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ANDRÉS DE RODAS (S.XVII) <br> <br> ANDRÉS DE RODAS (17th C.)

Lot 1001: Libro de enigmas, geroglíficos i sonestos, rrepartido en ocho [tachado] nueve fiestas que el licenciado Andrés de Rodas prebítero comisario del Santo Officio de la Santa Inquisición de Córdoba hizo en su puerta en Estepa.

Isbilya Subastas SL

February 6, 2019
Sevilla, Spain

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Manuscrito encuadernado en pergamino de época que consta de 281 páginas con numerosos poemas y ciento veinte ilustraciones en tinta y coloreadas en aguada. Se encuentra en muy buen estado de conservación, aunque presenta restauraciones antiguas y algunas rasgaduras. Se ha exhibido en la exposición “Fiesta y simulacro”, celebrada en 2007 en el Palacio Episcopal de Málaga. Con informe de valoración de la Biblioteca de Andalucía.Durante el Barroco, la fiesta del Corpus Christi se celebró con gran magnificencia en pueblos y ciudades. Es el caso de la villa de Estepa (Sevilla), donde sus calles se cubrían con plantas aromáticas, se engalanaban con arcos y altares ficticios compuestos por multitud de objetos sacros, espejos, lienzos y figuras alegóricas. Las fiestas eran acompañadas, además, por coros, danzas, gigantes, representaciones teatrales…que amenizaban a los visitantes. Todo esto tenía un carácter inminentemente efímero, siendo por ello este libro una pieza de extraordinario valor iconográfico, un documento que nos proporciona información de primer orden en lo que se refiere a la fiesta de Corpus en la villa de Estepa y que ha salvado los obstáculos del tiempo para presentarse ante nosotros tal y como se presentó ante los ciudadanos estepeños de principios del siglo XVII. En el presente manuscrito, el presbítero Andrés de Rodas recoge los artilugios efímeros, los “jeroglífico”, “enigmas” y poesías que ideó y dispuso en el altar de la puerta de su casa desde los años 1612 hasta 1620. En la obra, su autor desgrana año por año en una pequeña introducción los ornatos efímeros compuestos ex proceso para honrar el Cuerpo de Cristo Sacramentado, a lo que le sigue las imágenes de los enigmas y jeroglíficos que se acompañan de numerosas poesías. Lo que el presbítero denominó “jeroglíficos” son los dibujos asociados con un mote y epigrama, mientras que los “enigmas” constituían acertijos en relación con la Eucaristía que sus vecinos debían de resolver, incluso nos dice que si alguien resolvía su significado oculto recibiría algún obsequio como medias de seda “leonadas”, guantes “de olor”, ligas, sortijas de oro, misales, etc. La profesora Reyes Escalera nos define los enigmas así: “Son muy dispares las imágenes que se insertan en estos enigmas, aunque la protagonista es la figura humana. Hombres y mujeres aparecen en las más variadas actitudes, realizando trabajos, conversando, peleando, jugando, bañándose… Unos exhiben su desnudez y otros cubren su anatomía por completo, incluso el rostro; a veces encontramos cuerpos desmembrados, dobles rostros, infinidad de ojos o clavos cubriendo el cuerpo o vestido, espadas que se clavan personajes alados…, mostrando un extraordinario muestrario de costumbres y un completo repertorio de indumentarias. Son figuras muy expresivas, alzan las manos al cielo o se cubren con ellas el rostro, señalan algún objeto o realizan una acción. También se insertan elementos simbólicos o personajes mitológicos, como el centauro”. Destaca en todos estos enigmas la ausencia de alegorías o símbolos eucarísticos, que sí que encontramos en los jeroglíficos. Éstos están compuestos por un mote inspirado en la Biblia, un dibujo y un epigrama, que generalmente es un poema de tres versos. La imagen que más se repite en todos ellos es la Sagrada Forma, que aparece como símbolo parlante individual o formando parte de la escena. También podemos encontrar en sus páginas el cáliz como contenedor de la sangre de Cristo, la sangre salvífica del Salvador, el trigo y la vid o el cordero pascual como símbolos representativos de la Eucaristía. Dentro de este programa iconográfico aparecen también como protagonistas algunos pasajes del Antiguo Testamento considerados por la liturgia y el arte imágenes apropiadas para representar el misterio eucarístico. En otras ocasiones, el autor transmite plásticamente textos bíblicos. Además de lo anteriormente mencionado, en algunos de los jeroglíficos podemos ver representadas las virtudes teologales y los símbolos relacionados con la Eucaristía más populares como el pelícano y el ave fénix. Cabe destacar también la presencia de la Virgen, sobre todo en los últimos jeroglíficos y en la gran Inmaculada que aparece en la página contigua al título. Pero además de toda esta simbología cristiana, era común en los altares la combinación de elementos puramente cristianos con otros de la tradición pagana como es la figura de Cupido que aparece en el Jeroglíficos IV (1614). Sin lugar a dudas, nuestro presbítero Andrés de Rodas debía de conocer muy bien la cultura simbólica que impregnaba las ambientes eruditos de la de la época y los libres de jeroglíficos, empresas y emblemas cuya influencia puede intuirse en muchas de las páginas de este manuscrito. A través de los altares instalados en su puerta pretendía indiscutiblemente instruir a los fieles sobre los misterios de la Fe. Un programa de recursos de captación iconográfica basado en la curiosidad, la dificultad, la teatralidad y el artificio, aliados con la comunicación que afecta directamente a los sentidos con un mensaje que maravilla, cautiva y mueve al ciudadano que participa en la fiesta. Pretendía instruir, pero además deleitar a sus vecinos con música, bailes y refrigerios, recurriendo a esa mezcla tan del Barroco como es lo útil con lo bello. La Biblioteca de Andalucía lo considera “una pieza única” que encierra una gran riqueza iconográfica y de extraordinario interés y originalidad. A la particularidad de su contenido se une, además, su buen estado que conservación y su carácter local que lo hace especialmente valioso en su ámbito geográfico. BIBLIOGRAFÍA: SCALERA, Reyes; “Emblemática popular: Jeroglíficos y enigmas de Andrés de Rodas en el Corpus de Estepa (1612-1620)” en GARCÍA MAHÍQUES, R. y ZURIAGA SENENT; V.F., Imagen y Cultura. La interpretación de las imágenes como Historia cultural, 2008, pp. 581-597. SALAS MACHUCA, Rafael; “Las fiestas barrocas del licenciado Andrés de Rodas, comisario de la Santa Inquisición de Estepa”, en Actas de las I Jornadas sobre Historia de Estepa: Ayuntamiento de Estepa, 1995, pp.315-320.

Manuscript bound in parchment of time that consists of 281 pages with numerous poems and one hundred and twenty illustrations in ink and colored in gouache. It is in a very good state of conservation, although it has old restorations and some rips. It has been exhibited in the exhibition "Fiesta y simulacro", held in 2007 in the Episcopal Palace of Malaga. With valuation report of the Library of Andalusia. During the Baroque, the feast of Corpus Christi was celebrated with great magnificence in towns and cities. This is the case of the town of Estepa (Seville), where its streets were covered with aromatic plants, adorned with arches and fictitious altars composed of a multitude of sacred objects, mirrors, canvases and allegorical figures. The parties were also accompanied by choirs, dances, giants, theatrical performances ... that enlivened the visitors. All this had an imminently ephemeral nature, this book being therefore a piece of extraordinary iconographic value, a document that provides us with first-class information regarding the feast of Corpus Christi in the town of Estepa and that has saved the obstacles of the time to appear before us as it was presented before the Estepeño citizens of the early seventeenth century. In the present manuscript, the presbyter Andrés de Rodas collects the ephemeral devices, the "hieroglyphs", "enigmas" and poems that he devised and arranged on the altar of the door of his house from the years 1612 to 1620. In the work, his author shells year by year in a short introduction the ephemeral ornaments composed ex process to honor the Body of the Blessed Sacrament, which is followed by the images of enigmas and hieroglyphics that are accompanied by numerous poems. What the priest called "hieroglyphics" are the drawings associated with a mote and epigram, while the "enigmas" constituted riddles in relation to the Eucharist that his neighbors had to solve, even telling us that if someone solved their hidden meaning he would receive some gift like "leonadas" silk stockings, "odor" gloves, garters, gold rings, missals, etc. Professor Reyes Escalera defines the enigmas thus: "The images that are inserted in these enigmas are very different, although the protagonist is the human figure. Men and women appear in the most varied attitudes, doing jobs, talking, fighting, playing, bathing ... Some exhibit their nakedness and others cover their anatomy completely, including the face; sometimes we find dismembered bodies, double faces, infinity of eyes or nails covering the body or dress, swords that stick winged characters ..., showing an extraordinary sample of customs and a complete repertoire of costumes. They are very expressive figures, raise their hands to heaven or cover their faces with them, point to some object or perform an action. It also inserts symbolic elements or mythological characters, such as the centaur. " It emphasizes in all these enigmas the absence of allegories or eucharistic symbols, that yes that we find in the hieroglyphics. These are composed of a mote inspired by the Bible, a drawing and an epigram, which is generally a poem of three verses. The image that is most repeated in all of them is the Sacred Form, which appears as an individual speaking symbol or as part of the scene. We can also find in its pages the chalice as container of the blood of Christ, the salvific blood of the Savior, the wheat and the vine or the paschal lamb as representative symbols of the Eucharist. Within this iconographic program also appear as protagonists some passages of the Old Testament considered by the liturgy and art appropriate images to represent the Eucharistic mystery. On other occasions, the author plastically transmits biblical texts. In addition to the aforementioned, in some of the hieroglyphics we can see represented the theological virtues and the most popular symbols related to the Eucharist, such as the pelican and the phoenix. It is also worth noting the presence of the Virgin, especially in the last hieroglyphics and in the great Immaculate that appears on the page next to the title. But in addition to all this Christian symbolism, it was common in the altars to combine purely Christian elements with others of the pagan tradition such as the figure of Cupid that appears in the Hieroglyphs IV (1614). Undoubtedly, our presbyter Andrés de Rodas must have known very well the symbolic culture that permeated the erudite environments of the time and those free of hieroglyphics, companies and emblems whose influence can be intuited in many of the pages of this manuscript. Through the altars installed in his door, he pretended unarguably to instruct the faithful about the mysteries of the Faith. A program of resources for iconographic capture based on curiosity, difficulty, theatrical and the artifice, allied with communication that directly affects the senses with a message that marvels, captivates and moves the citizen who participates in the party. He pretended to instruct, but also to delight his neighbors with music, dances and refreshments, resorting to that mixture of the Baroque as it is useful with beauty. The Library of Andalusia considers it "a unique piece" that contains a great iconographic richness and extraordinary interest and originality. In addition to the particularity of its content, its good state of preservation and its local character make it especially valuable in its geographical area. BIBLIOGRAPHY: SCALERA, Reyes; "Popular emblem: Hieroglyphics and enigmas of Andrés de Rodas in the Corpus of Estepa (1612-1620)" in GARCÍA MAHÍQUES, R. and ZURIAGA SENENT; V.F., Image and Culture. The interpretation of images as Cultural History, 2008, pp. 581-597. SALAS MACHUCA, Rafael; "The baroque parties of Andrés de Rodas, commissioner of the Holy Inquisition of Estepa", in Proceedings of the First Conference on the History of Estepa: Ayuntamiento de Estepa, 1995, pp.315-320.

Dimensions

21,5 x 17 cm

Artist or Maker

ANDRÉS DE RODAS (S.XVII)

ANDRÉS DE RODAS (17th C.)

Notes

Libro, Artes decorativas

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FEES PAYABLE BY SUCCESSFUL BIDDER TO THE AUCTION ROOM

The buyer/successful bidder will pay the Auction Room a brokerage fee of eighteen per cent (18%) of the auction price, VAT not included. Internet bids incurs on extra 3% over the hammer price.