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Lot 242: FINN JUHL (1912-1989) Fauteuil NV 46 en palissandre et tissu NV 46 armchair in rosewood and fabric Edition Niels Vodder 1946 H_81 cm L_63 cm P_48 cm

Pierre Bergé & Associés

September 20, 2012
Paris, France

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Description

FINN JUHL (1912-1989)
Fauteuil NV 46 en palissandre et tissu
NV 46 armchair in rosewood and fabric
Edition Niels Vodder
1946
H_81 cm L_63 cm P_48 cm

Notes

Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawing, business process, circuit diagrams and sewing patterns).[1] Design has different connotations in different fields (see design disciplines below). In some cases the direct construction of an object (as in pottery, engineering, management, cowboy coding and graphic design) is also considered as design.
More formally design has been defined as follows.
(noun) a specification of an object, manifested by an agent, intended to accomplish goals, in a particular environment, using a set of primitive components, satisfying a set of requirements, subject to constraints;
(verb, transitive) to create a design, in an environment (where the designer operates)
Another definition for design is a roadmap or a strategic approach for someone to achieve a unique expectation. It defines the specifications, plans, parameters, costs, activities, processes and how and what to do within legal, political, social, environmental, safety and economic constraints in achieving that objective.
Here, a "specification" can be manifested as either a plan or a finished product, and "primitives" are the elements from which the design object is composed.With such a broad denotation, there is no universal language or unifying institution for designers of all disciplines. This allows for many differing philosophies and approaches toward the subject (see Philosophies and studies of design, below).
The person designing is called a designer, which is also a term used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas, usually also specifying which area is being dealt with (such as a fashion designer, concept designer or web designer). A designer's sequence of activities is called a design process. The scientific study of design is called design science.
Designing often necessitates considering the aesthetic, functional, economic and sociopolitical dimensions of both the design object and design process. It may involve considerable research, thought, modeling, interactive adjustment, and re-design.
Meanwhile, diverse kinds of objects may be designed, including clothing, graphical user interfaces, skyscrapers, corporate identities, business processes and even methods of designing.


Para el diseño de páginas web, véase Diseño web.
El diseño se define como el proceso previo de configuración mental, "pre-figuración", en la búsqueda de una solución en cualquier campo. Utilizado habitualmente en el contexto de la industria, ingeniería, arquitectura, comunicación y otras disciplinas creativas.
Etimológicamente deriva del término italiano disegno dibujo, designio, signare, signado "lo por venir", el porvenir visión representada gráficamente del futuro, lo hecho es la obra, lo por hacer es el proyecto, el acto de diseñar como prefiguración es el proceso previo en la búsqueda de una solución o conjunto de las mismas. Plasmar el pensamiento de la solución o las alternativas mediante esbozos, dibujos, bocetos o esquemas trazados en cualquiera de los soportes, durante o posteriores a un proceso de observación de alternativas o investigación. El acto intuitivo de diseñar podría llamarse creatividad como acto de creación o innovación si el objeto no existe o se modifica algo existente inspiración abstracción, síntesis, ordenación y transformación.
Referente al signo, significación, designar es diseñar el hecho de la solución encontrada. Es el resultado de la economía de recursos materiales, la forma, transformación y el significado implícito en la obra, su ambigua apreciación no puede determinarse si un diseño es un proceso estético correspondiente al arte cuando lo accesorio o superfluo se antepone a la función o solución del problema.
El acto humano de diseñar no es un hecho artístico en sí mismo, aunque puede valerse de los mismos procesos en pensamiento y los mismos medios de expresión como resultado; al diseñar un objeto o signo de comunicación visual en función de la búsqueda de una aplicación práctica, el diseñador ordena y dispone los elementos estructurales y formales, así como dota al producto o idea de significantes si el objeto o mensaje se relaciona con la cultura en su contexto social.El verbo "diseñar" se refiere al proceso de creación y desarrollo para producir un nuevo objeto o medio de comunicación (objeto, proceso, servicio, conocimiento o entorno) para uso humano. El sustantivo "diseño" se refiere al plan final o proposición determinada fruto del proceso de diseñar: dibujo, proyecto, plano o descripción técnica, maqueta al resultado de poner ese plan final en práctica (la imagen, el objeto a fabricar o construir).
Diseñar requiere principalmente consideraciones funcionales, estéticas y simbólicas. El proceso necesita numerosas fases como: observación, investigación, análisis, testado, ajustes, modelados (físicos o virtuales mediante programas de diseño informáticos en dos o tres dimensiones), adaptaciones previas a la producción definitiva del objeto industrial, construcción de obras ingeniería en espacios exteriores o interiores arquitectura, diseño de interiores, o elementos visuales de comunicación a difundir, transmitir e imprimir sean: diseño gráfico o comunicación visual, diseño de información, tipografía. Además abarca varias disciplinas y oficios conexos, dependiendo del objeto a diseñar y de la participación en el proceso de una o varias personas.
Diseñar es una tarea compleja, dinámica e intrincada. Es la integración de requisitos técnicos, sociales y económicos, necesidades biológicas, ergonomía con efectos psicológicos y materiales, forma, color, volumen y espacio, todo ello pensado e interrelacionado con el medio ambiente que rodea a la humanidad. De esto último se puede desprender la alta responsabilidad ética del diseño y los diseñadores a nivel mundial. Un buen punto de partida para entender éste fenómeno es revisar la Gestalt y como la teoría de sistemas aporta una visión amplia del tema.
Un filósofo contemporáneo, Vilém Flusser, propone, en su libro Filosofía del diseño, que el futuro (el destino de la humanidad) depende del diseño.


Im Englischen und Französischen bedeutet design „Gestaltung" oder „Entwurf", während das italienische disegno (deutsch: Zeichnung, Plastik) stärker einen erprobenden Vorgang betont, ähnlich dem spanischen diseño. Im Gegensatz zum deutschen Sprachgebrauch, der eher auf gestalterisch-kreative Aspekte abzielt und den Designbegriff weitgehend verdinglicht, umfasst der angelsächsische Begriff design auch technische Anteile der „Gestaltung".
Ins Deutsche ging der dem französischen entlehnte Begriff »Dessin« Anfang des 19. Jahrhunderts über. Zum so genannten »Dessinateur« existierte damals noch die deutsche Bezeichnung »Mustermacher«.
Seit den 1960er Jahren setzte sich die englische Form »Design« gegen die französische durch. Im Deutschen ist die Bezeichnung „Design" als Bezeichnung für den Prozess des bewussten Gestaltens zunächst der Fachwelt geläufig. Im Verlauf der jüngeren Designgeschichte wurde er Bestandteil des allgemeinen Sprachgebrauchs. Hier dient er häufig als Sammelbegriff für alle bewusst gestalteten Eigenschaften eines realen oder virtuellen Objektes, einer Dienstleistung oder Marke. Design wird damit entgegen dem Selbstverständnis der Designer immer noch als Applikation, als Zusatzleistung verstanden, das vor allem ästhetischen Regeln zu folgen hat.Die Ausweitung des Designbegriffes, seine Öffnung zu verschiedenen Lebensbereichen, die seit den 1980er Jahren zu beobachten ist, führte weltweit zu einem verstärkten Interesse an den Ergebnissen des Designvorganges und bewirkte zugleich eine stärkere Unschärfe des Begriffs. Den Wandel des Designbegriffs kritisiert ein Teil der in den Designprozess Involvierten als „Inflationierung".
Im Qualitätsmanagement versteht man entsprechend der ISO-Norm die Formung des Produktionsprozesses (im weitesten Sinne) als „Designprozess". Diese Anwendung des Begriffes geht offensichtlich auf die englische Wortbedeutung zurück. Der Designprozess spielt eine wesentliche Rolle bei der Qualitätssicherung. Verwirrend wird der Begriff „Design" besonders, wenn der Prozess des Produktdesigns betrachtet wird. Es gilt hier vom Design (des Prozesses) beim Design (des Produktes) zu sprechen.


Functionalism, in architecture, is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building. This statement is less self-evident than it first appears, and is a matter of confusion and controversy within the profession, particularly in regard to modern architecture.The place of functionalism in building can be traced back to the Vitruvian triad, where 'utilitas' (variously translated as 'commodity', 'convenience', or 'utility') stands alongside 'venustas' (beauty) and 'firmitas' (firmness) as one of three classic goals of architecture. Functionalist views were typical of some gothic revival architects, in particular Augustus Welby Pugin wrote that "there should be no features about a building which are not necessary for convenience, construction, or propriety" and "all ornament should consist of enrichment of the essential construction of the building".[1]The debate about functionalism and aesthetics is often framed as a mutually exclusive choice, when in fact there are architects, like Will Bruder, James Polshek and Ken Yeang, who attempt to satisfy all three Vitruvian goals.

Organic architecture is a philosophy of architecture which promotes harmony between human habitation and the natural world through design approaches so sympathetic and well integrated with its site that buildings, furnishings, and surroundings become part of a unified, interrelated composition.
The term organic architecture was coined by Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959), though never well articulated by his cryptic style of writing:"So here I stand before you preaching organic architecture: declaring organic architecture to be the modern ideal and the teaching so much needed if we are to see the whole of life, and to now serve the whole of life, holding no traditions essential to the great TRADITION. Nor cherishing any preconceived form fixing upon us either past, present or future, but instead exalting the simple laws of common sense or of super-sense if you prefer determining form by way of the nature of materials..." - Frank Lloyd Wright, written in 1954
Organic architecture is also translated into the all inclusive nature of Frank Lloyd Wright's design process. Materials, motifs, and basic ordering principles continue to repeat themselves throughout the building as a whole. The idea of organic architecture refers not only to the buildings' literal relationship to the natural surroundings, but how the buildings' design is carefully thought about as if it were a unified organism. Geometries throughout Wright's buildings build a central mood and theme. Essentially organic architecture is also the literal design of every element of a building: From the windows, to the floors, to the individual chairs intended to fill the space. Everything relates to one another, reflecting the symbiotic ordering systems of nature.
Other modernist architects in the U.S., Europe, and elsewhere held complementary and often competing views of how architecture could best emulate nature. Key figures in the U.S. included Louis Sullivan and Claude Bragdon, while among European modernists Hugo Häring and Hans Scharoun stand out. Following World War II, organic architecture often reflected cybernetic and informatic models of life, as is reflected in the later work of futurist architect Buckminster Fuller.
Architect and planner David Pearson proposed a list of rules towards the design of organic architecture. These rules are known as the Gaia Charter for organic architecture and design. It reads:
"Let the design:
be inspired by nature and be sustainable, healthy, conserving, and diverse.
unfold, like an organism, from the seed within.
exist in the "continuous present" and "begin again and again".
follow the flows and be flexible and adaptable.
satisfy social, physical, and spiritual needs.
"grow out of the site" and be unique.
celebrate the spirit of youth, play and surprise.
express the rhythm of music and the power of dance."
Eric Corey Freed takes a more seminal approach in making his description:
"Using Nature as our basis for design, a building or design must grow, as Nature grows, from the inside out. Most architects design their buildings as a shell and force their way inside. Nature grows from the idea of a seed and reaches out to its surroundings. A building thus, is akin to an organism and mirrors the beauty and complexity of Nature."
A well known example of organic architecture is Fallingwater, the residence Frank Lloyd Wright designed for the Kaufman family in rural Pennsylvania. Wright had many choices to locate a home on this large site, but chose to place the home directly over the waterfall and creek creating a close, yet noisy dialog with the rushing water and the steep site. The horizontal striations of stone masonry with daring cantilevers of colored beige concrete blend with native rock outcroppings and the wooded environment.

Danish Design is a term often used to describe a style of functionalistic design and architecture that was developed in mid-20th century. Influenced by the German Bauhaus school, many Danish designers used the new industrial technologies, combined with ideas of simplicity and functionalism to design buildings, furniture and household objects, many of which have become iconic and are still in use and production. Prominent examples are the egg chair, PH lamp and the Sydney Opera House.

Among the most successful designers associated with the concept are Børge Mogensen (1914-1972), Finn Juhl (1912-1989), Hans Wegner (1914-2007), Arne Jacobsen (1902-1971), Poul Kjærholm (1929-1980), Poul Henningsen (1894-1967) and Verner Panton (1926-1998).[1]Other designers of note include Kristian Solmer Vedel (1923-2003) in the area of industrial design, Jens Harald Quistgaard (1919-2008) for kitchen furniture and implements and Ole Wanscher (1903-1985) who had a classical approach to furniture design.
In the late 1940s, shortly after the end of the Second World War, conditions in Denmark were ideally suited to success in design. The emphasis was on furniture but architecture, silver, ceramics, glass and textiles also benefitted from the trend. Denmark's late industrialisation combined with a tradition of high-quality craftsmanship formed the basis of gradual progress towards industrial production. After the end of the war, Europeans were keen to find novel approaches such as the light wood furniture from Denmark. Last but not least, support in Denmark for freedom of individual expression assisted the cause.[2]The newly established Furniture School at the Royal Danish Academy of Art played a considerable part in the development of furniture design. Kaare Klint taught functionalism based on the size and proportions of objects, wielding considerable influence. Hans J. Wegner, who had been trained as a cabinetmaker, contributed with a unique sense of form, especially in designing chairs.[3]As head of the cooperative FDB furniture design studio, Børge Mogensen designed simple and robust objects of furniture for the average Danish family. Finn Juhl demonstrated an individualistic approach in designing chairs with an appealing but functional look.In the early 1950s, the American Charles Eames designed and manufactured chairs of moulded wood and steel pipes. These encouraged Arne Jacobsen to design his worldfamous Ant Chair, Denmark's first industrially manufactured chair.Poul Kjærholm, Verner Panton and Nanna Ditzel followed a few years later, continuing the successful story of Danish design. Kjærholm worked mainly in steel and leather, Panton left Denmark during the 1960s to continue designing imaginative but highly unconventional plastic chairs while Nanna Ditzel, who also had a strongly individualistic approach, was successful in helping to renew Danish furniture design in the 1980s.
Danish furniture design failed to make any new important contributions in the 1970s and 1980s. By contrast, industrial designers began to prosper, making use of the basic principles of focus on the user, respect for materials and attention to detail.The Bernadotte & Bjørn studio, established in 1950, was the first to specialise in industrial design, with an emphasis on office machines, domestic appliances and functional articles such as the thermos jug. The electronics manufacturer Bang & Olufsen, in collaboration with Bernadotte & Bjørn and later with Jacob Jensen and David Lewis, went on to excel in modern design work. Around the same time, the Stelton company collaborated with Arne Jacobsen and Erik Magnussen to produce their iconic vacuum jug, a huge international success.Another successful design field is medical technology. Danish design companies like 3PART, Designit and CBD have worked in this area with individual designers such as Steve McGugan and Anders Smith.In 2002 the Danish Government and the City of Copenhagen launched an effort to establish a world event for design in Copenhagen. Originally understood as a tool for branding traditional Danish design the non-profit organization INDEX: shifted focus after worldwide research and coined the concept of Design to Improve Life, which rapidly became celebrated in Denmark and around the world. The organization now hands out the biggest design award in the world biannual in Copenhagen, tours large scale outdoor exhibition around the world, run educational program as well as design labs and hosts a global network.Today, there is strong focus on design in Denmark as industry increasingly appreciates the importance of design in the business environment. In addition, as part of its trade and industry policy, the Danish government has launched the DesignDenmark initiative which aims to restore Denmark to the international design elite.

Modern architecture has also contributed to the concept of Danish design.
Arne Jacobsen was not just a furniture designer but one of the leading architects of his times. Among his achievements are the Bellevue Theater and restaurant, Klampenborg, (1936), the City Hall, Århus (with Erik Møller) (1939-42) and the SAS Royal Hotel (1958-60).
Jørn Utzon (1918-2008), Denmark's most widely recognized architect, is remembered for his expressionist Sydney Opera House (1966) and the later Bagsværd Church (1976) with its wavy concrete roof.
Henning Larsen (b. 1925) is the architect who designed the boldly modern Copenhagen Opera House on the island of Holmen which was completed in 2005.

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From the moment the hammer falls, sold items will be in the exclusive responsibility of the buyer. If payment is made by cheque or by wire transfer,
the objects can only be delivered once the full amount has been received in our account, the buyer becoming the owner only at this moment.
From the moment the hammer falls, sold items will be in the exclusive responsability of the buyer. Transportation and storage will be invalided to
the buyer. The buyer will be solely responsible for insurance, and Pierre Bergé & associés assume no fiability for any damage items may incur from
the time the hammer falls. All transportation arrangements are the sole responsability of the buyer.

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The auction will be conducted in euros (e) and lots will be paid full in cash. As well as the hammer price, buyers will pay the followin g
premium : up to 500 000 e, 24% inclusive of tax (either 20, 07 + 19. 6% VAT), above 500 000 e, 17, 94% inclusive of tax (either 15 + 19.
6% VAT). For lots sold by a non - resident the buyer will pay a 5, 5 % V. A. T. (lots marked by a ) or 19, 6% VAT (lots marked by a ) on
the hammer price plus the premium (the buyer will be refunded of this V. A. T.. when he will be presenting to our cashier the proof of export
out of EEC). This calculation applies to each lot individually.

GARANTEES

The auctioneer is bound by the indications in the catalogue, modified only by eventual annoucements made at the time of the sale noted into
the legal records there of. An exhibition prior to the sale permits buyers to establish the condition of the works offered for sale and therefore
no claims will be accepted after the hammer has fallen. Catalogue photographs are not contractually binding.

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determinated by the auctioneer. The highest and last bidder will be the purchaser. Should Pierre Bergé & associés recognise two simultaneous
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ABSENTEE BIDS AND TELEPHONE BIDS

Those wishin g to make a bid in writin g or by telephone should use the form provided with the auction catalogue. This form, accompanied
by the bidder's bank details, must be received by PBA no later than two days before the sale. Telephone bids are a free service designed for
clients who are unable to be present at auction. Pierre Bergé & associés cannot be held responsible for any problems due to technical difficulties.

REMOVAL OF PURCHASES

From the moment the hammer falls, sold items will be in the exclusive responsibility of the buyer. If payment is made by cheque or by wire transfer,
the objects can only be delivered once the full amount has been received in our account, the buyer becoming the owner only at this moment.
From the moment the hammer falls, sold items will be in the exclusive responsability of the buyer. Transportation and storage will be invalided to
the buyer. The buyer will be solely responsible for insurance, and Pierre Bergé & associés assume no fiability for any damage items may incur from
the time the hammer falls. All transportation arrangements are the sole responsability of the buyer.

PRE - EMPTION

In certain cases, the French State is entitled to use its right of pre - emption on works of art or private documents. This means that the state
substitutes itself for the last bidder and becomes the buyer. In such a case, a representative of the French State announces the exercise of the
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DEFAULT OF THE BUYER

Any lot unpaid by the buyer within 3 months since the day of the auction will be re-ordered for sale by Pierre Bergé & associés, after the legal
former notice, the possible difference of price remaining to the buyer in default. As a result, the owner mandates PBA to decide and carry out
the procedure legally applied in the case of default of the buyer.

Contract

The auction will be conducted in euros (e) and lots will be paid full in cash. As well as the hammer price, buyers will pay the followin g
premium : up to 500 000 e, 24% inclusive of tax (either 20, 07 + 19. 6% VAT), above 500 000 e, 17, 94% inclusive of tax (either 15 + 19.
6% VAT). For lots sold by a non - resident the buyer will pay a 5, 5 % V. A. T. (lots marked by a ) or 19, 6% VAT (lots marked by a ) on
the hammer price plus the premium (the buyer will be refunded of this V. A. T.. when he will be presenting to our cashier the proof of export
out of EEC). This calculation applies to each lot individually.

Default of the buyer

Any lot unpaid by the buyer within 3 months since the day of the auction will be re-ordered for sale by Pierre Bergé & associés, after the legal
former notice, the possible difference of price remaining to the buyer in default. As a result, the owner mandates PBA to decide and carry out
the procedure legally applied in the case of default of the buyer.

Removal of purchases

From the moment the hammer falls, sold items will be in the exclusive responsibility of the buyer. If payment is made by cheque or by wire transfer,
the objects can only be delivered once the full amount has been received in our account, the buyer becoming the owner only at this moment.
From the moment the hammer falls, sold items will be in the exclusive responsability of the buyer. Transportation and storage will be invalided to
the buyer. The buyer will be solely responsible for insurance, and Pierre Bergé & associés assume no fiability for any damage items may incur from
the time the hammer falls. All transportation arrangements are the sole responsability of the buyer.

Premium

The auction will be conducted in euros (e) and lots will be paid full in cash. As well as the hammer price, buyers will pay the followin g
premium : up to 500 000 e, 24% inclusive of tax (either 20, 07 + 19. 6% VAT), above 500 000 e, 17, 94% inclusive of tax (either 15 + 19.
6% VAT).

VAT and Taxes

The auction will be conducted in euros (e) and lots will be paid full in cash. As well as the hammer price, buyers will pay the followin g
premium : up to 500 000 e, 24% inclusive of tax (either 20, 07 + 19. 6% VAT), above 500 000 e, 17, 94% inclusive of tax (either 15 + 19.
6% VAT). For lots sold by a non - resident the buyer will pay a 5, 5 % V. A. T. (lots marked by a ) or 19, 6% VAT (lots marked by a ) on
the hammer price plus the premium (the buyer will be refunded of this V. A. T.. when he will be presenting to our cashier the proof of export
out of EEC). This calculation applies to each lot individually.

Garantees

The auctioneer is bound by the indications in the catalogue, modified only by eventual annoucements made at the time of the sale noted into
the legal records there of. An exhibition prior to the sale permits buyers to establish the condition of the works offered for sale and therefore
no claims will be accepted after the hammer has fallen. Catalogue photographs are not contractually binding.