Edouard Detaille (1848 - 1912)

Lot 175: Edouard Detaille Paris, 1848 - 1912

Artcurial

April 10, 2013
Paris, France

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Description: Edouard Detaille Paris, 1848 - 1912
Brancardier et soldat de la ligne ; fragment du panorama de Champigny
Huile sur toile (fragment)

'HOSPITAL PORTER AND SOLDIER ; PIECE OF CHAMPIGNY'S PANORAMA', OIL ON CANVAS, BY E. DETAILLE
h: 181 w: 120 cm

Provenance : Vente des fragments des panoramas ; Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, 16 juin 1896, n° 132 ;
Vente 'L'Art en marge des grands mouvements. 2. Salons et Orientalistes de 1850 à 1930', Paris, Hôtel Drouot, Me Georges Pillias, 25 novembre 1974, n° 24 ;
Collection particulière, Paris


Bibliographie : François Robichon, "Les panoramas de Champigny et Rezonville par Edouard Detaille et Alphonse Deneuville", in 'Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire de l'Art Français', 1981 (1979), p. 272, n° Ch.15, repr.
François Robichon, 'Edouard Detaille. Un siècle de gloire militaire', Paris, 2007, repr. p. 44

Commentaire : " L'ouverture du panorama de Champigny est un évènement artistique. Nous n'exagérons rien, l'impression est extraordinaire. " Le Temps, 10 mai 1882.

Inventé à la fin du XVIIIe siècle en Angleterre, le panorama connaît un grand succès en France sous la Révolution et l'Empire. Le développement de la photographie dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, avec les premières photos du colonel Langlois en 1855 pour son panorama de la " Prise de Sébastopol ", influe sur ces réalisations. Les panoramas véhiculent un discours idéologique. Sans être qualifiables de patriotiques, leur but est l'enseignement politique de l'histoire.
A l'initiative de la Société du Panorama National, le 6 mai 1882 est inaugurée au 5 rue de Berry à Paris la rotonde de l'architecte Crussard dans laquelle est exposé le panorama de la bataille de Champigny réalisé par les peintres Detaille et Neuville. Les deux artistes y propulsent le panorama-spectacle au rang de manifestation artistique. Le thème de la bataille de Champigny, qui s'est déroulée du 30 novembre au 3 décembre 1870 et s'est achevée par une victoire française, a été choisi par Detaille après avoir relu l'ouvrage du général Ducrot " La Défense de Paris ". Accompagné de Neuville, il se rend sur place afin de réaliser des croquis et des études pour le paysage. Le brancardier et le soldat de la ligne de notre tableau se situaient au centre du panorama. Suivis par d'autres brancardiers à l'origine, ils se dirigent précipitamment vers un groupe d'hommes blessés. Les sabots agités d'un cheval que l'on devine couché rappellent que l'œuvre est issue d'une composition plus importante. Cependant, le découpage cohérent du panorama permet à ce tableau d'établir une narration autonome, celle de deux soldats actifs après la bataille. L'esthétique de Detaille étroitement liée aux évènements de 1870, met en scène la guerre dans sa modernité et révolutionne le genre militaire en se concentrant sur la représentation humaine, en témoin scrupuleux de l'histoire de son temps. Etape essentielle dans la carrière du peintre, les panoramas de Champigny et de Rezonville, représentent l'aboutissement de l'œuvre militaire de Detaille. Remplacé en 1887 par le panorama de Rezonville, le panorama de Champigny est alors exposé à Vienne jusqu'en 1891. Puis, le déclin du goût pour les panoramas entraine la destruction ou le réaménagement des rotondes. La conservation des œuvres rendue difficile par la taille des toiles, ajoutée à la volonté de rentabilité, a conduit au découpage des panoramas en fragments puis à leur mise en vente aux enchères. Le panorama de Champigny a été découpé en soixante-cinq morceaux, en privilégiant l'autonomie narrative des scènes militaires aux dépens des paysages, les premières ayant plus de succès auprès des acheteurs. La vente des fragments du panorama de Champigny s'est déroulée le 13 mai 1892 au sein de la Galerie Georges Petit, à Paris. Les reproductions d'époque ainsi que les descriptions qui en ont été faites permettent d'établir aujourd'hui une reconstitution intégrale du panorama de Champigny dont une dizaine de fragments sont conservés au musée de l'Armée à Paris.




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