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19th Century European Paintings

During the 19th century, painting was the highest form of art. Countries ran an academy in their major cities and sometimes in smaller towns to train artists in the academic style. In the mid-19th century, however, the Barbizon School in France rejected that academic style. The School consisted of landscape artists who aimed to more truly represent the countryside as part of the French Realist movement.

In Paris, artists competed to have their works shown in the mostly-annual Salon, which grew into an unruly mess. Thousands of paintings were exhibited by hundreds of artists, all of them shown “salon style” in a great mish-mash over the walls. It was a challenge to contemplate any single work.


Popular Artists

Artists like Gustave Millet painted social critique. His painting, "The Gleaners," 1857, was displayed in the Salon that year. The aristocracy feared peasant revolts that could cost them their plush life, and were alarmed by Millet’s monumentally scaled depiction of bent-backed peasants looking through a field hoping to find leftover wheat.

Edouard Manet was the chief catalyst of modern painting. He encouraged artists to be innovative and continue showing in the Salon so they could challenge as many viewers as possible. His "Olympia," 1865, shocked people. In this painting, a prostitute gazes directly at the viewer with a blasé attitude, showing no sentiment toward the flowers sent to her by a suitor.


Quick Facts

  • Vincent Van Gogh had his first one-man show posthumously, and Paul Cezanne received his first solo exhibition in 1895, only 11 years before he died
  • The Salon began to wind down in prestige from 1871 onward. The Post-Impressionists, like Vincent Van Gogh and Paul Cezanne, championed by their dealer, Ambroise Vuillard, pushed painting to the brink of abstraction
  • During this time, art dealers like Paul Durand-Rouel and Georges Petit began giving artists stipends, buying large amounts of artists’ work, and controlling prices

Recommended Items at Auction

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Elisabeth Von Eicken – Herbstwald (Autumn forest)
Dec 07, 2:30 PM CET
Elisabeth Von Eicken – Herbstwald (Autumn forest)
by Karl & Faber
Est: €3,000- €5,000
€2,4000 Bids
Norbert Goeneutte – Femme au balcon (Femme au balcon)
Dec 07, 2:30 PM CET
Norbert Goeneutte – Femme au balcon (Femme au balcon)
by Karl & Faber
Est: €3,500- €4,500
€3,0000 Bids
Wilhelm Schreuer – Preußischer Husarenreiter (2. Westf. Husaren-Regiment Nr. 11)
Nov 30, 6:00 PM CET
Wilhelm Schreuer – Preußischer Husarenreiter (2. Westf. Husaren-Regiment Nr. 11)
by Karl & Faber - Timed
Est: €1,200- €1,700
€1,0000 Bids
Pair of Romantic Landscapes
Dec 03, 2:00 PM CET
Pair of Romantic Landscapes
by Antikvity
Est: €200- €250
€2000 Bids
Winter Landscape with the Road by August Friedrich Piepenhagen
Dec 03, 2:00 PM CET
Winter Landscape with the Road by August Friedrich Piepenhagen
by Antikvity
Est: €5,000- €6,000
€5,0000 Bids
An Alpine Landscape by Josef Navratil
Dec 03, 2:00 PM CET
An Alpine Landscape by Josef Navratil
by Antikvity
Est: €6,000- €8,000
€6,0000 Bids
A Canine Casualty Finds a Home by Antonio Rotta
Dec 03, 2:00 PM CET
A Canine Casualty Finds a Home by Antonio Rotta
by Antikvity
Est: €1,000- €5,000
€1,0000 Bids
In the Tatra Mountains by Jaroslav Cermak
Dec 03, 2:00 PM CET
In the Tatra Mountains by Jaroslav Cermak
by Antikvity
Est: €8,000- €14,000
€8,0000 Bids
Winter Landscape by August Friedrich Piepenhagen
Dec 03, 2:00 PM CET
Winter Landscape by August Friedrich Piepenhagen
by Antikvity
Est: €1,700- €2,000
€1,7000 Bids
A Stallion with Jockey up by Emil Adam
Dec 03, 2:00 PM CET
A Stallion with Jockey up by Emil Adam
by Antikvity
Est: €800- €1,200
€8000 Bids
A Road in the Village by B. C. Koekkoek (attrib.)
Dec 03, 2:00 PM CET
A Road in the Village by B. C. Koekkoek (attrib.)
by Antikvity
Est: €1,300- €1,600
€1,3000 Bids
A Still Life with Grapes by A. J. Verhoeven-Ball
Dec 03, 2:00 PM CET
A Still Life with Grapes by A. J. Verhoeven-Ball
by Antikvity
Est: €1,000- €1,800
€1,0000 Bids
Girl in Blue Suit
Dec 03, 2:00 PM CET
Girl in Blue Suit
by Antikvity
Est: €500- €800
€5000 Bids
An Alpine Landcape with a Castle and River
Dec 03, 2:00 PM CET
An Alpine Landcape with a Castle and River
by Antikvity
Est: €400- €800
€4000 Bids
The Old Violinist in Historical Costume by Hermann Kern
Dec 03, 2:00 PM CET
The Old Violinist in Historical Costume by Hermann Kern
by Antikvity
Est: €800- €1,500
€8000 Bids
A Cottage on the Bend of a River by Adolf Chwala
Dec 03, 2:00 PM CET
A Cottage on the Bend of a River by Adolf Chwala
by Antikvity
Est: €600- €1,500
€6000 Bids
C. FRANCOLINI (19th), Smiling Franciscan friar, around 1850, Oil
Dec 10, 10:00 AM CET
C. FRANCOLINI (19th), Smiling Franciscan friar, around 1850, Oil
by Fichter Kunsthandel
Est: €1,350- €1,800
€9000 Bids
C. HERPFER (1836-1897), Rococo console table in Nymphenburg Palace, 1868, Oil
Dec 10, 10:00 AM CET
C. HERPFER (1836-1897), Rococo console table in Nymphenburg Palace, 1868, Oil
by Fichter Kunsthandel
Est: €900- €1,200
€6000 Bids
M. KALTENMOSER (*1842), Genre scene with maid, around 1870, Oil
Dec 10, 10:00 AM CET
M. KALTENMOSER (*1842), Genre scene with maid, around 1870, Oil
by Fichter Kunsthandel
Est: €600- €800
€3400 Bids
H. KAULBACH (1846-1909), Italian woman in traditional dress sitting in landscape, around 1870, Oil
Dec 10, 10:00 AM CET
H. KAULBACH (1846-1909), Italian woman in traditional dress sitting in landscape, around 1870, Oil
by Fichter Kunsthandel
Est: €1,350- €1,800
€9000 Bids
R. SCHICK (1840-1887), Medieval ruin, 1881, Oil
Dec 10, 10:00 AM CET
R. SCHICK (1840-1887), Medieval ruin, 1881, Oil
by Fichter Kunsthandel
Est: €2,250- €3,000
€1,5000 Bids
H. TUNICA (1795-1868), Family portrait, 1885, Oil
Dec 10, 10:00 AM CET
H. TUNICA (1795-1868), Family portrait, 1885, Oil
by Fichter Kunsthandel
Est: €2,250- €3,000
€1,5000 Bids

Sellers Who Sell 19th Century European Paintings


Fichter Kunsthandel

Fichter Kunsthandel

Unicart Auctions

Unicart Auctions

Karl & Faber

Karl & Faber