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Lot 3: NICOLAS NICOLAIÉVITCH GAY (1831-1894), ATTRIBUÉ À

Est: €3,000 EUR - €4,000 EURPassed
Leclere - Maison de ventesApril 18, 2018Marseille, France

Item Overview

Description

NICOLAS NICOLAIÉVITCH GAY (1831-1894),
ATTRIBUÉ À
Portrait de jeune fille
Huile sur toile.
Diam. : 42,5 cm.
Provenance :
Vente Sotheby’s des 5 et 6 décembre 1995, lot 153, illus
-
tré p. 102. Collection privée, Paris.
Un portrait similaire d’Ivan Kouzmitch Makarov (1822-
1897) a été vendu par Sotheby’s dans la vente d’art russe
du 14 décembre 1995, lot 212, p. 112.
Николай Николаевич Ге, (1831-1894), приписывается
масло, холст; Провенанс: Аукцион Sotheby’s 5, 6 декабря
1995, лот. 153, стр. 102, частная коллекция Париж.

Artist or Maker

Notes

Russian culture has a long history. Russia claimed a long tradition of dividend in many aspects of the arts, especially when it comes to literature, philosophy, classical music, ballet, architecture, painting, cinema, animation and politics, which all had considerable influence on world culture. The country also has a flavorful material culture and a tradition in technology.

Russian culture grew from that of the East Slavs, with their pagan beliefs and specific way of life in the wooded areas of far Eastern Europe. Early Russian culture was much influenced by neighbouring Finno-Ugric tribes and by the nomadic peoples of the Pontic steppe (mainly of Kipchak and Iranic origin). In the late 1st millennium AD the Varangians (supposedly Scandinavian Vikings), also took part in the forming of Russian identity and the Kievan Rus' state. Orthodox Christian missionaries began arriving from the Eastern Roman Empire in the 9th century, and Kievan Rus' converted to Orthodox Christianity in 988. This largely defined the Russian culture of the next millennium as the synthesis of Slavic and Byzantine cultures. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Russia remained the largest Orthodox nation in the world and claimed succession to the Byzantine legacy in the form of the Third Rome idea. At different points in its history, the country was also strongly influenced by the culture of Western Europe. Since the reforms of Peter the Great, for two centuries Russian culture largely developed in the general context of European culture rather than pursuing its own unique ways. The situation changed in the 20th century, when the Communist ideology became a major factor in the culture of the Soviet Union, where Russia, in the form of the Russian SFSR, was the largest and leading part.

Nowadays, Russian cultural heritage is ranked seventh in the Nation Brands Index, based on interviews of some 20,000 people mainly from Western countries and the Far East. Due to the relatively late involvement of Russia in modern globalization and international tourism, many aspects of Russian culture, like Russian jokes and Russian art, remain largely unknown to foreigners.

Visual arts
Architecture

Russian architecture began with the woodcraft buildings of ancient Slavs. Since the Christianization of Kievan Rus', for several centuries Russian architecture was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine architecture, until the Fall of Constantinople. Apart from fortifications (kremlins), the main stone buildings of ancient Rus' were Orthodox churches, with their many domes, often gilded or brightly painted. Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia. The 16th century saw the development of unique tent-like churches culminating in Saint Basil's Cathedral. By that time the onion dome design was also fully developed. In the 17th century, the "fiery style" of ornamentation flourished in Moscow and Yaroslavl, gradually paving the way for the Naryshkin baroque of the 1690s. After Peter the Great reforms had made Russia much closer to Western culture, the change of the architectural styles in the country generally followed that of Western Europe.

The 18th-century taste for rococo architecture led to the splendid works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers. During the reign of Catherine the Great and her grandson Alexander I, the city of Saint Petersburg was transformed into an outdoor museum of Neoclassical architecture. The second half of the 19th century was dominated by the Byzantine and Russian Revival style (this corresponds to Gothic Revival in Western Europe). Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the Art Nouveau (Fyodor Shekhtel), Constructivism (Moisei Ginzburg and Victor Vesnin), and the Stalin Empire style (Boris Iofan). After Stalin's death a new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, condemned the "excesses" of the former architectural styles, and in the late Soviet era the architecture of the country was dominated by plain functionalism. This helped somewhat to resolve the housing problem, but created the large massives of buildings of low architectural quality, much in contrast with the previous bright architecture. After the end of the Soviet Union the situation improved. Many churches demolished in the Soviet times were rebuilt, and this process continues along with the restoration of various historical buildings destroyed in World War II. As for the original architecture, there is no more any common style in modern Russia, though International style has a great influence.

Some notable Russian buildings include:

Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod | Golden Gate (Vladimir) | Cathedral of Christ the Saviour | Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir | Cathedral of the Annunciation | Cathedral of the Archangel | Cathedral of the Dormition | Church of the Savior on Blood | Saint Basil's Cathedral | Kazan Kremlin | Saint Isaac's Cathedral | Kazan Cathedral | Peter and Paul Cathedral | Sukharev Tower | Menshikov Tower | Moscow Manege | Narva Triumphal Gate | Kolomenskoye | Peterhof Palace | Gatchina | Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra | Solovetsky Monastery | Kunstkamera | Russian Museum | Catherine Palace | Grand Kremlin Palace | Winter Palace | Simonov Monastery | Novodevichy Convent | Lenin's Mausoleum | Tatlin's Tower | Palace of the Soviets | Seven Sisters (Moscow) | All-Soviet Exhibition Centre | Ostankino Tower | Triumph-Palace | White House of Russia


Handicraft

Matryoshka doll is a Russian nesting doll. A set of Matryoshka dolls consist of a wooden figure which can be pulled apart to reveal another figure of the same sort but somewhat smaller inside. It has in turn another somewhat smaller figure inside, and so on. The number of nested figures is usually six or more. The shape is mostly cylindrical, rounded at the top for the head and tapered towards the bottom, but little else. The dolls have no extremities, (except those that are painted). The true artistry is in the painting of each doll, which can be extremely elaborate. The theme is usually peasant girls in traditional dress, but can be almost anything; for instance, fairy tales or Soviet leaders.

Other forms of Russian handicraft include khokhloma, Dymkovo toy, gzhel, Zhostovo painting, Filimonov toys, pisanka and palekh.


Icon painting

Russian icons are typically paintings on wood, often small, though some in churches and monasteries may be as large as a table top. Many religious homes in Russia have icons hanging on the wall in the krasny ugol, the "red" or "beautiful" corner (see Icon Corner). There is a rich history and elaborate religious symbolism associated with icons. In Russian churches, the nave is typically separated from the sanctuary by an iconostasis (Russian ikonostás) a wall of icons. Icon paintings in Russia attempted to help people with their prayers without idolizing the figure in the painting. The most comprehensive collection of Icon art is found at the Tretyakov Gallery.

The use and making of icons entered Kievan Rus' following its conversion to Orthodox Christianity from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire in 988 AD. As a general rule, these icons strictly followed models and formulas hallowed by usage, some of which had originated in Constantinople. As time passed, the Russians—notably Andrei Rublev and Dionisius—widened the vocabulary of iconic types and styles far beyond anything found elsewhere. The personal, improvisatory and creative traditions of Western European religious art are largely lacking in Russia before the seventeenth century, when Simon Ushakov's painting became strongly influenced by religious paintings and engravings from Protestant as well as Catholic Europe.

In the mid-seventeenth century, changes in liturgy and practice instituted by Patriarch Nikon resulted in a split in the Russian Orthodox Church. The traditionalists, the persecuted "Old Ritualists" or "Old Believers", continued the traditional stylization of icons, while the State Church modified its practice. From that time icons began to be painted not only in the traditional stylized and nonrealistic mode, but also in a mixture of Russian stylization and Western European realism, and in a Western European manner very much like that of Catholic religious art of the time. The Stroganov movement and the icons from Nevyansk rank among the last important schools of Russian icon-painting.


Classical painting
The Russian Academy of Arts was created in 1757, aimed to give Russian artists an international role and status. Notable portrait painters from the Academy include Ivan Argunov, Fyodor Rokotov, Dmitry Levitzky, and Vladimir Borovikovsky.

In the early 19th century, when neoclassicism and romantism flourished, famous academic artists focused on mythological and Biblical themes, like Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov.


Realist painting
Realism came into dominance in the 19th century. The realists captured Russian identity in landscapes of wide rivers, forests, and birch clearings, as well as vigorous genre scenes and robust portraits of their contemporaries. Other artists focused on social criticism, showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II, with some artists making the circle of human suffering their main theme. Others focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history. The Peredvizhniki (wanderers) group of artists broke with Russian Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from Academic restrictions. Leading realists include Ivan Shishkin, Arkhip Kuindzhi, Ivan Kramskoi, Vasily Polenov, Isaac Levitan, Vasily Surikov, Viktor Vasnetsov and Ilya Repin.

By the turn of the 20th century and on, many Russian artists developed their own unique styles, neither realist nor avante-garde. These include Boris Kustodiev, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Mikhail Vrubel and Nicholas Roerich. Many works by the Peredvizhniki group of artists have been highly sought after by collectors in recent years. Russian art auctions during Russian Art Week in London have increased in demand and works have been sold for record breaking prices.


Russian avant-garde
The Russian avant-garde is an umbrella term used to define the large, influential wave of modernist art that flourished in Russia from approximately 1890 to 1930. The term covers many separate, but inextricably related, art movements that occurred at the time; namely neo-primitivism, suprematism, constructivism, rayonism, and futurism. Notable artists from this era include El Lissitzky, Kazimir Malevich, Wassily Kandinsky, Vladimir Tatlin, Alexander Rodchenko, Pavel Filonov and Marc Chagall. The Russian avant-garde reached its creative and popular height in the period between the Russian Revolution of 1917 and 1932, at which point the revolutionary ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged conservative direction of socialist realism.

In the 20th century many Russian artists made their careers in Western Europe, forced to emigrate by the Revolution. Wassily Kandinsky, Marc Chagall, Naum Gabo and others spread their work, ideas, and the impact of Russian art globally.


Soviet art
During the Russian Revolution a movement was initiated to put all arts to service of the dictatorship of the proletariat. The instrument for this was created just days before the October Revolution, known as Proletkult, an abbreviation for "Proletarskie kulturno-prosvetitelnye organizatsii" (Proletarian Cultural and Enlightenment Organizations). A prominent theorist of this movement was Alexander Bogdanov. Initially, Narkompros (ministry of education), which was also in charge of the arts, supported Proletkult. Although Marxist in character, the Proletkult gained the disfavor of many party leaders, and by 1922 it had declined considerably. It was eventually disbanded by Stalin in 1932. De facto restrictions on what artists could paint were abandoned by the late 1980s.

However, in the late Soviet era many artists combined innovation with socialist realism including Ernst Neizvestny, Ilya Kabakov, Mikhail Shemyakin, Igor Novikov, Erik Bulatov, and Vera Mukhina. They employed techniques as varied as primitivism, hyperrealism, grotesque, and abstraction. Soviet artists produced works that were furiously patriotic and anti-fascist in the 1940s. After the Great Patriotic War Soviet sculptors made multiple monuments to the war dead, marked by a great restrained solemnity.

Payment & Shipping

Payment

Accepted forms of payment: MasterCard, Visa, Wire Transfer

Shipping

The lots are stored in a warehouse charge free for 15 days.
Beyond that, storage costs will be charged (5 € / lot / day and 10 € / piece of furniture / day).
To arrange a transport, once the lots are payed, contact our logistic partner Mail Boxes: Stéphanie SIOUFFI , +33 (0)6 62 44 08 19, Email: [email protected]
Leclere Auction House does not organize any shipment.

Auction Details

Art Russe - Russian Art

by
Leclere - Maison de ventes
April 18, 2018, 02:30 PM CET

5 rue Vincent Courdouan, Marseille, 13006, FR

Terms

Buyer's Premium

35.0%

Bidding Increments

From:To:Increment:
€0€99€10
€100€199€20
€200€999€50
€1,000€4,999€200
€5,000€9,999€500
€10,000€49,999€500
€50,000€99,999€1,000
€100,000+€2,000

Conditions of sale

LECLERE MDV, SARL dont le siège social est 5, rue Vincent Courdouan (13006) à Marseille, n° RCS 492914551, déclaration n°2006-602, TVA intracommunautaire
FR05492914551. Damien Leclere, Delphine Orts et Yonathan Chamla, commissaires-priseurs de ventes volontaires.
Conditions applicables à la vente - Droit applicable
Les ventes intervenant par l'intermédiaire LECLERE MDV, ainsi que les présentes conditions générales de ventes qui les régissent à l'égard des enchérisseurs,
sont soumises au droit français. Tout enchère portée par les enchérisseurs sous quelque forme que ce soit (téléphone, internet, ordre d'achat...) ou par le
biais de tout intermédiaire implique l'acceptation des présentes conditions générales de vente. L'éventuelle nullité d'une clause n'entrainera pas la nullité des
autres conditions, qui resteront par ailleurs applicables.
Enchères
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Défaut de paiement
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après mise en demeure restée infructueuse adressée dans un délai de trois mois à compter de l'adjudication, soit pour la résolution de plein droit de la vente,
soit pour l'action en paiement, sans préjudice des dommages-intérêts dus par l'adjudicataire défaillant. Dans l'hypothèse d'une résolution, outre le montant
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l'hypothèse d'une réitération des enchères, l'adjudicataire défaillant sera de plein droit redevable de l'intégralité des coût supplémentaires résultant de sa
défaillance, de la différence entre le premier prix d'adjudication et le prix d'adjudication obtenu sur réitération d'enchères si celui-ci lui est inférieur, outre le
montant des frais revenant à LECLERE MDV au titre de la première adjudication augmenté des intérêts au taux légal.
Magasinage et transport
Il appartient à l'adjudicataire de retirer son lot dès la fin de la vacation, ainsi que de le faire assurer dès l'adjudication prononcée, l'ensemble des risques,
notamment de perte, dégradations, vol ou autres, étant dès cet instant transféré à celui-ci. Les lots achetés peuvent être retirés, sans frais, après la vente ou
le lendemain de la vente avant 10h à l'Hôtel Drouot. Les achats seront ensuite tous transférés au garde-meuble :
PANAME SERVICES
14 rue Edouard Vaillant, Bâtiment B. 93500 PANTIN / +33 (0)9 67 45 58 17 / [email protected]
Il n'y aura pas de frais de stockage durant les 15 jours suivant la vente. Au delà, des frais de stockage seront directement facturés par Paname Services
(5 euros/lot/jour - 10 euros/meuble/jour).
Litiges
La responsabilité de LECLERE-MDV se prescrit par cinq ans.

Contract

The highest and final bidder is deemed to be the purchaser.

Your Internet bid is a binding and legally enforceable contract.

Payment

No lot will be transferred to the purchaser before it has been paid for in full.

The purchaser will be authorized to pay by the following means :

-in cash: up to €3,000, costs and taxes included, for French citizen, up to €7,600, costs and taxes included, for foreign citizen on presentation of their identity papers.

-payment by check,

-by transfer

Shipping

The lots are stored in a warehouse charge free for 15 days.
Beyond that, storage costs will be charged (5 € / lot / day and 10 € / piece of furniture / day).
To arrange a transport, once the lots are payed, contact our logistic partner Mail Boxes: Stéphanie SIOUFFI , +33 (0)6 62 44 08 19, Email: [email protected]
Leclere Auction House does not organize any shipment.

Premium

30% + 5% Internet Fee

Condition Reports

LECLERE - Maison de ventes is happy to provide condition reports for individual lots upon request.

In accordance with the law, the auctioneer is responsible for the information provided by his catalogues. A preliminary exposure making it possible to the purchasers to realize the state of the objects put on sale, no complaint will be allowed once the price is pronounced.

The auctioneer is only responsible for the French information provided by this catalogue. The English translation is courtesy to the English speakers.