Loading Spinner

Lot 139: A Scientific Letter Handwritten and Signed by Albert Einstein – Sent to Ernst Gabor Straus within the Framework of Einstein's Work on the Unified Field Theory – USA, 1950

Kedem Public Auction House Ltd

December 3, 2019
Jerusalem, Israel

More About this Item


Description

A letter handwritten by Albert Einstein to the mathematician Ernst Gabor Straus. Signed "A.S.". [Princeton, USA], July 15, 1950. German. An interesting scientific letter in which Albert Einstein responds to Ernst Gabor Straus' reservations about his work. At the time the letter was written, Einstein was working on the development of the Unified Field Theory (a unified theoretical framework describing the fundamental forces of nature). In the third edition of his famous book "The Meaning of Relativity" (Princeton, 1950), Einstein published an appendix titled "Generalization of Gravitation Theory" in which he tried to introduce a Unified Field Theory which includes the gravitational force and the electromagnetic force; the present letter presumably refers to the claims published in this article. At the beginning of the letter, Einstein writes: "I am glad that you are vigorously dealing with the question of compatibility. Yet it seems to me that your fears are unjustified. I want to phrase the proof so that your letters will be taken into consideration". Following is a long scientific explanation – the proof Einstein phrased for Straus. The mathematician Ernst Gabor Straus was Einstein's assistant at the Princeton's Institute for Advanced Studies between 1944 and 1948, working with him on the Unified Field Theory and helping him with mathematical models for his ideas. The two wrote three articles together. This letter, indicating the continuous collaboration between the two, provides an interesting peek into the process of their work. The Jewish-German physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955) is considered by many the greatest physicist of the 20th century. Einstein was attracted to science at a very young age, autonomously proving Pythagoras' theorem at the age of 12. In 1905, Einstein published four groundbreaking articles in the "Physics Annual" (Annalen der Physik). The articles, dealing with the photoelectric effect, the Brownian motion, special relativity and the equivalence of mass and energy, are considered the fundamental building blocks of modern physics (due to their importance, the year is known as "Einstein's Extraordinary Year"). The short popular summary of one of the four articles is the well-known equation E=mc2 (Energy = mass x the speed of light squared), an equation that has become one of the most famous physics equations and the most identified with Einstein and physics in general. In 1915, after approximately ten years of work, Einstein published the General Relativity Theory – a geometric theory about gravitation which transformed the world of physics. General relativity was initially accepted in the scientific world with much skepticism; when it was finally confirmed, it was widely publicized even in the popular press and earned Einstein his world renown. Although many supported Einstein as a Nobel Prize laureate, the awarding of the prize was postponed time and again, due to the doubts of several conservative scientists and the objections of various antisemitic scientists. Eventually, in 1922 he was retroactively awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics, not for General Relativity but rather "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". Einstein dedicated the final thirty years of his life to developing the Unified Field Theory, which was supposed to unify the fundamental forces of nature within a single theoretical framework. Although eventually, he did not succeed in transforming his ideas into a solid theory, his efforts motivated other scholars to search for "a unified theory". His work in this field is one of his most important contributions to the world of science. Ernst Gabor Straus (1922-1983), a Jewish-German mathematician, especially remembered for his contribution to the development of the Ramsey Theory. Straus was born to a Jewish Zionist family from Munich (his mother, Rachel Straus, was the first female doctor to hav

Request more information

Payment

Accepted forms of payment: MasterCard, Money Order / Cashiers Check, Other, Visa, Wire Transfer

Shipping

It is the responsibility of the buyer to collect the purchased items directly from the offices of "Kedem," or have them collected by a delivery service or courier on his behalf. In certain cases in which a buyer so requests, "Kedem" can, at its sole discretion and without taking or accepting any responsibility for damages or loss, pack and ship the items to the buyer, provided the buyer pays in advance for the full cost of shipping and handling. The cost of shipping and handling varies according to type, size and weight of the package, the shipping method and the shipping destination. For further information about shipping methods and charges, please contact "Kedem."

Buyer's Premium

23.0%

From: To: Increment:
$0 $499 $10
$500 $999 $50
$1,000 $1,999 $100
$2,000 $4,999 $200
$5,000 $9,999 $500
$10,000 $19,999 $1,000
$20,000 $49,999 $2,000
$50,000 $99,999 $5,000
$100,000+ $10,000

Extended Bidding

5 minutes/bid

Terms of Sale

1.?"Kedem" Public Auction House ("Kedem") acts as agent for sellers of items to be offered for sale to the public ('the Sellers').
2.?"Kedem" will produce a catalogue for every sale ('The Catalogue'), which will include a list of items available at the sale, their serial numbers and opening prices. For the avoidance of doubt, information provided in the Catalogue, including opening prices, descriptions of items and any other information concerning the items, are solely for the purpose of information for potential buyers and are in no way to be construed as stand and\or obligation on behalf of "Kedem" and\or its employees and\or representatives. Kedem reserves all rights to the pictures that appear in the catalog. Additionally, "Kedem" will conduct online auctions which will take place online only, without an auctioneer or printed cataloge, which will hence be called "online auctions".
3.?"Kedem" will appoint a person as manager of the sale ('the Auctioneer') who will be responsible on its behalf for the execution and management of the auction.
4.?The Auctioneer reserves the right to prevent participation in the auction of any person. The auctioneer reserves the right to determine the winner of each lot, to cancel the sale of any item (even after it's sold) or to re-enter it for sale, at his own discretion and at any stage whatsoever. The auctioneer also has the right to withdraw or add items to the sale and to add or withdraw from the Catalogue any information about an item to be offered in the auction on the basis of information received by "Kedem" after publication of the Catalogue.
5.?In order to participate in the auction, a potential purchaser must obtain a numbered paddle before the auction which will enable him to bid at the auction.
6.?The auction will be conducted using US Dollars as currency.
7.?On the fall of the hammer and the acknowledgment of the numbered paddle of the offeror by the Auctioneer, the offeror`s offer will be binding and will be considered to be accepted and title to the item will pass to the offeror whose offer was accepted ('the Purchaser'), subject to the fulfilment by the Purchaser of all payment obligations to "Kedem" as set out hereunder.
8. The amount mentioned in an offer at a sale by a Purchaser which is accepted) the Hammer Price( shall be paid to "Kedem" by the Purchaser, together with a commission ('the Commission') ) and Israeli VAT on commission only. The commission per lot will be 23% of the hammer price up to and including $180,000, 18% of the portion of the hammer price above $180,000 up to and including $1,000,000, and 12% of the portion of the hammer price above $1,000,000. Payment to "Kedem" shall be effected immediately upon the conclusion of the auction but, at any event, not later than seven days after the date of the auction.

9. Payment can be made in cash (New Israeli Shekels or US Dollars), check (NIS or US Dollars), credit card (up to $25,000) or via bank wire transfer.
10. It is the responsibility of the buyer to collect the purchased items directly from the offices of "Kedem," or have them collected by a delivery service or courier on his behalf. In certain cases in which a buyer so requests, "Kedem" can, at its sole discretion and without taking or accepting any responsibility for damages or loss, pack and ship the items to the buyer, provided the buyer pays in advance for the full cost of shipping and handling. The cost of shipping and handling varies according to type, size and weight of the package, the shipping method and the shipping destination. For further information about shipping methods and charges, please contact "Kedem."
11.?An item which is priced in US dollars will be calculated in New Israel Shekels in accordance with the representative rate of exchange as published by Israel Bank on the date of the auction.
12.?A Purchaser is liable to pay interest on any delay in payment, at the rate of 2% per month of the amount payable, with adjustments to index-link all outstanding amounts payable to the Dollar Exchange Rate
13.?The purchaser, whether for himself or for another, is obliged to pay for the items and take them. The auctioneer has the right to take any means he thinks appropriate to ensure the purchaser keeps his obligation, among these to cancel a sale, sell the item to another, charge the purchaser with any expenses caused to the auctioneer including interest and index linkage, sue for compensation, delay the release of the item and add all expenses to the sum due.
14.?"Kedem" is responsible for the information given regarding the items' nature, originality and condition. However all information given by "Kedem", in its capacity as agent for the consignor, and based on accumulated information and the experience of its experts. It is entirely the responsibility of the prospective purchaser to check and inspect the items to determine condition, quality, authenticity, size, authorship during the allocated time prior to the auction. The purchaser may submit in writing, any doubts regarding the authenticity and condition of the item within 30 days of the sale. If it is proven to "Kedem" that there has clearly been an error in the information which was given relating to any item, "Kedem" shall refund any sums paid by the purchaser and the item shall be returned to the possession of "Kedem". Subject to this obligation, the purchaser shall have no claims and\or further demands with respect to that item.
15.?A purchaser is obliged to collect the purchased item and to fulfill his obligations to pay for the item no later than seven days from the date of the sale of the item. For the avoidance of doubt, the right to possession of the item will pass only once the purchaser has fully filled his payment obligations as set out in these conditions.
16.?"Kedem" will represent, free of charge, potential purchasers who do not wish or who are unable to attend the auction. These potential purchasers are requested to complete the Rights to Bid form in the catalogue or website, no later than one day prior to auction. "Kedem" will not be liable, under no circumstances, for any error, emissions in connection therewith.
17.?Any potential purchaser who wishes to participate in the auction via telephone shall make the necessary arrangements within a reasonable time before commencement of the auction.
18.?The courts of Jerusalem, Israel, shall have the sole jurisdiction in any dispute between "Kedem" and the purchaser or any potential purchaser, based on the details of this agreement and\or related to the sale and\or to the transfer of any item.
19.?In any case of doubt the Hebrew version of this Terms Of Sale will be the binding document.

Buyers Premium & VAT

. The amount mentioned in an offer at a sale by a Purchaser which is accepted) the Hammer Price( shall be paid to "Kedem" by the Purchaser, together with a commission ('the Commission') ) and Israeli VAT on commission only. The commission per lot will be 23% of the hammer price up to and including $180,000, 18% of the portion of the hammer price above $180,000 up to and including $1,000,000, and 12% of the portion of the hammer price above $1,000,000. Payment to "Kedem" shall be effected immediately upon the conclusion of the auction but, at any event, not later than seven days after the date of the auction.

Payment

All California Sales Tax will applied at time of purchase

Shipping

It is the responsibility of the buyer to collect the purchased items directly from the offices of "Kedem," or have them collected by a delivery service or courier on his behalf. In certain cases in which a buyer so requests, "Kedem" can, at its sole discretion and without taking or accepting any responsibility for damages or loss, pack and ship the items to the buyer, provided the buyer pays in advance for the full cost of shipping and handling. The cost of shipping and handling varies according to type, size and weight of the package, the shipping method and the shipping destination. For further information about shipping methods and charges, please contact "Kedem."