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Spring 2012 Auction, Part I - Militaria

by Alexander Historical Auctions | Alexander Autographs


449 lots with images

May 8, 2012

Live Auction
449 Lots
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ADOLF HITLER BUYS A TOURING CAR, WITH FOUR SIGNED SIGHT DRAFTS

Lot 1: ADOLF HITLER BUYS A TOURING CAR, WITH FOUR SIGNED SIGHT DRAFTS

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Description: ADOLF HITLER BUYS A TOURING CAR, WITH FOUR SIGNED SIGHT DRAFTS Superlative set of five documents in which Adolf Hitler purchases for himself a Mercedes Benz touring car and pays for it with four signed "Wechsels", or sight drafts, over the next few months. The first document in the group is a partly-printed D.S., a Daimler-Benz corporation order form for a Mercedes Benz automobile, 4pp. legal folio, Stuttgart, Jan. 29, 1929, an original signed carbon purchase order for a six cylinder convertible touring car, signed by Hitler at conclusion. Hitler requests that the car be dark blue and fitted with black leather seats, rubberized cloth convertible top ("rubberduck"), left-hand steering, turn signals, wood spokes, folding armrests, no emergency seats, spares in front, and Zeiss headlights. In a holograph initialed addition (not in Hitler's hand) it is further instructed that the car not be fitted with bumpers. Delivery is promised in three to four weeks in Munich, and the price is agreed at 13,000 reichsmarks. Payment terms are set forth at bottom, to be made over a period of 17 months. Signed in full by Hitler at bottom of third page. The contract is accompanied by four partly printed sight drafts, each of which has also been boldly signed by Hitler in full, though in these examples more carefully spelling out his name. Each sight draft is 1p. 11 1/2" x 4 3/4", issued in Stuttgart, dated Mar. 23, 1929, June 20, 1929, Aug. 29, 1929 and Nov. 28, 1929, and payable in the amounts of RM 4,000, and RM 3,000 each respectively. The total of these notes is RM 13,000, the cost of the vehicle. Each is signed vertically by Hitler as guarantor, making the draft payable. All documents have file holes which do not detract, otherwise fine condition. Hitler always had a penchant for fine automobiles, and even developed high-performance race cars for propaganda purposes. This vehicle may even be the same in one in which Hitler received a speeding ticket in the tiny hamlet of Baar-Ebenhausen on Sep. 19, 1931 for travelling twice the limit - a little over 30 mph. His defense was that he was not the driver, but rather Julius Schreck, his "lookalike"! His reason for speeding? Possibly his distress over the suicide of his lover, Geli Raubal, who had killed herself the day before.

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ADOLF HITLER WATERCOLOR PAINTING

Lot 2: ADOLF HITLER WATERCOLOR PAINTING

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Description: ADOLF HITLER WATERCOLOR PAINTING An original watercolor painting by future dictator Adolf Hitler, 13 3/4" x 9 1/4" on heavy rag paper, a street scene depicting what appears to be a government building with an armed soldier standing in the foreground, likely in Munich ca. 1920, executed in a black ink wash with muted shades of orange, ochre, brown, burgundy and ivory. The image is signed in graphite pencil "A. Hitler" at lower-right, uncharacteristically in gothic block letters, as Hitler's works were typically signed in cursive of block letters - although we were able to locate another example signed in a similar manner. The colors, style, poor perspective, and choice of subject are entirely consistent and typical of Hitler's work. Paper soiling and toning is consistent with age, and this item emanates from a collection untouched for forty years. In custom gilt-engraved folder and matching slipcase. Having handled many Hitler paintings in the past, we feel that the provenance, style, and aberrant signature, along with the lack of trumped-up paperwork, points to this piece as being completely genuine and certainly not one of the dozens of frauds and oils (!) to have reached the market over the past dozen years.

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ADOLF HITLER AND THE NAZI PARTY BUY A LIMOUSINE

Lot 3: ADOLF HITLER AND THE NAZI PARTY BUY A LIMOUSINE

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Description: ADOLF HITLER AND THE NAZI PARTY BUY A LIMOUSINE Excessively rare, fine content signed document in which Adolf Hitler, head of the NSDAP Party, purchases a limousine on behalf of the Nazi Party. This partly-printed D.S. is a Daimler-Benz corporation order form for a Mercedes Benz automobile executed between Mercedes and Hitler, 2pp. legal folio, Munich, June 3, 1930, an original signed carbon purchase order for a six cylinder convertible touring car, signed by Hitler at conclusion. The vehicle is typical of the limousines Hitler used in the years during his rise to power: navy blue, four doors, six wheels, 6-7 seats, six cylinder 15/70/100 PS 4 liter engine, left-hand steering, with delivery to be made immediately in Berlin. The selling price is set at RM 10,000 payable basis RM 6,000 on delivery with the balance due in six monthly installments. The price and lack of lead time suggests that this may have been a second-hand vehicle. File holes at left, light folds, else near fine. One of the iconic Hitler images is that of the dictator riding in the rear of a limousine offering his salute to the adoring crowds as he passes before him. In fact, filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl made good use of such images in her film "Triumph of the Will".

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ADOLF HITLER

Lot 4: ADOLF HITLER

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Description: ADOLF HITLER (1889 - 1945) Fuhrer of Germany and Nazi Party leader, Hitler's bloody rise to power, his military seizure of most of Europe and North Africa and his genocidal racial policies culminated in suicide in his Berlin bunker as Russian troops approached. Exceptional S.P., 9 1/2" x 7" b/w, a fine image of Hitler grasping the hand of one of his most successful generals, Hasso von Manteuffel, upon the occasion of Manteuffel being awarded the Swords to the Knights Cross. At bottom Hitler shakily inscribed the image: "Fur Lt. v. Manteuffel Adolf Hitler Hq. / Mai 1944". Fine condition, set into a (not matching) period sterling silver frame hallmarked " 835 WTB" (Wilhelm Binder), scuffed. Manteuffel played a major part in a German counterattack that enveloped the Soviet 16th Army, recaptured Zhitomir and perhaps more importantly captured large Soviet supply dumps. On Nov. 23, 1943 he was awarded the Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross as a reward for this achievement. At the time Manteuffel was officially given his Swords award (February 22, 1944), he was in command of the Grossdeutschland Division, fighting around Kiev. The division was then forced back into Romania, before being moved to East Prussia in an attempt to restore the German position there. It would be May, when this photo was signed, before Manteuffel had an opportunity to personally receive his Swords from Hitler.

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ADOLF HITLER

Lot 6: ADOLF HITLER

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Description: ADOLF HITLER (1889 - 1945) Fuhrer of Germany and Nazi Party leader, Hitler's bloody rise to power, his military seizure of most of Europe and North Africa and his genocidal racial policies culminated in suicide in his Berlin bunker as Russian troops approached. Superb, very early S.P., 7 1/4" x 9 1/2" b/w, a ca. 1925 brooding chest, up portrait with his party pin evident on his lapel, boldly signed across his chest. The verso bears a Hoffmann Munich stamp, as well as the circular stamp of the 1st Battalion of the S.A. Regiment Munchen. This regiment, headed by Wilhelm Bruckner (who would later become Hitler's chief adjutant), participated in the abortive 1923 "Beer Hall Putsch". Finally, the photo bears the penciled name "Meyer": we believe signed photos by Hitler were given to many of the S.A. putsch participants, and this one was intended for S.A. member Willy Meyer, adjutant of the S.A. Munich Regiment. Light soiling at margins, with a tack hole thereat, else very good to fine.

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ARCHIVES OF A BATTALION OF THE S.A.

Lot 7: ARCHIVES OF A BATTALION OF THE S.A. "REGIMENT MUNICH": THE MILITARY FORCE BEHIND HITLER'S "BEER HALL PUTSCH"

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Description: ARCHIVES OF A BATTALION OF THE S.A. "REGIMENT MUNICH": THE MILITARY FORCE BEHIND HITLER'S "BEER HALL PUTSCH" Most important archive of documents concerning the First Battalion of the "Regiment Munich" of the Sturmabteilung (S.A.), the paramilitary force used by Adolf Hitler and the NSDAP as a "bludgeon" to coerce public and governmental acceptance of their political needs. This regiment, headed by WILHELM BRUCKNER (who signs many of the documents included), would be the principal tool used by Hitler's in his attempt to seize control of the Bavarian government in his abortive putsch on November 8-9, 1923. The archive is extensive and detailed, and covers the tumultuous period from April through early November, 1923 which saw skyrocketing inflation, the Bavarian government turned into a virtual dictatorhip, and riots in the streets. The files, perhaps 300 pages of all types of records, cover many different aspects of the administration of the First Battalion of the Regiment Munich, which included four companies and a band. The most important part of this archive consists of about 55 separate typed orders (mimeographed) sent from the Regiment Munich (and so ink-stamped at top) to the First Battalion, 90pp. total, large 4to., covering the period from July 9 - Nov. 7, 1923. Of these, of greatest interest are orders and directives concerning the period Sep. 25, 1923 until Hitler's putsch of Nov. 8-9, 1923. On Sep. 25th Hitler learned that Bavarian Prime Minister Eugen von Knilling would declare a state of emergency. On Sep. 26th, Knilling appointed Gustav von Kahr state commissioner with dictatorial governing powers. Together with Bavarian State Police head Col. Hans Ritter von Seisser and Reichswehr Gen. Otto von Lossow, Kahr formed a triumvirate. Fearing he would lose any influence in the new government, Hitler immediately mobilized the S.A. On Sep. 25, the Regiment Munich sends an order relaying Hitler's announcement of 14 upcoming mass meetings and ordered the First Battalion to six different locations including the Lowenbraukellar, Arzbergerkeller, and other meeting points. Phones lines are to be manned, and bomb attempts are to be reported immediately. Passwords are set, paramedics are to be made ready, and police confrontations are to be avoided at all costs. Also issued the same day is a 2pp. 4to. signed carbon copy by WILHELM BRUCKNER headed: "TOP SECRET! Do not allow to fall into the hands of the enemy! Mobilizing plan of the Regiment Munich…". There follows 24 points: "…the password for the mobilization will be 'Mobilization'… all communications must be made not by telephone but in person or by bicyclist…we will supply trucks and cars which will travel through the districts to secure the march…the march must occur within eight hours of mobilization…storm troopers must be advised that…weapons must be brought with them…surrounding [S.A. groups] are to be immediately requisitioned…fifty men are to secure the Prinzregenten Bridge…wear their steel helmets…all storm troopers are to move out unseen and without putting on armbands…". Over the following weeks, calm prevailed until about one week before the putsch, when preparations for a takeover regained momentum: Hitler and Hermann Goring, chief of the S.A., will attend roll calls, [Nov. 2] the entire regiment is to appear for march at a mourning rally on the German memorial day (Nov. 4) and be prepared for "other events"; [Nov. 3] marching instructions for Nov. 4 are set forth, and proper behavior during the march, including posture, salutes, etc. (signed by Bruckner). Interestingly, Hitler first planned to kidnap Kahr, Seisser and Lossow at that very march. A single mimeographed page with holograph notes, originally part of a larger document, bears instructions for the First Battalion for the "Upcoming Mobilization". This can only be a draft of final company orders prepared for the day of the "Beer Hall Putsch", Nov. 8, 1923. It reads in part: "…The mobilizing order will be brought personally by the Adjutant…the meeting point for the First Battalion…will be at the Arzberger Keller…companies will gather in their own alarm quarters…on the streets the companies are to be protected in front and back…if necessary the district will be protected by a truck outfitted with machine guns…the first company will take over the security of the Arzberger Keller with all available people…the command post of the battalion with be at the Arzbergerkeller…companies will immediately lay down a plan of the points where cars, bicycles, horses can be requisitioned…only when the battalion gives the order…people seen looting will be immediately shot on my orders…every S.A. man will bring his weapons…". On November 8, between 6:00 and 7:00 p.m., the First Battalion of the Munich Regiment assembled in the Arzberger Keller. Then, after Bruckner had distributed weapons to his men, he marched these men to join Hitler at the Bürgerbräukeller, where he arrived at about 11:30 p.m. and placed himself under his leader's command. Of course, the putsch failed, Bruckner, Hitler, and other putsch leaders and participants would be jailed, and the S.A. would be temporarily outlawed. Other orders included in this archive address the day-to-day operation of the regiment and battalions: S.A. members should avoid the press, instructions for a mass meeting with a directive for proper dress, flags to be brought, etc.: "…bring all your company flags (swastika flags, kriegs flags, and the black, white and red flags)…Herr Hitler would like to decorate the meeting hall in style with all flags…"; proper behavior at meetings; information on out-of-town meetings and demonstration, and when wearing S.A. uniforms is approved; sharpshooter training; fundraising efforts; access to Hitler: "…without question every company leader can speak to Herr Hitler personally. That this will not occur at a large meeting is understood…[there] duty leaders will protect Herr Hitler…"; an order of non-violence against communists on July 29-30, 1923 (date of communist protests against fascism) while First Battalion sends men undercover to attend communist meetings to watch for a putsch; a ban on "German evenings", ie: a night of drinking and carousing, on Hitler's orders; lessons and exercises being undertaken, helmet painting, communist and Marxist efforts to convert S.A. members, disciplinary activities, funeral processions for fallen comrades, an offer of blankets for 120 billion marks each, an order that members not wear medals they did not earn; etc. Almost all have been signed by Battalion Adjutant Willy Meyer (some signed in the carbon copy), three signed in pencil by Bruckner. There is a great deal of ephemera directly related to the operation of the battalion, as important historically perhaps as the orders received from above. It includes the organization's rules, a hand-drawn sheet showing various shoulder boards designed for officers, tallies of men present in certain companies on certain dates; inventories of pistols, machine guns and grenades on hand and expenditures made to increase stocks thereof; reports on encounters with communists; multiple pencil notes concerning staffing parades and marches; orders expelling and accepting members; requests for funds; recommendations for various positions; lesson plans for shooting, first aid, and drill; transfers; listing of officers' names; a lesson plan for various units and companies; S.A. muster roles; blank duty plans; requests for letters; requisitions for armbands, commemorative coins, drums, cockades, IDs, etc.; company report requests; member biographical files (blank); menu for a company dinner; issuance of clothing and uniforms; four sheets of typed poetry including "Watch on the Rhine" and "In Treue Fest"; four S.A. handbills "To All S.A.!" asking members of other right-wing splinter groups on Hitler's behalf to join the S.A.; shooting club membership cards; various checks and receipts; miscellaneous correspondence; newspaper clippings; a mimeographed sheet showing symbols used on maps by the International Communist Party, including locations of gun and explosives depots, post offices to be destroyed, etc. This is certainly a most important trove of information revealing a great deal of the inner workings of the S.A.'s most valued regiment at it's most crucial time in history. Never before offered for sale, it warrants further careful research. Overall very good to fine condition.

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KLAUS BARBIE -

Lot 8: KLAUS BARBIE - "THE BUTCHER OF LYON"

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Description: KLAUS BARBIE - "THE BUTCHER OF LYON" (1913 - 1991) "The Butcher of Lyon", German SS officer, head of the Gestapo in Lyon and responsible for the deportation and murder of thousands of Jews and resistance fighters, including Jean Moulin. Barbie joined the Nazi Party in 1932 and three years later became a member of the SSIn November 1940 he became an SS Obersturmführer and moved to Holland where he served in the Central Bureau for Jewish Emigration. In November 1942, the Germans occupied Lyons and Barbie established an office in the Hotel Terminus. The following year he moved to offices with specially built torture chambers in the Ecole de Santé Militaire. On 7th June 1943, Barbie captured René Hardy, a member of the French Resistance who had successfully carried out several acts of sabotage against the Germans. Barbie eventually obtained enough information from Hardy and others to arrest Jean Moulin, Pierre Brossolette and Charles Delestraint. Moulin and Brossolette both died while being tortured, Delestraint was sent to Dachau where he was murdered. As Allied troops approached Lyons in September 1944, Barbie destroyed Gestapo records and killed hundreds of Frenchmen who had first-hand knowledge of his brutal interrogation methods. Barbie fled to Germany where he was recruited by the US Counter-Intelligence Corps (CIC) and was thereafter kept safe from war crimes trials in exchange for undercover counter-communist espionage. In March, 1951, Barbie was smuggled out of Germany and given a new life in Bolivia under the pseudonym "Klaus Altmann". It was not until 1983 that Nazi hunters were able to find Barbie and have him extradited to France. He was found guilty of crimes against humanity and died in prison. An extraordinary, most historic collection of 25 separate autograph manuscripts, one signed "Klaus Altmann Barbie", each written as an episode of sorts. There is a total of 167pp., 4to., believed to have been written while Barbie was in prison in Lyon awaiting trial, ca. 1983, all written in ball point in German on lightly-lined graph paper. This is an incredible autobiography documenting Barbie's life from early childhood through his serviced in the SS in Holland and while in France, his escape to Germany, service with the American C.I.C., exile in Bolivia, and deportation to France. According to our consignor, these manuscripts were smuggled from Barbie's cell and given to his attorney, Jacques Verges (b. 1925), whose clients have included both leftwing and rightwing terrorists, war criminals, and militants, including Holocaust denier Roger Garaudy, and international terrorist Ilich Ramírez Sánchez a.k.a. Carlos the Jackal. Presumably these manuscripts were intended to be used in Barbie's defense. The manuscripts read, in very small part: "…Episode La Paz February 4, 1983…Ms. [Nazi hunter Beate] Klarsfeld appeared in my life…and announced to the whole world the sensation, that she succeeded in discovering the war criminal K.B., who was wanted in France…at that moment two unknown people approached me…and explained to me I was being arrested… put into the prison 'San Pedro' which I remembered well…leader and instructor of the 'paramilitares'…[following is my explanation that is in the possession of Maitre Verges]…I was warned by my friends to leave the country….Siles administration could cause problems for me…letter from my friend Officer Hans Rudel…in a democracy everything is possible…I stayed in La Paz up to the day of my arrest…Episode II…August 19/20, 1983…next to my office was the office of the current Bolivian President Hernan Siles Zuazo, a lawyer…task of my company 'Standard Industrial LTD' was to make connections in Bolivia and abroad…to organize projects for Bolivia…including financial assistance…in April 1968 I received a promising offer…the founding of the first Bolivian commercial fleet… embezzled $350,000…accused of smuggling of weapons with the help of the fleet…following my suggestion Admiral Roch and I met with the president of Hapag and Lloyd in Hamburg…lived with my German friend Fritz (Friedrich) Schwend in Lima…we never met during the war, but I heard vaguely about his activity, forging of pound notes….in 1971 at my arrival at the airport in Hamburg, the Bolivian Consul told me that the airport was surrounded by German police to arrest me…I had no connections to the CIA… my travels to the United States are being portrayed as weapons smuggling…Episode: Teenage Years, Graduation, Work Service, H.J. - S.D…Another date that remains in my memory is June 30 1934, the day of the Röhm-Putsch, we were on vacation on the island Amrum, but nobody heard about the putsch on this small island. We learned about it upon our return to the Work Service in Niebühl…Upon my return to Trier I became again active in the Jungvolk and volunteered within the local group of the N.S.D.A.P. Trier- Mitte. There, without my knowledge, my destiny was decided. The district leader introduced me to an SS man with the name of Jacoby, who was working for the S.D. headquarters in Berlin. He described the career opportunities within the Secret Service. He didn't explain much about the organization itself. He only explained to that it was a Secret Service in the beginning stages organized by the State, whose leaders were Himmler and Heydrich. I accepted the offer of earning money right away…At the end of 1935 I traveled to Berlin and appeared at Wilhelmstrasse 102 in Berlin, headquarter of the Secret Service…On October 1, 1935 I was accepted into the SS and sworn in. I started at Office III as assistant. That's how my career started in the service with a clean conscience, a career as any other, a service as in any other country - a secret service. Who could have predicted back in 1935 a World War, who could have known that in 1945/46 the complete SS was judged a criminal organization by a tribunal of the victors that meant death and persecution 40 years after the end of the war. The old Roman expression "vae victis" lives on…Lyon October 25, 1983…My 70th birthday…[signed] Klaus Altman Barbie…Episode: Wartime…I was part of Office III, domestic intelligence…these reports also contained the criticism of the people on decisions of the government, rumors about party leaders..the reports came from informants which were placed within every organization… the most important information was forwarded by Himmler to Hitler and the cabinet…providing a picture of the mood in the population…at this time began the set up of the infamous Einsatzkommando der Sicherheitspolizei und SD [operational commando of the security police and secret service], which immediately followed the army into any occupied territory…an expanded with the increase of resistance and partisan fighting against the German occupation…the work was top secret, the [secret service] had to do the dirty work of the war…the execution of orders from the top leadership….which often went far beyond human judgment...in the military area it was the Waffen-SS who did the work…hence it is not surprising that at the Nuremberg Trials the whole of the SS-Units were declared a criminal organization and a large amount of SS members were executed and driven into exile…in South America…I was transferred to Amsterdam at Office III…the tasks were the same, except the circumstances were that of an occupied country.. the majority of the Dutch people were against the German occupation. After the French campaign it was quiet, but slowly our informants provided information about a forming resistance, directed from England…in February 1941 came the uprising in Amsterdam, the first in the occupied territories…which was defeated by the Waffen-SS, army and the (SD) commandos…we were worried about the visit by Hermann Goering in Amsterdam…most of the time he would appear unannounced…he did not follow the rules…reason for his visit was the inspection of the diamond factories and for buying art…an informant reported that he bought forged paintings… at the beginning of the war with the Soviet Union I volunteered for the eastern front, my request was rejected, instead I was transferred to Gex at the Swiss border…in November 1942 the free zone of France was occupied and I was transferred to Lyon…the headquarters moved into the 'Hotel Terminus'…chief of the unit was Hautsturmfuhrer Heinz Hollert...Hollert and I went for an orientation walk through Lyon in full uniform…people stared at us and we could clearly hear the word 'Gestapo'…Hollert was in charge of organizational duties while I developed a plan for my special task, the fighting of the resistance. I was aware that Lyon was the center of the resistance and was considered communist…The army set up the local command center…and took charge of the military prison… Captain Kurt Merk, who would play an important role in my life after the war, sat in a restaurant and observed a person eating in the American style, he cut his meat with knife and fork, and the placed his knife down and continued eating with his fork…we arrested the man, who hardly spoke French…he turned out to be an American paratroop officer in Africa, trained as a spy in order to train resistance fighters near Lyon…Episode: External Commando Gex…In 1942 I was transferred from Holland to the secret police and secret service directly to the Swiss border…the Swiss were very friendly to Germany…it was planned to set up the external command for counterintelligence and place it under the command of Paris…we were successful in recruiting people in Switzerland to spy for us at the allied embassies…the test was to obtain the main telephone directory of the Swiss post and to bring it to Dijon…to later kidnap foreign spies and bring them into German territory. The British and Americans could move freely, especially Allan Dulles, chief of the O.S.S. … the main intelligence source of the Soviets was in the Organization 'Lucky', directly connected to the High Command of the Wehrmacht…Episode: Albert Leo Schlageter…In the middle of 1942 I received a file document marked 'Secret Reichs Case - Albert Leo Schlageter'…the case came directly from Himmler…the order was to make available all the information regarding the informant from [ISK resistance fighter Rene] Bertholet…even threaten him with transfer in to a K. Lager…I tried to convince him for over a week to give me that information without success…I submitted my report that even torture wouldn't make him give up the information regarding the informant….it would be wiser to keep him as an informant for counterintelligence work in the fight against the partisans…Himmler agreed…Episode: Classical Concert at the University Lyon…I received information regarding a performance at the university..which was to be used as a camouflaged meeting of French resistance fighters…I decided to wear my dress uniform…long pants with SS-dagger without weapon…I had the list of names of the members of the resistance (professors, doctors, etc.) all in all 20 people…I took a seat in the first row…he mentioned my name loud and clear…the surprise was apparent…a SS officer alone at a university concert…the director got more uncomfortable..I explained the real reason for my visit…showed him the list of names and told him that the next time it wouldn't be so peaceful. The Director promised to ensure that the University would not be used for resistance purposes…Episode: Commando Mission…Shortly after my transfer to Lyon, we received an order to free some high Arab politicians…who used to be partisans in fight against France…they were being held not far from Lyon…I gave the commander of the French fort 10 minutes to think about it…Told him I wanted the Arabs and it was not about the French troops occupying the fort…we loaded them onto trucks to Lyon and then to Dijon. One of the freed Arabs was the current President of Tunisia, Bourgiba…Episode: Commando Mission in Grenoble; Lebrun and Francois Poncet, Alcala-Zamora…Between March and May 1943 our unit received orders from Himmler to arrest the former French President Lebrun and the former French Foreign Minister to Berlin…both lived in Grenoble. Himmler's orders were to avoid an armed confrontation with the Italian military if at all possible…I recruited the commandoes, 8 men, 2 unmarked cars (Citroen) and light weapons, 2 machine guns…the order was to lock up the Italians once in the castle…Lebrun sat behind a desk and I explained without wasting time I was ordered by the commanding German general in Lyon to bring him to Lyon, his safety was guaranteed… At the same time a German commando took the president of Spain, Alcala-Zamora into custody...Episode: Arrest of an English Commando in the Massif Central Beginning of 1943…Through our informants I received news of English Paratroops hiding on a farm in the Massif Central and training resistance fighters…we knew they only had light weapons…in a blitz we surrounded the farm…the British and maquis were surprised but fought back…after half an hour they surrendered…they were arrested as British spies…I was very interested in interrogating them as soon as possible…one officer jumped out of the window on the fourth floor of the Hotel Terminus...he get caught in an exterior netting…In Lyon the other British soldier told me about a weapons depot in a cloister...this was a precarious situation since according to Himmler's orders, all housing hiding weapons was to be burned and the inhabitants were to be shot…we found more weapons inside the cellars and the nuns told us they voluntarily hid the weapons…both nuns were court-martialed and shot, if I remember correctly…Episode: Set-up Spy Ring…To fight the Resistance we first had to establish a network of agents…naturally made up of French people…first in line was the French militia...it was understood that the militia was readily available to us on the grounds of the same political views…I can ensure that no French man fought on the side of the Germans for Hitler…another method to expand the spy ring was to use denunciation…to our surprise, every day we received visitors at the Hotel Terminus that were ready to make verbal and written statements denouncing resistance fighters and enemies of all kinds…under the leadership of the famous Rugby player Andre…cooperation of Catholic clergy. Special care was needed to turn around an active member of the resistance who was in custody…a method that I was very successful with…Episode: Fight Against the Maquis…Lyon was the headquarter of the French resistance…sabotage and military action was in the hands of the Maquis…Himmler was placed in charge of fighting the terror by these gangs…Himmler transferred these tasks to the commandos of the security police and the secret service…to fight the terror ruthlessly and with all means…at the beginning we could only improvise since we had no guidelines…my first goal was to infiltrate…the fight against the resistance was divided in three parts…the fight was fought on both sides, outside of the rules of normal warfare, the Hague conventions and the Geneva conventions, measures that led to the so-called war crimes..the Germans alone were judged for war crimes…Dr. Knab gave me the special mission to arrest General Gierako near Lyon…on August 27, 1944 I set up a special commando..along with 2 Tiger Tanks..between Macon and Lyon we were attacked by Maquis…during the fight I was injured and put in a field hospital train to Germany…Episode: Last War Operation…The direct routes between Kassel and Berlin were destroyed…after three days I arrived at the Secret Service headquarters in Berlin…which was only rubble…on to the Secret State Police…it was partly bombed out…I was led into the cellars where the cells were which housed the inmates from the July 20 assassination attempt…including the former General Fromm…shortly after he was shot…I moved on to the bunker of the Reichsfuhrer of the SS at Wannsee…my first questions was 'Klotz, what is the situation with the war, it is already lost!'…inside I shook my head with the knowledge that the Russians weren't too far from Berlin…I was ordered to get myself to the Secret Service section in Dusseldorf…there were Russian and Polish foreign laborers organizing armed resistance groups…I remarked that there were already American and English Units in Neuss, just across the river from Dusseldorf, to no avail… at my arrival I found only rubble…I moved on to the XI. SS Army corps… the plan was to use the 'Werewolf' to undermine and blow up the villa where the Americans and English planned to establish their headquarters…I was put in charge to acquire the building blueprints…I never heard if the villa was blown up…if I remember correctly here was the area where the SS-Division 'Nibelungen' was set up…the Twilight of the Gods started…I organized identification papers for my men and myself and filled in French names…on April 18, 1945 the war was over for us…I heard that there were SS units in the surrounding forests and planned to unite with them…we buried our weapons and uniforms…we got picked up by a American patrol and brought to a temporary camp. There we saw men in concentration camp clothing and others with armbands with the word 'Antifa', they interrogated us and we denied being soldiers, which they didn't accept…Episode: Illegality May 1945 - 1947…I appeared at the local American command and said I was a forced French laborer…I was issued a travel document by a German secretary…surrounded by Russians in civil clothing, foreign forced laborers…he pulled a knife and made a gesture of cutting of my finger…I had no choice but to give him my wedding ring…on May 9 the day of German surrender, I arrived in Bursfelde, where my wife and my daughter were…three weeks after my arrival a jeep with English soldiers showed up at the farm and made enquiries about me...I disappeared in the early hours on the next day…I lived officially under the name Mertens…we forged dismissal papers from the American prisoner of war camps, with the help of a German doctor…the prisoners, especially SS men, were transferred to a hospital and there they received our forged dismissal documents…the English developed a tactic to find SS members…using former secretaries…I pushed myself up and jumped out of the jeep…the woman hid me in a pigeon coop…in my travels I also visited Klotz my connection to [Leon] Degrelle…Klotz told me about an expensive tapestry that he was keeping safe for Degrelle, a present from Baldur von Schirach…with his help many SS members burned out their blood group [tattoos] from underneath their left upper arm…the train didn't move instead the door to the compartment opened and soon after we were tied up, laying on the platform…we were locked up in the coal cellar, an improvised jail…we jumped through the window into the garden…he wore shirts with the initials H.F., he said the shirts were from SS-General Hermann Fegelein, whom Hitler had shot for being a coward…Episode: Allied Mission 'Selection Board'…In February March 1947 I was doing illegal 'activities', in other words, I tried to survive…black market, cigarettes, buying and selling, forged food stamps… we formed the 'brown help'…My friend Fridolin Beier [F. Becker]. He was a Stahlhelm leader and was accepted into the S.A. He wasn't living in hiding, but he was part of the 'brown help'…the Americans took Fridolin… he was being interned at a camp near Frankfurt…I was wanted as well, but it was assumed I was in Munich…an announcement that the western allies were searching for former SS, SA and Party leaders in their zones with the help of 5,000 tanks and corresponding amount of soldiers…the Allies called the mission 'Selection Board'…Episode: Activity for the American C.I.C. 1948 - 1951…My son was born on December 11, 1946 in Kassel…visited my wife without the knowing that the clinic was observed by the German police…the orderly was notified by American officials not to release the child…in April 1947 I met my comrade Herbst and he told me about his connections to the C.I.C. [Counterintelligence Corps]…we met Kurt Merk at the train station…he would talk to the American office in Kempten. The Americans needed every anti-communist man especially those who had knowledge of counterintelligence against the communists…a great chance for me to come out of hiding…on the other hand there was the danger of being extradited to the French…he introduced me to an American and I was readying myself for interrogation, but he did not ask any questions, he only mentioned that Merk was the chief of the operation…at no time was any information requested regarding the past history of our former SS comrades who were now informants...I am not aware if the C.I.C. ever shared my interview with the French officials…there was no doubt that the C.I.C. knew who I was…it is incomprehensible why after 33 years the US Department of Justice wrote the Ryan Report and apologized officially to the French Government for preventing my extradition in 1949… all of this is history…the situation between the two superpowers is not very different today compared to back then…It was Eisenhower, today it is Reagan, who publicly announced in almost the same words that the Soviets are the world's biggest misfortune… General Gehlen understood to protect all his reports and troops…Adenauer incorporated the whole Organization Gehlen under the title 'Bundesnachrichtendienst' [Federal Intelligence Service]…Kurt Merk was connected to the 'Organization Gehlen' but we never talked about it…He was the chief of the group…He was also responsible for the finances…it was agreed upon that due to security concerns, I was not to be active in French matters…after three months I was approached by an officer from the C.I.C. …he was ordered to bring me to the internment camp…for war criminals…after 9 months I was still in the camp...I was brought into the 'Welfare office'… he threw a black uniform at me with the letters W.C.P. (War Crime Prisoner)…almost three months I sat in my cell M75…once I tried to commit suicide…a note was passed through the keyhole into my cell, it read M75 to DI 11…shortly thereafter I was brought before interrogation officer DI 11. He was a German emigrant in an American uniform…during this time I received a visit by French officials. An American officer explained that I was a prisoner of the Americans and not required to answer the questions of the French…he was interested in names of agents and French collaborators from my days in Lyon…strangely enough he didn't ask me about Jean Moulin…I was asked about Agent Moog…who often fought in German uniform against the Maquis and that he was an interrogation specialist…after 8 or 9 months I was transferred to the C.I.C. office in Munich…the next day I left Munich for Memmingen…the imprisonment was over…we continued our work …expanding the circle of spies…Episode: Augsburg - Bolivia…In the middle of 1951 I received a visit by the chief of the C.I.C from Munich…he reported that in the interest of my future I should emigrate with my family to South America…we thought about Names for the passports…Klaus Altmann, stateless…the passport was valid for only a limited time and issued for exit from Germany-Triest…the passage was financed by the C.I.C. …I was free to choose the country where I wanted to live…Prof. [Krunoslav] Draganovic [1903-1983) Croatian Roman Catholic priest and historian who is accused as being one of the main organizers of the ratlines which aided the escape of Nazi war criminals from Europe] recommended Bolivia…Draganovic acquired the emigration papers with ease…the papers for the red cross passes were delivered by the Vatican including an attestation 'no criminal record'…a visa to travel through Argentina was required… I never heard of Draganovic again…he spoke perfect German…he didn't give me his name, he only said that he took part in the Röhm- Putsch in 1934…I can only laugh out loud when I think of the millions of dollars of "Party and SS-treasures" which Martin Bormann supposedly brought to South America and shared with me…he pulled up his sleeve and showed me his tattooed concentration camp number…Episode: Beginning and Building…made contact with the German colony in La Paz...he offered me a job as a manager at the sawmill…I received a salary of $100…it was a good time to leave the war behind me…my family and I became Bolivian citizens…I formed the company 'Standardindustrial' in 1965…exporting the bark of the cinchona tree…I had no connections to [Hugo] Banzer…Episode: Rene Hardy in La Paz, Bolivia 1972…A man addressed me in Spanish and introduced himself as Ribeaud, reporter for the French magazine 'Paris Match'…his companion he introduced as an American reporter…his English was so bad I knew he lied…asked him if he knew Rene Hardy…he was willing to tell me more about Hardy…as soon as I received the personal information from their passports I saw that the 'American' was no other than Rene Hardy…the next day the newspaper in Lima, Peru printed a statement by Hardy…Ribeaud wanted to know if Hardy betrayed Jean Moulin…it would have been easy for him to assassinate me…eliminate the main witness…Verges just received all the important information for the book…Jean Moulin - Episode. After I delivered Moulin in the evening of June 24, 1943 in Paris to SS-Obersturmbannfuhrer [Karl] Beumelburg, I never heard anything about the fate of Moulin…report of his state funeral…his activity during the war and mentioned his arrest by me, my name was mentioned…just recently found his grave…about his death it was reported that he died of a head injury…the injuries came from an attempted suicide in Lyon, which is what I always said…Standard Industrial LTD Export of Quinine…An interesting project was the export of bark from the cinchona tree…Boehringer Mannheim was looking for a contact in La Paz…the Vietnam war required large amounts of quinine to fight malaria…Boehringer Mannheim made available large sums of money to buy up the bark…Serge and Beate Klarsfeld, Paris. Lima - La Paz…A representative of Agence French Press… wanted to meet with me…an urgent personal matter…the cover page of the newspaper featured a big photograph of me…in big letters 'War crimes criminal exposed, Chief of Gestapo in Lyon lives under the name of Klaus Altman in Peru and Bolivia, Nazi Hunter Beate Klarsfeld is expected in Lima, to expedite Altman-Barbie!'…at the Bolivian embassy I informed the Navy attache that a few details were correct, but exaggerated…the ambassador promised his support…it was clear that my work in Lima was finished…life at home became hell, one got the impression Adolf Hitler had suddenly appeared… five undercover police officers provided security for me…I'm convinced it was an attempt to kidnap me… leave Peru immediately, because I was a Bolivian citizen and the government didn't want any problems with the French Government…15 minutes to pack my bags… it was considered that Klarsfeld had planned a kidnapping like in the case of Eichmann…General Richter, Minister of the Interior, send a telegram informing me that I could return to Lima…I am not being accused of anything…guaranteeing my safety…they didn't understand that there were people who worked as 'Nazi-hunters'…human trafficking was always a business of bad character…the press created an absolutely wrong and exaggerated image of me…neither the Bolivians nor the justice system knew the concept of 'war criminal'….after the interview with the French Television, the Minister explained to me I was to be arrested for my protection…Beate Klarsfeld returned to Lima in the company of a Ms. Hallenbrunner…she was a Jew…Hallenbrunner accused me of killing her husband and three children with 17 shots…after causing a scandal they were arrested by the chief of the police and had to leave La Paz…since that time a continued effort by the press, especially from France, tried to make a murderer out of me, a sadist, drug trafficker, weapons dealer…the Butcher of Lyon…Episode: La Paz - Santa Cruz - Cocha Bamba - La Paz -1979 - 1983...we believed we had some wonderful and peaceful years ahead of us…how cruel the future became!...our son died in a plane crash in the mountains of Cochabamba on May 1, 1981…soon after my wife was diagnosed with cancer…she died in 1982…I never thought I would have to write these letters in the prison of Lyon. With the appearance of the 'Nazi hunter' Klarsfeld a wave of slander took place against me…regarding alleged war crimes during my activity in Lyon…promoted me to chief of the Gestapo, which I never was…overnight I became world famous…I was not impressed by this mass propaganda…I was used to cause problems for the Government of Banzer, because the media painted Banzer and his administration as fascist military dictatorship…young foreigners came to visit me, who called themselves followers, national-socialists, fascists…my reputation was Gauleiter of the former N.S.D.A.P. in South America…and nevertheless I was hunted, a single man, who just wanted to have his peace…removed me from the 'German Club' due to 'anti-Semitic activities'…the German Jewish owner welcomed me at his Bavarian style restaurant…buying the tanks for the Bolivian army was a legal business between two countries…Episode: Visit former General Waffen-SS Karl Wolff and "Stern" reporter Heidemann in La Paz…He introduced himself as Herr Heideman who wanted to write a detailed book about the history of the SS…his companion was the former SS-Obergruppenfuhrer of the Waffen-SS Karl Wolff…we met when he was Himmler's adjutant in 1935 at the Security Service Headquarters…I was a little SS-man in the S.D. …we tried to make Himmler lose his glasses, so he would be unable to play…practiced target shooting…the foreign press reported that the Gestapo was shooting prisoners in the yard…Wolff signed the surrender of the Italian front without the knowledge of Himmler or the German High Command…Heidemann wanted to interview me, but promised it would only be used for his book…in passing he asked if I knew someone who wanted to buy Hermann Goering's yacht from him for 600,000 Deutschmarks, the yacht was acquired from English royalty…the news report was used to damage General Garcia Meza Tejada… the forged Hitler diaries showed who Heidemann was…his news report was part of the reason for my extradition from Bolivia…Episode: Extradition Requests France…After Klarsfeld left Bolivia, the French government requested my extradition…the news was a big sensation all over South-America…accused of war crimes during my time in Lyon…no extradition treaty between France and Bolivia…French President Pompidou personally wrote to General Banzer to request my surrender, but replied in correct form that he was not responsible for making that decision…the next morning Judge Gaston Lebezma interviewed me about my double identity…I explained that my former name was Klaus Barbie…which I changed in Genoa for reasons of security as a political refugee…and the Red Cross issued my papers accordingly…the Bolivian government accepted my name change as lawful…ten years later on that day I had to appear again at the prison 'San Pedro', being forced and against my will…kidnapped to Lyon…Episode: Martin Bormann in South America and Bolivia……rumors and reports about Martin Bormann being alive and in South America…at a meeting with friends.. national socialist revolution…in his living room was an unkempt clergyman…introduced himself as Langen-Lembach…drank a lot and told me he was a field chaplain in the Condor Legion…every time a march played on the record he stood up and snapped to attention, and marched around…always wore military boots…later I heard he had to leave the country and moved to Buenos Aires…rumors in the German circles in La Paz later claimed that Lembach was Martin Bormann…his features were similar to Bormann's…but one thing he didn't have…money…I never thought he was Bormann…even people from the German Federal Crime Department (BKA) showed up in La Paz…". Much more important content. Overall fine condition. An historic record revealing not only the Barbie's evil history, but the extent of U.S. complicity in his flight from Germany and perhaps more importantly, his twisted, perverse and uncaring attitude towards his monstrous crimes.

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JOSEPH MENGELE

Lot 9: JOSEPH MENGELE

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Description: JOSEPH MENGELE (1911 - 1979) Nazi "doctor" who plied his trade at Auschwitz, he was the most brutal and detestable of all the camp doctors. It was Mengele's decision as to whether camp inmates would be used as forced labor or sent directly to the gas chambers, and he as well performed hideous experiments on inmates, especially twins. After the war, Mengele fled to Argentina and Brazil where he avoided capture until his death. Excessively rare war-date A.L.S. sent from Auschwitz, signed "J. Mengele" in return address and in address portion, a postcard, Dec. 6, 1944, just five weeks before he would leave the camp. Mengele sent a postcard, written in pencil, to his wife Irene in Gunzburg. In part: "...I'm still waiting to hear from you. I hope by now you've made a decision when you want to come. Because of the long time it takes for mail to reach me, you have to tell me soon. Christmas is coming fast. Travelling is especially difficult in those days before Christmas! I'm about to start buying furniture for the apartment...I also have to buy a bed for [son] Rolf...Please get back to me quickly and best regards. Yours Butz. Give my regards to everybody...". In the return address area Mengele writes: "J. Mengele Auschwitz O/S K/Z [Concentration Camp] SS Precinct". Beneath appears a most ironic printed slogan: "The Fuhrer only knows struggle, Work and care, We want to help him As well as we can". Near fine.

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WINSTON CHURCHILL AND BERNARD LAW MONTGOMERY

Lot 10: WINSTON CHURCHILL AND BERNARD LAW MONTGOMERY

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Description: WINSTON CHURCHILL AND BERNARD LAW MONTGOMERY A superb, likely war-date association piece, a menu for a dinner given in honor of Field Marshal BERNARD LAW MONTGOMERY for his command of the British Eighth Army commencing on October 23, 1942. The printed menu features a caricature of Monty sitting with another general, possibly French, signed by Montgomery, WINSTON CHURCHILL and 17 other prominent military figures, including: General BRIAN HORROCKS (1895-1985) who commanded the X corps at Alamein; General JOHN HARDING (1896-1989), who commanded the 7th Armoured Division at Alamein; war reporter GODFREY TALBOT (d. 2000), who made his name with dispatches on the Desert Rats' campaign in North Africa; Major JOHN LAWSON; and others worthy of research. Churchill signs boldly on the cover, while the remainder on verso, some in pencil. Central fold, very good condition. A great war-date association.

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MAX AMANN

Lot 11: MAX AMANN

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Description: MAX AMANN (1891 - 1957) Reichsleiter in charge of the Nazi Press. Amann was also Hitler's company sergeant during World War I and conceived the title "Mein Kampf". T.L.S. on his official letterhead, 1p. large 4to., Munich, Dec. 1, 1943 to Gauleiter PAUL GIESLER thanking him for his birthday wishes and for the gift he had sent. Initialed and dated by Giesler at top. Files holes else very good. Paul Gielser (1895-1945) was Gauleiter of Westphalia-South and President of Bavaria. In the closing days, he ordered the murder of all surviving prisoners at Dachau, which order was refused. With his wife, a suicide as the Americans closed in.

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AUGUST WILHELM OF PRUSSIA

Lot 12: AUGUST WILHELM OF PRUSSIA

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Description: AUGUST WILHELM OF PRUSSIA (1887 - 1949) Fourth son of Kaiser Wilhelm II; against his father's will, he joined the "dangerous, revolutionary" NSDAP on April 1, 1930 and was used as a propaganda tool. Useless after Hitler's rise to power, he was denounced for making derogatory remarks about Goebbels and as the Russians closed in, he fled until captured by Americans. Died while awaiting trial by the Soviets. Scarce oversize I.S.P., 12" x 16" b/w, a fine portrait in S.A. uniform: "My S.A. Comrade Boehmcker[?], in memory of the fighting days and of the 'Group North Sea' in Bremen 6/7 June 1936. In comradely solidarity. Heil Hitler! August Wilhelm Prince of Prussia". A few creases and small, old tape repairs at margins, while image itself is fine.

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KLAUS BARBIE

Lot 13: KLAUS BARBIE

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Description: KLAUS BARBIE (1913-1991) "The Butcher of Lyon", German SS officer, head of the Gestapo in Lyon and responsible for the deportation and murder of thousands of Jews and resistance fighters, including Jean Moulin. Very rare S.P., 9 1/4" x 12 1/2" b/w, a 1944 French magazine photo, issued while France was still under German occupation, showing a wall with the chalked slogan: "1918 = 1943". The caption explains how the Allies had spread this slogan in 1943 to convince the French that, as in 1918, they would see liberation in 1943. Of course, that would not happen, and the caption mockingly awaits the "new prophesy of 1944". Barbie pens an indecipherable interjection at bottom, signs his alias "Klaus Altmann" and dates his signature "17.12.86". Tiny marginal tears and some soiling at one corner, else very good. With five 4" x 6" photos of Barbie during the war and on trial.

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HEINRICH

Lot 14: HEINRICH "PRITZL" BAR

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Description: HEINRICH "PRITZL" BAR (1913 - 1957) Luftwaffe ace who flew over a thousand combat missions, and fought in all major German theatres of the war. Survived being shot down 18 times and was credited with 220 aerial victories, around 16 of which were in a jet fighter. Killed in a flying accident. S.P. 6 1/2" x 7 3/4" b/w, a war-date image of Bar in uniform on printed stock, signed at bottom. Two horizontal folds, wrinkles at corners, else very good.

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GEORG BOCHMANN

Lot 15: GEORG BOCHMANN

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Description: GEORG BOCHMANN (1913-1973) Commander of the 18th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division "Horst Wessel". D.S. in pencil, 2pp. legal folio, Feb. 2, 1945, a recommendation for the award of a War Merit Cross, First Class with Swords for SS-Oberscharfuhrer Ernst Henschel of the 18th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division "Horst Wessel". File holes at left, collector's file number on bottom right, very good.

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KARL BODENSCHATZ

Lot 16: KARL BODENSCHATZ

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Description: KARL BODENSCHATZ (1890 - 1979) German Luftwaffe minister and previously a member of von Richthofen's "Flying Circus", also served as Hitler's adjutant. D.S. in pencil on official letterhead, 1p. legal folio, Berlin, Jan. 17, 1936, apparently sending an official form. Heavily docketed, some edge faults, else good.

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KARL BODENSCHATZ

Lot 17: KARL BODENSCHATZ

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Description: KARL BODENSCHATZ (1890 - 1979) German Luftwaffe minister and previously a member of von Richthofen's "Flying Circus", also served as Hitler's adjutant. A.L.S., 1p. large 4to., Erlangen, Nov. 15, 1970. A response to an inquiry, in part: "...The signature on the document reads Jeschonnek. He was a Generaloberst and chief of the general staff of the Luftwaffe. Towards the end of the war he departed from life by his own free will. Dr. Gritzbach, who lived here in Erlangen, passed away two years ago. I admire your great interest in the memories of our great army commanders...". Fine.

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MARTIN BORMANN

Lot 18: MARTIN BORMANN

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Description: MARTIN BORMANN (1900 - 1945?) Head of the Nazi Party Chancellery and private secretary to Adolf Hitler, by the end of World War II Bormann had become second only to Hitler himself in terms of real political power. Fine content T.L.S. as Hitler's personal secretary, 1p. 4to., Munich, Aug. 20, 1935 to party ideologue ALFRED ROSENBERG concerning his speech to be made at the next congress of the N.S.D.A.P. Bormann writes, in full: "On behalf of the Fuhrer, I ask you to design your talk to be held at the Party Congress to be submitted to me here 30/08/1935. This will happen because the Fuhrer is planning to see the speeches, before he summons the convention speaker again...". Fine condition.

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MARTIN BORMANN

Lot 19: MARTIN BORMANN

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Description: MARTIN BORMANN (1900 - 1945?) Head of the Nazi Party Chancellery and private secretary to Adolf Hitler, by the end of World War II Bormann had become second only to Hitler himself in terms of real political power. Fine content D.S., 2pp., legal folio, Munich, July 14, 1939, to the supreme party court in Munich regarding the acceptance of members of the clergy and theology students into the ranks of the NSDAP. In part: "...I am returning your file regarding the party application of Prof. Dr. Herbert Preisker, Professor of Protestant Theology at the University of Breslau. The acceptance of theology professors into the N.S.D.A.P. is undesirable...The Reich Treasurer ordered...that clerics, and fellow Germans that are tied to the church, cannot be accepted into the party. I asked the Reich Treasurer to explicitly note that professors and students of theology are included in that group...It is further of great importance to prevent the church from receiving party members as clerics. Therefore I order that in the future any Party member who enter the church as clerics or study theology be expelled from the Party...". Boldly signed in ink at conclusion. File holes at left, else fine. During Hitler's dictatorship, more than 6,000 clergymen, on the charge of treasonable activity, were imprisoned or executed. The same measures were taken in the occupied territories as well.

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GREGORY

Lot 20: GREGORY "PAPPY" BOYINGTON

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Description: GREGORY "PAPPY" BOYINGTON (1912 - 1988) American military aviator with 28 "kills", his "Black Sheep" squadron harassed Japanese forces in the Solomons late in the war. A pair of signed commemorative covers, the first canceled Washington, Jan. 9, 1963 with an image of the Statue of Liberty; the second is a vintage image of bombers flying with the title "We Must Do All We Can!" to urge the public to buy war bonds, not cancelled, additionally signed by ROBERT CONRAD who portrayed Boyington on television. Two pieces, very good condition.

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OMAR N. BRADLEY

Lot 21: OMAR N. BRADLEY

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Description: OMAR N. BRADLEY (1893-1981) American general in World War II who commanded the largest ground force ever led by one man. He was later Chairman of the Joint Chiefs. War-date T.L.S. on his Headquarters of the Twelfth Army Group letterhead, 1p. 8vo., May 20, 1945, to Dickie Judson of Trumansburg, N.Y. In part: "...I am attaching a facsimile of the shoulder patch worn in our 12th Group of American Armies. I hope it will please you...">. With a sheet bearing a color print of the patch and original envelope. A bit toned with light wear, overall very good condition.

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BRUNO BRAUER

Lot 22: BRUNO BRAUER

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Description: BRUNO BRAUER (1893 - 1947) German military officer and Knights Cross winner, commander of the 1st Parachute Regiment in the Polish, Dutch and Crete campaigns, commander of Fortress Crete, executed by the Greeks after his capture. S.P. 4" x 6", color, a postcard bearing a painted portrait of Brauer with paratroopers in the background. signed across his chest. Postally used. Some minor wear to corners, else very good.

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WILHELM BURGDORF

Lot 23: WILHELM BURGDORF

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Description: WILHELM BURGDORF (1895 - 1945) German Nazi general who played a key role in the death of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, and on May 2, 1945, committed suicide with his colleague Hans Krebs in the Fuhrerbunker in Berlin. D.S. with holograph corrections, 1p. legal folio, OKH, Sep. 26, 1944 announcing that a recommendation for a Knights Cross of the Iron Cross award was rejected by the Fuhrer. In addition, Hitler declares that this high award is restricted to honor leadership qualities of only the responsible troop leaders and is to be awarded to deputies only when exceptional bravery is displayed under rare circumstances. At top Burgdorf adds: "Read by the Fuhrer on 24.9.44 and approved". Boldly signed in blue pencil at conclusion. File holes at left, else fine.

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WILHELM CANARIS

Lot 24: WILHELM CANARIS

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Description: WILHELM CANARIS (1887 - 1945) German admiral and head of the German intelligence agency Abwehr. Implicated in the July 20 bomb plot, Canaris was condemned to death and was walked naked and barefoot to the gallows at Flossenburg. Rare signed book The Effigy of Frederick the Great, (Nibelungen-Verlag: Berlin), 1940, 147pp. of notes with 69 plates of photographs of paintings, statues, etc. documenting the life of Frederick the Great. Bound in beige cloth with gilt medallions and gilt title on spine. Within, a presentation printed gift inscription has been tipped to the front flyleaf with holograph inscription presenting the volume to "Oberst Dr. Schaefer", Berlin, Dec. 24, 1940, boldly signed in blue ink by Canaris. Fine.

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RICHARD WALTHER DARRE

Lot 25: RICHARD WALTHER DARRE

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Description: RICHARD WALTHER DARRE (1895 - 1953) Nazi Minister of Food and head of the Central Office of Race and Resettlement of the SS. Typed D.S. as SS-Obergruppenfuhrer on Reichsfuhrer-SS letterhead, 1p. 4to., Berlin, 1935, sent to his superior, Heinrich Himmler, suggesting the promotion of SS-Obersturmbannfuhrer Wilhelm Hiller. Folds, file holes at left, small area damped at bottom, generally very good.

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EDUARD DIETL

Lot 26: EDUARD DIETL

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Description: EDUARD DIETL (1890 - 1944) Nazi German general who participated in the Anschluss and attack on Poland, he is most remembered as the "Hero of Narvik" for which he received the first Oak Leaves of the war. Killed in an airplane crash with his corps commanders. S.P. 4" x 6" color Hoffmann postcard bearing an image of a painting of Dietl. Boldly signed at right. Some creases toward corners, else very good.

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KARL DONITZ

Lot 27: KARL DONITZ

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Description: KARL DONITZ (1891 - 1980) German admiral who headed the U-Boat arm of the German Navy, later succeeded Hitler as Fuhrer after Hitler's suicide. Pair of signed items, includes a 1934 commemorative postal cover honoring Paul von Hindenburg, King of Prussia, Pa., signed and dated by Donitz in 1972, with a white paper label covering addressee's name; with a T.N.S. on a lined card, [n.p., n.d.], thanking the sender for sending birthday wishes, signature traced over, likely by Donitz himself. Two pieces.

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KARL DONITZ

Lot 28: KARL DONITZ

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Description: KARL DONITZ (1891 - 1980) German admiral who headed the U-Boat arm of the German Navy, later succeeded Hitler as Fuehrer after Hitler's suicide. T.L.S. "Karl Donitz" on his letterhead, 1p. oblong 8vo., Amhule, Apr. 15, 1978 in German thanking David Carlson for his letter and copies of his book Nurnburg Trials, promising to send a copy to his Nuremburg attorney Mr. Kranzbuehler.

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KARL DONITZ

Lot 29: KARL DONITZ

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Description: KARL DONITZ (1891 - 1980) German admiral who headed the U-Boat arm of the German Navy, later succeeded Hitler as Fuhrer after Hitler's suicide. Fine content D.S. 1p. 4to., [n.p.], a souvenir copy of the text of the "Instrument of Surrender of All German Forces", Rheims, May 7, 1945, boldly signed at bottom: "Donitz 18.2.79". Sold with original manila envelope used by Donitz to send the item, which he also signed adding "Deutschland". Fine condition.

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THEODOR DUESTERBERG

Lot 30: THEODOR DUESTERBERG

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Description: THEODOR DUESTERBERG (1875 - 1950) German leader of the Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten, in Germany prior to the Nazi seizure of power. In 1932, Duesterberg was nominated by the Stahlhelm when they revealed he had Jewish ancestry. Ironically, Duesterberg was offered a position in Hitler's cabinet, but refused and was later imprisoned at Dachau. Scarce S.P. 3 1/2" x 5 1/2" , a chest, up pose in uniform to which he adds: "Forward with God!". Near fine.

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PETER DUMITRESCU

Lot 31: PETER DUMITRESCU

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Description: PETER DUMITRESCU (1882 - 1950) Romanian general who led the Romanian Third Army against the Red Army on the eastern front. Awarded the Knights Croass with Oak Leaves, he later saw his forces crushed at Stalingrad. Rare war-date S.P., 3 1/2" x 5 1/2" b/w, a three-quarter length portrait in uniform, signed at bottom adding rank and date Dec. 14, 1942. Mounted to another sheet. Fine.

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ELK EBER

Lot 32: ELK EBER

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Description: ELK EBER (1892 - 1941) German artist, born Wilhelm Emil Eber. Eber was one of the most famous of German military artists, largely remembered for his distinctive battle scenes and forceful portraits of soldiers and officers in uniform. An early member of the S.A., Eber sketched party events and street battles, while at the same time indulging his passion for painting American Indians and western scenes. Hitler himself was enamored of Eber's work, purchasing several pieces for his collection. Signed print, his "Hand Grenade Battle", 23 1/2" x 18" heavy stock, lightly-signed "Elk Eber" in pencil at lower right. The image shows a group of German soldiers throwing grenades at an unseen enemy at left, though clearly French as one lies wounded at their feet. Some flaws: signature, as mentioned, is light but legible, and is affected somewhat by a stain and toning, some glue remnants at left and right margins, and possibly trimmed, and a few trivial stains. Nevertheless, still very appealing and a very rare image when signed by the artist.

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ENOLA GAY

Lot 33: ENOLA GAY

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Description: ENOLA GAY Great item signed by five members of the crew of the Enola Gay, the plane which dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima on Aug. 6, 1945. Signers include Pilot PAUL TIBBETS, bombardier TOM FEREBEE, navigator THEODORE VAN KIRK, radar countermeasures operator JACOB BESER, and tailgunner GEORGE CARON on a 1981 commemorative first day cover for an American flag stamp. Fine condition.

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ENOLA GAY AND BOCKS CAR

Lot 34: ENOLA GAY AND BOCKS CAR

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Description: ENOLA GAY AND BOCKS CAR A lot of two signatures, the first a vintage commemorative cover canceled Mar. 20, 1945, honoring the bombing of the Japanese Fleet on March 20, 1945, boldly signed later by Enola Gay commander PAUL TIBBETS. Along with FRED J. OLIVI, co-pilot of Bocks Car, a limited edition document of his statements regarding the dropping of "Fat Man" over Nagasaki, Aug. 9, 1945, boldly signed at conclusion: "Fred. J. Olivi LTC USAF (Ret) Co-pilot B-29 'Bocks Car'". Fine condition, two pieces.

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THEODORE

Lot 35: THEODORE "DUTCH" VAN KIRK

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Description: THEODORE "DUTCH" VAN KIRK (b. 1921) American Army Air Corps officer, navigator of the Enola Gay during its mission to Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Fine signed baseball, a Rawlings official major league ball, boldly signed in the sweet spot: "Dutch Van Kirk Navigator - Enola Gay Aug. 6, 1945", with an additional note on another panel: "Last Crewmember from Enola Gay and Bocks Car". Very fine.

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FRANZ RITTER VON EPP

Lot 36: FRANZ RITTER VON EPP

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Description: FRANZ RITTER VON EPP (1868 - 1947) Nazi politician and general, Governor of Bavaria and Reichsleiter of the NSDAP. Died in an internment camp. T.L.S. on his Reichsleiter letterhead, 1p. 4to., Munich, May 4, 1944 to a woman who had lost her husband. In part: "...my condolences...the deceased proved himself as the Director of the Victoria Company and we will always remember his name in the Colonial Movement...". Folds, else fine.

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HERMANN ESSER

Lot 37: HERMANN ESSER

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Description: HERMANN ESSER (1900 - 1981) German editor, entered the Nazi party with Adolf Hitler in 1920, became the editor of the "Völkischer Beobachter" and a Nazi member of the Reichstag. He was the Nazi party's first chief of propaganda. T.L.S. 2pp., 4" x 6", Munich Oct. 1970, in part: "....Unfortunately I cannot identify the signature. If you thought it was Christian Weber, he died on a transport in 1945. A man named Max Weber was a speaker for the party in 1922/23, but the police identified him as a spy working for the KPD...". Along with an unsigned Hoffman postcard, 3 1/2" x 5 1/2" showing Esser, chest up, with a canceled 3 Reichsmark stamp on verso.

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FRITZ FESSMANN

Lot 38: FRITZ FESSMANN

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Description: FRITZ FESSMANN (1913 - 1944) German major, a Panzer tank officer awarded the Knights Cross with Oak Leaves, awarded his Swords after being killed in action when a Russian shell exploded nearby, hurling him against another vehicle. Rare S.P. 3 1/2" x 5 1/2" b/w, a Hoffmann photo postcard signed at bottom and addressed by Fessmann on verso. Fine. Sold with a S.P. 2 1/2" x 3 1/2" b/w portrait of fellow Knights Cross awardee FRIEDRICH-WILHELM BRIEDENBACH, signed at bottom.

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WILHELM FRICK

Lot 39: WILHELM FRICK

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Description: WILHELM FRICK Ornate and unusual partly-printed D.S., 1p. large 4to., Berlin, July 1, 1937, a promotion of police officer Walter Ruge to the rank of lieutenant in the Schutzpolizei. Boldly signed, with blind-embossed, seal. Closed file holes at left, else fine.

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HERBERT-OTTO GILLE

Lot 40: HERBERT-OTTO GILLE

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Description: HERBERT-OTTO GILLE (1897 - 1966) Germany SS tank commander who headed the "Viking" Division, made up of thousands of European volunteers, during the Russian campaign. War-date typed D.S. in pencil, 1p. 4to., "Russia", May 1, 1943, a recommendation for the award of the War Merit Cross with Swords to a man in his command. File holes, light toning, else very good.

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JOSEPH GOEBBELS

Lot 41: JOSEPH GOEBBELS

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Description: JOSEPH GOEBBELS (1897-1945) Nazi Minister of Propaganda with Hitler from the earliest days, a master of manipulation of the masses who took his life and those of his family members in the last days of the war. Superb association signed book presented to his rival Hermann Goring, a fine leatherbound edition of Goethe's Italian Travels, with Drawings by Goethe, His Friends, and Fellow Artists, Goethe National Museum (Insel-Verlag: Leipzig), 1925, 14" x 9 1/4", 343pp., 171 lithographed drawings by Goethe and his friends. Full red leather covers with gilt lettering and trim, heavy decorated red and black leather gilt spine, marbled papers. Boldly inscribed on the front flyleaf: "P[arty] C[omrade] Goring in best camaraderie for his 41st birthday. Dr. Goebbels 12 January 1934". Covers slightly soiled at edges, corners and spine ends only slightly bumped and worn, inscribed page and balance of text and plates are very fine. There was no love lost between Goring and Goebbels. Goering considered neither the Munich "philistines" nor Goebbels sufficiently aristocratic for him and therefore avoided all social relations with them. In any event, it was no secret that all of the Nazi hierarchy were constantly jockeying for position and criticizing each other in order to obtain Hitler's favor.

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JOSEF GOEBBELS

Lot 42: JOSEF GOEBBELS

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Description: JOSEF GOEBBELS (1897-1945) Nazi Minister of Propaganda with Hitler from the earliest days, a master of manipulation of the masses, who took his life and those of his family members in the last days of the war. Fine content T.L.S. 4 pp., 4to., Berlin, Apr. 23, 1936 to Walter Buch, chief of the Supreme NSDAP Court, intervening in the court case against his friend Hans Schwarz van Berk, editor-in-chief of the Nazi paper "Der Angriff". After a visit in December 1934 to the political Berlin cabaret "Die Katacombe", Hans Schwarz van Berk wrote into the guestbook: "Dangerous or not dangerous! Carry on!", which caused him to be accused of damaging behavior against the Party, by former colleague Hans-Joachim Rechenberg, partly due to personal differences. Goebbels explains the circumstances of the case: "…van Berk was working in connection with my department regarding the creation of a National Socialist political cabaret...The cabaret was closed in May 1935 on my orders…in part due to the questionable demographic of the audience". Prior to the closing Goebbels had planted secret police in the audience to report back to him. He adds: "…after the closure, van Berk wrote an article defending the actions of the government....Rechenberg, who knew about the entry in the guestbook, did not use this information until November 1935 when, in absence of van Berk, while intoxicated, he insulted him and called him a scoundrel...I should point out...Rechenberg had professional differences with van Berk… and was behind several personal attacks…which ended in dismissal of Rechenberg from the Eher Publishing Company...I believe it is very harsh, condemning an editor for defending the actions of the state...I ask to take into account that Schwarz van Berk is of invaluable service to the state and the movement through his countless publications as a respected national-socialist journalist. Please take my opinion into account when deciding on a final judgment...Heil Hitler! Your Dr. Goebbels". Four tears in upper left hand corner professionally repaired with tape. Paperclip marks top right, files holes and folds, else fine.

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JOSEF GOEBBELS

Lot 43: JOSEF GOEBBELS

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Description: JOSEF GOEBBELS (1897 - 1945) Nazi Minister of Propaganda, with Hitler from the earliest days, a master of manipulation of the masses, who took his life and those of his family members in the last days of the war. Typed D.S., 2pp. legal folio, Berlin, Dec. 7, 1933, to Walter Buch (1883-1949), chairman of the Investigation and Mediation Committee of the NSDAP, later the head of the Supreme Party Court. Goebbels' letter concerns a misleading statement made by Otto Laubinger, a German actor and head of the Theater Section of the Propaganda Ministry, during a conference concerning the employment of "non-Aryans" at German theaters. Goebbels explains: "...As should be known, for certain measures, a number of non-Aryans are allowed employment at German state and private theatres...For monitoring purposes these organizations are required to enroll all employees of the German Theater into their associations...[Laubinger's statement] was merely in regards to the inevitable implementation of this law". Defending him in closing, Goebbels writes: "...To interpret his remarks any other way is totally absurd...". File holes at left, very short fold separations, else fine.

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(JOSEPH GOEBBELS)

Lot 44: (JOSEPH GOEBBELS)

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Description: (JOSEPH GOEBBELS) Lot of two partly printed documents relating to Goebbels' university education. The first is issued by Albert Ludwigs University, 1p. 4to., Freiburg, May 17, 1919, a certificate indicating that Goebbels has been matriculated as a student into the university. The second document is issued by Rupert Karls University, 1p. oblong 4to., Heidelberg, May 14, 1920, a similar document in which Goebbels is officially matriculated into this second school. Very good. Goebbels would write his doctoral thesis at Heidelberg, where his two most influential teachers, Friedrich Gundolf and Max Freiherr von Waldberg, were both Jews.

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HERMANN GORING

Lot 45: HERMANN GORING

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Description: HERMANN GORING (1893 - 1946) German politician who began his career as an ace in World War I, rose to become Hitler's right-hand man and head of the Luftwaffe, finally captured and committed suicide on the eve of his execution. His book Hermann Goring Speeches and Writings (Franz Eber: Munich), 1938, 2nd printing, 394 pp. blue cloth with gilt trim and title, with dust jacket. Hurriedly signed in blue indelible pencil on the front flyleaf, with Carinhall Library bookstamp (unnumbered) within. Signed page lightly toned, else very good. We speculate Goring removed this copy (of many) from his library, had it stamped and signed it for an admirer. Rare.

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HERMANN GORING AND PAUL VON HINDENBURG

Lot 46: HERMANN GORING AND PAUL VON HINDENBURG

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Description: HERMANN GORING AND PAUL VON HINDENBURG Partly-printed document signed by future Reichsmarshal HERMANN GORING and sitting Reichspresident PAUL VON HINDENBURG, 1p. legal folio, Berlin, June 28, 1934, an appointment of Wilhelm Thurmann to serve as Administrative President. Light folds, else very good.

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HERMANN AND EMMY GORING

Lot 47: HERMANN AND EMMY GORING

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Description: HERMANN AND EMMY GORING HERMANN GORING (1893 - 1946) German politician who began his career as an ace in World War I, rose to become Hitler's right-hand man and head of the Luftwaffe, finally captured and committed suicide on the eve of his execution. S.P. 3 1/4" x 5 1/2" b/w, a war-date image of Goring and wife EMMY GORING, who has also signed the image, with their young daughter Edda seated before them. Emmy has also written a two-line Christmas gift inscription on verso. Pencil signed by the photographer. A few creases and a light brush to a signature, set into an antiqued frame.

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EMMY GORING

Lot 48: EMMY GORING

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Description: EMMY GORING (1893 - 1973) German actress and the second wife of Hermann Göring. She served as Adolf Hitler's hostess at many state functions, which led to her claiming the title of "First Lady of the Third Reich". S.P. 5 1/2" x 3 1/2" b/w, a postcard photo of the Goring home in Weimar, signed across the face with fair contrast. Fine.

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EDDA GOERING

Lot 49: EDDA GOERING

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Description: EDDA GOERING (b. 1938) Daughter of Hermann Goring, his only child. Saddening A.L.S., 2pp. 8vo., [Burg Veldenstein, n.d., ca. 1946] in colored pencil in German to her father while he was on trial in Nuremberg for war crimes. In part: "My beloved Papa!!! We are now in Castle Veldenstein. I have great, great longing for you and love you very much. Return soon to us...The pansies are so sweet and the roses are so beautiful. I pray to God every night to us. 1,000,000 kisses from Your Edda!!!...".Also present is crayon self-portrait, including an an Easter bunny, a house and spring flowers. The envelope is addressed "To my beloved Papa!!!" and Edda included a 2" x 3" photograph of herself, inscribed in red crayon: "Your Edda ". Regrettably, these sentimental pieces never reached Goring's hands: an unsigned note included indicates that the major war criminals at Nuremberg were denied the right to receive mail, and these drawing and letters were given by a prison guard to a fellow soldier. Four pieces, fine.

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WILHELM GROENER

Lot 50: WILHELM GROENER

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Description: WILHELM GROENER (1867 - 1939) German soldier and politician, second in command of the German army who oversaw the retreat and demobilisation of the defeated German army after World War I. As anti-Nazi Minister of Defense, he was humiliated by Goring and left public service. Partly-printed D.S. as Defense Minister, 1p. sm. folio, Berlin, June 29, 1929, a military appointment. Fine.

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HEINZ GUDERIAN

Lot 51: HEINZ GUDERIAN

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Description: HEINZ GUDERIAN (d. 1953) German general and Hitler's Army Chief of Staff, the inventor of the "blitzkrieg" who commanded panzers in the Poland and France, and the Russian campaign. S.P., 4" x 6" color, a war-date artist's rendering of Guderian in uniform, signed in blue ink at bottom. Fine.

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