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Gustav Bauernfeind Sold at Auction Prices

Painter, Illustrator, b. 1848 - d. 1904

(b 1848; d 1904) Bauernfeind was born in the town of Sulz-am-Neckar in Baden-Württemberg, southern Germany. His education gave no indication that he would become one of the most accomplished artists of his era. He had graduated from the Stuttgart Polytechnic Institute and joined an architectural firm. After an initial start at the office of Professor Wilhelm Baumer, he was employed by Adolf Gnauth who was not only an architect, but also a moderately gifted painter. It was during his time in the employment of Gnauth that Bauernfeind transformed from architect to artist. When traveling to Italy for a project for Gnauth's firm in 1873 and 1874, Bauernfeind refined his artistic skills, executing with meticulous verisimilitude the architecture and nature of his surroundings. Although his attention to detail was remarkable, his work found few interested buyers due to the rather mundane subject matter. He was advised to find a subject matter more 'en vogue' and, very much aware of the financial opportunities awaiting a painter of Orientalist subjects, he looked to the East as his new source of inspiration. This marked a turning point in his career: a fundamentally different and exotic culture in which to study the sun, the light, the characters, customs and religious attitudes. After his first visit to Jaffa and Jerusalem in 1880-81, he traveled widely in the Middle East, particularly to the Holy Land and Damascus, eventually settling in Jerusalem where he died in 1904. (credit: Christie’s catalogue of 19th Century European Art including Orientalist and Spanish Art, July 2, 2008, Lot 28)

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      • At the Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem
        Feb. 02, 2024

        At the Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem

        Est: $150,000 - $250,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind Sulz 1848 - 1904 Jerusalem At the Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem signed and dated lower left: G. Bauernfeind M 95, further inscribed lower right: Jerusalem oil on panel panel: 12 ¾ by 16 in.; 32 by 40.6 cm framed: 18 by 21 ½ in.; 45.7 by 54.6 cm

        Sotheby's
      • The Western Wall
        Feb. 01, 2024

        The Western Wall

        Est: $2,000,000 - $3,000,000

        Property From a West Coast Jewish Institution Gustav Bauernfeind Sulz 1848 - 1904 Jerusalem The Western Wall signed and inscribed lower left: G. Bauernfeind / Jerusalem oil on canvas canvas: 50 by 38 ⅞ in.; 127 by 98.7 cm framed: 57 ½ by 46 ½ in.; 146 by 116.8 cm

        Sotheby's
      • BAUERNFEIND, GUSTAV
        Jun. 19, 2023

        BAUERNFEIND, GUSTAV

        Est: CHF300 - CHF500

        (Sulz am Neckar 1848–1904 Jerusalem) Rathaus in Bern. Lavierte Federzeichnung. Unten rechts monogrammiert. Lichtmass 18x26 cm. - Stockflecken.

        Schuler Auktionen
      • BAUERNFEIND, GUSTAV
        Jun. 19, 2023

        BAUERNFEIND, GUSTAV

        Est: CHF300 - CHF500

        (Sulz am Neckar 1848–1904 Jerusalem) Oberthor, Altstadtgasse in Schaffhausen. Lavierte Federzeichnung. Unten links signiert. Lichtmass 32x24 cm. - Stockflecken.

        Schuler Auktionen
      • Attributed: Gustav Bauernfeind (1848 – 1904) Market Street Scene Medium:
        Feb. 04, 2023

        Attributed: Gustav Bauernfeind (1848 – 1904) Market Street Scene Medium:

        Est: $12,000 - $15,000

        Attributed: Gustav Bauernfeind (1848 – 1904) Market Street Scene Medium: Oil on canvas. Signed and dated 1887 Provenance: Naima Najd collection 43.25 x 53.5 in. (110 x 136.1 cm.)

        Collector Fine Art Auctions
      • Gustav Bauernfeind: Under the Dome of San Marco in Venice
        Nov. 17, 2022

        Gustav Bauernfeind: Under the Dome of San Marco in Venice

        Est: €8,000 - €10,000

        BAUERNFEIND, GUSTAV 1848 Sulz - 1904 Jerusalem Title: Under the Dome of San Marco in Venice. Technique: Oil on canvas. Measurement: 62,5 x 53cm. Notation: Signed and dated lower right: G. Bauernfeind 1881. Frame: Framed. Provenance: Private collection Poland. Gustav Bauernfeind, who is known to us today primarily as an Orientalist, gained his first experience as a painter and illustrator in Italy. For a long time, as a trained architect, he doubted whether he should continue working as a painter. He made numerous architectural sketches on his travels from 1873 onwards. In 1877 he undertook a purposeful journey to Venice and Chioggia with artist friends. It was here and subsequently in his studio that he produced his first oil paintings. This painting shows one of the first attempts at a large-scale detailed architectural depiction. The idea for this was already formed in 1877, following the third journey. Sketches of the journeys, which are now in the Architekturmuseum in Munich, show this (inventory no. 1988/364 and 1988/23). It was not until1881 that he started working on the picture again in his Munich studio. Now, however, Bauernfeind had lost some of his interest in Italian views. The new impressions of his first trip to the Orient begin to gain the upper hand. During this period he was already planning the next trip to the Orient. Therefore this work is no longer fully executed, but left in a somewhat sketchy state, signed and dated. From 1882 onwards he only created Oriental motifs. This picture marks a turning point in Bauernfeind's career. It is one of the last European motifs. We are grateful to Petra Versteegh, Rekem, who has confirmed the authenticity of the present painting on the original. Explanations to the Catalogue

        Van Ham Kunstauktionen
      • GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND (GERMAN, 1848-1904) A horseman by a Jerusalem Gate penci
        Jul. 15, 2022

        GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND (GERMAN, 1848-1904) A horseman by a Jerusalem Gate penci

        Est: £10,000 - £15,000

        GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND (GERMAN, 1848-1904) A horseman by a Jerusalem Gate pencil and watercolour on paper 18 x 22 in. (45.7 x 55.9 cm.)

        Christie's
      • Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives
        Oct. 13, 2021

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives

        Est: $2,000,000 - $3,000,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives at Sunrise signed and inscribed 'G. Bauernfeind/Jerusalem' (lower right) oil on canvas 51 ¼ x 78 ¾ in. (130.2 x 200 cm.) …

        Christie's
      • Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) - Warden of the Mosque, Damascus
        Nov. 18, 2020

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) - Warden of the Mosque, Damascus

        Est: £1,500,000 - £2,500,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) Warden of the Mosque, Damascus oil on panel 43 x 33 in. (109.2 x 83.8 cm.)

        Christie's
      • Gustav Bauernfeind, Street Scene in Jerusalem (Dar al-Sha'bani near Bab el-Hadid)
        Nov. 14, 2020

        Gustav Bauernfeind, Street Scene in Jerusalem (Dar al-Sha'bani near Bab el-Hadid)

        Est: €8,000 - €10,000

        Signed and dated lower left: G. Bauernfeind Jerusalem 81 Adhesive label to verso of panel: “ P. Kaeser's / Kunsthandlung / München / 5. Briennerstrasse 5. No. 33” Our painting by the significant German Orient painter Gustav Bauernfeind depicts the portal of the madrasah Dar al Sha'bani, a Qur'an school in Jerusalem. The dating places the painting in the period of the artist's first trip to the Orient from 1880 to 1882 and thus belongs to Bauernfeind's earliest works with an oriental motif. As a result of the lasting impressions of his first trip, the artist thereafter turned almost exclusively to this theme. He undertook further trips to the Orient and finally moved to Palestine in 1896. Our view shows a woman in front of the colourful wall of the Qur'an school with an amphora in one hand and a coin in the other. A female seller sits with her wares in front of the steps, and a beggar opposite. An only slightly different version of this composition is illustrated in Petra S. Kühner: Gustav Bauernfeind. Gemälde und Aquarelle (=Monographien zur Bildenden Kunst 5), Frankfurt am Main et al. 1996, p. 213, no. 22, ill. 9. The motif of the portal of Dar al Sha'bani is also seen in a watercolour by Bauernfeind, in the Staatlichen Graphischen Sammlung München (inv.no. 1907:308). We would like to thank Dr Petra Versteegh-Kühner, Rekem, for the confirmation of the authorship of this work based on digital photographs.

        Kunsthaus Lempertz KG
      • Attributed: Gustav Bauernfeind (1848 – 1904)
        Dec. 14, 2019

        Attributed: Gustav Bauernfeind (1848 – 1904)

        Est: $12,000 - $15,000

        Market street scene. Oil on canvas. Signed, dated 1887. Provenance: Naima Najd collection

        Ford Art Auctions
      • Bauernfeind Gustav, 1848-1904, Die Mühle in Inschi
        Nov. 26, 2019

        Bauernfeind Gustav, 1848-1904, Die Mühle in Inschi

        Est: CHF300 - CHF500

        Washed india ink line drawing. Signed lower left: G. Bauernfeind. Verso titled: Mühle in Inschi. (Frame).

        Germann Auction House Ltd
      • Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) Forecourt of the Umayyad Mosque, Dam Estimate on Request
        Apr. 29, 2019

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) Forecourt of the Umayyad Mosque, Dam Estimate on Request

        Est: -

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) Forecourt of the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus oil on panel 47 ¼ x 36 ¼ in. (120.8 x 92.2 cm.)

        Christie's
      • Gustav Bauernfeind (1848 -1904)- attributed
        Sep. 25, 2018

        Gustav Bauernfeind (1848 -1904)- attributed

        Est: €1,800 - €5,500

        Gustav Bauernfeind (1848 -1904)- attributed, large view of a croatian port, possibly Split.With fisherboats and fishers, waiting for the catch of the day. Oil on canvas, signed (hardly readable) and dated bottom left. On the reverse old paper labels. In original gilded and open work frame.

        Deutsch Auktionen
      • **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard
        Oct. 18, 2017

        **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard

        Est: $1,800 - $2,200

        Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard h:23 w: 18 cm. signed lower right Provenance: Sale: Christie''s London, December 2, 2004, lot 246. Private European collection. Other Notes: Location: Israel. For estimated delivery time please contact us.

        Matsart Auctioneers & Appraisers
      • Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) - King David Street, Jerusalem
        Jul. 13, 2017

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) - King David Street, Jerusalem

        Est: £40,000 - £60,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) King David Street, Jerusalem pen and black ink, watercolour and bodycolour on paper 11 ¾ x 15 ½ in. (29.8 x 39.4 cm.)

        Christie's
      • GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND | Sentinel at the entrance to the Temple Mount, Jerusalem
        Apr. 25, 2017

        GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND | Sentinel at the entrance to the Temple Mount, Jerusalem

        Est: £30,000 - £50,000

        oil on panel

        Sotheby's
      • GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND | A Well in Jaffa 
        Apr. 25, 2017

        GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND | A Well in Jaffa 

        Est: £15,000 - £20,000

        watercolour and pencil on paper

        Sotheby's
      • GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND (GERMAN, 1848-1904) At the Wailing Wall signed
        Jul. 12, 2016

        GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND (GERMAN, 1848-1904) At the Wailing Wall signed

        Est: £60,000 - £80,000

        GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND (GERMAN, 1848-1904) At the Wailing Wall signed ‘G. Bauernfeind’ (lower left) oil on panel 18 x 9 3/4 in. (45.7 x 24.7 cm,)

        Christie's
      • **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard
        Mar. 30, 2016

        **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard

        Est: $1,800 - $2,200

        Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard h:23 w: 18 cm. signed lower right Provenance: Sale: Christie's London, December 2, 2004, lot 246. Private European collection. Other Notes: Location: Israel. For estimated delivery time please contact us.

        Matsart Auctioneers & Appraisers
      • Watercolor, Gustav Bauernfeind
        Feb. 21, 2016

        Watercolor, Gustav Bauernfeind

        Est: $10,000 - $15,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904), Figures by the Wailing Wall, watercolor on panel, signed lower left, sight: 15"h x 10.5"w, overall (with frame): 22.25"h x 18.25"w

        Clars Auctions
      • Schmid, H. (ed.). Der Orientmaler Gustav Bauernfei
        Nov. 24, 2015

        Schmid, H. (ed.). Der Orientmaler Gustav Bauernfei

        Est: €70 - €90

        Schmid, H. (ed.). Der Orientmaler Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904. Leben und Werk. Introd. A. Carmel. Stuttgart, E. Hauswedell & Co., 1990, XII,368p., 175 col. plates, ills., German/ English text, orig. boards w. dustwr., folio. Bacou, R. Odilon Redon. Pastels. Engl. transl. B. Rehl. London, Thames and Hudson, 1987, 1st ed., 189,(1)p., col. ills., orig. cl. w. dustwr., folio. - AND 2 others, both on the Nabis artists group.

        Bubb > Kuyper: Auctioneers of Books, Fine Arts & Manuscripts
      • **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard
        Oct. 08, 2015

        **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard

        Est: $2,600 - $3,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard h:23 w: 18 cm. signed lower right Provenance: Sale: Christie's London, December 2, 2004, lot 246. Private European collection.

        Matsart Auctioneers & Appraisers
      • **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard
        Mar. 19, 2015

        **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard

        Est: $2,600 - $3,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard h:23 w: 18 cm. signed lower right Provenance: Sale: Christie's London, December 2, 2004, lot 246. Private European collection.

        Matsart Auctioneers & Appraisers
      • Gustav Bauernfeind
        Dec. 17, 2013

        Gustav Bauernfeind

        Est: $60,000 - $80,000

        signed G. Bauernfeind and inscribed Jerusalem (lower left),watercolor on paper,39 by 20 1/2 in.,99 by 52 cm.

        Sotheby's
      • **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) The Wailing Wall, Jerusalem, c. 1904 watercolor on paper
        Sep. 23, 2013

        **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) The Wailing Wall, Jerusalem, c. 1904 watercolor on paper

        Est: $120,000 - $150,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) The Wailing Wall, Jerusalem, c. 1904 watercolor on paper h:60 w:45 cm. inscribed 'Jerusalem' lower right Provenance: Private collection , Morocco. Private European collection. Exhibited: Chagall and the Circle of Jewish Painters of the 20th Century, Wally Findlay Galleries, Palm Beach, December 2012 - January 2013 (illustrated in the exhibition catalogue pp. 56-57 ). Other Notes: This work belongs to a series of paitings which included four large-format oils on the same subject.

        Matsart Auctioneers & Appraisers
      • **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard
        Sep. 23, 2013

        **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard

        Est: $4,000 - $6,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard h:23 w:18 cm. signed lower right Provenance: Sale: Christie's London, December 2, 2004, lot 246. Private European collection.

        Matsart Auctioneers & Appraisers
      • Copy after BAUERNFEIND, GUSTAV(Sulz am Neckar 1848
        Sep. 18, 2013

        Copy after BAUERNFEIND, GUSTAV(Sulz am Neckar 1848

        Est: CHF6,000 - CHF8,000

        Copy after BAUERNFEIND, GUSTAV (Sulz am Neckar 1848 - 1904 Jerusalem) People praying at the Wailing Wall. Oil on canvas. 76 x 50.7 cm. BAUERNFEIND, GUSTAV (KOPIE NACH) (Sulz am Neckar 1848 - 1904 Jerusalem) Betende an der Klagemauer. Öl auf Leinwand. 76 x 50,7 cm.

        Koller Auctions
      • **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) The Wailing Wall, Jerusalem, c. 1904 watercolor on paper
        Oct. 11, 2012

        **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) The Wailing Wall, Jerusalem, c. 1904 watercolor on paper

        Est: $120,000 - $150,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) The Wailing Wall, Jerusalem, c. 1904 watercolor on paper h:60 w:45 cm. inscribed 'Jerusalem' lower right Provenance: Private collection , Morocco Private collection Sale: Christie's, 19th century European art, including orientalist art. Other Notes: This sheet belongs to a series of works that included four large-format oils on the same subject.

        Matsart Auctioneers & Appraisers
      • **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard
        Oct. 11, 2012

        **Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard

        Est: $4,000 - $6,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904 (German) Jerusalem landscape oil on cardboard h:23 w: 18 cm. signed lower right Provenance: Sale: Christie's South Kensington: December 02, 2004, Lot 246 Private collection.

        Matsart Auctioneers & Appraisers
      • GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND (SULZ AM NECKAR 1848-1904 ?)
        Nov. 04, 2011

        GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND (SULZ AM NECKAR 1848-1904 ?)

        Est: €50,000 - €70,000

        GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND (SULZ AM NECKAR 1848-1904 ?) Le mur des lamentations, Jérusalem situé 'Jerusalem' (en bas à droite) aquarelle sur papier 60 x 45,5 cm. (23 5/8 x 17 7/8 in.) Peint vers 1904.

        Christie's
      • Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904)
        Jun. 15, 2011

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904)

        Est: £80,000 - £120,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) The Wailing Wall, Jerusalem inscribed 'Jerusalem' (lower right) watercolour on paper 23 5/8 x 17 7/8 in. (60 x 45.5 cm.) Executed circa 1904.

        Christie's
      • Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904)
        Apr. 13, 2011

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904)

        Est: £1,000 - £1,500

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) An Arab girl inscribed with title (upper right) and signed and dated 'G. Bauernfeind. 1898' (lower left) pencil and watercolour on paper 5¾ x 5 in. (14.6 x 12.7 cm.)

        Christie's
      • After Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) Entrance to the Temple Mount, Jerusalem, 40 x 30in.
        Mar. 24, 2011

        After Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) Entrance to the Temple Mount, Jerusalem, 40 x 30in.

        Est: £800 - £1,200

        After Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) oil on canvas, Entrance to the Temple Mount, Jerusalem, 40 x 30in.

        Gorringes
      • Bauernfeind, Gustav - zugeschrieben-Eingang zum
        Jul. 03, 2010

        Bauernfeind, Gustav - zugeschrieben-Eingang zum

        Est: - €28,000

        Bauernfeind, Gustav - zugeschrieben-Eingang zum Tempelberg-(Sulz 1848-1904 Jerusalem) Vielfigurige Szene mit Durchblick auf den Felsendom. Öl/Lwd. Rechts unten bez. mit Ortsbez. "München". 68,5 x 55,5 cm. - Lit. Thieme/Becker 3, Saur AKL 7. Bauernfeind gilt als bedeutendster deutscher Orientmaler. Nach Reisen durch den Nahen Osten ließ er sich 1896 in Jerusalem nieder und fertigte Architektur- und Genreszenen, die sich durch eine exakte Malweise auszeichnen. Der Eingang zum Tempelbezirk kommt in Bauernfeinds Oeuvre als Motiv mehrfach vor. Anhand bestimmter, wiederkehrender Figurentypen thematisiert er darin den Konflikt zwischen Juden und Moslems am Tempelberg. - Lit. Kühner: Gustav Bauernfeind. Gemälde und Aquarelle, S. 212f.

        Kunstauktionshaus Schlosser
      • Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904)
        Jun. 15, 2010

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904)

        Est: £20,000 - £30,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) View towards the mountains of Moab from Jerusalem oil on board 14¼ x 20¼ in. (36 x 51.5 cm.)

        Christie's
      • Gustav Bauernfeind , German 1848-1904 Strassenszene in Jaffa (Street Scene in Jaffa) watercolour and gouache on paper
        Nov. 12, 2008

        Gustav Bauernfeind , German 1848-1904 Strassenszene in Jaffa (Street Scene in Jaffa) watercolour and gouache on paper

        Est: £15,000 - £20,000

        signed G. Bauernfeind. Jaffa. 1887 lower left watercolour and gouache on paper

        Sotheby's
      • A horseman by a Jerusalem Gate
        Jul. 02, 2008

        A horseman by a Jerusalem Gate

        Est: £15,000 - £20,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) A horseman by a Jerusalem Gate signed 'G. Bauernfeind.' (lower left) pencil and watercolour on paper 18 x 22 in. (45.7 x 55.9 cm.)

        Christie's
      • David street, Jerusalem
        Jul. 02, 2008

        David street, Jerusalem

        Est: £600,000 - £800,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) David street, Jerusalem signed, inscribed and dated 'Jerusalem G. Bauernfeind. 1887' (lower right) oil on canvas 51 x 35½ in. (129.5 x 90.2 cm.) Painted in 1887.

        Christie's
      • The Mountains of Maob seen from Bethany
        Jul. 02, 2008

        The Mountains of Maob seen from Bethany

        Est: £80,000 - £120,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) The Mountains of Maob seen from Bethany oil on canvas 35½ x 55 in. (90.2 x 139.7 cm.) Painted circa 1898.

        Christie's
      • The Gate of the Great Umayyad Mosque, Damascus
        Jul. 02, 2008

        The Gate of the Great Umayyad Mosque, Damascus

        Est: £1,500,000 - £3,000,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904) The Gate of the Great Umayyad Mosque, Damascus signed, inscribed and dated 'G. Bauernfeind/Damaskus/München 1890.' (lower right) oil on panel 47 5/8 x 38 in. (121 x 96.5 cm.) Painted in Munich, 1890.

        Christie's
      • Gustav BauernfeindGerman, 1848-1904
        Jun. 27, 2007

        Gustav BauernfeindGerman, 1848-1904

        Est: £600,000 - £800,000

        signed G. Bauernfeind l.l.; inscribed Jerusalem l.r. oil on canvas laid down on panel

        Sotheby's
      • Plain of Jericho
        Apr. 10, 2007

        Plain of Jericho

        Est: $8,000 - $12,000

        Gustav Bauernfeind (1848 - 1904) Plain of Jericho oil on canvas 20¾ x 29 5/8 in. (53 x 75.2 cm.)

        Christie's
      • Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904)
        Apr. 19, 2006

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904)

        Est: $700,000 - $1,000,000

        A Street Scene, Damascus signed and inscribed 'G. Bauernfeind Damaskus-München' (lower right) oil on panel 20 1/4 x 26 3/4 in. (51.4 x 68 cm.)

        Christie's
      • *GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND GERMAN, 1848-1904 AT THE WAILING WALL oil on canvas 24 1/2 by 40in. 62.2 by 101....
        Nov. 02, 2001

        *GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND GERMAN, 1848-1904 AT THE WAILING WALL oil on canvas 24 1/2 by 40in. 62.2 by 101....

        Est: $50,000 - $70,000

        *GUSTAV BAUERNFEIND GERMAN, 1848-1904 AT THE WAILING WALL oil on canvas 24 1/2 by 40in. 62.2 by 101.6cm. EXHIBITED Bauernfeindmuseum, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany 1989-1999 LITERATURE A. Carmel, trans. T. Gorelick, The Life and Work of Gustav Bauernfeind, Orientalist Painter, 1848-1904, Stuttgart, 1990, No. 133, illustrated

        Sotheby's
      • Gustav Bauernfeind (Austrian, 1848-1904)
        Nov. 01, 2001

        Gustav Bauernfeind (Austrian, 1848-1904)

        Est: $500,000 - $700,000

        The Wailing Wall, Jerusalem signed and inscribed 'G. Bauernfeind Jerusalem' (lower left) and inscribed 'Die Steine Salomo's.'(lower right) oil on canvas 761/4 x 381/2 in. (193.5 x 98 cm.) Painted in 1904 PROVENANCE The artist's estate. Thence by decent to the artist's great-niece. Anon. sale, Sotheby's, London, 21 June 1983, lot 25. Anon. sale, Sotheby's, London, 17 November 1993, lot 127. Acquired from the above sale by the present owner. LITERATURE L. Thornton, Les Orientalists, Peintres Voyageurs 1828-1908, Paris, 1983, pp. 200-1 (illustrated). H. Schmid, Der Orientmaler Gustav Bauernfeind 1848-1904, Stuttgart, 1990, pl. 175. E. Gnther, Die Faszination des Fremden der Malerische Orientalistmus in Deutschland, unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of Westfalen, Mnster, 1990, pl. 31. P. Khner, Gustav Baurenfeind, Gem„lde und Aquarelle, Frankfurt am Main, 1995, p. 233, no. 69 (illustrated). EXHIBITION Munich, Galerie Heinemann, no. 7737. London, National Gallery of Art and Washington, National Gallery of Art, The Orientalists: Delacroix to Matisse, March-October 1984, p. 114, no. 2 (illustrated). NOTES Greatly admired as one of Gustav Bauernfeind's largest and most notable canvases, the present work belongs to a series of large-scale oils of the same subject that would be the artistic centerpiece of the artist's late career. Completed in 1904, it is thought to be the artist's last oil painting before his death in December of the same year, consequently the same month it was exhibited at Heinmann's gallery in Munich. Two other versions include a slightly smaller yet almost identical composition, as well as a more unfinished oil that displays different figural groupings. In what is classified as his 'fourth Oriental journey', the years 1896-1904 found Bauernfeind resident in Palestine, an enigmatic and multi-faceted land where the artist would spend the rest of his life. From his first trip to Palestine in 1880, Bauernfeind was captivated by the Holy City with its architectural monuments and diverse human types. Even though he was regarded neither as a member of the Evangelical Church nor the Society of Templars, he held a fascination for prayer customs among a variety of religious sects. His earliest depiction of Jews at a holy site is At the Entrance to the Temple Mount (Private Collection) painted during his second journey to the Middle East. The Western Wall, also known as The Wailing Wall in the Old City of Jerusalem, is the only remaining stretch of the western side of the stone platform on which stood the Temple of Solomon. Throughout the centuries, the chants and prayers of pilgrims towards the wall evokes the capture of the city by the Romans and the destruction of the Temple in 70 A.D.. The wall itself dates from the Second Century B.C., though its upper sections were added at a later date. Many artists before Bauernfeind found the wall an inspiring subject. Jean-L‚on G‚r“me first visited Jerusalem in 1862 and fourteen years later immortalized the subject in his masterpiece Solomon's Wall, Jerusalem (fig. 1) (sold Christie's, New York, 6 May 1999, lot 4). In these later years, Bauernfeind was plagued by bad health, so much so that his wife Elise took over the writing of his daily entries. She diligently documents her husband's almost daily expeditions to the holy site to make sketches which he used to work up the final composition in his studio. They were later discovered in the attic of the artist's home after his death in one of his many skizzenbuchs that he carried around during his travels. While many details of the site are documentary, such as the size and the color of the stone as well as the height of the wall, the ancient Hebrew characters carved into the stones are not true to the monument itself but were most likely added as a decorative flourish. (fig. 1) Jean-L‚on G‚r“me, Solomon's Wall, Jerusalem, Christie's, New York, Private Collection.

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      • Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904)
        Oct. 31, 2001

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904)

        Est: $700,000 - $900,000

        Warden of the Mosque, Damascus signed, inscribed and dated 'G. Bauernfeind Mnchen 1891 Damaskus' (lower left) oil on panel 43 x 33 in. (109.2 x 83.8 cm) Painted in 1891 PROVENANCE McLean & Co., London, 1891 (commissioned from the artist by Arthur Sulley). Anon. sale, Sotheby's, London, 28 November 1979, lot 50. The Fine Art Society, Ltd., London (acquired at the above sale). Acquired from the above sale by the present owner, 1979. LITERATURE L. Thornton, The Orientalists, Painter-Travellers 1828-1908, Paris, 1983, p. 198 (illustrated). A. Carmel and H. Schmid, The Life and Work of Gustav Bauernfeind, Orientalist Painter, Stuttgart, 1990, pl. 160 (illustrated). P. Khner, Gustav Bauernfeind - Gem„lde und Aquarelle, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main, 1995, p. 218 (illustrated). H. Schmid, ed., Gustav Bauernfeind: Die Reise nach Damascus 1888/1889, Tbingen and Basel, 1996, p. 107 (illustrated). EXHIBITION (Probably) London, McLean, 1891. NOTES Another distinguished edifice in Damascus is the Sinan Pasha Mosque (figs. 1 and 2) set near the Midhat-Pasha Street. Although not a challenger to the Ummayad Mosque in its magnitude or grandiosity, the Sinan Pasha Mosque is discussed in 19th Century travel guides as the second most significant religious structure in the city. Its importance and its recognition are based on the accomplishments of its architect rather than its sheer mass. Sinan the Architect, otherwise known as Mimar Sinan by the Turks, was born a Catholic in the early 16th Century in a village near the city of Kayseri in central Anatolia. Although he is thought to be of Greek origin, the first records of him are from his enrollment in the Janissary Corps circa 1512. This was an elite unit of the Ottoman army whose members at the time were all gathered from Christian families and converted to Islam with a primary mission to serve and protect the Sultan. During his service in the Janissary Corps, Sinan was initially taught the trade of carpentry in which he rapidly excelled and was soon promoted to military engineer, overseeing the building of fortifications, ships and bridges. In 1538 Sinan was appointed "the chief of the imperial architects to the Ottoman court and served three sultans in the course of half a century before his death in 1588. His work epitomizes the Ottoman Empire at its apogee and his artistic achievements crown the magnificence of that realm" (D. Kuban and A. Ertug, Sinan, An Architectural Genius, Bern, 1999, p. 17). Going even a step further Henry Matthews from the Washington State University School of Architecture compares Sinan with Italian architects such as Brunelleschi and Michelangelo for his equally bold experiments with domed structures and vast interior spaces. During his role as the chief imperial architect, Sinan worked on, oversaw and planned together with an army of architects that served under him approximate 400 buildings of which about 100 alone are mosques. The Sinan Pasha Mosque in Damascus is widely accepted as a structure planned by Sinan yet it is clear that a trusted student must have executed the project as the completion date of the mosque in 1590 is two years after Sinan's death. The earliest records of Bauernfeind sketching this structure date to Friday 29 January 1889 when he noted working on its minaret from a distance. But the foundations of the present composition were laid down almost by accident on 9 April 1889 and Bauernfeind kept a detailed recording of this day in his diary. Bauernfeind left his hotel around 11 a.m. with his photograph machine and took about 7 pictures whilst walking through the streets of Damascus. He stumbled upon an open side entry of a smaller mosque that led into its courtyard. A seated warden in a blue tunic wearing a large turban in this entrance way was engrossed in reading at which time Bauernfeind decided swiftly to make this the subject of his 8th photograph of the day. In the afternoon he returned to the same location, this time accompanied by his Muslim translator Karam, in order to draw the portal but much to their disappointment and frustration, the crowd shut the door tight upon noticing the artist's attempt to paint the mosque. Feeling bolder than usual, Karam initiated a back and forth of pushing the door open only for the crowds to shut it again, a struggle that shortly ended with a dislocated door and an extremely upset crowd. Bauernfeind was asked to have the door repaired at once and by 5:00 p.m. not only was the door fixed but he also had a chance to make an initial study drawing as well as get acquainted with the warden of the mosque. From this day on Bauernfeind would spend his mornings sketching the portal at a cost of roughly 6 Piasters a day, the running rate for bribing the warden and acquiring an unofficial on-site painting permit. In the upcoming days Bauernfeind noted that there were some understanding people amongst the Muslims as complimentary comments were made about his painting. For them, the prospect of these watercolors someday reaching Paris was particularly exciting, because the inhabitants of Damascus strongly believed that no other city possessed splendor and magnificence like their own. In the catalogue for the Annual Winter Exhibition, McLean published an extract from a letter by Bauernfeind describing his finished oil titled Warden of the Mosque . "Between the various stalls of a covered bazaar street whose mythical twilight is more favorable for the seller than the buyer, there opens out a small side entrance of a mosque, inviting the faithful to its luminous court and playing fountain. The muezzin has called the hour of prayer, and some people followed the call. They put their shoes, weapons, and other burdens under the care of the warden. The red top-boots and easy sandals which are worn in the interior of Arabia as well as the long guns and divers arms ( yataghan, carbine, etc.), show us that some Bedouins have made use of their stay in town to pray at the shrine of a hero of Yore. Some two or three inhabitants of the neighborhood of Damascus, in their many-colored cloaks, divested themselves at the threshold of their clumsy shoes, whilst a seller of lemonade has set down his glass jar on a bench; a lemon is stuck on the peculiar brass mouthpiece of the former. On a platter we see some flat bread cakes strewn with sesame and rings; also plums, whose home is said to be Damascus. The owner of these goodies has a little portable table, which is now standing near the wing of the door. A black scholar squats on the floor, near the entrance, zealously reading the Koran whilst his hands play with a rosary. His many-colored coat is ornamented with holy writings. At the fountain a belated dervish is just beginning his ablutions. The niche for prayer is at the right hand of the marble pillar, whilst to the left is the grave of the saint, with his weapons, his large rosary, tambourine and the horn of an ibex. All these implements are carried about in procession to the diverse graves of the saints. A leader in prayer stands high up, whilst behind him the devout follow him at various paces of quickness. The lanterns consist from a frame work of wood or metal, from which one or more glasses are suspended; these contain water and oil to feed the wick" (Khner, op. cit., p. 218). It is evident that Bauernfeind, mainly due to his education as an architect, pays tremendous attention to structural detail. Nevertheless, it is also detectable, particularly in light of the above excerpt that he also observed the people closely and aimed to capture their spirit. Bauernfeind's method of building up a composition is quite similar to present day animation techniques: first a background is established which will set the general mood for the scene, later the figures will be placed onto this stage to act their roles. Both stages of development are equally important for the success of the final product. A watercolor study for the present work (fig. 3) is an intense and powerful depiction of bright rays of sun juxtaposed against shadows and large, powerful walls, but its lack of human figures is almost haunting. It feels like an ancient and abandoned ruin or more like a theater stage. At this level of compositional structuring Bauernfeind chose to test the validity of his selected setting as well as the potential viewpoints. The background once firmly established, he would insert the figures. On the surface a seemingly easy task with underlying complexities: all of the painting's autonomous motifs are based on reality, yet have been compositionally pulled together in one man's fantasy. We know from his diaries that Bauernfeind had worked diligently on documenting the local people from their costumes to their body language. He would often pay passersby to pose for drawings or photographs and once in his studio, he would carefully reconstruct scenes that best described the mood and lifestyles of the locals that he had so carefully observed. (fig. 1) Contemporary photograph of Sinan Pasha Mosque in Damascus, Courtesy New York Public Libary. (fig. 2) Contemporary photograph of the courtyard of the Sinan Pasha Mosque in Damascus, Courtesy New York Public Library. (fig. 3) Gustav Bauernfeind, Eingang zur Sinanije-Moschee in Damaskus, Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung.

        Christie's
      • Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904)
        Oct. 31, 2001

        Gustav Bauernfeind (German, 1848-1904)

        Est: $900,000 - $1,200,000

        Forecourt of the Ummayad Mosque, Damascus signed and inscribed 'G. Bauerfeind, Damaskus-Mnchen' (lower left) oil on panel 471/4 x 361/4 in. (120.8 x 92.2 cm.) Painted in 1890 PROVENANCE H. Stait, Shepard's Close, Gloustershire; Sotheby's, London, 24 November 1976, lot 243. (Probably) Fine Arts Society, Ltd., London and thence acquired by the present owner. LITERATURE P. Cruysmans, Orientalist Painting, Brussels, 1982, p. 103 (illustrated). A. Carmel and H. Schmid, The Life and Work of Gustav Bauernfeind, Orientalist Painter, Stuttgart, 1990, pl. 159 (illustrated). E. Gnther, Faszination des Fremden, Mnster, 1990, p. 84 (illustrated as no. 45). P. Khner, Gustav Bauernfeind - Gem„lde und Aquarelle, Frankfurt and Main, 1995, p. 217 (illustrated on p. 300). H. Schmid, ed., Gustav Bauernfeind: Die Reise nach Damascus 1888/1889, Tbingen and Basel, 1996, p. 99 (illustrated). L. Thornton, Du Maroc aux Indes, Voyages en Orient, Paris, 1998, p. 242 (illustrated). NOTES Gustav Bauernfeind, arguably the most skilled of all German Orientalists, was born on 4 August 1848 in Sulz am Neckar. Following his graduation from the Stuttgart Polytechnic Institute, he first joined the architectural office of Professor Wilhelm Baumer and later of Adolf Gnauth where he made the initial transition from architect to painter. As an employee of Gnauth he was assigned to a project for Johann Christoph Engelhaus in Italy during 1873-74 and even at this early age his tremendous attention to detail was apparent. As he was having difficulty in selling these German bourgeois village scenes successfully and together with the advice of those close to him, he decided to visit the Middle East and alter the manner of his painting in accordance with the contemporary vogue. Consequently, it is conceivable that his first visit of 1880 to this region was not so much caused by a religious fascination with the Holy Land but instead was powered by the financial opportunities awaiting a painter of Orientalist subject matters. Yet, through time Bauernfeind's attraction to these lands grew beyond their economic promises and he continued to live in Jaffa despite the ceaselessly unprofitable nature of his artistic production. His initial trip of 1880 to Syria and Palestine was followed by a second trip in 1884 to Beirut, Damascus and Jaffa where he met his future wife Elise Bertsch. In October of 1888, Bauernfeind left Germany for a third trip to the Middle East - the most extensively documented period of his life - and arrived in Jaffa. With over a week's delay due to severe flooding he finally boarded an Egyptian steamboat Fayiem that took him north to Beirut from where he continued inland toward Damascus. Popularly known for its silks and dried fruit, Damascus is in fact one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. As recorded in 15th Century B.C. Egyptian inscriptions, it was the capital of a city-state and hence been conquered by the Assyrians, Alexander the Great, the Seljuks, the Mamelukes, Timurlane, the Ottomans, the Egyptians as well as the British. During the Ottoman rule it was considered to be one of the leading centers of the Empire after Constantinople, Cairo and Jerusalem. Certainly the monumental and commanding architecture of the Ummayad Mosque as well as the 200 smaller mosques sprinkled throughout this ancient city, including one planned by no other than the great architectural genius Sinan himself, only begin to hint at the rich layers of cultural inheritance embedded here. Yet according to Gustav Bauernfeind's well recorded accounts from 1888-89, there were only about 40 Europeans residing in this city of 150,000 occupants, which may explain why Damascus was rarely featured in Orientalist paintings of the day. On November 24th Bauernfeind checked into the Hotel Viktoria and almost immediately began his thorough and systematic sketches of the city. Unlike Karl Baedeker's Palestine and Syria: Handbook for Travellers - a standard guide book published in 1876 - Bauernfeind's diaries are a rare and insightful resource as to the difficulties surrounding a European traveler, particularly in this part of the region. The quality of Bauernfeind's in situ watercolors and study drawings dating back to this period are even more astonishing in light of his daily struggles on the streets and rooftops of Damascus. The Syrian Muslims viewed drawing and painting as an attempt to imitate God's creation and hence considered it a sin. Clearly this only made it more difficult for Bauernfeind to visit, study and draw their everyday lives as well as their sacred temples and mosques. Although detailed travel books were available to European travelers it was common and even advisable to make the acquaintance of other westerners living in the regions one was visiting. Furthermore, both a translator as well as a guide was at the top of a traveler's priority list. Bauernfeind has documented receiving recommendations for notable sights in Damascus from Sister Breuner and Dr. von Dyk in Beirut and from his arrival in Damascus onward, Dragoman Franz (le baron de Damaskus) and a Mr. Koch kept him company most evenings as well as on Sundays. His translator on the other hand accompanied him through the day and mainly arranged for the mosque wardens to receive Baksheesh - usually 6 or 9 piasters a day - which would purchase Bauernfeind an unofficial permit to paint the sites. The only exception was on Fridays - a religious holiday in Islam - when Bauernfeind would often take care of correspondence as well as his accounts instead of painting. His first day, Monday November 25th, was spent sketching the S–k el cotton (Cotton Bazaar) at which time he was surrounded by young and curious crowds who protested his activities. Because of the loud reactions of the public Bauernfeind recorded having to climb up on the rooftops in order to sketch the minaret of the Galciye Mosque in peace. Compositional restrictions of such a bird's eye view required him - as distracting as his audience may have been - to return to the street level and try out a new location by the girls' school. Finally he took a break from the distracting crowds near the bazaar and visited the Ummayad Mosque for the first time on 2 December 1888. In fact the structure left a great impression on Bauernfeind: 'Dann ein sehr dankbares Motiv "Eingangstor in die grosse Moschee" entdeckt. Es wird sehr schwierig sein, dasselbe zu malen. Wenn es m”glich ist, so hoffe ich ein sch”nes Bild zustande zu bringen'. (G. Bauernfeind, p. 14) The beauty of this architectural edifice combined with the outstanding compositional opportunities it presented - particularly involving light and volume - captivated Bauernfeind for the next six months. Encouraged by his architectural background, his tremendous attention to detail and exactitude is apparent when viewing the Forecourt of the Ummayad Mosque, Damascus . As evident in his diaries as well as the preparatory drawings, the amount of comprehensive work that was invested in the production of the present oil is most impressive. The Ummayad Mosque, also known as the Great Mosque, is believed to be the building site of an Armean Temple to the God of Hadad dating back to 3000 B.C.. Built in the 1st Century AD and again renovated under Septimus Severus during 193-211 A.D., the site housed a Roman temple dedicated to Jupiter. Arcadius of the Byzantine Empire restored and converted the Roman temple into a Christian Church naming it the Church of St. John (395-408 A.D.) as it held a casket with the head of the Baptist on display. Following the Arab conquest of the city Welid, son of Abd el-Melik and the sixth Ummayad Khalif, entered negotiations with the Christians residing in the city regarding the purchase of their rights over the location. "The Christians however declined to part with their Church, and it was then taken from them, either without compensation or according to a more probable account, in return for the guaranteed possession of several other churches in and around Damascus, which had not hitherto been expressly secured to them. The Khalif himself is said to have directed the first blow to the altar, as a signal for its destruction, to the great grief of the Christians. He then proceeded, without entirely demolishing the old walls, to erect a magnificent mosque on the site of the church. This building is extravagantly praised by Arabic authors, genii are said to have aided its construction, and 1,200 artists to have been summoned from Constantinople to assist. (...) Antique columns were collected in the towns of Syria and used in the decoration of the mosque. The pavement and the lower walls were covered with the rarest marbles, while the upper parts of the walls and the dome were enriched with mosaics. The prayer niches were inlaid with precious stones and golden vines were entwined over the arches of the niches. The ceiling was of wood inlaid with gold, and from it hung 600 golden lamps. Prodigious sums are said to have been expended on the work. (...) Omar ibn Abd el-Aziz (717-720 A.D.) caused the golden lamps to be replaced by others of less value. In 1609 part of the mosque was burned down and since the conquest of Damascus by Timurlane the building has never been restored to its ancient magnificence." (K. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria: handbook for travelers, Leipsic, 1876, p. 482). In fact, yet another fire was responsible for destroying the decorations of the forecourt of the Ummayad Mosque in 1893 (fig. 1). Indeed, the present work by Bauernfeind of 1890, is one of the very rare painted accounts of this site and a comparison with a contemporary photograph of the forecourt (fig. 2) illustrates that the marble floor panels, the blue and white damask tile panels as well as the ancient mosaics on the side walls have been lost during the fire of 1893. Between 2 December 1888 and 18 May 1889, Bauernfeind sketched the forecourt of the Ummayad Mosque as well as the entrance to the Sinan Pasha Mosque practically every day and as a result, paid both of the mosque's wardens a rather hefty sum for informal permissions. An additional expense was paying the models. All of the figures included in these paintings are based on actual models that Bauernfeind became acquainted with on the streets of Damascus and paid handsomely in order to execute darwings of them. On 11 April 1889, for example, Bauernfeind noted in his diaries meeting a snake charmer who posed for five photographs for an undisclosed price. In the Forecourt of the Ummayad Mosque, Damascus, the snake charmer on the right is based on these photographic records. At the conclusion of these six months of extensive studies at no less than five but no more than ten locations throughout Damascus, Bauernfeind returned to Germany to transfer his watercolors and studies into large oil compositions. Two examples of such smaller studies are figures 3 and 4, which became the basis of two major oil compositions, the present work and figure 5, respectively. In the present work, Bauernfeind chooses to open up the focal point of the composition in order to create a greater sense of depth and procession, thus including the ablutions fountain as seen in the far background (fig. 6). Of equal importance, the artist moves the viewer's standpoint to the right. This is an interesting compositional challenge for Bauernfeind since the only available sketch of the forecourt was the one he executed as seen from the left to the right half of the doorway. Upon closer inspection it is apparent that Bauernfeind, instead of creating a left door panel from imagination based loosely on the sketch of the right door panel, has decidedly used the right door panel with precise accuracy as if it were the left door panel. As with the snake charmer, all of the remaining figures in this painting are based on his studies, sketches and photographs of locals whom he encountered at the bazaars or on the streets and often paid them between 6 and 10 Piasters to pose for him. A particularly notable quality in these figure groupings is Bauernfeind's mastery in depicting lusciously colored textiles filled with bright sunlight and juxtaposing them against metal armor, stone structure and skin tones. From 1888 until 1890 Bauernfeind received an advance totaling 6,500 marks from the British dealer Arthur Sulley for a painting based on the entrance of the Sinan Pasha Mosque. Most of this sum was already spent on the daily expenses explained here, together with his hotel rent. By 1891, annoyed by Bauernfeind's unhurried pace, as well as the outstanding advance, Sulley terminated their commercial agreement. Finally the owed painting - lot 9 and titled Warden of the Mosque - was delivered to Sulley far too late to regain his trust. From this point onward Bauernfeind did not receive any advances for future commissions from his patron and furthermore, he had to pay the freight cost of finished works to England in order to present them to Sulley for possible purchase. Sulley did not purchase the present work, mainly due to the frictions between him and Bauernfeind. (fig. 1) Photograph of the Ummayad Mosque after the fire of 1893, Courtesy of the New York Public Library. (fig. 2) Contemporary photograph of the Forecourt of the Ummayad Mosque, Courtesy of the New York Public Library. (fig. 3) Gustav Bauernfeind, Westlicher Eingang zur grossen Moschee, 1889, Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung. (fig. 4) Gustav Bauernfeind, Study for the Forecourt of the Great Mosque, Private Collection. (fig. 5) Gustav Bauernfeind, The Forecourt of the Great Mosque, Private Collection. (fig. 6) Plan of the Ummayad Mosque. SALESROOM NOTICE Period frame on loan from Eli Wilner and available for purchase. Please inquire with department.

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