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Lot 801: 清乾隆 洋彩金地錦上添花纏枝西洋蓮紋長頸瓶 A MAGNIFICENT AND VERY RARE GOLD-GROUND YANGCAI 'LOTUS SCROLL' BOTTLE VASE, MARK AND PERIOD OF QIANLONG

Yu Jen Taipei

December 18, 2022
Taipei City, Taiwan

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801 清乾隆 洋彩金地錦上添花纏枝西洋蓮紋長頸瓶
「大清乾隆年製」款
H18.5cm
原共箱題款:清時代 十錦唐草文花瓶 紫檀臺添御物袋入箱
永藏商事株式會社標籤:骨董第三六三號|乾隆十錦唐草文花瓶

來源:日本永藏商事株式會社收藏,363 號藏品
久手堅憲二收藏
附紫檀原木座、御物袋
瓶盤口,唇邊,長頸,斜肩,圓鼓腹,撇足。口沿及足飾天藍釉回紋一周,器面琺瑯釉金地錐剔鳳尾紋錦上添花,再繪以各類洋花紋飾。頸飾大小變形勾連如意紋,內裝飾洋菊並垂掛珠花及吉慶如意紋,頸肩處飾西洋卷草葉紋、水波紋及菊瓣紋。近足處飾仰蓮瓣紋一周。腹飾蝙蝠於纏枝西洋蓮紋間飛行,花葉婉約舒展,洋蓮碩大富麗,呈現華貴柔美之態。瓶頸所綴連珠吉慶如意紋,暗合「福慶如意」,而蝙蝠、纏枝蓮紋則象徵「福壽延年」。整器構圖謹嚴,蘊意祥瑞典雅,紋樣點飾富有光影技法,配色雅致,渲染和諧,華美高雅,屬清宮最受珍視之洋彩瓷器品類。足底緣露胎呈白色,器底及器內施松石綠釉,底中央留白框內青花書「大清乾隆年製」六字三行篆書款。
 
乾隆皇帝承襲明朝以來的古陶瓷鑑賞觀,追慕古風,據史料記載,從乾隆二十年(1755 年)開始,乾隆皇帝陸續降旨繪製陶瓷和青銅器圖冊。其中,繪製於乾隆五十年(1785 年)《精陶韞古》,就是真實記錄乾隆皇帝典藏歷代名窯珍瓷的一本圖冊,透過圖冊具體傳達出乾隆皇帝對瓷器的鑑賞品味。台北國立故宮博物院庋藏清乾隆〈精陶韞古之七-宋定窯菊花瓶〉,其器型及肩處菊瓣紋,與本件長頸瓶極為相似,可資參考,反映出乾隆帝摹古愛好宋瓷之雅興,及盛世之君對陶瓷器鍾愛而産生之創新翹楚。
 
清宮對於「洋彩」的定義,是指與西洋相關的釉彩原料、技法及構圖等。清中期《南窯筆記》:「今之洋色則有胭脂紅、羌水紅,皆用赤金與水晶料配成,價甚貴,其洋綠、洋黃、洋白、翡翠等色俱,人言硝粉石末硼砂各項煉就,其鮮明嬌艷迥異常色。使名手做繪古人,可供洗染點綴之妙,又有水墨一種,尤為逸品也。」「瓷胎洋彩」除使用進口琺瑯釉料外,更加以創新技法及構圖。如承襲康熙時期,皇家作坊在傳統銅胎畫琺瑯與歐洲琺瑯彩燒造基礎上所研製的瓷胎畫琺瑯技法,刻意強調西洋花卉及光點、光影等裝飾要素,使之更具立體效果。此外,於器內施淺藍釉、器表色繪構圖亦是特色之一,如台北國立故宮博物院庋藏清康熙〈銅胎畫琺瑯四季花卉瓶〉,其裝飾特色可作參考。而另件北京故宮博物院庋藏畫琺瑯作品,清乾隆〈畫琺瑯纏枝花卉紋三足蓋爐〉,其取金色琺瑯釉地彩繪式技法,與本件作品以金色琺瑯釉地錐剔式技法極為相似,可為本品參考之列證。
 
在雍正時期,畫琺瑯訴求紋樣的細緻與秀雅, 據雍正十年《清宮內務府造辦處活計檔》載:「十一日司庫常保首領薩穆哈來說太監滄洲交宜興壺四件,外畫洋金花紋⋯⋯於十一月二十七日做得木樣四件⋯⋯奉旨改做的好樣准燒造磁器宜興壺着留下,欽此。」,極可能是以前朝宜興壺為樣式,再於器上畫洋金花紋之「琺瑯彩瓷」,類似作品如台北國立故宮博物院庋藏清雍正〈赭墨錦地開光花鳥圖茶壺〉。然至乾隆時期再集大成,於琺瑯釉地錦上添花,或加以彩繪,或加以錐剔式設計,並繪有洋花,成為「洋彩」最典型之風格。
 
乾隆時期,督陶官唐英在景德鎮御窯廠主導製作「洋彩」,尤以乾隆六至九年之間居多,使之大放異彩。據其在雍正十三年所撰〈陶成紀事碑〉提到「洋彩器皿」相關紀錄,可判斷雍正晚期,唐英即於景德鎮燒造洋彩器;至乾隆時期,御窯廠於原有技術及基礎上發揮創意,迎來陶瓷器燒造盛況。如《清宮內務府造辦處活計檔》乾隆十年十二月一日記載:「初一日司庫白世秀七品首領薩木哈,將江西唐英燒造得洋彩錦上添花罇瓶等二千件⋯⋯俱持進交太監胡世杰呈覽,奉旨將洋彩錦上添花罇瓶等二千件内庭留下。」再根據清朱琰《陶說》注解唐英《陶冶圖說》:「陶器彩畫盛於明,其大半取樣於錦緞,寫生仿古十之三四,今瓷畫樣十分之,則洋彩得四,寫生得三,仿古二,錦段一也。」顯露此時期洋彩瓷在清宮頗受重視與喜愛。
 
清宮檔案所見乾隆早期洋彩大多典藏於乾清宮端凝殿與養心殿,仍有少數陳設於皇帝常至的宮殿或重要園囿,如圓明園、避暑山莊等。根據北京故宮博物院庋藏,道光十五年七月十一日〈琺瑯玻璃宜興磁胎陳設檔案〉(原為乾清宮端凝殿典藏帳目),其登錄瓷胎洋彩瓶多為成對,如:「磁胎洋彩番花紙捶瓶壹對、磁胎洋彩白地番蓮花紙捶瓶壹對、磁胎洋彩錦上添花紙捶瓶壹對、磁胎洋彩三多紙捶瓶壹對、磁胎洋彩金番蓮花青地紙捶瓶壹對。」再據台北國立故宮博物院研究員廖寶秀於《典雅富麗─故宮藏瓷》所言:「⋯觀察故宮實物,有些成對器皿紋飾相似,並不全然相同⋯在比對實物與清宮檔案時,也發現同一件器物在《活計檔》與《陳設檔》上登錄的名稱不盡相同。」可推斷本件長頸瓶或原為成對傳世之珍品。
 
列舉與本品同施以「錦上添花」紋樣及「洋花」裝飾為要素的瓷胎洋彩瓶之博物館藏品,如台北國立故宮博物院庋藏清乾隆七年〈磁胎洋彩翠地錦上添花三元九如意玉環紙槌瓶一對〉,及清乾隆八年〈磁胎洋彩紅地錦上添花長頸瓶〉、清乾隆七年〈磁胎洋彩錦上添花玉環膽瓶〉、清乾隆七年〈磁胎洋彩翠地錦上添花洋花燈籠尊〉,技法及構圖皆與本品極為相似,同以洋菊與洋蓮為裝飾,製作嚴謹,採用西洋技法追求立體感,從精緻繁複中凝結出華麗、和諧與秩序之美,為受皇帝喜好影響而流行於清宮的西洋風潮作品。其中清乾隆七年〈磁胎洋彩翠地錦上添花三元九如意玉環紙槌瓶一對〉與本品同採珍稀琺瑯釉金彩,但僅施於器頸肩部;而清乾隆八年〈磁胎洋彩紅地錦上添花長頸瓶〉與本品同以底部留白框內青花「大清乾隆年製」六字三行篆書款。
 
縱觀乾隆二年到十三年左右,在乾隆帝有意識的規劃中,景德鎮精製「瓷胎洋彩」作品,與「瓷胎畫琺瑯」皆配匣盛裝,集中儲藏於「乾清宮乾隆款琺瑯器皿內」並列珍藏。兩者之間的密切關係,可見於乾隆七年八月《清宮內務府造辦處活計檔》:「十二日司庫白世秀副催總達子來說太監高玉等,交洋彩瑞芝洋花蟬紋罇二件、洋彩紅地錦上添花冬青玲瓏夾宣花瓶一件⋯⋯洋彩梅花詩句玉環胆瓶二件、洋彩紫金釉描金蟠龍瓶二件、洋彩錦上添花紅地湯碗二十件,傳着配匣入乾清宮頭等,欽此。」、「磁胎法瑯紫地錦上添花四寸碟一對⋯⋯傳旨着入乾清宮次等,欽此。」及十二月載:「十二日,太監王炳來說太監高玉交洋彩黃地御製詩轎瓶一對,傳旨配匣入乾清宮法瑯器皿內,欽此。」、「二十九日,太監王炳來說,太監高玉等交洋彩美人花觚一對、洋彩四季花胆瓶一對⋯⋯洋彩四團錦上添花膳碗八件⋯⋯傳旨配匣盛裝入乾清宮乾隆款磁胎法瑯器皿內,欽此。」從這幾則紀錄可見許多「瓷胎洋彩」被評為頭等,極受乾隆珍視。如此受到重視的洋彩瓷器燒製量非常稀少,絕大部分珍藏於皇宮內苑,流傳於世者少之又少,十分罕見,每每現蹤於世,必受各界極高矚目。如拍賣於香港蘇富比 2012 年 10 月 9 日,編號3024,清乾隆〈黃地洋彩「福壽連綿」圖綬帶葫蘆扁瓶一對〉,創下港幣 1 億 706 萬元高價;2010 年 10 月 7 日,編號2123,清乾隆〈御製琺瑯彩「祥雲瑞蝠」開光式「四季花卉」圖紙槌瓶〉,創下港幣 1 億 4066 萬元天價。本件清乾隆〈洋彩金地錦上添花纏枝西洋蓮紋長頸瓶〉,造形玲瓏,構圖精巧,錦上添花工藝華麗繽紛,當為乾隆時期極具代表性的傑出佳作。
 
註:「洋彩」,為採西洋材料與繪畫技法,並配以西洋花圖飾之琺瑯器。琺瑯器錦上添花技法有彩繪式與錐剔式,是乾隆時期開創的新工藝。錐剔式錦上添花紋飾技法細膩,先於白胎均勻施一層色料,再於色料上用一種狀如鏽花針的工具拔劃出細的鳳尾紋。講求剔工精細,稍有不慎即出現粗細、大小不一的線條或空隙。
 
預估價:
TWD 600,000-900,000
RMB 136,400-204,500

A MAGNIFICENT AND VERY RARE GOLD-GROUND YANGCAI 'LOTUS SCROLL' BOTTLE VASE
MARK AND PERIOD OF QIANLONG
H18.5cm

PROVENANCE:
Nagakura Shoji Co., Ltd., No. 363
Kudeken Kenji Collection

瓶盤口,唇邊,長頸,斜肩,圓鼓腹,撇足。口沿及足飾天藍釉回紋一周,器面琺瑯釉金地錐剔鳳尾紋錦上添花,再繪以各類洋花紋飾。頸飾大小變形勾連如意紋,內裝飾洋菊並垂掛珠花及吉慶如意紋,頸肩處飾西洋卷草葉紋、水波紋及菊瓣紋。近足處飾仰蓮瓣紋一周。腹飾蝙蝠於纏枝西洋蓮紋間飛行,花葉婉約舒展,洋蓮碩大富麗,呈現華貴柔美之態。瓶頸所綴連珠吉慶如意紋,暗合「福慶如意」,而蝙蝠、纏枝蓮紋則象徵「福壽延年」。整器構圖謹嚴,蘊意祥瑞典雅,紋樣點飾富有光影技法,配色雅致,渲染和諧,華美高雅,屬清宮最受珍視之洋彩瓷器品類。足底緣露胎呈白色,器底及器內施松石綠釉,底中央留白框內青花書「大清乾隆年製」六字三行篆書款。
 
乾隆皇帝承襲明朝以來的古陶瓷鑑賞觀,追慕古風,據史料記載,從乾隆二十年(1755 年)開始,乾隆皇帝陸續降旨繪製陶瓷和青銅器圖冊。其中,繪製於乾隆五十年(1785 年)《精陶韞古》,就是真實記錄乾隆皇帝典藏歷代名窯珍瓷的一本圖冊,透過圖冊具體傳達出乾隆皇帝對瓷器的鑑賞品味。台北國立故宮博物院庋藏清乾隆〈精陶韞古之七-宋定窯菊花瓶〉,其器型及肩處菊瓣紋,與本件長頸瓶極為相似,可資參考,反映出乾隆帝摹古愛好宋瓷之雅興,及盛世之君對陶瓷器鍾愛而産生之創新翹楚。
 
清宮對於「洋彩」的定義,是指與西洋相關的釉彩原料、技法及構圖等。清中期《南窯筆記》:「今之洋色則有胭脂紅、羌水紅,皆用赤金與水晶料配成,價甚貴,其洋綠、洋黃、洋白、翡翠等色俱,人言硝粉石末硼砂各項煉就,其鮮明嬌艷迥異常色。使名手做繪古人,可供洗染點綴之妙,又有水墨一種,尤為逸品也。」「瓷胎洋彩」除使用進口琺瑯釉料外,更加以創新技法及構圖。如承襲康熙時期,皇家作坊在傳統銅胎畫琺瑯與歐洲琺瑯彩燒造基礎上所研製的瓷胎畫琺瑯技法,刻意強調西洋花卉及光點、光影等裝飾要素,使之更具立體效果。此外,於器內施淺藍釉、器表色繪構圖亦是特色之一,如台北國立故宮博物院庋藏清康熙〈銅胎畫琺瑯四季花卉瓶〉,其裝飾特色可作參考。而另件北京故宮博物院庋藏畫琺瑯作品,清乾隆〈畫琺瑯纏枝花卉紋三足蓋爐〉,其取金色琺瑯釉地彩繪式技法,與本件作品以金色琺瑯釉地錐剔式技法極為相似,可為本品參考之列證。
 
在雍正時期,畫琺瑯訴求紋樣的細緻與秀雅, 據雍正十年《清宮內務府造辦處活計檔》載:「十一日司庫常保首領薩穆哈來說太監滄洲交宜興壺四件,外畫洋金花紋⋯⋯於十一月二十七日做得木樣四件⋯⋯奉旨改做的好樣准燒造磁器宜興壺着留下,欽此。」,極可能是以前朝宜興壺為樣式,再於器上畫洋金花紋之「琺瑯彩瓷」,類似作品如台北國立故宮博物院庋藏清雍正〈赭墨錦地開光花鳥圖茶壺〉。然至乾隆時期再集大成,於琺瑯釉地錦上添花,或加以彩繪,或加以錐剔式設計,並繪有洋花,成為「洋彩」最典型之風格。
 
乾隆時期,督陶官唐英在景德鎮御窯廠主導製作「洋彩」,尤以乾隆六至九年之間居多,使之大放異彩。據其在雍正十三年所撰〈陶成紀事碑〉提到「洋彩器皿」相關紀錄,可判斷雍正晚期,唐英即於景德鎮燒造洋彩器;至乾隆時期,御窯廠於原有技術及基礎上發揮創意,迎來陶瓷器燒造盛況。如《清宮內務府造辦處活計檔》乾隆十年十二月一日記載:「初一日司庫白世秀七品首領薩木哈,將江西唐英燒造得洋彩錦上添花罇瓶等二千件⋯⋯俱持進交太監胡世杰呈覽,奉旨將洋彩錦上添花罇瓶等二千件内庭留下。」再根據清朱琰《陶說》注解唐英《陶冶圖說》:「陶器彩畫盛於明,其大半取樣於錦緞,寫生仿古十之三四,今瓷畫樣十分之,則洋彩得四,寫生得三,仿古二,錦段一也。」顯露此時期洋彩瓷在清宮頗受重視與喜愛。
 
清宮檔案所見乾隆早期洋彩大多典藏於乾清宮端凝殿與養心殿,仍有少數陳設於皇帝常至的宮殿或重要園囿,如圓明園、避暑山莊等。根據北京故宮博物院庋藏,道光十五年七月十一日〈琺瑯玻璃宜興磁胎陳設檔案〉(原為乾清宮端凝殿典藏帳目),其登錄瓷胎洋彩瓶多為成對,如:「磁胎洋彩番花紙捶瓶壹對、磁胎洋彩白地番蓮花紙捶瓶壹對、磁胎洋彩錦上添花紙捶瓶壹對、磁胎洋彩三多紙捶瓶壹對、磁胎洋彩金番蓮花青地紙捶瓶壹對。」再據台北國立故宮博物院研究員廖寶秀於《典雅富麗─故宮藏瓷》所言:「⋯觀察故宮實物,有些成對器皿紋飾相似,並不全然相同⋯在比對實物與清宮檔案時,也發現同一件器物在《活計檔》與《陳設檔》上登錄的名稱不盡相同。」可推斷本件長頸瓶或原為成對傳世之珍品。
 
列舉與本品同施以「錦上添花」紋樣及「洋花」裝飾為要素的瓷胎洋彩瓶之博物館藏品,如台北國立故宮博物院庋藏清乾隆七年〈磁胎洋彩翠地錦上添花三元九如意玉環紙槌瓶一對〉,及清乾隆八年〈磁胎洋彩紅地錦上添花長頸瓶〉、清乾隆七年〈磁胎洋彩錦上添花玉環膽瓶〉、清乾隆七年〈磁胎洋彩翠地錦上添花洋花燈籠尊〉,技法及構圖皆與本品極為相似,同以洋菊與洋蓮為裝飾,製作嚴謹,採用西洋技法追求立體感,從精緻繁複中凝結出華麗、和諧與秩序之美,為受皇帝喜好影響而流行於清宮的西洋風潮作品。其中清乾隆七年〈磁胎洋彩翠地錦上添花三元九如意玉環紙槌瓶一對〉與本品同採珍稀琺瑯釉金彩,但僅施於器頸肩部;而清乾隆八年〈磁胎洋彩紅地錦上添花長頸瓶〉與本品同以底部留白框內青花「大清乾隆年製」六字三行篆書款。
 
縱觀乾隆二年到十三年左右,在乾隆帝有意識的規劃中,景德鎮精製「瓷胎洋彩」作品,與「瓷胎畫琺瑯」皆配匣盛裝,集中儲藏於「乾清宮乾隆款琺瑯器皿內」並列珍藏。兩者之間的密切關係,可見於乾隆七年八月《清宮內務府造辦處活計檔》:「十二日司庫白世秀副催總達子來說太監高玉等,交洋彩瑞芝洋花蟬紋罇二件、洋彩紅地錦上添花冬青玲瓏夾宣花瓶一件⋯⋯洋彩梅花詩句玉環胆瓶二件、洋彩紫金釉描金蟠龍瓶二件、洋彩錦上添花紅地湯碗二十件,傳着配匣入乾清宮頭等,欽此。」、「磁胎法瑯紫地錦上添花四寸碟一對⋯⋯傳旨着入乾清宮次等,欽此。」及十二月載:「十二日,太監王炳來說太監高玉交洋彩黃地御製詩轎瓶一對,傳旨配匣入乾清宮法瑯器皿內,欽此。」、「二十九日,太監王炳來說,太監高玉等交洋彩美人花觚一對、洋彩四季花胆瓶一對⋯⋯洋彩四團錦上添花膳碗八件⋯⋯傳旨配匣盛裝入乾清宮乾隆款磁胎法瑯器皿內,欽此。」從這幾則紀錄可見許多「瓷胎洋彩」被評為頭等,極受乾隆珍視。如此受到重視的洋彩瓷器燒製量非常稀少,絕大部分珍藏於皇宮內苑,流傳於世者少之又少,十分罕見,每每現蹤於世,必受各界極高矚目。如拍賣於香港蘇富比 2012 年 10 月 9 日,編號3024,清乾隆〈黃地洋彩「福壽連綿」圖綬帶葫蘆扁瓶一對〉,創下港幣 1 億 706 萬元高價;2010 年 10 月 7 日,編號2123,清乾隆〈御製琺瑯彩「祥雲瑞蝠」開光式「四季花卉」圖紙槌瓶〉,創下港幣 1 億 4066 萬元天價。本件清乾隆〈洋彩金地錦上添花纏枝西洋蓮紋長頸瓶〉,造形玲瓏,構圖精巧,錦上添花工藝華麗繽紛,當為乾隆時期極具代表性的傑出佳作。
 
註:「洋彩」,為採西洋材料與繪畫技法,並配以西洋花圖飾之琺瑯器。琺瑯器錦上添花技法有彩繪式與錐剔式,是乾隆時期開創的新工藝。錐剔式錦上添花紋飾技法細膩,先於白胎均勻施一層色料,再於色料上用一種狀如鏽花針的工具拔劃出細的鳳尾紋。講求剔工精細,稍有不慎即出現粗細、大小不一的線條或空隙。

台北宇珍2022秋季拍賣
Yu Jen Taipei 2022 Autumn Auction

Dimensions

H18.5cm

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Payment

Accepted forms of payment: MasterCard, Visa, Wire Transfer

Shipping

Buyer pays shipping

Buyer's Premium

TWD0 - 9,999,999: 20.0%
TWD10,000,000 - 29,999,999: 15.0%
TWD30,000,000+: 12.0%

From: To: Increment:
TWD0 TWD99,999 TWD5,000
TWD100,000 TWD199,999 TWD10,000
TWD200,000 TWD219,999 TWD20,000
TWD220,000 TWD279,999 TWD30,000
TWD280,000 TWD319,999 TWD20,000
TWD320,000 TWD379,999 TWD30,000
TWD380,000 TWD419,999 TWD20,000
TWD420,000 TWD479,999 TWD30,000
TWD480,000 TWD519,999 TWD20,000
TWD520,000 TWD579,999 TWD30,000
TWD580,000 TWD619,999 TWD20,000
TWD620,000 TWD679,999 TWD30,000
TWD680,000 TWD719,999 TWD20,000
TWD720,000 TWD779,999 TWD30,000
TWD780,000 TWD819,999 TWD20,000
TWD820,000 TWD879,999 TWD30,000
TWD880,000 TWD919,999 TWD20,000
TWD920,000 TWD979,999 TWD30,000
TWD980,000 TWD999,999 TWD20,000
TWD1,000,000 TWD1,999,999 TWD100,000
TWD2,000,000 TWD3,199,999 TWD200,000
TWD3,200,000 TWD3,799,999 TWD200,000
TWD3,800,000 TWD4,199,999 TWD200,000
TWD4,200,000 TWD4,799,999 TWD200,000
TWD4,800,000 TWD5,199,999 TWD200,000
TWD5,200,000 TWD5,799,999 TWD300,000
TWD5,800,000 TWD6,199,999 TWD200,000
TWD6,200,000 TWD6,799,999 TWD300,000
TWD6,800,000 TWD7,199,999 TWD200,000
TWD7,200,000 TWD7,799,999 TWD300,000
TWD7,800,000 TWD8,199,999 TWD200,000
TWD8,200,000 TWD8,799,999 TWD300,000
TWD8,800,000 TWD9,199,999 TWD200,000
TWD9,200,000 TWD9,799,999 TWD300,000
TWD9,800,000 TWD9,999,999 TWD200,000
TWD10,000,000 TWD19,999,999 TWD1,000,000
TWD20,000,000 TWD39,999,999 TWD1,000,000
TWD40,000,000+ TWD2,000,000

Extended Bidding

5 minutes/bid

Conditions of Business

ARTICLE 1 As the agent of the Buyer and the Seller, Yu Jen International Art & Antique Co., LTD. (herein after refer as "Our Company") will provide services for both parties, and shall not be responsible for any default caused by either the Buyer or the Seller.
ARTICLE 2 The conditions set herein shall apply to both the Buyer and the Seller. Buyer and Seller must read carefully the following detailed conditions and be responsible for their actions while carrying out these conditions.
ARTICLE 3 Any objection to the articles' ownership or authenticity must be raised at least 48 hours before the auction starts accompanied by relevant legal documents. No late objection will be accepted.
ARTICLE 4 All disputes arising from or in connection with these Conditions shall be settled according to the relevant laws of the Republic of China.

The Main Stipulations for the Buyer
BUYER
ARTICLE 5 All bidders should register at the auction venue in person and obtain the paddle for entry. Bidders must provide true and accurate personal information and agree that Our Company may perform necessary credit checks with the bank.
ARTICLE 6 Bidders who wish to entrust our company to bid on their behalf must sign the entrust form 24 hours before the auction starts, and pay the deposit in full. Once the article is successfully bid, Bidders shall complete the full payment within ten (10) days after the auction.
ARTICLE 7 During the auction the bidder may not withdraw any bids he/she made. The highest bidder as determined by the auctioneer is the buyer.
ARTICLE 8 Our Company reserves the right to refuse any person entering or participating in the auction without giving any reason.

ILLUSTRATION ON CATALOGUE AND AUCTION ARTICLE
ARTICLE 9 The Buyer should examine carefully the auction article they intend to buy, prior to the date of the auction, and should be solely legally responsible for their bid made to buy certain piece of article.
ARTICLE 10 Our Company has the right to hold exhibitions, auctions and make announcements, catalogues and other forms of publications to introduce the auctions articles.
ARTICLE 11 Any representation or statement given by Our Company in the catalogue or in other forms as to the authorship, origin, age, size, medium, mount, attribution, authenticity, provenance, condition and estimated price is just for the information and reference of the buyer only. Our Company shall not be held responsible for errors.

Deposits
ARTICLE 12 All buyers must complete the registration form at least one day before the auction date and put down a deposit of TWD 200,000 (USD 6,500, HKD 50,000 or RMB 45,000) If paying by check please allow at least three days for check to clear.
ARTICLE 13 Yu Jen Imperial Seal Card holders do not need to pay the deposit.
ARTICLE 14 The deposit will be used towards the payment of lots purchased, or refunded in full within 7 working days if no lots are purchased. The deposit will be forfeited if the buyer refuses to pay for the lots purchased within payment period.

COMMISSION
ARTICLE 15 Once the Buyer successfully bid the auction article, the final Purchase Price that the Buyer shall pay in full are the sum of hammer price and commission to Our Company.Commission is charged as follows: For the portion of hammer price under TWD 10 million, commission will be 23%; for the portion over (and including) TWD 10 million, commission will be 20%; for the portion over (and including) TWD 20 million, commission will be 17%.

PAYMENT AND COLLECTION OF LOTS
ARTICLE 16 Once the Buyer has successfully bid the auction article, the Buyer may collect the article once the aforementioned Purchase Price (include hammer price and commission) is paid in full. If the Buyer is unable to pay the full amount, the Buyer shall be required to sign a Confirmation and must pay at least thirty percent (30%) of the hammer price immediately as deposit. The Buyer shall settle the balance in one lump sum within ten (10) days and take away the article.
ARTICLE 17 The full amount of the Purchase Price that Buyer shall pay Our Company, does not include any commodity tax or services tax or other value added tax (either by government of R.O.C. or any other government). If such tax(es) do occur in the transaction set herein, the Buyer shall settle the tax payment in accordance with relevant law and schedule.
ARTICLE 18 For Buyer who is willing to pay the Purchase Price in the currency other than New Taiwanese Dollar (TWD, NT$), Our Company shall charge the Buyer any fees resulted from it. The fees include the service fee charge by the bank and the currency difference. The currency shall be determined by the currency posted on the day of auction (presented by the Bank of Taiwan) and certified by Our Company.
ARTICLE 19 The final Purchase Price does not include the service of packaging. The packaging is a free service provided by Our Company to the Buyer. Our Company is not liable for the loss or damage to the article during or as the result of packaging.
ARTICLE 20 The Buyer shall collect the article personally once the Purchase Price is paid in full. If the Buyer wishes to assign another person to collect the article, a Letter of Authorization must be presented. If delivery service or insurance are required, Our Company will not be liable or responsible for any loss or damage to the article during transit.

THE LIABILITIES TO AN AUCTION AFTER SALE
ARTICLE 21 After the Buyer has paid the full amount of the Purchase Price to Our Company, the Buyer shall be responsible for the article purchased. Even if the article is still in the keeping of Our Company the Buyer shall be liable for any loss or damage.

THE MANAGEMENT OF ARREARS AND AUCTION ARTICLES LEFT BEHIND BY THE BUYER
ARTICLE 22 Unless otherwise agreed with Our Company, if the full payment is not received within required date it is seen as a default, the deposit will not be refunded and the Buyer shall be responsible for any subsequent costs.
ARTICLE 23 Any outstanding balance after ten days of the auction date will incur an interest at 5% AER of the full amount, until the balance is paid in full.
ARTICLE 24 With discretion of the Seller, Our Company reserves the right to resell the unpaid item through auction or other means. If the final price is lower than the original full amount, the Buyer agrees to pay the difference in full.
ARTICLE 25 Our Company may refuse the bid made by the default Buyer or its representative in the future. In such circumstance a higher deposit may be requested before any further bid is accepted.
ARTICLE 26 Storage fees will be incurred if the item, even if paid in full, is not collected within one month after the auction date. Our Company is not responsible for any loss or damage during the storage.

THE MAIN STIPULATIONS FOR THE SELLER
ARTICLE 27 During the function of auction, the Company shall act as Seller designated representative. The detailed rule of the selling party is already set and regulated in the selling party contract.

OTHER RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF YU JEN
ARTICLE 28 Our Company shall have absolute discretion to settle any dispute during or after the auction.
ARTICLE 29 Our Company shall be obliged to keep confidential for both the Buyer and the Seller and to protect the rights and interest of the Buyer and the Seller.
ARTICLE 30 In order to maintain order in the auction, smoking is not permitted; children under ten years of age may not enter the auction.
The document is printed in both Chinese and English. If there is any omission or error the Chinese version will take precedence
The auction event held by Our Company has been approved by the Executive Yaun's Council for Culture Affairs, Taiwan, and is qualified under the regulations for tax relief on business tax. Every sales revenue and commission resulted from the auction shall be relieved of the 5 % business tax.

Important Notice to Buyers

To ensure a smooth auction and protect the interest of buyers, all buyers must complete the registration form at least one day before the auction date and put down a deposit of TWD 200,000 (USD 6,500?HKD 50,000?RMB 45,000, if paying by check please allow at least three days for check to clear.) Yu Jen Imperial Seal Cardholders are not required to pay the deposit. Should the bids be unsuccessful, deposit will be returned within 7 working days after the date of the auction. Credit card deposits will be refunded in full to the original card.

Shipping Terms

Buyer pays shipping