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Lot 29: GUITAR ARCHTOP - The Gibson.

Est: €2,500 EUR - €3,500 EURPassed
Art RichelieuJune 18, 2020Paris, France

Item Overview

Description

GUITAR ARCHTOP - The Gibson.
ENGLISH DESCRIPTION
GUITAR ARCHTOP - The Gibson.
MODEL - L1, 1918
SERIAL NUMBER - 40353.
(Nice restoration for this old beautiful. Functional guitar)
Flat Top version was used by blues legend Robert Johnson.
Description française
GUITARE ARCHTOP - THE GIBSON
MODELE - L1, 1918, n° de série 40353
(Belle restauration pour cette belle centenaire - Guitare fonctionnelle, voute en place)
Guitare magnifique, sa version Flat Top était utilisée par la légende du blues Robert Johnson.

Literature

Gibson Brands, Inc. (formerly Gibson Guitar Corporation) is an American manufacturer of guitars, other musical instruments, and professional audio equipment from Kalamazoo, Michigan, and now based in Nashville, Tennessee. The company was formerly known as Gibson Guitar Corporation and renamed Gibson Brands, Inc. on June 11, 2013.[3][4]
Orville Gibson started making instruments in 1894 and founded the company in 1902 as the Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co. Ltd. in Kalamazoo, Michigan, to make mandolin-family instruments.[1] Gibson invented archtop guitars by constructing the same type of carved, arched tops used on violins. By the 1930s, the company was also making flattop acoustic guitars, as well as one of the first commercially available hollow-body electric guitars, used and popularized by Charlie Christian. In 1944, Gibson was bought by Chicago Musical Instruments (CMI), which was acquired in 1969 by Panama-based conglomerate Ecuadorian Company Limited (ECL), that changed its name in the same year to Norlin Corporation. Gibson was owned by Norlin Corporation from 1969 to 1986. In 1986, the company was acquired by a group led by Henry Juszkiewicz and David H. Berryman. In November 2018, the company was acquired by a group of investors led by private equity firm KKR & Co. Inc. (formerly known as Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. and KKR & Co. L.P.).
Gibson sells guitars under a variety of brand names[5] and builds one of the world's best-known guitars, the Gibson Les Paul. Gibson was at the forefront of innovation in acoustic guitars, especially in the big band era of the 1930s; the Gibson Super 400 was widely imitated. In 1952, Gibson introduced its first solid-body electric guitar, the Les Paul, which became its most popular guitar to date— designed by a team led by Ted McCarty.
In addition to guitars, Gibson offers consumer electronics through its subsidiaries KRK, Cerwin Vega, and Stanton, Gibson Pro Audio line.
On May 1, 2018, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection,[6] and announced a restructuring plan to return to profitability by closing down unprofitable consumer electronics divisions such as Gibson Innovations.[7][8]
Orville Gibson patented a single-piece mandolin design in 1898 that was more durable than other mandolins and could be manufactured in volume.[9] Orville Gibson began to sell his instruments in 1894 out of a one-room workshop in Kalamazoo, Michigan. In 1902, the Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co. Ltd. was incorporated to market the instruments. Initially, the company produced only Orville Gibson's original designs.[10] Orville died in 1918 of endocarditis (inflammation of the inside lining of the heart chambers and valves).[9]
1924 F-5 mandolin with ( f-holes)

1928 L-5 acoustic guitar

ES-150 electric guitar (1936-1957)
Prewar Gibson banjos: RB-1 (1933), RB-00 (1940), PB-3 (1929)
The following year, the company hired designer Lloyd Loar to create newer instruments.[10] Loar designed the flagship L-5 archtop guitar and the Gibson F-5 mandolin that was introduced in 1922, before leaving the company in 1924.[11] In 1936, Gibson introduced their first "Electric Spanish" model, the ES-150, followed by other electric instruments like steel guitars, banjos and mandolins.
During World War II, instrument manufacturing at Gibson slowed due to shortages of wood and metal, and Gibson began manufacturing wood and metal parts for the military. Between 1942–1945, Gibson employed women to manufacture guitars. "Women produced nearly 25,000 guitars during World War II yet Gibson denied ever building instruments over this period," according to a 2013 history of the company. Gibson folklore has also claimed its guitars were made by "seasoned craftsmen" who were "too old for war."[12][13]

1953 Les Paul Goldtop

Les Paul Custom

Les Paul Standard

Les Paul Junior

L-5 CES

Byrdland

ES-350T

ES-335T

Explorer

Flying V

non-reverse (left) & reverse Firebird

SG
In 1944 Gibson was purchased by Chicago Musical Instruments. The ES-175 was introduced in 1949. Gibson hired Ted McCarty in 1948, who became President in 1950. He led an expansion of the guitar line with new guitars such as the "Les Paul" guitar introduced in 1952, endorsed by Les Paul, a popular musician in the 1950s. The guitar was offered in Custom, Standard, Special, and Junior models.[14]
In the mid-1950s, the Thinline series was produced, which included a line of thinner guitars like the Byrdland. The first Byrdlands were slim, custom built, L-5 models for guitarists Billy Byrd and Hank Garland. Later, a shorter neck was added. Other models such as the ES-350T and the ES-225T were introduced as less costly alternatives.[15] In 1958, Gibson introduced the ES-335T model. Similar in size to the hollow-body Thinlines, the ES-335 family had a solid center, giving the string tone a longer sustain.
In the 1950s, Gibson also produced the Tune-o-matic bridge system and its version of the humbucking pickup, the PAF ("Patent Applied For"), first released in 1957 and still sought after for its sound.[citation needed]
In 1958, Gibson produced two new designs: the eccentrically shaped Explorer and Flying V. These "modernistic" guitars did not sell initially. It was only in the late 1960s and early 70s when the two guitars were reintroduced to the market that they sold well. The Firebird, in the early 60s, was a reprise of the modernistic idea, though less extreme.
Modernization[edit]
In the late 50s, McCarty knew that Gibson was seen as a traditional company and began an effort to create more modern guitars. In 1961 the body design of the Les Paul was changed due to the demand for a double-cutaway body design.[16] The new body design then became known as the SG (for "solid guitar"), due to disapproval from Les Paul himself. The original Les Paul design returned to the Gibson catalog in 1968.
On December 22, 1969, Gibson parent company Chicago Musical Instruments was taken over by the South American brewing conglomerate ECL. Gibson remained under the control of CMI until 1974 when it became a subsidiary of Norlin Musical Instruments. Norlin Musical Instruments was a member of Norlin Industries which was named for ECL president Norton Stevens and CMI president Arnold Berlin. This began an era characterized by corporate mismanagement and decreasing product quality.

Gibson left Kalamazoo in 1984, their previous factory became Heritage Guitars

Gibson Showcase at Nashville

Gibson Factory at Memphis
Between 1976 and 1984, production of Gibson guitars was shifted from Kalamazoo to Nashville, Tennessee. The Kalamazoo plant kept going for a few years as a custom-instrument shop, but was closed in 1984; several Gibson employees led by plant manager Jim Duerloo established Heritage Guitars in the old factory, building versions of classic Gibson designs.
The company was within three months of going out of business before it was bought by Henry E. Juszkiewicz, David H. Berryman, and Gary A. Zebrowski in January 1986.[17] Gibson's wholesale shipments in 1993 were an estimated $70 million, up from $50 million in 1992. When Juszkiewicz and Berryman took over in 1986, sales were below $10 million.[18] New production plants were opened in Memphis, Tennessee, as well as Bozeman, Montana. The Memphis facility is used for semi-hollow and custom shop instruments, while the Bozeman facility is dedicated to acoustic instruments.
Since 2007[edit]
Gibson purchased Garrison Guitars in 2007.[19] In mid-2009, Gibson reduced its work force to adjust for a decline in guitar industry sales in the United States.[20]
In 2011, Gibson acquired the Stanton Group, including Cerwin Vega, KRK Systems and Stanton DJ. Gibson then formed a new division, Gibson Pro Audio, which will deliver professional grade audio items, including headphones, loudspeakers and DJ equipment.[21]

Gibson announced a partnership with the Japanese-based Onkyo Corporation in 2012. Onkyo, known for audio equipment and home theater systems, became part of the Gibson Pro-Audio division.[22] In 2013, Gibson acquired a majority stake in TEAC Corporation. In 2014, Gibson acquired the Woox consumer electronics brand from Royal Philips. In October 2017, Gibson announced plans to relocate its Memphis operations to a smaller location and plans to sell the Memphis property. Gibson opened its Memphis facility 18 years before, which occupies just a portion of a massive 127,620 square foot complex. According to the Memphis Daily News, Gibson plans to search for a new facility for its Memphis operations and will stay in the current spot for the next 18 to 24 months. The facility, which sits across from the FedExForum along South B.B. King Boulevard, is expected to list for $17 million.
Since its opening, the Gibson Memphis shop has mostly focused on building hollow and semi-hollowbody guitars, such as the famed ES series. Presumably, this shuffling of assets is meant to address Gibson's well-publicized financial troubles.
Gibson issued a press release about the move, with former CEO Henry Juszkiewicz stating:
"We are extremely excited about this next phase of growth that we believe will benefit both our employees, and the Memphis community. I remember when our property had abandoned buildings, and Beale Street was in decline. It is with great pride that I can see the development of this area with a basketball arena, hotels, and a resurgent pride in the musical heritage of the great city of Memphis. We continue to love the Memphis community and hope to be a key contributor to its future when we move nearby to a more appropriate location for our manufacturing based business, allowing the world the benefit of our great American craftsmen."[23]
Bankruptcy[edit]
On May 1, 2018, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. As part of its debt restructuring, the company will close down and liquidate its unprofitable Gibson Innovations division, which sells audio equipment outside of the U.S. and has been the source of much of the company's financial troubles. The restructuring will allow Gibson to focus on its most profitable ventures, such as musical instruments. No changes will be made to its guitar manufacturing business, and all Gibson and Epiphone branded guitars were expected to continue in production. Additionally, $135 million was provided by existing creditors to provide liquidity to maintain existing operations.[24][25]
On September 6, 2018, the company announced that a global settlement has been reached with respect to the company's reorganization plan upon emergence from Chapter 11. Under the plan, the company will be focused on its core musical instruments business with "essentially no debt." Juszkiewicz stepped down as CEO and assumed the role of consultant.[26]
On October 23, 2018, the company announced the appointment of James “JC” Curleigh as the new President and CEO; Cesar Gueikian as Chief Merchant Officer; Kim Mattoon as Chief Financial Officer; and Christian Schmitz as Chief Production Officer. The appointments were effective November 1, 2018.[27]

Legal actions
Origin of "lawsuit guitars"
In 1977, Gibson sued Hoshino Gakki/Elger Guitars for copying the ”archtop” headstock. The lawsuit was settled out of court, and Ibanez replaced the headstock with a revised design.[28]

In 2000, Gibson sued Fernandes Guitars in a Tokyo court for allegedly copying Gibson designs. Gibson did not prevail.[29]

PRS
Gibson also sued PRS Guitars in 2005, to stop them from making their Singlecut model. The lawsuit against PRS was initially successful.[30] However, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reversed the lower court decision and ordered the dismissal of Gibson's suit against PRS.[31]

FWS raids & Lacey Act violation
Gibson's factories were raided in 2009 and 2011 by agents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). In November 2009 authorities found illegally imported ebony wood from Madagascar.[32][33] A second raid was conducted in August 2011,[32] during which the FWS seized wood imports from India that had been mislabeled on the US Customs declaration.[34][35] Gibson Guitar Corp. filed a motion in January 2011 to recover seized materials and overturn the charges, which was denied by the court.[36][37]

The United States Department of Justice found emails from 2008 and 2009 in which Gibson employees discussed the "gray market" nature of the ebony wood available from a German wood dealer—who obtained it from a supplier in Madagascar—as well as plans to obtain the wood. It filed a civil proceeding in June 2011,[35][38][39] the first such case under the amended Lacey Act, which requires importing companies to purchase legally harvested wood and follow the environmental laws of the producing countries regardless of corruption or lack of enforcement.[39] Gibson argued in a statement the following day that authorities were "bullying Gibson without filing charges" and denied any wrongdoing.[34][40] Arguing against the federal regulations and claiming that the move threatened jobs, Republicans and Tea Party members spoke out against the raids and supported Juszkiewicz.[41]

The case was settled on August 6, 2012, with Gibson admitting to violating the Lacey Act and agreeing to pay a fine of $300,000 in addition to a $50,000 community payment. Gibson also forfeited the wood seized in the raids, which was valued at roughly the same amount as the settlement.[42][43] However, in a subsequent statement Gibson maintained its innocence with Juszkiewicz claiming that "Gibson was inappropriately targeted" and that the government raids were "so outrageous and overreaching as to deserve further Congressional investigation." Juszkiewicz continued to state, "We felt compelled to settle as the costs of proving our case at trial would have cost millions of dollars and taken a very long time to resolve."[44]

Gibson reclaimed some wood stock that was confiscated during the raids,[45] and produced a new series of guitar marketed to draw attention to the raids and seizures.[46]

In the midst of the controversy, conservative commentators alleged that the raid was a politically motivated act of retaliation by the Obama administration, as Juszkiewicz had frequently donated to Republican politicians. Chris Martin IV, the CEO of Gibson competitor C.F. Martin & Co., had donated over $35,000 to the Democratic National Committee and Democratic candidates in the same time period. Though Martin featured several guitars in its catalog made with the same Indian wood as Gibson, but with correct documentation filed, the company was not subjected to a raid.[47]

Paper Jamz
Gibson filed a lawsuit November 18, 2010, in Federal court, the Central District of California, against WowWee USA and their Paper Jamz battery operated guitar toys charging trademark infringement.[48][49] The lawsuit claimed the Paper Jamz toy guitars copied the looks of some of Gibson's famous guitars, the Gibson Les Paul, the Gibson Flying V, the Gibson Explorer, and the Gibson SG. On December 21, 2010 Gibson was granted a request for an injunction against WowWee and retailers in the United States which were selling Paper Jamz guitars: Walmart, Amazon, Big Lots stores, Kmart Corporation, Target Corporation, Toys "R" Us, Walgreens, Brookstone, Best Buy, eBay, Toywiz.com, and Home Shopping Network (HSN)[50][51][52] The case was dismissed with prejudice (dismissed permanently) January 11, 2011 by Federal Judge R. Gary Klausner.[53][54]

Instruments
Further information: Gibson Guitar Corporation product list
Gibson also owns and makes instruments under brands such as Epiphone,[55] Kramer,[56] Maestro,[57] Steinberger,[58] and Tobias,[59] along with the ownership of historical brands such as Kalamazoo,[60][61] Dobro,[5] Slingerland,[62] Valley Arts,[62] and Baldwin[5] (including Chickering,[62] Hamilton,[62] and Wurlitzer[5][62]).

Gibson makes authorized copies of its most successful guitar designs. They are less expensive than those bearing the Gibson name.[clarification needed] A former competitor, Epiphone, was purchased by Gibson in 1957 and now makes competitively-priced Gibson models, such as the Les Paul and SG, sold under the Epiphone brand,[63] while continuing to make Epiphone-specific models like the Sheraton, Sorrento, and Casino. In Japan, Orville by Gibson once made Gibson designs sold in that country.[64] Gibson has sought legal action against those that make and sell guitars Gibson believes are too similar to their own.

In 1977, Gibson introduced the serial numbering system in use until 2006.[65] An eight-digit number on the back shows the date when the instrument was produced, where it was produced, and its order of production that day (e.g., first instrument stamped that day, second, etc.).[66] An exception is the year 1994, Gibson's centennial year; many 1994 serial numbers start with "94", followed by a six-digit production number[citation needed]. As of 2006, the company used seven (six since 1999) serial number systems,[65][clarification needed] making it difficult to identify guitars by their serial number alone. The Gibson website provides a book to help with serial number deciphering.[65][66]

In 2006, Gibson introduced a nine-digit serial number system replacing the eight-digit system used since 1977, but the sixth digit now represents a batch number.[65][clarification needed]

In 2003,[67] Gibson debuted its Ethernet-based[68] audio protocol, MaGIC, which it developed in partnership with 3Com, Advanced Micro Devices, and Xilinx.[67] Replacing traditional analog hook-ups with a digital connection to "satisfy the unique requirements of live audio performances".[68] This system requires a special pickup,[67] and cabling is provided by a standard Cat-5 Ethernet cable.[67][68]

The Gibson "self-tuning guitar", also known as a "robot model", an option on some newer Les Paul, SG, Flying V and Explorer instruments, tunes itself in about two seconds using robotics technology developed by Tronical GmbH.[69] Under the tradename Min-ETune, this device became standard on several models in 2014.[70]

In 2013, Gibson introduced the Government Series of Les Paul, SG, Flying V, Explorer and ES-335 guitars which were constructed solely of tonewood the US government seized but later returned to Gibson after the resolution of the company's Lacey Act violation in 2011. The guitars were finished in "government grey" and also featured decorations which intended to draw attention to the issue of government. A year later in 2014, Gibson released the Government Series II[71] of guitars, which were essentially the same as the first series, only finished in a new color: "government tan".

Factories

Interior of Gibson, Inc. factory on Parsons Street. 1936
All Gibson-brand guitars are currently made at three facilities, depending on the type of guitar. Solid body electric guitars such as the Gibson Les Paul and the Gibson SG are made in Nashville, Tennessee at Gibson USA and the Gibson Custom Shop. Semi-acoustic guitars such as the Gibson ES Series are made in Memphis, Tennessee at Gibson USA. Full acoustic guitars such as the Gibson J Series are made in Bozeman, Montana. The Nashville and Bozeman facilities are off-limits to visitors.

All Gibson instruments are made in USA. Below are some of the facilities used to produce Gibson instruments, along with years of their operation:

Payment & Shipping

Payment

Accepted forms of payment: MasterCard, Visa, Wire Transfer

Shipping

Every item becomes the entire responsibility of the new owner for any damages as soon as the auctioneer announces that an item has been sold.
Once payment is received you will be issued an invoice and a collection sheet. Items can be collected after payment has been made. Buyers cannot take possession of or remove their purchases from the auction until the total purchase price, including applicable taxes or fees, has been paid in full.
All property must be removed from either our premises by the purchaser at his expense as soon as possible after the sale otherwise an handling charge, until its removal, will be payable to the Auction House by the purchaser.

To get a shipping quote before or after the sale, please contact ,
our shipping partner : THE PACKENGERS - [email protected]

Auction Details

PEDALES - GUITARES - MICROS

by
Art Richelieu
June 18, 2020, 07:00 PM CET

51, rue Decamps, Paris, Paris-Ile de France, 75116, FR

Terms

Buyer's Premium

29.0%

Bidding Increments

From:To:Increment:
€0€59€10
€60€99€20
€100€119€20
€120€179€30
€180€219€20
€220€279€30
€280€319€30
€320€379€30
€380€419€20
€420€479€30
€480€499€20
€500€999€50
€1,000€1,499€100
€1,500€1,799€300
€1,800€2,199€200
€2,200€2,799€300
€2,800€3,199€200
€3,200€3,799€300
€3,800€4,199€200
€4,200€4,799€300
€4,800€5,199€200
€5,200€5,799€300
€5,800€6,199€200
€6,200€6,799€300
€6,800€7,199€200
€7,200€7,799€300
€7,800€8,199€200
€8,200€8,799€300
€8,800€9,199€200
€9,200€9,799€300
€9,800€9,999€200
€10,000€19,999€500
€20,000€49,999€1,000
€50,000€99,999€2,000
€100,000+€5,000

Conditions of Sale

Art Richelieu Auction House guarantees the authenticity of attribution of property listed in the catalogue which can be modified by saleroom notices or oral indications given at the time of the sale, recorded in the official sale record.
The correctness of the catalogue or other description of the physical condition, size, quality, rarity, importance, medium, provenance, exhibitions or historical relevance of any property is a statement of opinion only.
Any illustrations in the catalogue are solely for the guidance of prospective buyers and are not to be relied upon in terms of colour or necessarily to reveal imperfections in any lot.

Many lots are of an age or nature which precludes their being in mint condition and some descriptions in the catalogue make reference to damage or restoration. Such information is given for guidance only and the absence of such a reference does not imply that a lot is free from defects not either does any reference to particular defects imply the absence of others.

It is the responsibility of prospective bidders to inspect the property before bidding to determine its condition, size and to determine if it has been repaired or restored and to request a condition report.
Buyers must satisfy themselves to all matters referred above by inspection or otherwise prior to the date of the auction. They should carefully inspect items about the condition of each lot, as this is not necessarily stated in the catalogue.

A buyer's premium will be added to the successful bid price and is payable by the purchaser based on a percentage of the hammer price. It is important to remember that there is 24,00% TTC (buyers premium) on top of the hammer price.

Subject to any reserve price, the highest bidder shall be the buyer and a dispute shall be settled by the auctioneer who may at any time at his absolute discretion and regardless of the fall of the hammer re-open the bidding or withdraw the lot from sale.
Payment is in euro and is expected almost immediately after bidding for an item. We accept cash, pre-approved cheque or credit card. Bank commissions and expenses have to be paid by the buyer.

Every item becomes the entire responsibility of the new owner for any damages as soon as the auctioneer announces that an item has been sold.
Once payment is received you will be issued an invoice and a collection sheet. Items can be collected after payment has been made. Buyers cannot take possession of or remove their purchases from the auction until the total purchase price, including applicable taxes or fees, has been paid in full.
All property must be removed from either our premises by the purchaser at his expense as soon as possible after the sale otherwise an handling charge, until its removal, will be payable to the Auction House by the purchaser.

In the event a successful bidder fails to pay any amounts due, within one month, the Auction House reserves the right to cancel the sale and re-sell the lot according to the « Folle Enchère » French law (Law of July 10th 2000). The purchaser will be charged for all the expenses caused by the re-auctioning of the property. If the new auction price does not reach the former one, the failing purchaser have to pay the difference.
In any case, the purchaser will be liable for any deficiency, any and all costs, handling charges, late charges, expenses, legal fees, expenses and incidental damages.

PHONE OR ABSENTEE BIDS
The Auction House will execute absentee bids and accept telephone bids as a courtesy to clients who are unable to attend the auctions.
"Phone or Absentee Bid" forms are available online or from the head office. Therefore, we take no responsibility for any errors or omissions in connection with this service.
For the Phone bid, when the auctioneer is approaching the particular lot number, a staff member will phone and you can instruct them to bid on your behalf.
For the Absentee bid, you must nominate an amount indicating the maximum price you are prepared to pay for the item.
The auctioneer will bid on your behalf until the price has reached your nominated amount.
If bidding doesn't reach this amount, you win the item for the price at which the bidding ceased.
Bulky lots acquired on absentee bids will be kept on Drouot's storage (see the conditions applied).
Small lots will be kept at Art Richelieu's office, beyond a week, 3 € per day will be applied.

For any purchase via the Invaluable Live platform, additional costs of 3,00% excl. VAT will be applied.

Contract

Art Richelieu Auction House guarantees the authenticity of attribution of property listed in the catalogue which can be modified by saleroom notices or oral indications given at the time of the sale, recorded in the official sale record.
The correctness of the catalogue or other description of the physical condition, size, quality, rarity, importance, medium, provenance, exhibitions or historical relevance of any property is a statement of opinion only.
Any illustrations in the catalogue are solely for the guidance of prospective buyers and are not to be relied upon in terms of colour or necessarily to reveal imperfections in any lot.

Fees & Premium

A buyer's premium will be added to the successful bid price and is payable by the purchaser based on a percentage of the hammer price. It is important to remember that there is 24,00% TTC (buyers premium) on top of the hammer price.

For any purchase via the Invaluable Live platform, additional costs of 3,00% excl. VAT will be applied.

Shipping Terms

Every item becomes the entire responsibility of the new owner for any damages as soon as the auctioneer announces that an item has been sold.
Once payment is received you will be issued an invoice and a collection sheet. Items can be collected after payment has been made. Buyers cannot take possession of or remove their purchases from the auction until the total purchase price, including applicable taxes or fees, has been paid in full.
All property must be removed from either our premises by the purchaser at his expense as soon as possible after the sale otherwise an handling charge, until its removal, will be payable to the Auction House by the purchaser.

To get a shipping quote before or after the sale, please contact ,
our shipping partner : THE PACKENGERS - [email protected]

Guarantees

Many lots are of an age or nature which precludes their being in mint condition and some descriptions in the catalogue make reference to damage or restoration. Such information is given for guidance only and the absence of such a reference does not imply that a lot is free from defects not either does any reference to particular defects imply the absence of others.

It is the responsibility of prospective bidders to inspect the property before bidding to determine its condition, size and to determine if it has been repaired or restored and to request a condition report.
Buyers must satisfy themselves to all matters referred above by inspection or otherwise prior to the date of the auction. They should carefully inspect items about the condition of each lot, as this is not necessarily stated in the catalogue.

Payment:

A buyer's premium will be added to the successful bid price and is payable by the purchaser based on a percentage of the hammer price. It is important to remember that there is 24,00% TTC (buyers premium) on top of the hammer price.

For any purchase via the Invaluable Live platform, additional costs of 3,00% excl. VAT will be applied.

Subject to any reserve price, the highest bidder shall be the buyer and a dispute shall be settled by the auctioneer who may at any time at his absolute discretion and regardless of the fall of the hammer re-open the bidding or withdraw the lot from sale.
Payment is in euro and is expected almost immediately after bidding for an item. We accept cash, pre-approved cheque or credit card. Bank commissions and expenses have to be paid by the buyer.