Description: Museum quality Etruscan bronze mirror with Poseidon riding a Sea Horse, circa 400 BC
Height: 11 inches = 28 cm;
Diameter: 5.5 inches = 14 cm;
Weight: 15 oz. = 420 g;
Age: circa 4th Century B.C.
Mirror surface is slightly convex, disk-shaped with a flange flaring out at the bottom,
The reverse is incised with Poseidon riding a Sea Horse.
The handle is shaped as a head of the strange animal: crocodile with long ears;
Provenance: from the collection of Chinese professor from New Jersey, USA.
is the modern name given to a
civilization of ancient Italy
in the area corresponding roughly to
, and northern
. The ancient Romans called its creators the
Their Roman name is the origin of the terms
, which refers to their heartland, and
, which can refer to their wider region.
, the Etruscans were known as
, from which the Romans derived the names
The Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, which was
whence comes the Roman and Greek names, prompting some to associate them with the Egyptian
(Sea Peoples). The word may also be related to the Hittite
As distinguished by its
, this civilization endured from the time of the earliest Etruscan inscriptions (c. 700 BC)
until its assimilation into the
in the late
4th century BC
At its maximum extent, during the foundational period of Rome and the
, it flourished in three confederacies of cities: of Etruria, of the
with the eastern
, and of
Culture that is identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy after about 800 BC approximately over the range of the preceding
. The latter gave way in the 7th century to a culture that was influenced by
contacts. After 500 BC, the political destiny of Italy passed out of Etruscan hands.
study (2013) shows that Etruscans appear to fall very close to a Neolithic population from Central Europe and to other Tuscan populations.
: , pronounced
) is one of the twelve
. His main domain is the
, and he is called the "God of the Sea". Additionally, he is referred to as "Earth-Shaker"
due to his role in causing
, and has been called the "tamer of horses".
He is usually depicted as an older male with curly hair and beard.
The name of the sea-god
was adopted in Latin for
; both were sea gods analogous to Poseidon.
tablets show that Poseidon was venerated at
Bronze Age Greece
as a chief deity, but he was integrated into the
as the brother of
According to some folklore, he was saved by his mother Rhea, who concealed him among a flock of lambs and pretended to have given birth to a colt, which was devoured by Cronos.
There is a
to Poseidon, who was the protector of many Hellenic cities, although he lost the contest for
. According to the references from
in his dialogues
, the island of
was the chosen domain of Poseidon.