of the Negociation that is in other hands; would there be any impropriety  in Ld. Shelburne’s having at least some general Conversation with Mr Grenville previous to his departure...(27 April 1782). I owne I begin to think that there is a plan of throwing things if possible into confusion, the ill success all their hasty Negociations have as yet met with, the inutility of so openly avowing American Independence, which is repeated in every dispatch now fabricated in the Foreign Department [i.e. by Fox]...(7:55am 7 May 1782) Mr Oswald’s correspondence carries the marks of coming from a Man of Sense, as Dr Franklin wishes He should remain at Paris and as Mr de Vergenes has intimated as much I should think it best not to let him at least at present come home.  By the letter Mr Greville has wrote, certainly appearance are not favourable, the peace of Paris is refuse to be the basis of a new one... (7:40pm 14 May 1782). I am glad to find Ld. Shelburne has fought off the idea of Commissioners who could only be the cause of farther concessions, or of some private negociations by which the Public could not be a gainer...(9:02am 16 May 1782). The letter to Dr Franklin seems very proper.  I am glad Lord Ashburton was present at Ld. Shelburne’s interview this day with Mr Oswald, as it is of the greatest importance that that Gentleman should be fully apprized of what must be obtained at the dreadful price now offered to America, and that it is very material Ld. Shelburne should have a witness to prove if necessary the exact extent of the proposition now sent... (6:10pm 25 May 1782). Ld. Shelburne will certainly act very proper in directing Mr Oswald not to hazard opinions on parts of the Peace to which He cannot have had any ministerial information, but being employed He may be supposed not to speak without foundation. I desire Ld. Shelburne will have a very clear opinion previous to my seeing Him on Wednesday as to the New Commission that may be prepared in consequence of the American Peace Bill. I cannot help adding that I greatly dislike the opinion now thrown out for the first time by Dr Franklin that though the Separate Peaces [sic] may be negociated apart that they must in the end be consolidated n one General One; this idea can only add difficulties... (7:15pm 17 June 1782) It is well that the omission of Mr Grenville in the American Commission will create no more words.  certainly it is every way highly proper He should not be mixed in that business...(4:15pm 22 June 1782). I am apprised Ld. Shelburne though He has gone great lengths at the expence of His opinion in giving way as to American Independence if it can effect Peace, would think He received advise in which his character was not attended to if it tended to give up that without the price set on it which alone could make this Kingdom consent to it.  Besides He must see that the great success of Ld. Rodney’s Engagement has again roused the Nation so far that the Peace which would have been acquiesced in three Months ago would now be matter of complaint...(7:21am 1 July 1782). The Dispatches from Mr Oswald which Mr Townshend has sent to Me fully shew that all Dr Franklin’s hints were only to amuse for now He through the channel of Mr Jay allows that Independence cannot be admitted as sufficient reason for France to make Peace that the Dutch and Spaniard must also be satisfied before America can conclude, that American dislikes G. Britain and loves France, yet that in this strange view we must decidedly grant independence and retire all Troops prior to any Treaty consequently give every thing without any return and then receive Peace if America will grant it besides an hint that America I to Guarantee the General Peace.  I think this must be the machination of some of those who were lately in Employment; I do not possibly see how the present Ministers can consent to Independency but as the price of a certain Peace...(6:05pm 21 August 1782). I am glad Mr Fox is to try a question on American unconditional Independence; I do not believe the Nation at large willing to come into it and great discredit will therefore attend the Party that proposes it; the conduct of Ld. Shelburne and those who have acted particularly with Him have held uniformly, is known by the Public who well rejoice at seeing this question decided against the leaders of sedition...(7:58am 9 July 1782). The enclosed are the papers Ld. Shelburne left Yesterday in my hands, the one from Sir Geo. Saville may be fine metaphisical Reasoning, I am the avowed Enemy of that ingenious nonsense therefore no judge of its supposed Merit; but common Sense tells Me that if unconditional Independence is granted we cannot ever expect any understanding with America; for then we have given up the whole and have nothing to give for what we want from thence.  Independence is certainly an unpleasant gift at best, but then it must be for such conditions of Peace as may justify it.  Ld. Camden yesterday said to Me that under the present Act He thought any Minister would risk His head that advised granting Independence but as the boon for Peace...(7:10am 11 July 1782). I have read the two letters Lord Shelburne received Yesterday from France and shall fairly owne that by what I have seen from the Correspondence of Mr Vaughan I have but little opinion of his tallents, yet it confirms my opinion that Dr Franklin only plays with us and has no intentions fairly to treat, which the Negociation with Spain at this hour too strongly shews...I agree with Ld. Shelburne that Mr Fox’s precipitation on the head of Independency has certainly greatly added to our difficulties; I am sorry to have just reason to say that from the beginning of the American troubles to the retreat of Mr Fox this Country has not taken any but precipitate Steps whilst Caution and System have been used by the American which is enough ground to explain the causes of the present difference of Situations...(9:20am 12 August 1782). As to the general question on Peace I am too much agitated with a fear of sacrificing the interests of my Country by hurrying it on too fast which indeed has been uppermost in my thoughts since the beginning of the War that I am unable to add anything on that subject by the most frequent Prayers to Heaven to guide me so to act that Posterity may not lay the downfall of this once respectable Empire at my door; and that if ruin should attend the measures that may be adopted, I may not long survive them...(10:02am 16 September 1782). Lord Shelburne does not I am clear admire the style of Mr Vaughan’s letters more than I do; He seems to look alone to our placing implicit trust in the Americans, whilst Ld. Shelburne’s ideas coincide with mine in thinking it safer to confide in France that in Spain or America... (3 November 1782). The letters Lord Shelburne has received this day from Paris certainly bear much stronger marks of Peace being wished there than had as yet appeared...(6:45pm 8 October [November] 1782). Having read the letters Lord Shelburne has received from Paris as well as the Official Dispatches to Lord Gantham and Mr Townshend; I entirely coincide with the opinion that as all the terms of France and America are now arrived, the Cabinet cannot be too soon assemble that these may without delay be considered of.  Lord Gratham’s dispatches being still on my Table, I will write a few lines to Him that the business may be brought forward as soon as possible. I trust the same Secrecy which has done credit to the various parts of the Administration during the early steps of the Negociation will continue now things seem to be advancing towards maturity. I cannot conclude without mentioning how sensibly I feel the dismemberment of America from this Empire and that l should be miserable indeed if I did not feel that no blame on that Account can be paid at my Door and did l not also know that knavery seems to be so much the striking feature of its Inhabitants that it may not in the end be an evil that they will become Aliens to this Kingdom...(6:55pm 10 November 1782). Nothing can be more proper than the manly manner in which Lord Shelburne has brought the Decision on Peace or War to a fixed point.  Three o’clock will be a very proper hour for holding the Privy Council this Day for proroguing the Parliament as it will prevent gambling in the Alley this day, and if the Lord Mayor received the letter by Eleven this Night there will be sufficient time to prevent it tomorrow; might it not be proper for one of the Secretaries of the Treasury to write the same information to the Bank.  East India, and South Sea Companies, by way of spreading the Account still faster...(9:26am 22 November 1782). By Lord Shelburne’s Account it very clearly appears that Mr Pitt on Friday stated the Article of Independence as irrevocable though the Treaty should prove abortive; this undoubtedly was a mistake for the Independancy is alone granted for Peace.  I have always thought it best and wisest if a mistake is made openly to avow it, and therefore Mr Pitt ought if his words have been understood to bear so strong a meaning to say it is no wonder that so Young a Man should have made a slip; this would do him honour.  I think at all events it is highly material that Ld. Shelburne should not by any language in the House of Lords appear to change his conduct, let the blame fall where it may, I do not wish He should appear but in that dignified light which His Station in my Service requires and which can only be maintained by his conduct in the whole Negociation of Peace having been neat which would not be the case if Mr Fox could prove that Independence was granted otherwise than as the price of Peace; besides Mr Vaughan’s letter shews farther demands to come from Franklin, which must the more makes us stiff on this Article...(10:02am 8 December 1782). Mr Fitzherbert continues to deserve the highest commendations, and had not his hands been tyed by Mr Grenville under the direction of Mr Fox the Treaty would have been more expeditiously concluded...(9:02pm 22 December 1782). By Mr Fitzherbert’s letter I find new demands are to be made by Dr Franklin; but I trust if the other Treaties are signed they will meet with the treatment they deserve...(3:45pm 21 January 1783). Approximately 100 of the letters have been published by J.W. Fortescue, The Correspondence of King George III 1760-1783 (1927-28), but only from retained drafts at Windsor; the others are unpublished.

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Henry VII. Fine autograph endorsement signed, with his sign manual, 2 pages, (14 x 11 in.)

Lot 168: Henry VII. Fine autograph endorsement signed, with his sign manual, 2 pages, (14 x 11 in.)

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Description: 168. Henry VII. Fine autograph endorsement signed, with his sign manual, 2 pages, (14 x 11 in.; 356 x 279 mm.), [1506-1507]; dampstaining, marginal repairs. Henry VII, King of England, approves an account of lands for rent and sets a price for payment. The king approves an account of lands in his hands “formerly of Lord Lovell and afterwards of Sir John Cheyny,” by noting, in his hand, computatur hoc anno [it is accounted for this year]. The document was written for the King’s inspection and lists “arrears of immediately preceding year” as well as “rents and farms this year with...fixed rents, perquisites of court this year” and “payments to various persons this year.” The final accounting reveals that the King received £ 181.19s. 11 ½ d revenue from the lands. Extremely rare with both the signature of Henry VII and a notation in his hand.

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Livingstone, David. Autograph letter signed, 8 pages (12 5/8 x 7 7/8 in.; 321 x 200 mm.)

Lot 169: Livingstone, David. Autograph letter signed, 8 pages (12 5/8 x 7 7/8 in.; 321 x 200 mm.)

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Description: 169. Livingstone, David. Autograph letter signed (“D. Livingstone”), 8 pages (12 5/8 x 7 7/8 in.; 321 x 200 mm.), “Mazaro, River Zambesi,” [Africa], 26 March 1860, headed Private, to Robert Gray, bishop of Capetown, South Africa; skillfully silked. A lengthy letter in which Livingstone comments on conditions in Africa, his missionary work and his hopes for the future. Livingstone’s letter encompasses a proposal to establish a Universities Mission station (i.e. a colony) on the upper Shire River in Central Africa, his journeys to the Highland Lake region, the rampant slave trade which he condemned and tried to put down, relations with the Portuguese, development of cotton growing, mention of Richard Burton & John Speke, navigation of Lake Nyassa, freedom of trade on the Zambesi, the condition of the country, prospects for missionary work, and his hopes for the future. Livingstone writes in full: Only a few days ago I took the liberty of addressing to you a letter of cordial sympathy in your projected Institution for African youths. I had just then become aware of the plan by [pouring] over some old newspapers while waiting for a Man of War on the coast.  As it did not appear we left and came up to this point in order to communicate with Quilimane by the Mutu.  Here we recieved the fragments of a mail lost on the bar off Kongone in Dec[embe]r last, and among the scraps of letters picked up on the beach seven miles from the scene of the upsetting of the boat I fortunately found your letter of 31st March 1859.  I knew nothing of the encouraging movement in the Universities except that there was a likelihood of something being done, and I need scarcely add that I am exceedingly glad and thankful to hear of the intention to send out a company of missionaries with their Bishop to the Interior of this country. Cautious reverence is required in ascribing human movements to the influence of Divine Providence.  But having been prevented ascending to the Makololo country and led very much against our will into a region we never contemplated exploring, and there found a field exactly suited for your mission, I really think that the prayerful movement of so many pious hearts at the Universities has had something to do with the direction of our steps. In going up the Shire our steamer though a wretched one made splashing enough to take us past the border tribes respectably, and when we visited the magnificent Lake country beyond we could go any where.  We had pierced the barrier of unfriendly tribes which the Church Missionary society has been trying to do for years. I need not enter into any details respecting the physical features of the Highland Lake region as you probably have seen notices of the discoveries of Nyassa and Shirwa.  It is preemin[en]tly a cotton country and also a slave producing country.  In every village spinning and weaving are going on, and in every village we meet with slave traders or evidence, in the forked sticks for taming newly made slaves, that the traffic prevails. Cotton is cultivated so extensively even now that a very short time only would be necessary to develope a trade in that article, and the region is so extensive, as witness the conformation of my statements respecting the form and fertility of the country, as well as the general disposition of the inhabitants by Burton and Speke, that there is a really feasible prospect of a counterpoise to the slave states of America.  We may not see it, but Africa will ultimately be its own remedy.  We will cure the enslavement of its people. Then we have by different altitudes changes of climate neither a few miles of each other Europeans could not only live but flourish.  There are few complaints except the fever and one result of our detention has been ample experience in the cure of that disease.  Dr. Kirk and I consider it as generally not a whit more dangerous than a common cold.  We have just been 23 days among the Mangrove swamps, which we believed to be the very hotbeds of Fever, and during the most unhealthy month in the year.  We had touches of it but our method of cure entails no loss of strength.  Two Frenchmen came about the same time to Quilimane, and both are in their graves.   It was a dread of the danger of taking Europeans into this fever that induced me to recommend the bretheren of the London society to go overland, and the same thing made us hasten out of the Delta.  Now however that course is unnecessary. [(We make a pill of equal parts of Resin of jalap & Calomel; Rhubarb & Quinine.  Say for a powerful man eight grains of Resin of Jalap, eight grains of Calomel, four or six grains of Rhubarb and four or six grains of Quinine and make it whole into pills with Tincture of Cardamoms. This relieves the very worst cases in a few hours. We then give quinine till the system is affected with cinchonism.  The Calomel is removed at once from the system, and curiously enough decreasing doses serve.  In some of us 1/2 a grain of the mass produces as much effect as 24 grains did at first.  When we have done with Africa, wont we drive Holloway out of the market?)] But we require a proper steamer to M.  Government gave me one called the Bann which would have suited us admirably.  She drew only three feet and with a convoy could have come out here safely.  She could have ascended from the sea to the falls on the shire at all times of the year and been a home to us, but having no knowledge of engines or steamers I was glad to trust to a pious naval officer and by his advice rejected her.  This mistake I should never cease to regret but for the results to which it has led, and now I feel the importance of having another that in the event of it being impossible for the Government to give what I once refused, I mean to have another though at my own cost.  I am not yet without hopes of getting the Bann or another steamer for the river.  You will think me ambitious, when I add, that one will not suffice, and I now send Mr. Rae our engineer home in order to superintend the construction of a small one for Lake Nyassa. This is to be capable of being unscrewed and carried past the cataracts, and we are (Dr. Kirk, Mr. C[harles] Livingstone and Mr. Rae) all of one opinion  as to the beneficial effect of such a vessel in that region.  It would give complete security to missionaries  & settlers, and do more in drying up the sources of the slave trade for several ports on the East coast than several steamers on the ocean.  The prospects of lawful trade are very good, and for the sake of the benefits it will confer, my brother proposes to enter into it for a time [But we have a great difficulty in the presence of the Portuguese as claimants to the lordships of the entire country.  They are few in number, and chiefly of the convict class, the immorality is frightful, and no one would be popular unless he made a beast of himself.  So help is to be expected from them, hence the desirableness of having a vessel which may serve for a time as a home.  We have recieved kindness from individuals, but by the majority of the Portuguese we are hated. We refrain from saying much about them, but, I have been urging on our Government for some time the necessity of securing freedom of trade on the Zambesi.  Without it nothing can well be done.] It does our heart good to read of the labours of the Roman catholic clergy under bishop Dupuch in Algeria but here nothing is done by that church, and nothing will be done till you begin.  I believe it was Miss Coutts that made them send a bishop to Angola, & he has retired already from his see.  There are many difficulties in the way of your mission, but your young men headed by an energetic bishop would overcome them all. Your church came last into the field in South Africa but in Eastern Africa she will, as she ought to be, the first and foremost.  This idea glanced across my mind as I first gazed on the blue waters of Shirwa:  and I immediately wrote to the Church Missionary Society, and to my friend the Bishop of Oxford.  No information was recieved from either, and now that your letter has come I am really delighted and thank the Lord with all my heart for the good news it brings.  [It is not the heathen alone that will be benefitted.  I believe our own overcrowded poor will here find elbow room, and not only benefit themselves but work out freedom to the slave[s] all over the world.] The missionaries will require to reduce the language.  It is not difficult, but it must be learned through Portuguese.  I can only make out what the people are talking about.  The most prominent superstition is the belief in the ordeal called Muave, but they are not a blood thirsty race.  The Portuguese gave them a very bad name, and as they use poisoned arrows, and make their attacks by night, they predicted our being plundered and worse, but we saw nothing that patience and a Christian deportment would not soon overcome. The chief difficulties arose in the first visits.  In the second we felt as safe as in the Makololo country.  We got abundance of fine maize meal, fowls, sometimes a goat, sweet potatoes, bananas, beans at a cheap rate, but all my experience proves that English men cannot live without wheaten bread, and there is none in the country except at Zette and you cannot depend on getting it.  Course calico is the circulating medium.  After that beads & brass wire.  Money is of no value whatever except among Portuguese.  For a time at least the missionaries must be self dependant for everything.  If I get a steamer from Government it will be at their service.  It would not be advisable to come without a home of the sort -­ better remain with you at the Cape till matters are arranged. [I would not live among the Portuguese on no consideration whatever, had I known them in 1856 as I do now I would not have left the Makololo with them.  I left our artist among them in order to spare him exposure to the malaria of the lower shire, and they very soon made a beast of him, and he became dishonest to us besides.   I write to you in all confidence but we have to keep our Nyassa plans out of sight, for from the Governor General to the lowest half caste all are eager to reap gain by the slave trade and they would be up in arms against our having any establishment if they knew our plans.  Here we meet with Major Secard going down to erect a fort and custom house at Kongone harbour and but for us he would not know where to go. It is our discovery....] In a postscript written vertically along the left margins of pages one, two and three, Livingstone has added, We intend proceeding up to the Makololo country at once and will return through Mosehkatse’s and the gold country S. W. of Zette in October or November next or so as to be down here by next rise of the river in December or January.  It would be necessary to visit the influential chiefs in the Highland region -- on foot if horses or mules are not brought and when we have taught the bishop to cure fever he will without doubt go on prosperously. In 1858, David Livingstone was appointed consul at Quilimane for the eastern coast and the independent districts in the interior, as well as commander of an expedition to explore eastern and central Africa.  His party included Dr. (afterwards Sir) John Kirk, his brother Charles, and the engineer George Rae (all of whom are mentioned in this letter), and with their leaking steamer, the Ma-Robert, they explored the river Shire and Lake Nyassa, which was discovered in September 1859.  Aside from his explorations, Livingstone’s dream was to establish an English colony in the cotton-producing districts of Africa -- it was a desire that had been stimulated by the real fear that without one the Shire Highlands would descend into a state of anarchy and chaos....  During the first months of 1859 he heard that, due to his appeal [for young men to dedicate themselves to a life of service in Africa], a combined Oxford and Cambridge Universities Mission had been formed.... In March 1859 Robert Gray, the Bishop of Cape Town, had written to Livingstone telling him about the determination of the Universities Mission to begin work in central Africa.  Gray went on to ask what area Dr. Livingstone would recommend as a suitable field for these men.  The decision was a difficult one for Livingstone.  In his view the Shire Highlands needed colonists and not just an isolated group of missionaries, who would be able to do little about the serious problems which would face them there.  On the other hand if Livingstone told the Bishop of Cape Town that the Shire Highlands was not a suitable area for missionaries, this news would get back to London and the Foreign Office, and would probably  [scotch] any plans for a colony.  So on October 1859 Livingstone wrote to the Bishop telling him that the Shire Highlands would prove an ideal location for a mission....  (Jim Teal, Livingstone).”   When the Universities Mission arrived in 1861, it marked the beginning of a new and crucial phase in the history of the Zambesi Expedition. However, before that event, at the time this letter was written, Livingstone endured bouts of depression while the morale of his colleagues diminished. All were affected by their struggles against repeated attacks of tropical fevers, their work to keep the Ma-Robert afloat, and serious disagreements amongst themselves. “Yet Livingstone’s great strength was his ability to ignore present difficulties even when they seemed quite overwhelming (Teal).”  In late December he told his colleagues that instead of sitting around for most of 1860, they would fulfill his promise to Chief Sekeletu and take such of the Makololo home as cared to go. An informative letter from one of the great explorers of the nineteenth century.

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Medieval Tally Sticks. A collection of 21 original wooden tally sticks.[Westminster, c. 1250-60].

Lot 170: Medieval Tally Sticks. A collection of 21 original wooden tally sticks.[Westminster, c. 1250-60].

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Description: 170. Medieval Tally Sticks. A collection of 21 original wooden tally sticks.[Westminster, c. 1250-60]. An extraordinary collection of excessively rare medieval tally sticks. A collection of twenty-one medieval tally sticks, each stick about 190 mm. long, the larger end cut diagonally, edges roughly squared off, often leaving traces of bark, each inscribed along one side with the name of the payer, and the upper and lower edges cut with notches (‘v’-shaped for pounds, broad grooves for shillings, sharp cuts for pence); each piece then split with a knife by cutting diagonally across the thicker reverse side and pulling away a length which would be retained separately by the payer as proof of payment; all written in thirteenth-century charter hands; in a fitted velvet-lined tray contained in a cloth box. Representing perhaps the rarest and most unusual class of English medieval manuscript, tallies are medieval royal receipts written on sticks of wood said to have been cut from trees on the banks of the Thames at Westminster. The modern word “stock” meaning a financial certificate derives from this use of the Middle English for a stick.  Tally sticks were used principally in the Royal Exchequer from the twelfth century onwards, and there is a contemporary account of how to make them in the Dialogue of the Exchequer would have to be able to produce the corresponding stock which matched the split-away counterfoil retained at Westminster.  Since the notches for the sums were cut right through both pieces and since no stick naturally splits in an even manner the method was virtually foolproof against forgery.  According to M. T. Clanchy in his From Memory to Written Record, England 1066-1307, 1979, page 96:Tallies were not a primitive survival from the preliterate past, but a sophisticated and practical record of numbers.  They were more convenient to keep and store than parchments, less complex to make, and no easier to forge.  They were the foundation and origin of the royal financial system of the twelfth century...Of the millions of medieval tallies made, only a few hundred survive. Tally sticks once survived in vast numbers, with both stocks and counterfoils, in the Exchequer in Westminster; however, with the Reform Acts and the abolition of the office of the Receipt of the Exchequer in 1834, an enormous bonfire of the then-obsolete sticks was held at Westminster; the fire went out of control and burned down the Palace of Westminster and the Houses of Parliament.  In 1925 Sir Hilary Jenkinson knew of only three Exchequer tally sticks in private hands (Archaeologia, LXXIV, 1925, pp. 292-3, 330, and 350).  Six were sold at Sotheby’s, 26 November 1985, lot 31 (afterwards H. P. Kraus, cat. 180, 1988, no. 23), and one more was sold at Sotheby’s, 1 December 1987, lot 20.

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Nelson, Horatio. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 171: Nelson, Horatio. Autograph letter signed ("Bronte Nelson"), 4 pages, (9 5/8 x 7 ½ in.; 244 x 191 mm.)

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Description: 171. Nelson, Horatio.  Autograph letter signed (“Bronte Nelson”), 4 pages, (9 5/8 x 7 ½ in.; 244 x 191 mm.), “Palermo,” 7 November 1799 to My Dear Lord; marginal browning. Nelson reveals his political philosophy, expounding on his hate for France’s Republic at the very moment of Napoleon’s coup d’état of 18th Brumaire (9 November 1799). In this historically important letter, Nelson writes in full: My Dear Lord I rejoice on any occasion which can give me the pleasure of a letter from you, and I fear you will think me neglectful when I see the date of your letter of July 29th. Which has not been 10 minutes in my possession.  Any person who you recommend will always be favourably received, be he high or be he low.  I never shall forget your truly kind and friendly attentions to me.  I cannot find the young man which I regret but I hope he will be forthcoming.  Wrote to my Dear friend Lloyd by [Rear Admiral] Sir Ed[war]d. Berry but all the letters were thrown overboard.  I sent another thro’ Mr. [Evan] Nepean [the first Secretary of the Admiralty Board (served 1795-1804)] for I wish to be kept alive in his remembrance and that he will ever believe me the same A. Nelson who he knew as CapT. Of the Badger Brig, that to relieve distress is my pleasure, and I never ask who is the Object King or Peaseant [sic] both have amply received my help and both have acknowledged the benefit to the upmost stretch of their power.  I believe note dare call your Lordship any thing but a most loyal Subject who fears not to tell His King & Country plain truths.  I know well from experience that the good monarchs of this country never have heard truths till lately, and the nobles of this country have generally speaking neither honor or honesty and would destroy one of their own to get his place or if the King happened to be out of humour. This morning affords me the strangest Instance of it.  A nobleman of Sicily 68 years of Age was left at Naples and staid there not having the power to come away.  His Estate was sequestered ‘till his conduct was examined.  It has been exemplary in the highest degree, but some devil has poisoned the mind of the King and on his arrival from Naples a few days ago he was first ordered not to come onshore and when I had got over that order he was directed not to have his house where I have been this morneg. to pay him a visit, & from him to the minister pledging myself to the King that some villain had falsely represented an old & faithful servant.  I hate rebels, I hate traitors, I hate Tyranny come from where it will.  I have seen much of the world, and I have learnt from experience to hate and detest republics, there is nothing but Tyranny & oppression.  I have never known a good act done by a Republican, it is contrary to his character.  Under the mask of Liberty he is a Tyrant, a many headed monster that devours your happiness & prosperity.  Nothing is free from this monster’s grasp.  A Republic has no affection for its subjects.  A King maybe ill advised and act wrong.  A Republic never acts right, for a Knot of Villains supp[or]ts. Each other, and together they do what no single person dare attempt.  A Kingly Government with good Ministers is the finest in the World.  I pray God this War was over and a Monarch placed on the throne of France, not that I like any Frenchman be he Loyalist or be he Republican, but the French Republicans have shewn themselves such Villains, that the worst wretch that ever was hanged is an angel compared to the best of them.  I form not my opinion my Dear Lord from others no it is from what I have seen.  They are thieves, murderers, oppressors & Infidels, therefore what faith can we hold with these people.  I declare solemly before God that I can prove every little [? - word missing-] I have said.  May I beg my kindest & most affectionate regards to Lloyd and Believe me my Dear Lord Your Obliged Bronte Nelson Sire William & Lady Hamilton desire me to present their best compliments to you & Lord Wycombe.  I do not write to my Dear Lord St. Vincent as I am told he may be hourly expected here.  I have just received from the Grand Signor a Magnificent Diamond Star in the center is a Crescent & Small Star, and I am called Knight of the Imperial Order of the Crescent. Note: Lord Nelson was the first member of the Imperial Order of the Crescent, bestowed on him by the Sultan of Turkey.  All the existing Ottoman orders could not be awarded to non-Muslims, and so Selim specially created the Order of the Crescent as a one-off for Nelson, making him its first Knight and sending him the insignia in August 1799. At the time of this letter, most of Britain’s Mediterranean operations were at a standstill.  There were only two areas of active operation against the French; Alexander Ball’s blockade of Malta and Sir Sidney Smith’s of Alexandria.  It was also exactly when Napoléon was back in Paris, assuming power as First Consul and instituting a military dictatorship.  One year after the destruction of the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile (August 1-2, 1798), Napoleon - on August 18, 1799 - secretly set sail for France, having learnt of French reverses in Europe.  Oblivious to the turmoil he left behind in Egypt, Napoléon deserted his 30,000 troops and began planning his next moves against the Directory.  He landed in France on October 9th, while Nelson was sailing from Palermo to Minorca.  One month later, Napoleon’s coup d’état of 18th Brumaire followed (November 9,1799) - just two days after Nelson’s letter.  On December 12th, Napoléon became First Consul of France.  He had escaped across nearly 2,000 miles of sea supposedly under Nelson’s command.  It was perhaps the greatest single misfortune of Nelson’s “distraction” in Palermo - where he dallied with Lady Emma Hamilton while scandalous gossip about his private life was already circulating in the newspapers. An exceptional letter with important content.

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Nelson, Horatio. Autograph letter signed, (

Lot 172: Nelson, Horatio. Autograph letter signed, ("Nelson & Bronte"), 2 pages, (9 7/8 x 8 1/8 in; 251 x 206 mm)

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Description: 172. Nelson, Horatio.  Autograph letter signed, (“Nelson & Bronte”), 2 pages, (9 7/8 x 8 1/8 in.; 251 x 206 mm.), “St. George,” 27 February [1801] to Benjamin Tucker, secretary to Lord St. Vincent; marginal browning, skillful repair to folds. Nelson sues his superior over the division of prize money. Nelson writes in part: It was only this evening that I received your letter of the 20th february.  I have no doubt but that every thing was regular on your part but as I never have received such a list as could look like an account, I ventured to ask for it.  I observe what you say about Mr. Tyson having received flag prize money, yes for the whole of the flag prize money I believe, but not one farthing of that or a farthing for freight were ever placed to my credit.  That would have made my accounts so complicated that I should not have understood them and I should have thought myself next to a Robber.  The only Prize Money I ever received from Mr Tyson as my Secretary was the sum of 1266 I mean crowns & 8 pounds -- paid by Littledale & Broderick on my directing Mr. Tyson to commence prosecutions on all those who held back the 1/16 of all prizes in cases where there were more than 2 flag officers.  This money was for prizes taken on Sept. 6th, 1799 by the Seaborn & Petrarch when I had the command devolve on me by the absence of Lord St. Vincent, Lord Keith & all other  [of] my superior officers.  My right I consider so clear from the King’s proclamation the custom of the service & decisions by laws that I owe my extreme surprise at its ever being doubted, but a legal decision being about to take place with My Dearest friend on this subject & would not be right for me to say all my thoughts on that subject.  I can only say that justice is all I want... The opportunity for prize money was a compelling one for officers and seamen alike.  The spoils from a major victory could and did give a captain and his officers an income for life; ordinary seamen could increase their annual earnings by a tremendous amount.  Nelson’s own finances were based largely on such spoils of battle.

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Nelson, Horatio. Autograph manuscript draft, 4 pages, (9 ¼ x 7 ¼ in.; 235 x 184 mm.)

Lot 173: Nelson, Horatio. Autograph manuscript draft, 4 pages, (9 ¼ x 7 ¼ in.; 235 x 184 mm.)

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Description: 173. Nelson, Horatio.  Autograph manuscript draft, 4 pages, (9 ¼ x 7 ¼ in.; 235 x 184 mm.),  [April or May 1803] to the Prime Minister, the first section was drafted for Nelson by his friend, Sir George Rose, with the final one and a quarter pages written by Nelson himself; some browning; splits to vertical fold. Nelson compares the financial rewards he has received from the King to those of St. Vincent and Duncan, comparing his victories to theirs as he prepares to petition the King for a larger pension, citing his service to England.   The manuscript draft reads in full: [Sir George Rose:] I feel very great Reluctance in troubling you with any personal Concern of mine; but I am really compelled to cit[e] Circumstances which, when explained, will I think convince you that I cannot do otherwise; and knowing the value of your Time I will do it as shortly as I can.  His Majesty was graciously pleased, on account of my Services in the Battle of the Nile, to bestow on me the high Honor of a Peerage of Great Britain; and to recommend it to Parliament to enable Him to grant a Pension of £2000 a Year to me, & eventually for two Lives after mine.  In the formal Part of the Message for the Purpose, His Majesty expresses a Desire to bestow on me the Pension...to the two next succeeding Heirs Male of my Body; but in the recommendatory Part of the Message the Words are ‘to consider of a proper Method of enabling His Majesty to grant the same and of extending, securing & settling such Amenity to the said Rear Admiral Lord Nelson and to the two next Persons on whom the Title of Baron Nelson & shall descend, in such Manner as Shall be thought most effectual for the Benefit of the said L[or]d Nelson & his Family.  The Grant was made to me of the two next succeeding Heirs Male of my Body, which was probably done without an attentive Consideration of the whole of the Message, but it was then of no Importance to me as the Grant followed the Title. But as His Majesty has since been  previously  pleased  to confer  upon  me the Title  of  a Viscount  with Remainder to my Brother’s Children (failing Issue of my own), I must entreat that you will lay me at His Majesty’s Feet, & that you will have the Goodness to express to him in the · most  dutiful  Manner  my  humble  Hope  that  as I have  no good  Fortune  to acquire sufficient Wealth to put it in my Power to enable my Nephew to support in any Degree the Rank of a Peer, to which he may eventually  succeed, His Majesty  will be graciously pleased to take such Measures as he shall think necessary for continuing the Pension in the Manner it appears  to have been His Majesty’s  gracious Intention it should  have been originally granted.  In making this application to you Sir it is but fair I should apprize you that L[or]d Saint Vincent is in the same situation I believe with myself, but I know of no other Case at all similar; as L[or]d Duncan has made Issue [Nelson:] -- and I also beg leave to state that both Lord St.V[incen]t & L[or]d D[unca]n had a grant from the Irish Parliament of 1000£ p{e]r annum which from not hav[in]g been recommended by Governm[en]t  here was not bestowed upon me.  I presume to make only one remark:  was it the intention or not of His Majesty’s Governm[en]t to place my rewards for services lower than L[or]d St. V[incen]t or L[or]d D[unca]n. I had the happiness to be a sharer of the glory of the 14th feb[ruar]y.   I had the honor to command the fleet who gained the victory of the Nile & was, I believe, the most compleat one ever obtain[ed], which till that of Copenhagen. An extraordinary manuscript clearly revealing Nelson’s hubris as he asks the King of England for a raise.

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Nelson, Horatio. Important autograph letter signed, (

Lot 174: Nelson, Horatio. Important autograph letter signed, ("Nelson & Bronte"), 4 pages (9 ½ x 7 ½ in.)

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Description: 174. Nelson, Horatio. Important autograph letter signed, (“Nelson & Bronte”), 4 pages (9 ½ x 7 ½ in.; 241 x 191 mm.),  “Victory, Madalena Islands,” 7 November 1803 to Major William A. Villetes, commanding at Malta; browned, repair to page folds and minute paper losses at intersecting folds. After being given command of the Mediterranean following Britain’s renewal of hostilities with France after the treaty of Amiens, Nelson contemplates the thought and motives of Napoleon as well as foretells of the coming war with Spain and the effect that the rumors of Napoleon’s impending invasion of England is having on recruits. Nelson writes in part: The enemy are now eight sail of the line perfectly ready and they are pressing every man to complete the frigates...I trust they will not escape us.  I agree with you that unless Buonaparte is absolutely mak and that the people about him ate likewise so that he will not wish to throw Sicily into our hands in order to revenge himself of the King of Naples much less force Spain into a war which must so much injure the French cause.  It matters not being at war with Spain.  We may be forced to go to war with her for her compliance to the French but I can never believe that Buonaparts councillors are such fools as to force Spain to begin...the war would not cost us one farthing more that at present.  Until the idea of the invasion is a little blown over I fear we shall see no recruits.  Lord St. Vincent to me says (in my line) we can give you neither ships nor men at present, and the folks at home take care not to overload us with dispatches...I intend to leave this anchorage on Wednesday and get home again... When England reopened hostilities with France in the Spring of 1803 after a brief peace (of Amiens), one of her first acts was to seize Malta contrary to the treaty of Amiens.  Nelson was given command of the entire Mediterranean, superseding Villetes, who was placed in command of Malta.  Since July, Nelson had been blockading the French port of Toulon which lasted until 1805 when the French fleet escaped.  They were pursued to the West Indies and back to Europe where the campaign climaxed with Nelson’s great victory at Trafalgar, which also ended his life aboard the Victory. At the time, France was receiving subsidies from Spain and almost a year after this letter Britain began to take ships bound for Spain with bullion, thus provoking war with Spain. Napoleon had also assembled his “Army of England” in the Boulogne area and was planning for an invasion of Britain.  Rumors of the invasion caused competition among the Militia, Army and Navy for recruits. A stirring letter in which Nelson talks of Napoleon’s motives, foretells of the future war with Spain, and alludes to the impending invasion of Britain as only a rumor.

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Smith, Adam. Autograph letter signed, 4 pages (9 x 7 ¼ in.; 229 x 184 mm.)

Lot 175: Smith, Adam. Autograph letter signed, 4 pages (9 x 7 ¼ in.; 229 x 184 mm.)

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Description: 175. Smith, Adam.  Autograph letter signed, 4 pages (9 x 7 ¼ in.; 229 x 184 mm.), “Glasgow,” 29 October 1759 to the 1st Earl of Shelburne; in fine condition. Interesting details on expenditures. In his informative letter to the 1st Earl of Shelburne, Smith discusses in some detail the expenses incurred by his son: I have marked every receipt with a letter of the Alphabet. Your Lordship will find the same letter upon the back of the Account or accounts which correspond to it. Your Lordship will observe several receipts that have no accounts corresponding to them.  It is always mentioned in the body of the receipt what the money was given for, but there is not always any discharged account from a third person vouching that it was actually so expended. He describes two trips made with him, one to Edinburgh: I was often obliged either to sup or dine at places where it was improper to carry him.  When this happened to be the case, that I might be sure what company he was in in a very dissolute town, I ordered a small entertainment at our lodgings & invited two or three young lawiers to keep him company in my absence... the other to the Duke of Argyll at Inverary: we happened to be misinformed with regard to Dukes [sic] motions & came there two days before him during which time we stayed at a very expensive Inn. Smith also gives Shelburne a meticulous account of Fitzmaurice’s pocket money: Your Lordship will observe the first Article for Pocket to be four Pounds.  he asked for it & as it was the beginning of my government I gave it. It was spent in less than a month, not upon any vitious pleasure, but upon prints & baubles of no great utility & a considerable portion of it upon nuts, apples and oranges.  After that I capitulated with him for a guinea a month  & he has kept to this pretty nearly. Smith devotes the last paragraph of his letter to an analysis of Fitzmaurice’s conduct and prospects in general;  His regularity is tempered by a great desire of distinguishing himself by doing actions of eclat that will draw upon him the Attention of the world.  He is even animated by this passion to a degree that is a little hazardous & is capable of venturing to expose his talents, which are naturally excellent, before they are perfectly matured.  If he lives to a man, he will, I imagine be firm, steady & resolute in an uncommon degree, & by the time he comes to the meridian of Life, will be a man of severe & even of rigid moral. Among payments without voucher listed by Smith are those for some books which we bought for ready money..., for a set of Silver buckles, for a case of mathematical instruments and for some other smaller articles of a few shillings value...It is likely that the case of mathematical instruments would have been supplied by the young James Watt, then Mathematical Instrument Maker to the College of Glasgow, who five years later was to begin his researches into steam power when asked to repair the College’s Newcomen Engine. References: Messner & Ross, Correspondence of Adam Smith, no. 42.

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Smith, Adam. Autograph letter signed, 3 pages (9 x 7 ¼ in.; 229 x 184 mm.)

Lot 176: Smith, Adam. Autograph letter signed, 3 pages (9 x 7 ¼ in.; 229 x 184 mm.)

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Description: 176. Smith, Adam.  Autograph letter signed, 3 pages (9 x 7 ¼ in.; 229 x 184 mm.), “Glasgow,” 3 December 1759 to the 1st Earl of Shelburne; docketed, some very minor splitting at folds.   Reconnoitering finances and waxing profound on his correspondent’s son barring his poor grasp of English grammar. Smith explains how he has taken advantage of exchange rate differences, and thanks his correspondent for sending funds: Your Lordship has remitted the money in the manner that is most advantageous to me.  As the ballance of Exchange is almost always against Glasgow & in favour of London all London bills commonly sell above Par, & I this day received ½ per cent advanced price for the two draughts you sent me. I should abuse your Lordships Generosity very grossly if I took advantage of what you are so good as to put in my Power or did not declare that I think the sum you have remitted me full compensation for all the trouble I have been at with Mr. Fitzmaurice. That trouble, indeed, is very Little. I have never known anybody more easily governed, or who more readily adopted any advice when the propriety of it is fairly explained to him... Smith then goes on to recount an anecdote illustrating his son’s impeccable behavior: I cannot give your Lordship a stronger instance how much he takes it a point of honour to observe the most frivolous parts of his duty as a student with exact regularity. He gives good application and has a very great ambition to distinguish himself as a man of Learning. He seems to have a particular turn for and delight in Mechanics and Mathematics which make the principal part of his business this year continuing, however, all his last year’s studies except Logic. What he is most defective in is Grammar, especially english Grammar, in which he is apt some times to blunder to a degree that I am some times at a loss to account for. This, however, I expect will soon be mended. He concludes his letter with discussion of four sheets of Anecdotes relating to the King of Prussia which Fitzmaurice’s  elder brother has received from Germany. References: Mossner & Ross, Correspondence of Adam Smith, no. 43.

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Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. 1776.

Lot 177: Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. 1776.

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Description: 177. Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. London: W. Strahan & T. Cadell, 1776. Two volumes, quarto (11 x 8 1/8 in.; 280 x 207 mm.), Half title in volume 2, blank leaf present at end of volume 1, publisher’s advertisement leaf at end of volume 2; clean and crisp. Contemporary polished tree calf, spines gilt; joints cracked, spines worn at head and foot. First edition of the “first and greatest classic of modern economic thought” (Printing and the Mind of man). A clean, fine copy. References: Goldsmith’s 11392; Kress 7621; PMM 221; Rothschild 1897; Sabin 82303 Provenance: Cholmondelly Library (bookplates)--Thomas Moffat MD 1776 (inscribed on title page).

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Stanley, Henry M. Autograph letter signed, 3 pages, (7 1/8 x 4 7/8 in.; 181 x 124 mm.)

Lot 178: Stanley, Henry M. Autograph letter signed, 3 pages, (7 1/8 x 4 7/8 in.; 181 x 124 mm.)

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Description: 178. Stanley, Henry M.  Autograph letter signed, 3 pages, (7 1/8 x 4 7/8 in.; 181 x 124 mm.), “Pirbright, Surrey,” 18 August 1902, to Robert Stein on his imprinted stationery; very scattered spotting. Stanley criticizes his correspondent’s remarks about the French, Germans, Americans and the English. Stanley writes in full: It is impossible to read your article without coming to the conclusion that you are an accomplished writer, & I feel immensely flattered at being asked to endorse what has been so ably & eloquently argued.  I am sorry however to say that my rude common sense prevents me from approving your suggestion.  I am neither pro-German, or pro-French and I distinctly see that the ideas you broach will not please Frenchmen nor indeed any American or Englishman who is of clean unbiassed mind, & I doubt, whether the higher class of Germans will regard them as wise.  I cannot divest my mind quite from the suspicion that there is some irony concealed in your proposals, & if I were a Frenchman I feel I should be furiously angry. You may be innocent of all intention to provoke Frenchmen, but it is too evident your exaggerated ideas of German[y]  might  border perilously near being offensive.  If America talked of American projects with such exaggerated insinuation of her power, & her wealth &c, she would be simply insufferable, & no lover of Germany would care to put ideas in her mouth which would estrange the good will of every nation. Germany is too rich & powerful to need such language to impress her greatness & her value as one of the foremost among the nations.  As yet she feels the need of more land, but if out of inordinate conceit she proclaims her greedy love of it & wantonly promotes discord to indulge it, she will end in making herself as detested as the French did previous to 1870-71. A sharp letter revealing Stanley’s sensitivity to cultures other than his own and his desire to impart this on others.

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Wesley, John. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 179: Wesley, John. Autograph letter signed ("J Wesley"), 1 page, (8 x 6 3/8 in.; 203 x 162 mm.)

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Description: 179. Wesley, John. Autograph letter signed (“J Wesley”), 1 page, (8 x 6 3/8 in.; 203 x 162 mm.), “Sheffield,” 15 August 1781 to Miss Loxdale. Wesley, the English founder of Methodism advises: You are not to conform to the Judgment of others, but to follow your own light. In the body of his heartfelt letter Wesley writes: Your Letter gave me much satisfaction.  Whereunto you have attended, hold fast! And press on toward the mark, the prize of your high calling of God in Christ Jesus! I do not see any reason to doubt, but that you have tasted of the pure Love of God.  But you seem to be only a babe in that State, & have therefore need to go forward continually. It is by Doing & Suffering ye whole will of our Lord, that we grow up into Him that is our Head and if you diligently hearken to his voice, He will shew you the way wherever you should go.  But you have need to be exceeding faith, full to the light he gives you.  While you have the light, walk in the light, & it will continually increase.   Do not regard the Judgment of the world, even of those that called ‘The Religious World.’   You are not to conform to the Judgment of others, but to follow your own light, that which ye Blessed Spirit, gives you from time to time ‘which is truth, & is no lie.’  That He may guide you & your Sister into all Truth & all Holiness, is the Prayer of, My Dear Miss Loxdale. A fine letter by Wesley with meaningful content.

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[South Sea Company.] A full set of playing cards with satires concerning the

Lot 180: [South Sea Company.] A full set of playing cards with satires concerning the "South Sea Bubble."

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Description: 180. [South Sea Company.] A full set of playing cards printed with satires concerning the “South Sea Bubble.” (3 ½ x 2 ¼ in.; 89 x 57 mm.), London. Thomas Bowles, 1720. Extraordinary full set of “South Sea Bubble” playing cards. 52 cards complete, printed in black, with contemporary colour for the diamonds and hearts; remains of duty stamp to corner of the ace of clubs; slight surface damage to corner of jack of hearts, affecting figure but not satire; clear impressions of a very scarce and desirable item; preserved in a custom made box. Each card bears a satire on the fortunes and misfortunes, predominantly the latter, of people who had invested in one of the many joint-stock companies that had been floated in 1719 and 1720.  This set of cards was printed by Thomas Bowles, of 69 St Paul’s Churchyard, for 3s. in 1720.  They demonstrate the enormous range of people affected by this financial crash, from cobblers to peers, and their varying reactions to it.  Parallels in Scotland and France for this diversity are the Darien Scheme and the Mississippi Company. Sylvia Mann comments that the Bowles family issued in 1720 Stock jobbing cards or the “Humours of Change Alley,”a pack commenting satirically upon the behaviour of the inhabitants of London during the period of intense speculation.  This pack is known generally as The South Sea Bubble. Satire on cards seems to have departed with the Bowles; it was perhaps replaced by caricature (Collecting English Playing­ Cards, 1978, p. 19).  Two different packs are known by Bowles; the other set depicts genuine or bogus companies at the time of the Bubble. References: Not in Sperling.

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[Titanic, R.M.S.] Original passenger log with autograph emendations, 66 pages

Lot 181: [Titanic, R.M.S.] Original passenger log with autograph emendations, 66 pages

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Description: 181. [Titanic, R.M.S.] Original passenger log with autograph emendations in an unidentified hand, 66 pages, (12 7/8 x 8 ¼ in.; 327 x 210 mm).  [no place] 31 May 1912, with printed title page: R.M.S. ‘TITANIC,’ Sailed APRIL 10TH, 1912, From SOUTHHAMPTON to NEW YORK, Via CHERBOURG and QUEENSTOWN FIRST CLASS PASSENGERS. REVISED MAY 31ST, 1912 on the lower left corner and at upper left corner marked Corrected in red ink; some wear, more severe condition issues in the first three pages with internal tears, stains and creasing but otherwise in sound condition. Haunting hand-annotated original passenger log of the R.M.S. Titanic. The log lists the names and known addresses of survivors, deceased and missing of First, Second and Third Class passengers. Each page is divided into six columns headed: NAME, Saved, Missing, Body Recovered, European Address, and American Address. If a body was found, there is a verification number and both location and name of the person to whom the remains were delivered. Throughout the log are manuscript corrections accomplished in red and black ink inserted when further details were unearthed.  The first page for the Second Class passengers is printed “Revised November 20, 1912.” The Third Class passengers section is printed “Revised 20/11/12”.  The European style of date notation, with day preceding month, indicates this was the White Star Lines’ up-to-date retained passenger log, notated as new information was discovered. After leaving Southampton on 10 April 1912, White Star Lines' R.M.S. Titanic called at Cherbourg, France and Queenstown, Ireland before heading westwards towards New York.  On 14 April 1912, four days into the crossing and about 375 miles (600 km) south of Newfoundland, she hit an iceberg at 11:40 pm ship's time. The glancing collision caused Titanic's hull plates to buckle inwards along her starboard side and opened five of her sixteen watertight compartments to the sea; the ship gradually filled with water and foundered around 2:20 AM. Passengers and some crew members were evacuated in lifeboats, many of which were launched only partly filled. A disproportionate number of men--over 90% of those in Second Class--were left aboard because of a “women and children first” protocol followed by the officers loading the lifeboats. By 2:10 AM the Titanic's upper decks were underwater, and less than ten minutes later, she broke apart and foundered, with well over one thousand people still aboard. Those still aboard who did not go down with her were cast into the frigid waters of the North Atlantic. Many of those in the water died within minutes from hypothermia. The only people to survive the foundering itself were those who managed to reach two of the collapsible lifeboats which had not been launched in time, they being the waterlogged Collapsible A and the overturned Collapsible B. A handful of survivors were also pulled from the water after the ship went down. Just under two hours after the Titanic foundered, the Cunard liner R.M.S. Carpathia arrived on the scene of the sinking, where she brought aboard an estimated 705 survivors. Even before the survivors arrived in New York, investigations were being planned to discover what had happened, and what could be done to prevent a recurrence. The U.S. Senate initiated an inquiry into the disaster on 19 April, a day after Carpathia arrived in New York. The chairman of the inquiry, Senator William Alden Smith, wanted to gather accounts from passengers and crew while the events were still fresh in their minds. Smith also needed to subpoena all surviving British passengers and crew while they were still on American soil, which prevented them from returning to the UK before the American inquiry was completed on 25 May. Lord Mersey was appointed to head the British Board of Trade’s inquiry into the disaster, which took place between 2 May and 3 July. Each inquiry took testimony from both passengers and crew of Titanic, crew members of Leyland Line's Californian, Captain Arthur Rostron of Carpathia and other experts. The two inquiries reached broadly similar conclusions; the regulations on the number of lifeboats that ships had to carry were out of date and inadequate, Captain Smith had failed to take proper heed of ice warnings, the lifeboats had not been properly filled or crewed, and the collision was the direct result of steaming into a dangerous area at too high a speed.  The recommendations included major changes in maritime regulations to implement new safety measures, such as ensuring that more lifeboats were provided, that lifeboat drills were properly carried out and that wireless equipment on passenger ships was manned around the clock. An International Ice Patrol was set up to monitor the presence of icebergs in the North Atlantic, and maritime safety regulations were harmonised internationally through the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea; both measures are still in force today. A remarkable historic record of the dreadful loss of life in the most famous maritime disaster in history.  $60,000 - $80,000

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Disney, Walt. Typed letter signed (

Lot 182: Disney, Walt. Typed letter signed ("Walt"), 1 page, (11 x 8 ½ in.; 279 x 216 mm.)

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Description: 182. Disney, Walt.  Typed letter signed (“Walt”), 1 page, (11 x 8 ½ in.; 279 x 216 mm.), “Hollywood, California,” 10 September 1934, on imprinted stationery of Walt Disney Productions with Mickey Mouse illustrated on the letterhead, to an unidentified employee named “Dick”. Walt Disney spells out his office policy for his creative staff. Disney writes in full: If I didn’t have a secretary to answer my phone calls I’m sure I wouldn’t get much work done.  We can’t provide each animator, writer, musician, etc. with a secretary so therefore I wish you would let the girls in this building act as your secretary in taking care of any incidental matters, particularly telephone calls both incoming and outgoing.  I am instructing them to take care of all messages for you, see that they are delivered, etc.  They will make outgoing calls for you, as well.  If you should be expecting an important call, which cannot be taken care of by them, then you will be called to the phone - otherwise the procedure indicated above will leave you free to concentrate on your work throughout the entire day, without any unnecessary interruptions.  Your cooperation in the above matter will be very much appreciated by me.  Thanks.

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Disney, Walt. Typed letter signed, 1 page, (11 x 8 ½ in.; 279 x 216 mm.)

Lot 183: Disney, Walt. Typed letter signed, 1 page, (11 x 8 ½ in.; 279 x 216 mm.)

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Description: 183. Disney, Walt.  Typed letter signed, 1 page, (11 x 8 ½ in.; 279 x 216 mm.), “Hollywood, California,” 21 March 1940, on color imprinted stationery of Walt Disney’s Pinocchio, with the characters Pinocchio and Jiminy Cricket in the upper left, to Congressman Fred A. Hartley, Jr.; light soiling. Walt Disney weighs in against congressional interference in the movie industry. Disney writes in full: I address you with reference to the “Neely Bill”, which pertains to the questions of block booking and blind selling of motion pictures.  My duties in connection with the production of our motion pictures occupy my time to such an extent that I have been unable to carefully read and analyze this proposed legislation.  Therefore, I will not presume to impose my opinion as to its technical merits.  Our company is an “independent”, as that term is generally understood.  We produce cartoon short subjects such as the Mickey Mouse series, and an occasional feature like “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs”, and like our current feature, “Pinocchio”.  Therefore, our position differs in many respects from that of the ‘live action’ studios.  It may be that the “Neely Bill” might affect us much less than it would many of the other motion picture companies.  Indeed, our market is such that some of the Neely Bill’s provisions conceivably might react in our favor.  On the other hand, as a matter of general principle, I am constrained to believe that legislative interference in an industry such as motion pictures might be harmful, and would be more likely to impede rather than further production and distribution.  It is my opinion that the motion picture industry is qualified and capable of regulating itself from within, and such regulation, free from legislative pressure, would be more normal and would avoid undue disturbance and economic burdens.  A prescient letter from Disney regarding legislative interference and the harm it could cause to the motion picture industry.

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Disney, Walt. Fine typed letter signed (

Lot 184: Disney, Walt. Fine typed letter signed ("Walter") 1 page, (11 x 8 ½ in.; 279 x 216 mm.)

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Description: 184. Disney, Walt. Fine typed letter signed (“Walter”) 1 page, (11 x 8 ½ in.; 279 x 216 mm.), “Burbank, California,” 15 February 1941 to Miss Daisy Beck, on Walt Disney’s Fantasia stationery; indentations and rust stains from paper clips at top left corner of each page. Disney writes of “Peter Pan,” “Uncle Remus” and “Fantasia.” Writing to one of his teachers in Kansas City, Daisy Beck, Disney writes in part: With all my planning for a fine visit with you in Kansas City, I had to forgo this stop-over on my return trip home from New York. What with FANTASIA opening there and production activities here at the studio, they had me practically flying. I originally intended to show our version of PETER PAN to Maude Adams, who as you may know teaches dramatics at Stephens College, but things didn’t work out so we had to abandon all our plans for Kansas City. We went East via the South and had a most interesting trip. We are planning to do the old Negro classic , UNCLE REMUS, so we took advantage of the opportunity to acquaint ourselves with the locale of this famous old character. We spent several days in Atlanta visiting historical spots as well as the home of the late Joel Chandler Harris, the author of UNCLE REMUS. From there, we went on East. We spent a hectic ten days in New York making final arrangements for the opening of the picture, which was a gala premiere attended by socialites, including Mr. Kermit Roosevelt, Mrs. Andrew Carnegie and many others. It was a very successful affair  with seats selling at $10.00. It is running at the Broadway Theatre, which we are operating as our own house, and it’s doing a very good business. The seating capacity is 1800 and the picture is now in its fifteenth week. We opened FANTASIA in Los Angeles the end of January and it is doing very well here, as it is in Boston where it opened about the same time as another top-hat affair with everybody prominence turning out. I am anxious to get the picture started in Kansas City, but no date has been set for it yet. I want very much to have you see it because it’s such a complete departure from  anything we have ever done . . . . I am going to send you one of our FANTASIA books after Deems Taylor and Mr. Stokowski have autographed it. We are very proud of this book as it’s one of the finest jobs we’ve ever done. It was written by Mr. Taylor, and other than the printing, it was made here at the studio. In the same package, I shall also send you a few books that are being used in the public schools which are meeting with the approval of the Board of Education. I thought you would be interested in seeing how Mickey and the rest of our gang are playing their part. Frankly, though, I don’t think they quite take the place of the old McGuffy Readers that I used when I first started going to Benton . . . . A wonderfully informative letter to one of his most beloved teachers in Kansas City.

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Flynn, Errol. Extremely rare autograph letter signed, 3 pages (7 ½ x 5 ¾ in.; 191 x 146 mm.)

Lot 185: Flynn, Errol. Extremely rare autograph letter signed, 3 pages (7 ½ x 5 ¾ in.; 191 x 146 mm.)

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Description: 185. Flynn, Errol. Extremely rare autograph letter signed, 3 pages (7 ½ x 5 ¾ in.; 191 x 146 mm.), “Rome, Italy,” 22 June 1949 (postmark), on Hotel Excelsior, Roma, letterhead stationery, to Burt Lancaster, Los Angeles, California; some smudging with envelope. Errol Flynn warns burgeoning star, Burt Lancaster, about the big wigs at Warner Brothers and comments on his own out-of-control lifestyle. Flynn writes in full:  Dear Burt--(know you won’t mind this informality--always figured ‘Mister’ should be reserved especially for people like Mr. Mayer or Mr. Warner--or even Mister Hakim.) However--many thanks indeed for your notes which I know full well as well-disposed & meant & now I want to thank you for it--The fact is tho’, I’m not here to work or even try to; on the contrary--have been trying only to see if I couldn’t slow down a tempo of living not only much too furious but one which seems to have somehow got out of control. Be sure that if Senors Bigazzi or Ferrara do me the favour of a phone call I’ll most certainly want to tilt a glass with these gentlemen--and at the same time mention your high regard for them. Incidentally, chum, and very sincerely, hope you won’t mind if I say this writer holds your work in high esteem too? Thanks again--and watch those fucking Warner Bros with the wary eye of an Egyptian surrounded in mid-desert by vengeful Israelites; certainly, tho’, you must have the Fréres figured--just stare at ‘em--they wilt! Best luck--Burt. Errol Flynn American film actor, Errol Flynn was the handsome and dashing swashbuckling hero of many adventure film classics including: “Captain Blood” (1935), “The Adventures of Robin Hood” (1938), and “Sea Hawk” (1940). He writes this informal and candid letter to budding film star Burt Lancaster. By the late 40s, Flynn’s lifestyle had begun to catch up with him. He had already been tried (and acquitted) on charges of statutory rape of two teenage girls in 1942. Now, his heavy drinking and heavy smoking, as well as experimentation with drugs, was beginning to show in both his personal appearance and on-screen performances. In this revealing letter, the star of numerous Warner Brothers classic films mentions that he is trying to “...slow down a tempo of living not only much too furious but one which seems to have somehow got out of control.” The late 40s also witnessed the rising career of young star Burt Lancaster, whose first film The Killers (1946), adapted from a Hemingway short story, brought him instant stardom. Flynn kids with Lancaster about major studio heads Louis B. Mayer (MGM) and Jack Warner (Warner Brothers) and also about French producers Robert and Raymond Hakim, using an off-color metaphor for his caution, while he acknowledges Lancaster already seems to have them all figured out. An extremely rare letter with extraordinary content.

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Hilton, James. The original typescript with corrections of Good-Bye, Mr. Chips.

Lot 186: Hilton, James. The original typescript with corrections of Good-Bye, Mr. Chips.

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Description: 186. Hilton, James. The original typescript with corrections of Good-Bye, Mr. Chips: together with: the second, corrected typescript. London: [November, 1933]. There are 46 pages of the original draft, representing about two-thirds of the book, with extensive corrections by Hilton in ink; the balance, the author has stated, (see below), has been destroyed.  There are 71 pages of the corrected draft, as sent to the printer, and is complete.  Both drafts are typed in blue on sturdy lightweight typing paper, (10 x 8 in.; 254 x 203 mm.); some marginal fraying, the second draft has been four-hole punched and bears the printer’s pencilled galley numbers. Two original mailing envelopes, dated 1935, and used to mail the typescript, are included, as is an autograph letter signed from the author. From the library of the actor Robert Montgomery, contained in a blue morocco backed slipcase with inner folding wrapper, with Mr. Montgomery’s name in gold on the front of the case. The original typescript together with the second, corrected typescript of Good-Bye, Mr.Chips’ one of the most beloved stories of all time. There are few twentieth century stories that have so captured the imagination and stirred the nostalgia of generations of readers on both sides of the Atlantic as James Hilton’s classic tale Good-bye, Mr. Chips.  Movies have been made of it (the first starred Robert Donat and Greer Garson), countless editions have been illustrated and printed, and although Hilton’s other novels include Lost Horizon, and Random Harvest, this shorter tale has become the work for which he is best remembered. Dealing with the life and career of the English schoolmaster Chipping, of Brookfield School, it may also be read as an allegory of England as the nation passes through the decades of war and peace. It is, however, the superbly drawn portrait of “Chips”, which remains with the reader, even the reader to whom the life of a British public school is strange and unfamiliar. It doesn’t stay unfamiliar very long, and then in character of the wise and kindly teacher, the reader finds a lifelong, beloved friend. Included with the typescripts is a letter to Robert Montgomery from Hilton, written at Hollywood, California, dated 25 May 1937:  My dear Montgomery.  This is to say how pleased I am that the original “Chipsiana” are in your possession. You have part of the first draft (the rest, I’m afraid, must have perished in my own London fireplace) & the whole of the second draft that went to the printers.  As I never handwrite my work, you really have all the “Chips” relics that still exist Yours sincerely, James Hilton.  Hilton has stated that he went out on his bicycle to clear his brain, and returned home to write  Good-bye, Mr. Chips in four days. An extraordinary group being all that remains of the original typescripts of Good-Bye Mr. Chips as confirmed by Hilton himself. Provenance:  The Collection of Robert Montgomery.

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Houdini, Harry. Autograph manuscript signed with 2 pages printed in facsimile and a photo

Lot 187: Houdini, Harry. Autograph manuscript signed with 2 pages printed in facsimile and a photo

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Description: 187. Houdini, Harry. Autograph manuscript signed (“H.H.”) with 2 pages printed in facsimile and a photograph of Houdini and Kellar, 3 pages, (10 x 8 in.; 254 x 203 mm.), Undated [March 1922] Houdini writes the eulogy for great magician, Harry Kellar. First 3 pages are entirely penned in Houdini’s hand; the 2 page conclusion is in facsimile on William Penn Hotel stationery in Pittsburgh; light soiling. Famed magician, Houdini, writes a sincere eulogy to his idol Harry Kellar. Houdini’s eulogy is preceded by his note signed with his initials, Written on train from Pittsburgh on way to New York. H.H. He begins: Dean Harry Kellar-Born July 11th 1849-March 10-22 Our Dean Has gone to sleep. Life’s fitful dream is o’er.  The last great magician of the past generation has placed his magic wand away & his soul has gone to his forefathers.  To know Dean HK was to love him.   He actually loved his enem[i]es.  I Have know [n] of a number of cases where he had been duped-made no difference to him.  His great heart, his broad mind -he forgave them all.  He was a real human being.  In fact he was all heart & seemed to me to be a heart shaped like a human being walking about on two sturdy limbs. I believe in the past 14 years [I] have gotten closer to him than anyone outside of his immed[i]ate family.  During my visit to him in 1919- 1920- He gave me full data re a Biography. He was as modest as a schoolgirl when speaking about himself & it was only by adroit questioning that I managed to get the real Harry Kellar on Paper. His life was a hard & fast struggle, survival of the fittest.  How he gave full evening performances with kitchen utensils, &...be honored. How one time being unable to me [e] t his obligations, he walked in...winter in deep snow in his old evening dress sent from one town to another. His tours around the world.  His life make[s] the most fascinating reading... possible.  He was the last of the great old timers.  He was revered & respe[cted] by the entire world who knew him. Col. Ro[o]seveldt mention[ed] HK in his letters to his children. HK knew the notables of the world.  His home was adorned with autografted shots of History maker[s] & celebrities in all walks of life. To me[e]t HK was an honor that used in the minds of all who could & did meet him.  His clear deducting mind was as alert as ever.  His inventive genius was always seeking new feats to perfect. He showed me a number of mysteries he had been working on that seemed actual witchcraft for simpleness & subtleness of execution. I never knew how really a great magician he was unt[i]ll I came in contact with him & [came] to know & love him.  It was to me that fell the honor of being the last assistant on his farewell to the stage-at the Hippodrome New York City which I created for him knowing a man of his character and ability ought to have & not a... In the printed conclusion, Houdini expresses his bereavement at the loss of one of the greatest entertainers in the world of magic that ever lived --We all mourn his loss & I know that I shall be a better man for having met him &...that you have left the wor[l]d a little better than when you entered....” Harry Kellar was the first great magician native to the United States -called the “dean of magic” and “the most beloved magician in history,” he was unquestionably the most popular magician from 1896 until 1908. Houdini idolized Kellar, and his admiration for the king of American magic was demonstrated by his tribute made at the Hippodrome, which Houdini mentions in this eulogy. The Illustrated History of Magic describes the memorable event: “Houdini persuaded Kellar to return to New York on October 17, 1917, to star in a mammoth benefit show staged by the Society of American Magicians for the families of the first American casualties in World War I-the men who lost their lives when the U.S. transport Antilles was sunk by a German U-boat.  Kellar levitated a table and escaped from ropes, after bells had rung and tambourines had played in the cabinet where he had been tied. There was a roar of applause as the tall, tanned magician bowed and started to walk toward the wings.  Houdini ran out and brought him back to the center of the stage. America’s greatest magician should be carried off in triumph after his final public performance, Houdini said. Members of the society helped Kellar up into the upholstered seat of a sedan chair.  Twenty-four men and women hurried on stage with baskets of red roses and yellow chrysanthemums and showered the old magician with flowers as the sedan chair was raised.  The 125-piece Hippodrome orchestra played ‘Auld Lang Syne’ and the six thousand spectators rose to their feet and sang the nostalgic words as Kellar was slowly borne away.  The greatest traveler among magicians [he performed on five continents] died five years later on 10 March 1922. When Houdini died in 1926, Joseph Dunninger, generally regarded as the world’s premiere mentalist and mind reader, acquired this eulogy from his estate.

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Mata-Hari. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 188: Mata-Hari. Autograph letter signed ("Mata-Hari") in French, 4 pages, (8 ¾ x 7 in.; 222 x 178 mm.)

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Description: 188. Mata-Hari.  Autograph letter signed (“Mata-Hari”) in French, 4 pages, (8 ¾ x 7 in.; 222 x 178 mm.), “11 Rue Windsor Neuilly St. James,” 12 April [no year], written to “Dear Sir”; in pristine condition. Mata-Hari discusses her dealings with the great ballet impresario Diaghilev.  Mata-Hari writes in part; translated from French: I have been back for a few days and expected to hear from you by now, but since I haven’t, I’m sending you this letter so as not to unnecessarily disturb you by my visit.  What does this Mr. Diaghilev want of me?  He can’t really suppose that I will rehearse a creation for a whole night without a contract or assurance that it will be me who will dance it on stage.  Exactly the same thing would happen to me as had happened with the Opera Comique and Aphrodite but I’m not going to fall for it this time.  I completely undressed for Bakst at my place.  Which in itself was enough and I’m not going to do it again on stage at the Beau Soleil where the stage crew is free to roam.  Diaghilev doesn’t know what he wants and I don’t know why he came.  If he’s not thinking of hiring me then I’m happy not to have taken the pose of a goddess... The notorious dancer Mata Hari’s many intimate connections with members of the French military provided a perfect cover for her suspected spying for the Germans during World War I.  Although the full details have never been revealed, the French executed her for espionage in 1917.

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Monroe, Marilyn. Autograph letter signed (

Lot 189: Monroe, Marilyn. Autograph letter signed ("Marilyn M."), 2 pages, (10 ½ x 7 ¼ in.; 267 x 184 mm)

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Description: 189. Monroe, Marilyn. Autograph letter signed (“Marilyn M.”), 2 pages, (10 ½ x 7 ¼ in.; 267 x 184 mm). “New York,” [no date], to close friend and neighbor, Norman Rosten on Waldorf-Astoria stationery.  Has numerous corrections and strikethroughs all in Marilyn’s hand. Skillfully washed with slight bleeding of ink. Marilyn Monroe writes to a close friend discussing her depression and describing her desire of only wanting a son (over a daughter) as being “Freudian.”   Marilyn pens in full: “Dear Norman, It feels a little funny to be writing the name Norman since my own name is Norma and it feels like I’m writing my own name almost, However-- First, thanks for letting Sam and me visit you and Hedda last Saturday.  It was nice.  I enjoyed meeting your wife - she seemed so warm to me. Thanks the most for your book of poetry--with which I spent all Sunday morning in bed with. It touched me - I use to think if I had ever had a child I would have wanted only a son, but after reading  - Songs for Patricia - I know I would have loved a little girl just as much but maybe the former feeling was only Freudian for something...anyway Frued [sic] I use to write poetry sometimes but usually I was very depressed at those times and the few (about two) people said that it depressed them, in fact one cried but it was an old friend I’d known for years.  So anyway thanks. And my best to Hedda & Patricia and you--  Marilyn M.” In 1954, Monroe had already become a famous Hollywood star, but left California to sublease an apartment at The Waldorf-Astoria in New York.  She enrolled in the Actor’s Studio where she was reintroduced to Arthur Miller, famous American playwright and poet notorious for “The Crucible” and Death of a Salesman” (they had met previously in California in 1950).  They began dating and eventually married after Miller’s divorce to his first wife, Mary Slattery, in 1956.  Rosten, a neighbor and friend of Miller’s, was introduced to Marilyn after she became involved with Miller.   During the 1950s, Monroe’s drug and alcohol abuse worsened and so did her depression.  Monroe mentions in the letter of having a child, an unfulfilled dream of Monroe’s.  She suffered a miscarriage with Miller’s child and an ectopic pregnancy followed shortly after, while living in a farmhouse in Amagansett, New York.  It was at this time, in 1957, that she began to abuse drugs and alcohol more.  Rosten even received a call that year from Monroe’s maid in the middle of the night.  When Rosten rushed over, Monroe had overdosed and her stomach was being pumped.  Judging by the sloppy, inconsistent handwriting in this letter, it is not out of the realm of possibility that she was intoxicated.  While married to Miller, Monroe’s life took a turn for the worst.  Miller encouraged her to continue acting and she completed work on Some Like It Hot, but she was growing more difficult to work with.  By 1960, Monroe’s behavior became more erratic and a divorce ensued.  Drug abuse eventually took their toll and Monroe died 5 August 1962.  Her will named Norman and Hedda Rosten’s daughter, Patricia, as a beneficiary of $5,000 for her education. An intriguing and insightful letter peeking into the troubled soul of the most enduring and legendary sex symbol.

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Valentino, Rudolph. Autograph letter signed, in Italian on his personal stationery, 4 pages

Lot 190: Valentino, Rudolph. Autograph letter signed, in Italian on his personal stationery, 4 pages

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Description: 190. Valentino, Rudolph. Very rare autograph letter signed, in Italian on his personal imprinted Falcon Lair stationery, 4 pages, (7 3/8 x 7 1/8 in.; 187 x 181 mm.), “Bella Drive, Beverly Hills, California,” 25 March 1926 to Bertelli; in pristine condition. Valentino writes to an Italian friend apologizing for his lack of communication due to a busy schedule. Valentino writes in part: My long silence is not indicative of negligence or unwillingness. To the contrary, quite often with Reachi, we remember dearly the genial and cordial attention shown to us by your and your gracious wife. The real reason was lack of time due to settling in the new home and the starting of a new film. Fortunately all is in order now and I am dedicating my first moment of relief to bring you news of myself. We have already started, as I mentioned before, The Son of the Sheik, and it promises to be a magnificent production under the able hand of George Fitzmaurice and the collaboration of the lovely Vilma Banky. Yesterday Manual received a lovely gift of an eight pound baby girl who strangely resembles Pola Negri. Although it’s a girl and not a boy, as Reachi was hoping, hi is so proud that he popped his vest buttons resisting the extreme pressure. I plan returning to Paris towards the end of May or the beginning of June but this time for reasons which I will better explain in person. I desire to come absolutely incognito. I hope we can spend a few days with you and your wife in Danville together with Letellier and friends...An affectionate hand shake from your friend. Rodolfo Valentino. Italian born American film actor, Valentino is fondly remembered as “The Great Lover.” He was the greatest romantic male star during the silent film era and a symbol of mysterious, forbidden eroticism representing the vicarious fulfillment of dreams of illicit love and uninhibited passion. He is best remembered for his films “The Sheik” (1921), “The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse” (1921), and “Blood and Sand” (1922). This personal, handwritten letter was written shortly after Valentino moved into his now home the “Falcon Lair” and at the start of the filming of his final film, “The Son of the Sheik.” Just five months after this letter, Valentino died on 23 August 1926, at the age of 31, due to complications from a perforated ulcer. Letters in Valentino’s hand are extremely rare.

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Catherine II. Letter signed (

Lot 191: Catherine II. Letter signed ("Ekaterina") in Russian Cyrillic, 1 page, (14 ¼ x 9 ¼ in; 362 x 235 mm)

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Description: 191. Catherine II.  Letter signed (“Ekaterina”) in Russian Cyrillic, 1 page, (14 ¼ x 9 ¼ in.; 362 x 235 mm.), St. Petersburg, 17 October 1794 to Francis II, the last Holy Roman emperor; repair to right bottom corner. Catherine the Great congratulates the Holy Roman Emperor on the birth of his daughter.  Catherine congratulates Francis on the birth of a daughter, wishing the princess a long life and every happiness, and adding, I take a sincere interest in all matters pertaining to the flourishing fortunes of Your Imperial and Royal Majesty, and it is therefore with considerable pleasure that I will always assure you of my true and diligent friendship which is required for the welfare of our Empires, and which unites us in a close alliance... Catherine likely sent this letter of congratulations in the normal diplomatic course of affairs.  Catherine had long ago converted to the Orthodox religion (being born a Lutheran in Germany).  Francis II ascended the throne as Holy Roman emperor in 1792 upon the death of his father.  The letter refers to the birth of his daughter Marie Caroline, who was to die less then a year later.

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Catherine De Medicis. Letter signed (

Lot 192: Catherine De Medicis. Letter signed ("Caterine"), accomplished in French calligraphy, 1 page

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Description: 192. Catherine De Medicis.   Letter signed (“Caterine”), accomplished in beautiful French calligraphy, 1 page, (6 ¾ x 20 3/8 in.; 171 x 518 mm.), “Chinon, France,” 7 May 1560; in pristine condition. Catherine De Medicis, the Queen Mother of ruling sixteen-year-old Francis II signs a contract exchanging her castle at Chaumont for Diane de Poitires’ castle at Chenonceaux.  After the death of her husband, King Henry II, Catherine de Medicis, now the effective ruler of France dismisses her lifelong rival Diane de Poitiers, Henry II’s mistress, allowing her to keep all her properties except for the Crown jewels and her castle at Chenonceaux.  The letter reads in full: Caterine by the grace of God Queen of France Mother of the King.  To all those who shall see these presents, greeting. As regarding a certain contract of exchange made and passed between us on the one hand and Lady Diane de Poitiers, Duchess of Valentinois [Henry II’s mistress] on the other before Martin Huguet and Anthoine Aubert loyal notaries at Blois the fourth day of January of last year.  For reason of our domain and castle of Chenonceaux and Chaumont on the Loire, their appurtenances and dependencies, we, having had satisfaction on our part of the contents of the said contract, make accession and transport to the said Duchess of Valentinois by our agents [who have been] sufficiently granted the power of attorney concerning our said domain and castle of Chaumont, its appurtenances and dependencies, as it continues and behaves at, present, stipulating and accepting for her our very dear friend, Cousin Duke d’Aumale peer of France her son-in-law [Francois de Lorraine (1519-1563)], inasmuch as everything is amply contained and declared in the contract of the said accession made and passed before Frartfois Goussart and Louis Bethone, loyal notaries at Amboise, the 25th day of March, following also that of last month, here attached under our counterseal. Of which contract and accession, after having well at length heard the contents through the reading which we had made of it, we have as it is agreeable to us praised, ratified, approved and authorized it.  Let us give and ratify approve and authorize, desire, and it pleases us to realize its full and entire effect. All thus and in the same form and manner as if it had been passed and granted by us. Promising in good faith and word of a queen to have Jallny agree­ able, firm, honest and stable. Without contravening this in any possible way that might be. Thus we give into the care of our friends and vassals the [serving] people of our accounts.  And to all our other officials and officers and to each of them just as will be appropriate.  That from the contents of said contract and accession here, as it is said in the attached under the counterseal, together with the whole of the present contents. Let them make, suffer and leave to the said Duchess of Valentinois gift and usage, fully and peaceably. Ceasing and making cease all difficulties and other obstacles to the contract. For such is our pleasure. In witness of which we have signed with our hand to these presents and then have had placed our seal.  Done at Chinon on the 7th day of May in the year one thousand five hundred sixty. Caterine Within a year after his accession to the throne, King Henry II bestowed on his mistress, Diane de Poitiers, a woman almost twenty years his senior, the duchy of Valentinois - along with the royal chateau at Chenonceaux.  She was even given possession of The Crown Jewels.  She lived at court, supported the king, nursed Queen Catherine when she was ill and devoted herself to the care of the royal children.  However, after Henry II’s death, all that changed.  Catherine, the Queen Mother, dismissed Diane from Court and forced her to relinquish the Crown jewels.  However, Diane was allowed to retain all her properties, with the single exception of the chateau at Chenonceaux. An important historic letter.

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Clement VII (Giulio de' Medici). Autograph letter signed, 1 page, (9 ¼ x 7 ¾ in.; 235 x 197 mm.)

Lot 193: Clement VII (Giulio de' Medici). Autograph letter signed, 1 page, (9 ¼ x 7 ¾ in.; 235 x 197 mm.)

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Description: 193. Clement VII (Giulio de’ Medici).  Autograph letter signed, 1 page, (9 ¼ x 7 ¾ in.; 235 x 197 mm.), “Rome, at the Apostolic Palace,” 9April, 1519, as Archbishop of Florence, To the noble sir, Nicholas Victor; address panel on verso with red wax seal remnants. Clement VII gives instructions to cease actions against an Italian nobleman concerning taxes owed to the Church. Clement pens in full: I have let Count Troylo Rossos know that he should not be molested about the taxes on his lands for the period of the Holiness of Our Lord which he possessed in Parma.  And because the Count alleges to have paid us for that period, we cede in it the name of His Holiness.  And although there is nothing whatever here to show for it I don’t want him to be molested further in this matter.  And so farewell. As Clement VII wrote this letter from the Apostolic Palace, he was very likely visiting his cousin, Leo X (then the Pope).  Clement VII would later cement his name in history as the Pope who denied Henry VIII a divorce from Catherine of Aragon leading to the creation of the Protestant Church of England. Letters entirely in the hand of Clement VII are excessively rare.

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Francis I. Fine document signed (

Lot 194: Francis I. Fine document signed ("Francoys"), in French, 1 page, (12 5/8 x 8 ¾ in.; 321 x 222 mm.)

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Description: 194. Francis I. Fine document signed (“Francoys”), in French, 1 page, (12 5/8 x 8 ¾ in.; 321 x 222 mm.),  [Paris] 8 March 1539, countersigned by Gilbert Bayard; marginal soiling. The Renaissance King of France regulates trade. The present ordinance to the King’s Privy Council was written in response to remonstrances by royal officers and merchants who cannot import wheat, cereal, and other merchandise from outside the kingdom without his leave and payment to the treasurer and receiver general of extraordinary finances.  The ordinance regulates the bushels/barrels and diverse weights according to region.  The bushel of wheat and other cereals will be estimated at 6 [sestiers], Paris measure.  The cask of wine will be estimated at 4 [bodkins], which is 2 pipes or 2 tails, according to the place, amounting to 3 [muids] of Paris.  The other merchandise will be estimated by the officers. At the time of the reign of Francis I, four-fifths of the population of France was agricultural and exported such commodities as grain, wine, wool, and wood in the years with good harvests.  This ordinance is a supplementary mark of royal power, of a centralized state that watched over the economy of the kingdom.  It was drawn up several months before the celebrated Ordinance of Villiers Cotterets of August 1539, whose 192 articles contain, for example, the order to the officers of justice to register every week the value and communal estimate of all kinds of produce such as grain, wine, hay, and the like. Gilbert Bayard was the notary and secretary of the King, who, as secretary to Louise of Savoy, had played a discreet and important role at the moment of the Treaty of Cambrai on 3 August 1529.

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Ferdinand V. Important letter signed (

Lot 195: Ferdinand V. Important letter signed ("yo el rey"), [I the King], in Spanish, 1 page

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Description: 195. Ferdinand V. Important letter signed (“yo el rey”),[I the King], in Spanish, 1 page, (10 ½ x 11 ¾ in.; 267 x 298 mm.), Medina del Campo, 26 June 1477 to the Duke and Duchess of Milan; repair to top margin, some soiling, minute paper losses, paper seal on verso and stain from wax seal. King Ferdinand V laments the death of the Duke of Milan and reflects upon the Duke’s support in Spain’s war with Portugal. Translated from Spanish, in full: We, Don Fernando, by the grace of God King of Castille, Leon, Toledo, of Sicily, Portugal, Galacia, and Prince of the Kingdoms of Aragon, send you, Very Illustrious Galeazzo [Sforza], Duke of Milan, Our very dear and well-loved nephew as well as to you, Most Serene Lady, Good Duchess of Milan, our emphatic greetings to you both, whom we love tenderly and cherish, and to whom we wish long life and honor.  Very dear relatives, since We received your news and learned of the death of the invincible Duke of Milan, Our well-loved cousin, as well as the circumstances and the way of this death, We are at the mercy of a great sorrow and regret which have their source in the circumstances of this death.  In thinking about such a dastardly and unusual act, so horrible an event, so abominable a murder, one refuses even to imagine it.  We are in great sorrow, convinced that the death and disappearance of such a noble prince can present a considerable danger, contribute to the instability of the state and kingdoms, and can be neither useful nor profitable to the kings and princes who were on a footing of close friendship and frequent contact with him.  But on reflection and after meditating on the secrets of God, and imagining how He disposes of kingdoms in accordance with His profound and sacred resolutions, that He gives and takes away as He pleases, and gives and takes away the lives of princes as He pleases, We derived some consolation.  We remember how meritorious and certain it is, when Fortune befalls Us, to conform to God’s  will, which is always just and equitable.  And that is why We beseech you and appeal to your judgment to similarly take command of yourself and cast all sorrow and pain far from you, which needlessly affect the living and which cannot be of any profit to the dead, which means, very noble Duke and Duchess, that you should act in an edifying way conforming to the will of God. It is from the mouth of Juan Antonio de Corbeta, your gentleman of the chamber, that We learned, very noble Duke and Duchess, in what favorable light the late Duke Galeazzo, Our well-loved cousin, considered what We are doing. Although the distance which separates Our two states prevented him from sending soldiers and auxiliary troops to defend Our two kingdoms in the wars against Our Portuguese enemy and the other peoples who came to his assistance, thanks to his well-known courage, recognizing Our obviously just cause and moved by the great love he had for Us, he nonetheless showed a special satisfaction every time he heard that Our cause prospered.  He also was pleased with Our success and the battles which had been turned in Our favor and was satisfied every time he heard it said that We had repulsed the enemy and conquered friends for Our person and territories for Our kingdom. The very illustrious Duke was not content to make Our progress, glory and name known in all the states  where  he had them  disseminated, but showed himself  to be a brother  and sincere friend to Us in  not  authorizing Our  enemies to procure  arms  or anything else useful in his territories and in refusing to lend an ear or receive his emissaries or messengers.  He also did other things in Our favor which it would take too long to recount, and whose reciting would plunge Us into pain and sorrow.  For this reason, most beloved and very illustrious Duke and Duchess, believe, I beg you, that Our Royal Person, Our Kingdoms, Our states and the seas which wash them have a sentiment very acute to the debt which they have incurred towards you, and We thus exhort you and beseech you affectionately that if ever the necessity makes itself felt, God willing, you would lay claim to Our assistance by means of your accredited envoys, and it would be a great pleasure and great joy to Us to lend you aid and assistance in all possible ways in loyal brotherhood.  We thus spoke for a very long time with the above-mentioned Juan Antonio de Corbeta, your servant, and discussed certain topics with him, and We also beseech you to believe absolutely the message he will bring you on Our part, We also beseech you to write Us to give Us detailed information on the state you are in, and the policies you plan to follow, and in which may God assist you. In his letter, Ferdinand discusses the Castilian victory in the war of succession.  The circumstances leading to the war had much to do with royal succession and marriage.  As heiress of Castile, the question of Isabella’s future marriage became a matter  of  increasing diplomatic activity at home and abroad.  Portugal, Aragon, and France each put forward a marriage candidate. Isabella’s half brother, Henry seems to have wanted Isabella to marry Afonso V, King of Portugal.  Between the Portuguese and Aragonese candidates, she herself, no doubt assisted in her decision by her small group of councilors, favored Ferdinand of Aragon.  A third suitor, the French Duc de Guienne, was sidestepped, and without Henry’s approval she married Ferdinand in October 1469. The prospect of an Aragonese consort led to the development of an anti-Aragonese party that put forward the claims of a rival heiress,  Henry’s daughter Joan. The King encouraged this group by going back on the accord of 1468 on the grounds that Isabella had shown disobedience to the crown in marrying Ferdinand without the royal consent.   He now rejected Isabella’s claim to the throne and preferred that of Joan, for whom he sought the hand of the Due de Guienne. Though Isabella and Henry were to some extent reconciled the long-threatened war of succession at once broke out when the King died on 11 December 1474. Isabella, proclaimed herself Queen of Spain on 13 December.  Ferdinand became king consort, and a marginal figure, until Isabella’s war of succession against Afonso V gained his acceptance in 1479. Afonzo, a widower at the time, married Joan, assumed the title of King of Castile, and espoused her cause against Isabella and Ferdinand, with the support of a faction opposed to Isabella which included the Archbishop of Toledo, the master of Calatrava (an influential military order), and the powerful young marques de Villena.  After a lengthy struggle in the region of Zamora and Toro, Alfonso V met with defeat in 1476.

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Henry II. Letter signed (

Lot 196: Henry II. Letter signed ("henry"), 2 pages, (12 3/8 x 8 ¼ in.; 314 x 210 mm.)

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Description: 196. Henry II.  Letter signed (“henry”), 2 pages, (12 3/8 x 8 ¼ in.; 314 x 210 mm.), “Compiegne,” July 16, 1553, in French, countersigned by Duthier, as secretary of state.  To M. le Fourquevaux, his ambassador in Spain; with Henry’s small impressed seal; integral address leaf with paper seal, light spotting. King Henry II of France informs his ambassador in Spain of the death of Edward VI of England.  Henry II provides details of the current composition of power in England and the ongoing struggle for power between Protestants and Catholics is sent to the King’s Ambassador to Spain, M. le Fourquevaux.  He also brings the ambassador up to date on France’s on going war with Charles V (The Holy Roman Emperor) at the Castle of Hesdin in the north of France. The letter reads in part, translated from French: The reason for this despatch by special messenger is to inform you that my good son and brother, the King of England, has passed away on the sixth of this month to the great and extreme regret and sorrow of all the states of his kingdom, as he was a young Prince of great hopes and expectations.  As to myself, I must tell you that I am much pained and grieved on account of the perfect good friendship which he plainly showed me and of which I think I could have made good use in the future to the benefit and advantage of my affairs.  However God has granted me that much that the Crown and Scepter of the said kingdom have fallen into such good hands that I consider to have been compensated for what I have lost by this death. For the Duke of Suffolk’s daughter [Lady Jane Grey] who is married to the second son of the Duke of Northumberland has been declared Queen in the life-time and during the last days of the late King and since his recent death been proclaimed as such.   She has already taken possession of the Great Tower of London and the other principal fortresses of the kingdom, and a law is being made to prepare and to begin the coronation ceremonies for herself and her husband. About all this the Emperor [Charles V] is desperate and in my opinion more vexed than ever because the great intrigues and secret practices which he has had transacted on behalf of his cousin Madame Mary, the oldest daughter of the late King Henry, have been quite useless as she remains deprived of the succession to the crown of England. The Ambassadors of the said Emperor have put before the Duke of Northumberland­ who is the Leader of the Council of England-a proposal of a marriage between Madame Mary and the eldest son of the said Duke who would then have to give up the wife he has taken in marriage, a daughter of the late Duke of Somerset who was Protector of England. By such means they hope to break and to stop things which have long been concluded and agreed upon and consequently to mar and to destroy the good relations which exist between the principal Lords of the Council of England and myself.  However their new Queen and her husband, the King, are entirely well disposed towards my devotedness, knowing full well that I shall never lack in friendship for them nor in anything which is in my power should they need it. Seeing all these troubles the said dame Mary has gone away and will pass through Flanders, if she can, to see her cousin the said Emperor. These are all the news I have to give you just now. I am busy all these days training my army which will soon be assembled and near the enemy who has not yet brought any batteries to the castle of Hesdin but is preparing trenches. In the meantime my men from inside have already much reduced and damaged him by gun-fire and by sallies which they make. Will you communicate the contents of this letter to my cousin the Duke of Parma to whom I am only writing a word to this effect... Below the king’s signature, Duthier writes, We have news that the enemy is bettering against the castle of Hesdin since two days and that he is about to explode some mines from which he is prevented more often than he likes by the sallies our men are making from inside and in which they are not sparing of cannon shots, for they are provided with all they need. In January 1553, Edward VI showed the first signs of tuberculosis, and by May it was evident that the disease would be fatal.  Working with the unscrupulous John Dudley, the duke of Northumberland who controlled the government, he determined to exclude his two half-sisters, Mary and Elizabeth from the succession and to put Northumberland’s fourth son’s wife, Lady Jane Grey, and her male heirs in direct line for the throne.  Edward’s death on July 6 was not made public till two days later.  A power struggle thus erupted when Lady Jane Grey was taken before the Council and informed that she was Edward’s successor on July 9.  On that same day, Mary, whose supporters were in arms, wrote to the Council, declaring herself the lawful successor.  Although the bishop of London, Nicholas Ridley, preached in Lady Jane’s favor, after nine days of rule, from 10 to 19 July, she was confined to the Tower and arraigned for high treason on November 14.  She was sentenced to death and executed on Tower Hill February 12, 1554. A letter of great historic content.

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Louis XVI. Important autograph letter signed, in French, 1 page, (6 7/8 x 4 3/8 in.; 175 x 111 mm.)

Lot 197: Louis XVI. Important autograph letter signed, in French, 1 page, (6 7/8 x 4 3/8 in.; 175 x 111 mm.)

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Description: 197. Louis XVI. Important autograph letter signed (“Louis”), in French, 1 page, (6 7/8 x 4 3/8 in.; 175 x 111 mm.),  [Paris], the 15th in the evening 15 September 1791 to an unnamed correspondent but most likely Jacques G. Thouret, a member of the Constituent Assembly; in pristine condition. Louis XVI accepts the final version of the new Constitution and transmits it to the Constituent Assembly. Louis XVI writes in full: I am sending you the proclamation.  I only made a few small changes in the style. Have it printed tonight, so that it can be released early tomorrow. You shall also date it yesterday the 14th when I read it to the Council.  It should not be subsequent to what was said today at the Assembly. Louis XVI wrote this letter the day after he accepted the revised Constitution.  Earlier, on 21 June 1791, he had fled the country but was quickly arrested at Varennes and returned to Paris on 25 June. This attempted getaway destroyed the experiment with the constitutional monarchy, but the Constituent Assembly maintained its composure.  Creating the fiction that the King had been kidnapped, it quelled popular disturbances by using the National Guard and set about revising the Constitution.  The new Constitution of 1791 was declared complete on 3 September and at the same time a provision was made for its presentation to the King by a delegation from the Assembly.  John Hall Stewart in his Documentary Survey of the French Revolution (1951)further explains: “the historic document derives its name from the year in which it was brought to fulfillment.  It represents the result of the arduous and assiduous application of the members of the National Constituent Assembly, over a period of more than two years and in the face of numerous and serious difficulties . . . .Outstanding among [its enactments] were decrees on the administration of forests, on the police of security and criminal justice, on patentes, on colonies, on the Penal Code, on the Rural Code, on the freedom and equality of men irrespective of their color, on criminal procedure, on restricting the activities of political clubs, and on a military code.” No provision was made for submitting the Constitution to a popular referendum, all that was necessary was the acceptance of the King.  This was forthcoming, on 13 September, in the form of letter brought to the Assembly.  On the following day the King agreed to the new constitution as evidenced by the content of the present letter.   The remaining few days of the Assembly were occupied with all the miscellanea which inevitably characterize the closing of any organization. On 28 September Louis proclaimed the Constitution as law and announced that the Revolution was over. Two days later, the deputies having declared their mission completed and the sessions of the National Constituent Assembly at an end, the first of the revolutionary assemblies passed into history.  The Revolution, however, was not over.  In spite of Louis’s oath of loyalty to the nation in his acceptance of the revised Constitution, his attempted flight had destroyed his credibility and the split between the King and the nation became irremediable.  By 10 August 1792, a popular insurrection overthrew the monarchy and the Constitution of 1791, and on 21 January 1793, Louis was executed. An important letter marking an historic moment in French history.

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Lowe, Sir Hudson. Important letter signed (

Lot 198: Lowe, Sir Hudson. Important letter signed ("H. Lowe"), 4 pages, (12 5/8 x 7 7/8 in.; 321 x 200 mm.)

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Description: 198. Lowe, Sir Hudson. Important letter signed (“H. Lowe”), 4 pages, (12 5/8 x 7 7/8 in.; 321 x 200 mm.), [no place] 23 July 1822 to Baron Sturmer; in fine condition. An important letter from the British Governor of St. Helena defending his actions as Napoleon’s custodian and replying to charges against him in a book by Barry O’Meara, Napoleon’s physician. Lowe writes in full: Having observed that in a work recently published under the title of Napoleon in Exile, I am stated to have expressed myself in terms highly unbecoming respecting the Commissioners of the Allied Sovereigns residing at St. Helena particularly on one occasion to Mr. O’Meara, the writer of the work, that ‘I had no scruple in informing him that the Commissioners were to be looked upon with great suspicion that they were in fact Spies upon every body & every thing’ &c.-- I feel it Sir, an act of proper attention to yourself, as well as to the Sovereign upon whose service you were employed to distinctly & formally disavow having made use of the expressions thus imputed to me, or in any instance, where I may have felt myself called upon from the nature of my public duties at St. Helena, to advert to the Commissioners,  to have ever expressed  myself to Mr. O’Meara or to any other person there in a manner inconsistent with the proper regard & consideration due to them, to the mission on which they were employed, & to the Sovereigns whom they represented. In another part speaking of the formalities under which Napoleon Bonaparte required that the Bulletins of his health should be drawn out, Mr. O’Meara asserts that when he mentioned the matter to me, I observed, ‘that it was some deep laid scheme of the Commissioners’.  I may have possibly said that the anxiety which Bonaparte showed to have the Bulletins drawn out in so particular a manner covered probably some design with regard to the Commissioners, to whom it was known, copies of the Bulletins were transmitted, but it is utterly untrue that I said ‘it was a deep laid scheme of ‘the Commissioners themselves,’ who were in fact uninformed of the circumstances which Mr. O’Meara, who was relating what had passed between Napoleon Bonaparte & himself, was then communicating to me. I avail myself of the present occasion also to acquaint you, that the frequent gross and abusive language which the writer of the work states to have been used to him by Napoleon Bonaparte in speaking of the Allied Sovereigns was never repeated to me, & it is only since this late publication by Mr. O’Meara, I ever heard it asserted that such language had been used by Napoleon Bonaparte to him.  Should there be any other points in the publication where our relative duties are spoken of upon which explanation may be desired, I beg to express my perfect willingness as well as desire to afford it in the fullest manner, not doubting Sir to meet with a reciprocal disposition on your part, should circumstances at any time so require. The exiled Napoleon, with no more military campaigns to plan and wage, began a game of psychological warfare with Lowe. Despite being the captive, Napoleon was able to exert considerable control over Lowe’s decisions and actions, and his plotting against Lowe dominated his activities until his death. A fascinating letter by Lowe countering accusations made by Napoleon’s physician in his book on Napoleon in exile.

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Mazarin, Jules. Autograph letter signed, (

Lot 199: Mazarin, Jules. Autograph letter signed, ("Cardinal Mazzarini") in Italian, 2 pages, (10 3/8 x 8 in.)

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Description: 199. Mazarin, Jules.  Autograph letter signed, (“Cardinal Mazzarini”) in Italian, 2 pages, (10 3/8 x 8 in.; 264 x 203 mm.),  “From the forest at Vincennes,” 6 March 1661 to Pope Alexander VII; scattered spotting; minute paper losses not affecting text. The rich and powerful French Cardinal Mazarin writes to Pope Alexander VII three days before his (the Cardinal’s) death.  Realizing that his end was near Cardinal Jules Mazarin, the Minister to King Louis XIV of France (the “Sun King”) informs the Pope of his intention to send Alexander VII six hundred thousand lire. Mazarin writes in full: The Nuntius of Y[our] H[oli]ness has had me informed of the commissions he has received from you to invite the King to come  to the aid of Christianity against  the forces  that the Turk is preparing to its detriment  and to urge me to join in contributing on my part with H[is] M[ajes]ty in this great and glorious action. I regret extremely, Most Blessed F[ath]er, that a long and grave indisposition which has been oppressing me for many months has deprived me of the means of hearing the Nuntius and of conferring with him on the Paternal  and Most Holy thoughts of Y[our] H[oli]ness, of which I have nonetheless spoken to the King with that force which the zeal of Y[our] H[oli]ness has inspired my frailty with.  I do not at all doubt that H[is] M[ajes]ty has those greater intentions that one can wish on so important an occasion and that they·will·be feasible after such a long and expensive war in a realm which needs repose and solemnity, but as regards my own person, I am so animated by the Pastoral efforts of Y[our] H[oliness] in this expedition against the common enemy that, unable to keep myself even within the bounds that you prescribe for me, as I, as a Minister of the King, prescribe for myself more exacting obligations, and as a Cardinal, on whom Divine Goodness has rained down an Infinity of graces, and I am writing to offer most reverently  to Y[our] H[oliness] the sum of 600 thousand  lire that am gladly withdrawing from the savings I have gathered from the Salaries which the Royal Munificence of H[is] Most X[ian] M[igh]ty has heaped upon me and which I have been reserving precisely for such a purpose.  I humbly beseech Y[our] H[oliness] to agree to receive the little tribute benignly, which I render to Y[our] Beatitude, who will command where and to whom said money should be paid out, which order I will execute immediately, if God wills to preserve my life, but if it should please the Divine M[igh]ty. to dispose of me otherwise, to which I am disposed and prepared, this Legate will find it in my testam[en]t, and the money will be ready just the same after my death, and meanwhile, prostrated at the feet of Y[our] H[oli]ness, I ask you with all humility, be it for this or the other life, for your Most H[oly] Benediction... The Cardinal was mentored by the infamous Cardinal Richelieu and continued Richelieu’s anti-Hapsburg work.  He laid the groundwork for Louis XIVs expansionist policies.  A noted collector of art and jewels, Mazarin amassed a large fortune and was clearly very wealthy at the time of his death. Letters completely in Mazarin’s hand are rare and the content of the present letter is extraordinary as the Cardinal sends a large sum of money to Pope Alexander VII to absolve himself just before his death.

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Napoleon I. Letter signed (

Lot 200: Napoleon I. Letter signed ("Bonaparte"), in French, 1 ¼ pages, (11 3/8 x 7 5/8 in.; 289 x 194 mm.)

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Description: 200. Napoleon I.  Letter signed (“Bonaparte”), in French, 1 ¼ pages, (11 3/8 x 7 5/8 in.; 289 x 194 mm.), “Carrù,” 24 April 1796 to the Commander-in-Chief of the Sardinian Army, General Colly, on his ornate stationery. General Bonaparte writes to the Commander of the Sardinian Army in answer to the latter’s request on the 23rd of April for an armistice.  After defeating the Sardinian Army at the Battle of Mondovi the previous day the French had the Alps behind them and the plains of the Piedmont lay before them.  Napoleon informs the Sardinian General that only the French Government can declare peace and explains why he (Napoleon) must continue his march. Napoleon writes in part; translated from French: The military and moral positions of the two armies makes it impossible to simply suspend fighting, although personally I am convinced that the government will offer reasonable peace terms to your King.  I can’t stop my march on the basis of vague assumptions; there is though a way to reach your goal -- in keeping with the interests of your court, and which will spare a lot of needless bloodshed, which would be contrary to the rules of war and reason -- and that is to turn over to me two or three fortresses of your choice in Alessandria, Tortona and Coni. Only four days later on 28 April the Sardinian government signed the Armistice of Cherasco, which effectively ended their participation in the “First Coalition,” an alliance of European monarchies trying to contain Revolutionary France. 

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Napoleon I. Important letter signed (

Lot 201: Napoleon I. Important letter signed ("Napoléon"), in French, 1 page, (9 x 7 ¼ in.; 229 x 184 mm.)

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Description: 201. Napoleon I. Important letter signed (“Napoléon”), in French, 1 page, (9 x 7 ¼ in.; 229 x 184 mm.), “Osterode,” 30 March 1807 to General Jean Rapp one of Napoleon’s official aide-de-camps; browned. One month after Napoleon’s near defeat by Russians at the Battle of Eylau (7-8 February 1807), and a few months before the capitulation of the city of Danzig (26 May 1807) and the victory at the Battle of Friedland (14 June 1807), the climax of his spring campaign of 1807, Napoleon communicates with one of his leading aide-de-camps, General Jean Rapp, about the importance of maintaining a state of defense.   Napoleon writes in full; translated from French: Monsieur General Rapp, speak to me a little about the armament of Thorn. How many cannons are there in the battery? Yet it is time that this armament be altogether repaired. How many advanced fortifications are there? How many workers employed per day? I imagine that you are not neglecting that first of our duties, that of putting your place in a state of defense. On this note, I pray God to keep you under his Holy protection. At Osterode, March 30, 1807. In December of 1805, Rapp was promoted to “général de division”, after which a number of governorships followed, including the governorship of Danzig (after the city’s capitulation in May of 1807). Rapp fought at Jena on 14 October 1806 and at Golymin on 26 December 1806, where he was wounded. Though the Prussian capital of Berlin was taken on 25 October, the campaign was far from over, as the Prussians looked to the Russians to provide reinforcements. After the December battle, Napoleon sent his men into winter quarters, though they would not long rest; just a month away was the battle of Eylau (7-8 February 1807)--the nearest thing to a defeat Napoléon experienced since his repulse before Acre in 1799. Though technically a victory for Napoleon, the battle would not have been his had it not been for a superb charge by the 10,500 troopers of Murat’s cavalry reserve through the Russian center--one of the great charges of military history. Marshal Ney was to exclaim after the battle: “Quel massacre! Et sans resultat.” Napoléon suffered major losses at Eylau on 7-8 February 1807, an inconclusive near-defeat. His propaganda machine claimed that he lost 1,900 killed and 5,700 wounded; a more accurate, though still conservative, estimate was closer to 10,000 men, and may have been as high as 25,000 casualties--or one in three. After the “drawn” battle, both the French and Russian armies returned to winter quarters. Napoléon prepared to cover the forthcoming siege of Danzig. In the meantime, the Russians were allowed to retake possession of Elau. In late May of 1807, Napoleon captured the great fortress and port of Danzig, one of the most important of the Hanse towns. On 30 May 1807, he visited the city and appointed General Rapp as Governor. Two weeks later, Napoleon would defeat the Russians at the battle of Friedland (14 June 1807), climaxing the spring campaign of 1807. The costly victory, which forced the Russians to sue for peace, was one of the crucial encounters in the collapse of the fourth Coalition (Britain, Russia and Prussia) against France. A timely letter written during Napoleon’s ultimately victorious spring campaign of 1807, after which he became the Master of Europe.

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