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Lot 75: - San Miguel Arcangel

Est: ₱4,200,000 PHP - ₱5,460,000 PHPSold:
Leon GalleryMarch 09, 2024Makati City, Philippines

Item Overview

Description

PROPERTY FORMERLY IN THE ROMEO JORGE COLLECTION
San Miguel Arcangel
17th century Binondo, Manila
ivory, silver, and gold
ivory santo: H: 19" (48 cm) L: 3 1/2" (9 cm) W: 13" (33 cm) sword: 18k gold, 36 grams virina: H: 35" (89 cm) L: 15" (38 cm) W: 23" (58 cm) silver base: H: 4 3/4" (12 cm) L: 8" (20 cm) W: 11 1/2" (29 cm)


PROVENANCE Private collection, Manila



WRITE UP:
At the Romeo and Nini Jorge residence in La Vista during the 1980s–90s, in a splendid assemblage of important Old Master art, antique Filipino furniture, and exquisite Filipino ivory and silver, and where soignee receptions were held featuring the top performance artists of the day, this magnificent solid ivory Arcangel took pride of place in the elegant living room atop an important Baliuag comoda. It was the glory of the famous Romeo Jorge art and antiques collection. Saint Michael the Archangel is depicted as a young man dressed as a Roman soldier brandishing a golden sword and stepping over the Devil who is half–human and half– snake, half–fish, or half–dragon (he actually looks like a mythical “merman”). His features are distinctly Oriental with arched eyebrows, heavily–lidded eyes, a fine nose, and rosebud lips, although efforts were made to ensure large eyes. The expression is stoic and serious, but curiously detached. His hair is articulated with great baroque curls. He is dressed as a classical Roman soldier; his cape slung over his left shoulder. The wings are carved and painted gold to simulate eagle wings. He wears midcalf–length boots. The image stands on an ornate, neoclassical base of chased and repousseed silvergilt. The facial features and the overall style of this image has many similarities with the Hispano–Filipino marfiles --- large solid ivory images of the Cristo Expirante and the Virgen Maria --- at the Cathedral of The Glory of The Romeo Jorge Collection by AUGUSTO MARCELINO REYES GONZALEZ III Sevilla and the Museo Oriental in Valladolid, Spain. These large Hispano–Filipino religious marfiles of an indeterminate European air, largely from the sixteenth to the seventeenth century, were crafted by Sangley Chinese carvers and their indio assistants in Binondo, Manila; apparently, the other genre of large religious marfiles that hewed closer to classical Chinese models were crafted in southern China, also for the Spanish market. This solid ivory image of San Miguel Arcangel is often compared to the famous solid ivory image of the same saint at the San Agustin Museum in Intramuros. The Mr Jorge image is far older than the one at San Agustin because Mr Jorge’s is baroque from the seventeenth century and San Agustin’s renowned image is neoclassical from the late eighteenth century at the earliest. The story of such early, large Filipino–Spanish colonial ivory images is inextricably intertwined with the two hundred fifty year–long Galleon Trade between Acapulco and Manila which lasted from 1565–1824. The trip from Acapulco to Manila brought missionaries, Spanish officials, soldiers, merchants, adventurers, religious images both painted and carved (the famous images of “Nuestra Senora de la Paz y Buenviaje” of Antipolo, the “Nuestra Senora de la Salud” of Recoletos de Intramuros, the “Jesus Nazareno” of Recoletos de Intramuros, the “Nuestro Padre Jesus Nazareno” of Quiapo, and several others), and most importantly the “situado” royal subsidy of silver coins to financially sustain the colony of Las Islas Filipinas (it wasn’t until the establishment of the immensely profitable “El Monopolio de Tabacos”/ Tobacco Monopoly by Capitan General (Governor–General) Jose Basco y Vargas in 1782 that Las Islas Filipinas could begin to sustain itself economically; the “situado” from the Virreinato de Nueva Espana or Mexico was finally abolished in 1804). The “situado” was accumulated from taxes levied on the luxurious merchandise of the galleons in Acapulco supplemented by contributions from the royal safes of the “Virreinato de Nueva Espana”/Viceroyalty of Mexico. The return trip from Manila to Acapulco brought the splendors of the Orient --- Chinese silks, Indian cottons, Asian spices, gold, precious gems, ivory, etc. From Acapulco, the coveted goods were sent to Cadiz in Madre Espana and to the principal ports of the Spanish empire. An observer wrote of the bustling international trade of Manila in 1633: “Manila cannot be compared to any other emporium of our monarchy, for it is the center towards which flow the riches of the Orient and the Occident, the silver of Peru and New Spain, the pearls and precious stones of India, the diamonds of Narsinga and Goa, rubies, sapphires, and topaz, and the cinnamon of Ceylon, the pepper of Sumatra and Java, the cloves, nutmeg and other spices of the Moluccas and Banda; fine Persian silk; wool and carpets of Ormuz and Malabar, rich draperies and blankets of Bengala, balm and ivory of Abada and Cambodia, perfumes…; and of continental China, uncut silk of all kinds, woven velvet and damasks, taffetas and fabrics of all kinds of texture, design, and color; cloths and cotton blankets, gold–plated articles; embroideries and porcelains and other rich articles of great value and esteem; from Japan, amber and colored silks, desks, crates and tables of preciously lacquered and curiously decorated wood, and very good silver receptacles.” The Chinese who brought the ivory tusks to Manila were an industrious, pioneering, enterprising, and innovative lot who supplied every imaginable need and want of the natives and later on, after 1565, the Spanish colonizers. Capitan–General Guido de Lavezares wrote SM El Rey Felipe Segundo (HM King Philip II) in 1574: “The Chinese continue to increase their trade every year and they provide us many articles like sugar, wheat flour, animal fat, grapes, pears and oranges, silks, select porcelain, iron and other products that we needed in these lands before they came.” Capitan– General de Lavezares perhaps did not know that Chinese traders had been coming to Las Islas Filipinas to trade since time immemorial and that they knew the islands and the inhabitants well (for example, the Chinese were documented as sourcing hardwood lumber from these islands as far back as the T’ang dynasty 618– 907 AD); it was actually the Spanish who were the newcomers to this part of the world. The Chinese goods were transported from the major ports of Canton (currently Guangzhou city) or Amoy (currently Xiamen city) in the southern coast as well as the smaller ports. The distance to Manila averaged from between 650– 700 miles (1,046.1–1,126.5 km). Capitan–General Manuel de Leon (1669–76) sent a special mission to China to encourage trade with the Spanish in the Las Islas Filipinas colony. Afterwards, the Chinese merchants traveled to Manila from very distant places like Ning–Po (currently Ningbo city in Zhejiang) and the north of Che–Kiang province (currently Zhejiang, with Shanghai city and Jiangsu province to the north), which is Shanghai city and Jiangsu province. Every year by 1650, twenty to sixty Chinese junks would sail for Las Islas Filipinas; some were so large they could hold some two hundred to four hundred men. In 1574, six came; in 1580, from forty to fifty. By 1600, the average number was thirty to forty every year. The numbers hardly varied in the following years. Every season of sailing and selling was determined by the internal situations in China, possibilities of lucrative transactions in Manila, the safety of crossing the South Sea, and the perennial danger of pirates. We have an idea of how these religious ivory images were crafted by referring to the history of the “de vestir” image of “Nuestra Senora del Santisimo Rosario” /“La Naval de Manila” of the Dominicans, the oldest documented Marian ivory image in the Philippines, presented to the Orden de Predicadores as a gift from Capitan–General (Governor– General) Luis Perez de Dasmarinas in 1593, in memory of his deceased/assassinated father Capitan–General Gomez Perez de Dasmarinas. Capitan–General Luis Perez de Dasmarinas assigned his deputy Capitan Hernando de los Rios Coronel to oversee a Sangley Chinese master sculptor at the Parian (the original Sangley ghetto just outside Intramuros to the northeast --- currently the area of Liwasang Bonifacio, Manila Metropolitan Theater, Arroceros Forest Park; Binondo across the Rio Pasig was established in 1594 by Capitan–General Luis Perez de Dasmarinas) in creating the nearly life–sized ivory images of the Virgen Maria and Nino Jesus, and to ensure that they would not look Chinese or Oriental, as was inevitably the case with religious sculpture created by the Sangleys. Capitan de los Rios Coronel only succeeded to a point. The resulting images predictably looked more Oriental than European --- high arched eyebrows, heavy lidded almond eyes, plump cheeks, fine noses, rose bud mouths --- but nonetheless were very beautiful; the Virgen Maria took on the facial configuration of the Chinese goddess of mercy, Guanyin, along with the characteristic cheeks and jawline. The resulting images of the Virgen Maria and Nino Jesus were a tantalizing mix of East and West, presaging by centuries the global human features so desirable today.

Payment & Shipping

Payment

Accepted forms of payment: COD (cash on delivery), MasterCard, Money Order / Cashiers Check, Personal Check, Visa, Wire Transfer

Shipping

Auction house will help to arrange shipment at buyer's expense.

Auction Details

The Asian Cultural Council Auction 2024

by
Leon Gallery
March 09, 2024, 02:00 PM PST

Eurovilla 1, Rufino corner Legazpi Streets, Legazpi Village, Makati City, PH

Terms

Buyer's Premium

25.16%

Bidding Increments

From:To:Increment:
₱0₱9,999₱1,000
₱10,000₱19,999₱2,000
₱20,000₱59,999₱5,000
₱60,000₱199,999₱10,000
₱200,000₱399,999₱20,000
₱400,000₱799,999₱50,000
₱800,000₱1,999,999₱100,000
₱2,000,000₱4,999,999₱200,000
₱5,000,000₱9,999,999₱500,000
₱10,000,000+₱1,000,000

Terms & Conditions

The following are the terms and conditions that Leon Gallery has set for the auction. Kindly read carefully.

Leon Gallery, all the participants of the event, processes, and transactions shall be guided accordingly by these rules:

GENERAL:

a. Each item (lot) in this catalog is offered for sale dependent on the terms exhibited below.

b. All lots are numbered according to the catalog unless otherwise stated by the auctioneer.

c. Transferring, selling, assigning of lots to anyone other than the bidder that won prior to the removal of the lot from the gallery is not allowed. Only the winning bidder has the authority to remove the lot from the gallery.

d. All items sold do not have any warranty. Leon Gallery is not and will not be liable for any unfortunate circumstances that can happen to the lot after it has been transferred to the winning bidder.

e. All participants must agree to be bound by the terms that have been set by Leon Gallery.

BIDDING:

a. Bidders are required to complete and sign registration forms. Participants shall be asked to present a valid government-issued identification card (passport, driver's license, etc.) upon registration.

b. Before the auction proper, each buyer will be given an assigned buyer's number. The highest bidder of a specific lot shall be the buyer of the lot.

c. The auctioneer shall announce the winning bid and the corresponding buyer's number of the bidder. Failure of the winning bidder to object at the time of the announcement shall be considered as an acknowledgment of the bid and purchase. The buyer is legally liable to purchase the lot or pay the difference if the host must re-offer and sell it for a reduced price.

d. The buyer's premium shall be 25.16%

e. The auctioneer shall be in charge of supervising the bidding and shall be the sole arbiter of any disputes. Leon Gallery reserves the right to withdraw property at any time before the sale and reject a bid from any bidder.

f. Absentee bids are allowed in this auction. They are permitted to bid until fifteen (15) minutes prior to the start of the auction for all the items in the auction. Absentee bids for later lots may continue to be accepted according to announcements or signs posted on the office window. A deposit may be requested on absentee bids over Two Hundred Thousand Pesos (Php 200,000) or at the discretion of the auctioneer. The auctioneer will be responsible of bidding the absentee bid in opposition to the floor bidders. In case a tie occurs, the earlier bid wins the lot. Leon Gallery will not be liable for any failed absentee bid. The absentee bidders may contact the gallery after the auction to know if they won the lot.

PAYMENT:

a. The balance of the invoice must be paid in full and merchandise picked up within three (3) days from the date of the sale. One week after the auction, left items may be moved to an off-site facility for pick-up. A storage fee will be charged if merchandise is left longer than two (2) weeks of One Hundred Pesos (Php 100) per lot per day. If the property is left longer than four (4) weeks, it will be considered abandoned. We are not responsible for shipping, but if packing and handling of purchased lots will be done by us, it is done at the entire risk of the purchaser. A refundable deposit may be required.

b. Cash, cashier's check, wire transfer, personal check (items may be held until the check clears). If any legal action is commenced to enforce these Conditions of Sale, the prevailing party shall be entitled to recover its reasonable attorney's fees and costs. Time is of the essence.

Payments shall be wired to:

Account Name: Leon Gallery
Account Number: 2166008845
Address: G/F Corinthian Plaza, 121 Paseo de Roxas, Legazpi Village, Makati City, Philippines
Swift Code: MBTCPHMM

LITIGATION:

In case if litigation between Leon Gallery and the buyer, the parties must submit to the Law Courts of Makati.

Shipping Terms

Auction house will help to arrange shipment at buyer's expense.

Payment

a. The balance of the invoice must be paid in full and merchandise picked up within three (3) days from the date of the sale. One week after the auction, left items may be moved to an off-site facility for pick-up. A storage fee will be charged if merchandise is left longer than two (2) weeks of One Hundred Pesos (Php 100) per lot per day. If the property is left longer than four (4) weeks, it will be considered abandoned. We are not responsible for shipping, but if packing and handling of purchased lots will be done by us, it is done at the entire risk of the purchaser. A refundable deposit may be required.

b. Cash, cashier's check, wire transfer, personal check (items may be held until the check clears). If any legal action is commenced to enforce these Conditions of Sale, the prevailing party shall be entitled to recover its reasonable attorney's fees and costs. Time is of the essence.

Payments shall be wired to:

Account Name: Leon Gallery
Account Number: 2166008845
Address: G/F Corinthian Plaza, 121 Paseo de Roxas, Legazpi Village, Makati City, Philippines
Swift Code: MBTCPHMM