Lot 178: Revolutionary War letter book, incl. eyewitness accounts from Valley Forge, White Plains, Rhode Island, and many more, with emphasis on military hospitals

University Archives

April 10, 2018
Westport, CT, US

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Description: Revolutionary War

Revolutionary War letter book, incl. eyewitness accounts from Valley Forge, White Plains, Rhode Island, and many more, with emphasis on military hospitals

 

A book of handwritten transcribed letters carried through the Revolutionary War by a Continental Army infantryman named Minne Voorhees from New Brunswick, New Jersey. The letters, including those sent and received by Voorhees, were written between 1776 and 1783 while he was stationed at Valley Forge, West Point, and other places, while he served as commissary for the medical department.

 

[REVOLUTIONARY WAR]. Bound manuscript notebook.  Largely letters sent and received by Minne Voorhees, 1776-1792. 240 pp., 8" x 6.25"

 

Minne I. Voorhees (1753-1794) was born in New Jersey to Abraham and Maria Voorhees. In April 1777, he was appointed assistant commissary in the General Hospital for the Continental Army. In August 1777, he was the commissary in the General Hospital for the Continental Army and also served as captain and quartermaster in the Quartermaster General’s Department.  In 1778, he served as commissary to the Flying Hospital in the Middle Department.

 

Excerpts
“This Book was carried through the Revolutionary War by Minne Voorhees / copies of letters, written by and received by him.” (p14)

 

Minne Voorhees to William Guest, February 23, 1777, Camp Valley Forge, in part:

“How various and complicated are the evils and hardships attendant on a state of war, and the life of a soldier—they are so evident that to you I need not enumerate them…but among them all, there is perhaps none greater, than being deprived of the conversation of old and intimate friends.”

 “Tis true I am fortunate in the company of seven or eight young gentlemen who belong to the hospital and who are of the best sort …”

But the roads here are so excessive muddy that four days out of five it is almost as impossible to walk as it would be to fly.” (p15-16)

 

Minne Voorhees to J. Lyle, June 10, 1778, Camp Valley Forge:

“We have been in expectation of moving some time, but I fear our stay will be longer than I expected or wished. My apprehensions for Jersey and particularly for Brunswick begin to subside, and I hope the enemy will take another route than we expected, tho is still doubtfull. Every account from Philadelphia confirms that they intend to leave the city soon and by land, but whether to go to N.York or come out and give us Battle is uncertain. I wish it may be the latter. Our army mov’d out of their huts yesterday into Tents, on account of better ground and water, and are ready for action. reinforcements are daily coming in from the southern states, and we gain strength daily from discipline as well as numbers. the disaffected inhabitants hang their heads more than ever and our friends are much elated. The British army must begin their operations soon or wait till they are reinforc’d.”

“Continental credit is rising, and reports say is as good in the city as in our own camp.” (p19-20)

 

George Wilson to Minne Voorhees, Simpson, Tate, and John Vredenburgh, August 12, 1778, Camp White Plains, New York:

“Be virtuous, be sober, let no vile Jade or abandon’d — tempt or invade your morals. remember that morallity and virtue are the greatest, and most accomplished blessings the human heart can possess and without which, life would be insipid and not worth keeping. these are wholesome precepts & worthy imitation. (p25-26)

George Wilson was a merchant from New Jersey.

“Jade” was a term for a prostitute or promiscuous woman.

John Vredenburgh of New Jersey served as a steward in the General Hospital for the Continental Hospital from January 1778.

 

Minne Voorhees to George T—, August 29, 1778, Camp White Plains, New York:

“… the army I suppose you hear often enough. They lay encamp’d at present on the same ground they did before the battle at this place in 1776 have about 2500 light troops near the enemy’s lines. they have a body of their infantry watching them, which is all they are like to do for a while. no talk of fighting, provisions plenty, Butter, Milk, and vegetables scarce …” (p28-29)

 

George Wilson to Minne Voorhees, September 5, 1778, Providence, Rhode Island:

“The effects of the late unfortunate affair, is still visible on the countenances of all ranks of people except the General himself, who to do him justice bears the whole with a degree of philosophy hardly to be credited. Health and chearfulness are his constant companion. he loves and is belov’d by his army. In short he’s a great, good, but unfortunate man. Our late retreat from the Island was conducted with such superiority of judgment, as history can hardly produce. Figure to yourself two army’s, lying within two or three hundred yards of each other, in an open

plain country, and the one’s effecting a glorious retreat in a moonshiney night, without the loss of a single centinel or article of stores. By the returns it appears we lost in the action of the 29th thirty eight killed, and 120 wounded. what loss the enemy sustained I can’t tell. We have open’d an Hospital in this place, and have under our care about 200 sick and wounded. Things are so exceeding dear in this place, that unless a speedy alteration takes place, I’m confident the continentals will all leave this place. the men have already mutinied (Genl Glovers brigade) and the officers have petition’d the Genl for redress, telling him they must and will resign unless their situation can be alter’d.” (p31-32)

Wilson describes the Battle of Rhode Island on August 29, 1778, in which the British in Newport attacked an American force attempting to withdraw from Aquidneck Island. American militia and Continental Army forces commanded by Major General John Sullivan had besieged the British in Newport in July 1778. Sullivan was supported by Generals Nathanael Greene and the Marquis de Lafayette. After the supporting French fleet was damaged by a hurricane, American leaders decided to withdraw. Learning of the planned retreat, the British attacked American positions without success. American and French forces then withdrew from the island in good order, leaving Rhode Island under British control.

 

Ebenezer Crosbey to Minne Voorhees, October 2, 1778, Paramus, New Jersey:

“Captn Christie the bearer of this will deliver your horse. two days after I arriv’d at the bridge I discovered he had the horse distemper, which join’d to the great variety of forage has been sufficient to prevent his thriving altho I have not been on his back nor any body else except John rode him once to New Ark, and since the retreat to keep him out of the way of the enemy. The detachment I took care of is releas’d by a regiment. I am detained here now by the wounded of Coll Baylors Regt I have wrote to Doctor Cochran for orders either to continue with them or return to camp.”

“these curs’d retreats are attended with too much fatigue to our department. (p34-35)

Ebenezer Crosby (1753-1788) of Connecticut graduated from Harvard College in 1777 and was the surgeon to General George Washington’s Headquarters. He studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, from which he graduated in 1780.

 

Minne Voorhees to George Wilson, October 9, 1778, Quaker Hill, Rhode Island:

“The day I recd your letter we had orders to send off all the sick of the army which were 1100—Crosbey was gone to Jersey. The night following Campbell was laid up by a fall from horse, Simpson & Tate had both join’d Regts In three days time we got off the sick, and the next the army moved. after a verry confus’d march we arriv’d at Fredericksburgh from where after laying a week expecting hourly to move...by Doctor Campbells order we moved to this place and have since been busily employ’d in opening a verry good hospital, and opertunity not offering to send to providence, beside daily expecting your return.”

“Your character of the General gives me great pleasure, as it must every friend to America. I never fear’d the want of soldiers if we had but officers and am confident that a great and good man (tho he may sometimes yet) cannot always be unfortunate.” (p35-37)

 

Minne Voorhees to John Campbell, October 29, 1778, Philadelphia:

“I am happy you got the Potatoes so cheap, as they can’t be bought for that between here and there. I am also verry happy the accompts stand so well …” (p39-40)

 

John Campbell to Minne Voorhees, October 29, 1778, Quaker Hill, Rhode Island:

“The Dysentery and putrid fever rages in our hospital and carry off more than is for our honour.”

“no news of the enemy to be depended on, tho it is generally thought they will leave the continent this fall, but I think not.” (p40-41)

 

Minne Voorhees to Dr. John Cochran, November 16, 1778, Quaker Hill, Rhode Island:

“I embrace this oppertunity to inform you that I am at last returned to this place. I was unexpectedly detain’d at Philadelphia, for want of money, and Mr Morris not being in town, and was oblig’d to come at last without settling my accompts.”

“I bought the Negro and have got a bill of sale for him, for 150£. Levinces Clarkson offers 500£ for your house  it is taking damage fast, and as it is continually made use of as a barrack—it cant be prevented—think if you can get 650£ you had better sell it.” (p43)

Dr. John Cochran (1730-1807) of Pennsylvania was appointed the surgeon general in the General Hospital of the Middle Department in April 1777. In October 1780, he was appointed Chief Physician and Surgeon General to the Continental Army and Director General of the Hospitals of the United States, a position he held until 1783.

 

George Wilson to Minne Voorhees, January 6, 1779, Philadelphia:

“Mr Shippen return’d to town a few days since. I waited on him yesterday. Am to get your money the later end of this week, as Congress have supply’d him bountifully to pay those debts contracted before the first of March and shall take care to remit it you pr first safe oppertunity.” (p44)

Dr. William Shippen Sr. (1712-1801) of Philadelphia was appointed senior surgeon of the Flying Hospital for the Middle Department in April 1777.

 

George Wilson to Minne Voorhees, January 8, 1779, Philadelphia:

“I am happy ’tis in my power to remit you the four hundred dollars, tho not in so good bills as I could have wish’d. however they were the only ones I could get. every paymaster is furnish’d with great plenty of them, therefore we must accept of do or none at all. perhaps tis not generally known in and about camp, that those two emissions are called in (vi. 20th May 1777 and 11th April 78) and you may pass them with little difficulty. should you not succeed loan office certificates are always ready for them. Congress are wise. To me it appears verry arbitrary, because all our paper currency may be good for nothing in like case.” (p47)

 

George W. Campbell to Minne Voorhees, January 23, 1779, Philadelphia:

“A report circulates in town that the enemy expect a reinforcement of thirty thousand Russians in the spring. it is not much credited except by the Tory’s who doubtless would fain have it so.” (p48-49)

George W. Campbell (1747-1798) of New Jersey was a surgeon’s mate from April 1777 to June 1780. He was promoted to hospital physician and surgeon in September 1781, and served to the end of the war.

Tsarina Catherine the Great (1729-1796) initially viewed the American Revolutionary War with keen interest. Holding a poor view of King George III and his diplomats, she refused a British request in 1775 for 20,000 troops and an alliance. After Spain entered the war in aid of the Americans, the British again requested Russian aid, this time for naval support. She again ignored the request and in 1780 proclaimed the First League of Armed Neutrality. She later tried to mediate an end to the war.

 

Minne Voorhees to George W. Campbell, January 31, 1779, “Head Quarters” (Middlebrook, New Jersey):

“By the time you return I shall be able to give you a course of experiments (made not all on myself, but in a pretty extensive practice) which may be of more service to you, than all the physical, Chymical, Clynical, and Anatomical lectures you have met with in Philadelphia…Doctor Brown was here yesterday. he quarters at Brunswick. he and Doctor Shippen are to begin lectures here this month.”

“Foreign news we have none of consequence. We were alarm’d the other night by a movement of the enemy on staten Island. In camp all live free, easy, and sociably.” (p49-52)

The Continental Army spent the winter of 1778-1779 at Middlebrook, New Jersey, fewer than ten miles from Voorhees’s home in New Brunswick, while the majority of the British army was in New York City. Arriving by late November 1778, the Continental soldiers constructed cabins from logs covered with clay. They closed the camp in early June 1779, when Washington led his army to Highlands, New York.

 

Minne Voorhees to his cousin Miss F. L. Voorhees, June 15, 1779, Smiths Clove [modern Monroe], New York:

“I now find myself in a country which seems created for nothing but the clashing of arms, and the din of war, where rugged mountains unwieldy rocks and dreadful precipices are the continued objects that present themselves to the wandering Eye.”

“there is no prospect of the army’s coming to action, so that god only knows how long we shall continue in this wretched place.”

 

Minne Voorhees to his sisters, B. and A. Voorhees, June 14, 1779, Smiths Clove:

“I was immediately reduc’d to the necessity of taking quarters in a Tent, which after just leaving home was far from being agreeable, yet by no means so hard as being oblig’d to breakfast and sup on Tea and chocolate without milk, and unleavened cakes, and dinen on Beef & nothing but Pork for sauce, with a hard chest & matrass to be on instead of a Bed. But this is the common reward of us who sacrifice all domestic happiness to the service of our country.” (p61)

 

John Campbell to Minne Voorhees, June 27, 1779, Otter Creek:

“About a dozen chickens, and five or six old fowls, are now parading about my store. I can’t keep them out, have been up two or three times cursing and schewing them about …” (p63-64)

 

Luisa to Minne Voorhees, July 5, 1779, Morris Town, New Jersey

“from the many advantages gentlemen have in education & many other respects, they are far the most agreable & valueable society.” (p65-67)

 

George Wilson to Minne Voorhees, July 23, 1779, Wioming, Pennsylvania:

“The celebrated Waynes victory reach’d us yesterday at a place called the shawenese flats, a spot whose natural beautys exceed all description. tis a spacious plain four miles square incircle’d with high mountains. The susquehannah glides thro the middle of it. it is more level than imagination can paint, and is famous for a battle fought between two nations of Indians. tradition reports six hundred to have fell on the spot.” (p71-72)

On July 16, 1779, Continental soldiers under the command of Gen. Anthony Wayne attacked the British outpost at Stony Point, New York, thirty miles north of New York City, and ten miles south of West Point. The Americans quickly captured the garrison and more than five hundred prisoners, and the victory provided a much-needed morale boost to the Continental Army.

Seven years later, Col. Timothy Pickering described the Shawnee Flats or Shawnee Plains (on the Susquehanna River near modern Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania) as “the most beautiful tract of land my eyes ever beheld! The soil appears to be inexhaustibly fertile, and, though under very slovenly husbandry, the crops were luxuriant, and the Indian corn and grass of the richest green.”

 

Minne Voorhees to George Wilson, August 15, 1779, West Point, New York:

“When I returned to the clove I found the Army had moved to this place, which tho I had on seeing it before, pronounced it the worst in being, yet at this time, when I was weary of the world, and wanted to get as far out of it as possible, it was a welcome retreat. If I had room I would attempt a description of this spot, which though buried among mountains, has still some romantic beautys, and the works erecting on it will I suppose make it of importance.”(p75)

 

Minne Voorhees to George Wilson, August 1779, West Point, New York:

“… tis impossible to get out except by the river, which making an elbow forms West Point, on the extremity of which stands fort Arnold. Fort Putnam is on the brink of the mountain about five hundred paces back of fort Arnold. two hundred paces back of that is a large redoubt call’d the volunteers commanding the ground in the rear, and 100 on the right is fort Webb

            “Under the walls of fort Arnold are three batterys, and a chain across the river to an Island call’d constitution Island, seperated from the main by a large marsh and a creek, and well fortify’d with forts batterys &c The heights on the other side of the river, beyond constitution Island are fortify’d with large redoubts, which as I have never visited, I can say no more about. We have encamp’d on this side the river, which is our department. The Pennsylvania and Maryland lines, eight Regiments of Massachusetts, the light Infantry, and a numerous train of artificers. The Virginias lay at Ramapough. The troops are healthy our business regular and consequently easy, no violent feuds or animosities among us.”

            “The news of the day is, That a fleet of the enemy’s transports arriv’d at New York a few days since with a reinforcement of 5000 men. That Congress have rais’d the retain’d rations to 100 Dolls per month each. That the privates are to receive 10 Dolls with their former pay.” (p75-77)

The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia was a moral fable by Samuel Johnson, published in two volumes in 1759 in England and 1768 in America. Because Johnson was a strong opponent of slavery, praised by abolitionists, emancipated slaves sometimes adopted the name “Rasselas.”

The Continental Army first occupied West Point, New York, in January 1778, making it the oldest continually operated Army post in the United States. From 1778 to 1780, Polish engineer Tadeusz Kosciuszko supervised the construction of the garrison defenses. In August 1780, Benedict Arnold was appointed commander of West Point, including Fort Arnold, which had been named in his honor more than a year earlier. Within two months, Arnold’s treachery at offering to turn over West Point to the British had been revealed, and he had fled to the British in New York. Fort Arnold was promptly renamed Fort Clinton.

 

Minne Voorhees to Luisa, October 18, 1779, [West Point, New York?]:

“We are much hurry'd in preparing for a movement toward New York, which is to take place as soon as the count De Estaing arrives.” (p79)

Count d’Estaing (1729-1794) was a French general and admiral who led a French fleet to aid the Americans. After the failure of the siege of Newport, Rhode Island, in 1778, d’Estaing aided Americans in the siege of Savannah in September and October 1779. After the successful capture of Savannah, d’Estaing was to aid General Washington’s army in capturing New York City. Instead, d’Estaing, twice wounded in the assault on Savannah, lifted the siege there after the assault failed and returned to France in 1780.

 

Minne Voorhees to Polly S?, November 1779, West Point, New York:

“The melancholy account of Captain Voorhees’s death reach’d me a few days after it happen’d, though I could only learn the particulars from uncertain reports, but I soon found it too true and that he who I expected to embrace in peace & happiness was no more in this world”

 

Elizabeth Bennet to Minne Voorhees, November 13, 1779, New Brunswick, New Jersey:

“We have been much distressed, with fear of the enemy: they were once verry near us, but were not permited to come into the town; but the horrid murders they commited seem to strike us all with terror.

            “I believe there never was a more distressing day in Brunswick--our cousin Peter being so shockingly murdered and butchered, caus’d great and general mourning  he was buried with the honours of war, and a great number of people attended at the funeral.”

Elizabeth Voorhees Bennet (1756-1818) was Minne Voorhees’s sister. She married James Bennet in New Brunswick.

 

A. Voorhees to Minne Voorhees, November 14, 1779, New Brunswick, New Jersey:

“No doubt you have heard before this of the enemy’s excursion into Jersey. they landed at the blazing star, and got to quibble town before they were discover’d, from this they proceeded to Boundbrook where the burnt some forrage, provided for the army, and plunder’d Coll Van Thorn, then to rariton, where they burnt, the church and destroy’d five or six flat bottom’d boats, then to millstone, where they burnt the courthouse and reliev’d two prisoners. they then came on toward Brunswick, but our militia having notice of their coming that way, about thirty of them waylaid them in the woods, and as they past our men fired on them which put them in great confusion, and they took the Coll and three men prisoners, and killed one man. this I believe prevented them from coming into town. they came down as far as Mr Guests and so crossed the fields to John Voorhees, where they enquir’d the way to south river. The distress in town was verry great, some run off with what little they could carry with them, while others staid and expected to submit to their mercy. But all our distress would have been trifling, had it not been for that melancholy affair of Captn Voorhees being murdered in such an inhuman manner, the verry recollection of which is horrid, but it seemed a satisfaction to his friends since it must be so that it happened near home. It is remarkable that after runing so many risques, he must yet come to his native place, there to be butchered by those wretches who surely have not the least spark of humanity.”

Captain Peter Voorhees (1758-1779) had been a 2nd Lieutenant in 1775, promoted to 1st Lieutenant in 1776, and to Captain in 1777. He was a cousin of Minne Voorhees.

In October 1779, John Graves Simcoe (1752-1806) led a group of 80 mounted British soldiers and local loyalists in an attack on central New Jersey from southern Staten Island. It became known as Simcoe’s Raid and led to the destruction of American supplies, the release of Loyalist prisoners, and the death of Peter Voorhees. After Simcoe’s group came to the outskirts of New Brunswick, the local militia under Captain Moses Guest fired on them, killing Simcoe’s horse and resulting in his capture. As other mounted militia, including Captain Peter Voorhees, pursued the loyalist horsemen, they turned and attacked, mortally wounding or killing Voorhees.

The death of Captain Voorhees became notorious among Americans for the brutality of his murder. Lt. Col. Henry Dearborn describes the incident in his journal on October 28: “Capt Van Voras being further advanced than any other, & his hors being very much fatigued was overtaken by the Enimy & obliged to surrender himself prisoner; the party that took him conveyed him to the main party & after examining him, fell to hacking him with their Swords in sight of Capt Wool & others of his party; after satisfying their more then Savage Spite they left him expiring on the ground.  Capt Wool & some others immediately rode up to him & found him cut & hack’d in a most barbarous manner, his arms cut off, his head cut to pieces, & in fact appeerd to have been massacred by the most cruel Savages, this was done by the humane Britons, let every Briton blush at the idea.” Historians have since suggested that this account may be somewhat fanciful, as Dearborn was not an eyewitness and had just returned from a long campaign against the Iroquois; however, the newspapers of the time did report on the brutality of the murder. Loyalist press insisted that Voorhees was killed in combat.

 

Polly S. to Minne Voorhees, December 6, 1779:

“But in the height of my afflictions it is a beam of comfort to my distressed soul, that he fell in defence of his bleeding country, covered with honours, and lamented by all that knew him.” (p87-88)

Polly S. was Captain Peter Voorhees’s fiancé.

 

Minne Voorhees to ? Goodwin, January 19, 1780, Morristown, New Jersey:

“We have just returned from an empty expedition to Staten Island in which I got almost froze.”

 

George W. Campbell to Minne Voorhees, November 4, 1780, Philadelphia:

“The fourth day after I left you I waited on the clothier Mr McCombs at Princeton; no cloathing or money, but the Assembly were to meet the next week and application to be made to them; in the meant time Freehold was an object of attention and accordingly visited. this being over, returned to Princeton again; the Assembly had not made a house; a few curses on hard fate ensued. The next move was to trenton to wait on the Assembly and after two or three days got a memorial laid before the house representing our case, this being done I came here and have been this three days walking the streets freting and almost cursing and swearing; neither Shippen or Bond in town: the Board of war and Committee of Accts will have nothing to do with us. ’tis damned hard to work for nothing and find ourselves.” (p94)

 

Daniel Shute to Minne Voorhees, August 16, 1783, Weymouth, Massachusetts:

 “give me every intelligence respecting the army, for which I retain a very sincere regard. let me be acquainted with Hospital matters as I am you know interested therein. I mentioned in my letter of the 14th that I had gone into business in this place. I can hardly tell you how much I like the practice of physic in private life as I have not yet had a sufficient trial. It is at this time very healthy in the country. No disorder particularly prevails except for measles and that in the country does not afford much practice, they prove mortal in Boston.” (p12-13)

Daniel Shute (1758-1829) of Massachusetts commanded a company during the siege of Boston and soon after became a surgeon’s mate in the Hospital Department. In 1777-78, he was aide-de-camp to Gen. Benjamin Lincoln and surgeon at the close of the war.

 

Daniel Shute to Minne Voorhees, March 4, 1784, Weymouth, Massachusetts:

“I continue still at Weymouth in the practice of physic & surgery. our profession is very much crowded not only in this neighbourhood but throughout the commonwealth; it has for several years past and still continues to be very healthy.”

“I was much obliged by your information concerning Hospital matters. before I received your letter I wrote to you and Doctor Townsend enclosing my account for 81 which Dr Townsend has since informed me you recd before he left camp. If you settle it I wish you would give me as early information as you can.”

“The Definitive treaty of peace having been carried thro’ the necessary formalities, last friday the 28th of February was spent in celebrating the glorious event of peace in the town of Boston. a number of patients who required particular attention prevented my being there.” (p98-99)

Signed on September 3, 1783, the Treaty of Paris ending the American Revolutionary War was sent to London and Philadelphia for approval. On January 14, 1784, the Congress of the Confederation ratified the treaty for the United States. Parliament did not ratify it until April 9, 1784, and ratified versions were officially exchanged on May 12, 1784.

 

 

Condition: There is heavy wear to the spine and boards and the hinges are cracked. Occasional spots of foxing and soiling to the interior pages. While most of the pages with handwriting appear to be present, several have unfortunately been removed leaving small stubs. Text is dark and legible except for a half dozen pages written in pencil.

 

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This Auction is presented by University Archives. Internet site ("Invaluable.com" and "Universityarchives.com"). The Auction is conducted under these Conditions of Sale.

The Bidder. Bidder shall mean the original Bidder on the property offered for sale by University Archives and not any subsequent owner or other person who may acquire or have acquired an interest therein. If Bidder is an agent, the agency must be disclosed in writing to University Archives prior to the time of sale, otherwise the benefits of the warranty shall be limited to the agent and not transferable to the undisclosed principal.

The rights granted to Bidder under these Conditions of Sale are personal and may not be assigned or transferred to any other person or entity, whether by operation of law or otherwise without the express written assent of University Archives. Bidder may not transfer, assign, or otherwise convey these Conditions of Sale or any of the rights herein, and such purported transfer, assignment, or conveyance shall be null and void. No third party may rely on any benefit or right conferred on any Bidder by these Conditions of Sale, and no third party is intended as a beneficiary of these Conditions of Sale.

Bids will not be accepted from minor persons under eighteen (18) years of age without a parent's written consent containing an acknowledgment of the Conditions of Sale herein and indicating their agreement to be bound thereby on behalf of the Bidder.

All Bidders must meet University Archives' qualifications to bid. Any Bidder who is not a client in good standing of University Archives may be disqualified at University Archives' sole option and will not be awarded lots. Such determination may be made by University Archives in its sole and unlimited discretion, at any time prior to, during, or even after the close of the Auction. University Archives reserves the right to exclude any person from the Auction.

If an entity places a bid, then the person executing the bid on behalf of the entity agrees to personally guarantee payment for any successful bid.
By accepting the Conditions of Sale, Bidder personally and unconditionally guarantees payment.



Bidding. Each Bidder's determination of its bid should be based upon its own examination of the item(s) online. In any purchase or sale, the value of the item(s) is determined by the price. THE BIDDER HEREBY ASSUMES ALL RISKS OF VALUATION CONCERNING ANY AND ALL PURCHASES. UNIVERSITY ARCHIVES IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ERRORS IN BIDDING. A Bidder should make certain to bid on the correct lot and that the bid is the maximum (plus the Buyer's Premium) that the Bidder is willing and able to pay. Since other Bidders online will be present, and since a re-offering could damage the momentum of the sale, once the hammer has fallen and University Archives has announced the winning Bidder, such Bidder is unconditionally bound to pay for the lot, even if the Bidder has made an error.

Title to any lot remains with Consignor, any secured party of the Consignor, or assignee of Consignor, as the case may be, until the lot is paid for in full by Bidder. University Archives reserves the right to require payment in full before delivering any lot to the successful Bidder.

It is the Bidder's responsibility and obligation to have the lots fully insured while in their possession. Bidder assumes any and all RISK OF LOSS once the lot(s) is in Bidder's possession.

Bidder grants to University Archives or its assigns the right to offset any sums due, or found to be due by University Archives, and to make such offset from any past, subsequent or future consignment, or items acquired by Bidder in possession or control of University Archives or from any sums due to Bidder by University Archives. Bidder further grants University Archives a purchase money security interest in such sums or items to the extent applicable, and agrees to execute such documents as may be reasonably necessary to grant University Archives such security interest. Bidder agrees that University Archives and its assigns shall be a secured party with respect to items bought by Bidder and in the possession of University Archives, to the extent of the maximum indebtedness, plus all accrued expenses, until the indebtedness is paid.

By bidding in this sale, Bidder personally and unconditionally guarantees payment.

In the event of a successful challenge to the title to any goods purchased pursuant to these Conditions of Sale and the exclusive remedies provided herein, University Archives agrees to reimburse any Bidder in an amount equal to the successful bid price actually paid by Bidder at auction plus any Buyer's Premium actually paid, in full and complete satisfaction of all claims, which once tendered by University Archives, relieves and releases University Archives from any responsibility whatsoever to the Bidder, even if the instrument is not cashed or is returned.

Because invaluble.com acts only as an agent, all bids submitted directly to the house are always given preference in the event of a tie. Absentee bids submitted via internet bidding services (e.g. invaluable.com) are not known to the auctioneer until the lot is opened on the day of the Auction.

In all Auctions, bids on an item must raise the current high bid according to University Archives bidding increments specified under Auction Terms, on a per-Auction basis. Bids will be accepted in whole dollar amounts only. No "buy" or "unlimited" bids will be accepted. In a live sale, bids on an item can change at the discretion of University Archives.

University Archives will record the paddle number of the Bidder. If Bidder's absentee bid is successful, Bidder will be notified after the sale by mailed or emailed invoice.


University Archives reserves the right to accept or decline any bid. Bids must be for an entire lot and each lot constitutes a separate sale. All bids are per lot unless otherwise announced. Live auction lots will be sold in their numbered sequence unless University Archives directs otherwise. It is unlawful and illegal for Bidders to collude, pool, or agree with another Bidder to pay less than the fair value for lot(s). For live auctions, University Archives will have final discretion in the event that any dispute should arise between Bidders. University Archives will determine the successful Bidder, cancel the sale, or re-offer and resell the lot or lots in dispute. University Archives will have final discretion to resolve any disputes arising after the online auction. If any dispute arises, University Archives' sale record is conclusive.

University Archives shall determine opening bids and bidding increments. University Archives has the right in its absolute discretion to reject any bid in the event of dispute between Bidders or if University Archives has doubt as to the validity of any bid, to advance the bidding at its absolute discretion and to determine the successful Bidder in the event of a dispute between Bidders, to continue the bidding or to reoffer and resell the lot in question. In the event of a dispute after the sale, University Archives' record of final sale shall be conclusive. University Archives also may reject any bid if University Archives decides either that any bid is below the reserve of the lot or article or that an advance is insufficient. Unless otherwise announced by University Archives at the time of sale, no lots may be divided for the purpose of sale.

Bidder may open, monitor, and/or raise bids at any time before the close of a lot through www.invaluable.com or www.universityarchives.com. To ensure proper registration, those Bidders intending to bid via the Internet must visit www.invaluable.com and register accordingly at least one full day prior to the actual auction. Winning bidders will be notified by University Archives. University Archives is not responsible or liable for any problems, delays, or any other issues or problems resulting out of use of the Internet generally or specifically, including but not limited to transmission, execution or processing of bids.

Property is auctioned in consecutive numerical order, as it appears in the online auction catalog. The auctioneer will accept bids from absentee bidders participating by internet or by written bid left with University Archives in advance of the auction. The auctioneer may also execute a bid on behalf of the consignor to protect the reserve, either by entering a bid in response to absentee bids. Under no circumstances will the auctioneer place any bid on behalf of the consignor above the reserve. The auctioneer will not specifically identify bids placed on behalf of the consignor to protect the reserve.
University Archives is not responsible or liable for any problems, delays, or any other issues or problems resulting out of use of the Internet generally or specifically, including but not limited to transmission, execution or processing of bids.

To maximize Bidder's chance of winning, University Archives strongly encourages the use of maximum bids. University Archives will then bid for Bidder until the lot reaches Bidder's specified maximum. Maximum bids are strictly confidential.

Absentee bidding (advance written bids submitted prior to start of the auction) are offered solely as a convenience and permitted only prior to the start of the online auction, with University Archives' approval which shall be exercised at University Archives' sole discretion. Neither University Archives nor its agents or employees shall be held liable for the failure to execute bids or for errors relating to any transmission or execution thereof. In order to be considered for advance bidding in any manner, Bidders must comply with all of these Conditions of Sale and the terms contained on the Registration Form.


Buyer's Premium. The Bidder acknowledges and agrees that a total of a 25% Buyer's premium(we charge 20% and Invaluable, eBay and AuctionZip charge an additional 5%) will be added to the hammer price on all individual lots sold in live Auctions (the "Buyer's Live Premium"). Delivery of purchased items will not be made unless and until full payment has been received by University Archives, i.e., Paypal, check or credit card funds have fully cleared. Unless otherwise agreed in writing, signed by University Archives, payment in full is due within seven (7) calendar days of the invoice date. All purchases delivered to Connecticut are subject to applicable Connecticut sales tax unless the purchaser possesses a Connecticut sales tax exemption number. University Archives' Buyer's Premium does not include any fees assessed by third-party internet bidding platforms. Please refer to the internet bidding platform's terms and conditions for any additional premium charged.


Payment. Subject to fulfillment of all of the Conditions of Sale set forth herein, upon the sooner of (1) the passing of title to the offered lot pursuant to these Conditions of Sale, or (2) possession of the offered lot by the Bidder, Bidder thereupon (a) assumes full risk and responsibility (including without limitation, liability for or damage to frames or glass covering prints, paintings, photos, or other works), and (b) will immediately pay the full purchase price or such part as University Archives may require.

Payment is due upon presentment of an invoice, following the end of auction. University Archives reserves the right to void an invoice if payment in full is not received within seven (7) calendar days of the of the invoice date. In cases of nonpayment, University Archives' election to void a sale does not relieve the Bidder from their obligation to pay University Archives its fees (seller's and Buyer's Premium) on the lot and any other damages pertaining to the lot.

We accept credit cards for payment for any winning online bidders at all sales. We require credit card information to bid, and may use it for payment if you are the winning bidder.

All payments for sales are strictly in U.S. dollars via Paypal, credit cards, personal checks, cashier checks, bank money orders and wire transfers, and are subject to all reporting requirements.

All deliveries are subject to good funds; funds being received in University Archives' account before delivery of the Purchases; and all payments are subject to a clearing period. University Archives reserves the right to determine if a check constitutes "good funds": checks drawn on a U.S. bank are subject to a ten (10) calendar day hold, and ten (10) business days when drawn on an international bank.

In the event that a Bidder's payment is dishonored upon presentment(s), Bidder shall pay the maximum statutory processing fee set by applicable state law. If Bidder attempts to pay via check and the financial institution denies the transfer from Bidder's bank account, or the payment cannot be completed using the selected funding source, Bidder agrees to complete payment.

If University Archives refers any invoice to an attorney for collection, the Bidder agrees to pay attorney's fees, court costs, and other collection costs incurred by University Archives. If University Archives assigns collection to its house counsel, such attorney's time expended on the matter shall be compensated at a rate comparable to the hourly rate of independent attorneys.

University Archives shall have a lien against the merchandise purchased by the Bidder to secure payment of the Auction invoice. University Archives is further granted a lien and the right to retain possession of any other property of the Bidder then held by University Archives or its affiliates to secure payment of any Auction invoice or any other amounts due University Archives or affiliates from the Bidder. With respect to these lien rights, University Archives shall have all the rights of a secured creditor, including but not limited to the right of sale. In addition, with respect to payment of the Auction invoice(s), the Bidder waives any and all rights of offset he might otherwise have against University Archives and the consignor of the merchandise included on the invoice (the "Consignor"). If a Bidder owes University Archives or its affiliates on any account, University Archives and its affiliates shall have the right to offset such unpaid account by any credit balance due Bidder, and it may secure by possessory lien any unpaid amount by any of the Bidder's property in their possession.

All checks, cashiers checks, bank checks, or money orders are payable to University Archives.

Title shall not pass to the successful Bidder until all invoices are paid in full. It is the responsibility of the Bidder to provide adequate insurance coverage for the items once they have been delivered to a third-party shipper.



Shipping. Bidder is liable for shipping and handling. University Archives is unable to combine purchases from other auctions or affiliates into one package for shipping purposes. Lots won will be shipped in a commercially reasonable time after payment in good funds for the merchandise and the shipping fees is received, except when third-party shipment occurs. Bidder agrees that service and handling charges related to shipping items which are not pre-paid may be charged to a credit card on file with University Archives.

Successful international Bidders shall provide written shipping instructions, including specified Customs declarations, to University Archives for any lots to be delivered outside of the United States. NOTE: Declaration value shall be the item'(s) hammer price and University Archives shall use the correct harmonized code for the lot. Domestic Bidders on lots designated for third-party shipment must designate the common carrier, accept risk of loss, and prepay shipping costs.

University Archives assumes no and disclaims all responsibility and liability for acts or omissions in such packing or shipping by University Archives or other packers and carriers, whether or not recommended by University Archives. University Archives assumes no and disclaims all responsibility and liability for damage to frames, glass or other breakable items. Where University Archives arranges and bills for such services via invoice, University Archives will include an administration charge.



Withdrawal of Lots and Postponement of Auction. University Archives reserves the right to withdraw any lot before or at the time of the Auction, and/or to postpone the Auction of all or any lots or parts thereof, for any reason. University Archives shall not be liable to any Bidder in the event of such withdrawal or postponement under any circumstances. University Archives reserves the right to refuse to accept bids from anyone.

University Archives reserves the right to postpone the Auction or any session thereof for a reasonable period of time for any reason whatsoever, and no Bidder or prospective Bidder shall have any claim as a result thereof, including consequential damages.

Reserves. Lots may be subject to a reserve which is the confidential minimum price below which the lot will not be sold. Consignors may not bid on their own lots or property, unless they pay both a buyer's and seller's commission. University Archives may also execute bids on behalf of a consignor or the house account, but never above the low estimate. If a lot does not reach the reserve, it is bought-in. In other words, it remains unsold and is returned to the Consignor. University Archives has the right to sell certain unsold items after the close of the Auction. Such lots shall be considered sold during the Auction and all these Terms and Conditions shall apply to such sales including but not limited to the Buyer's Premium, return rights, and disclaimers.


Estimates. In addition to descriptive information, each item in the Catalog sometimes includes a price range which reflects opinion as to the price expected at auction (the "Estimate Prices"). In other instances, Estimate Prices can be obtained by calling University Archives at (203) 454-0111. The Estimate Prices are based upon various factors including prices recently paid at auction for comparable property, condition, rarity, quality, history and provenance. Estimate Prices are prepared well in advance of the sale and subject to revision. Estimates do not include the Buyer's Premium or sales tax (see under separate heading).

Consigned Property. University Archives offers lots owned by the house as well as consigned items.


Failure to comply with Terms and Conditions. Failure of the Bidder to comply with any of these Conditions of Sale or the terms of the Registration Form is an event of default. In such event, University Archives may, in addition to any other available remedies specifically including the right to hold the defaulting Bidder liable for the Purchase Price or to charge and collect from the defaulting Bidder's credit or debit accounts as provided for elsewhere herein: (a) cancel the sale, retaining any payment made by the Bidder as damages (the Bidder understands and acknowledges that University Archives will be substantially damaged should such default occur, and that damages under sub-part (a) are necessary to compensate University Archives for such damages); (b) resell the property without reserve at public auction or privately; (c) charge the Bidder interest on the Purchase Price at the rate of one and one-half percent (1.5%) per month or the highest allowable interest rate; (d) take any other action that University Archives, in its sole discretion, deems necessary or appropriate to preserve and protect University Archives' rights and remedies. Should University Archives resell the property, the original defaulting Bidder shall be liable for the payment of any deficiency in the purchase price and all costs and expenses associated there with, including but not limited to warehousing, sales-related expenses, reasonable attorney fees and court costs, commissions, incidental damages and any other charges due hereunder which were not collected or collectable. In the event that such Bidder is the successful Bidder on more than one lot and pays less than the purchase price for the total lots purchased, University Archives shall apply the payment received to such lot or lots that University Archives, in its sole discretion, deems appropriate. If University Archives does not exercise such discretion, the lots to which the payment shall be applied will be in descending order from the highest purchase price to the lowest. Any Bidder failing to comply with these Conditions of Sale shall be deemed to have granted University Archives a security interest in, and University Archives may retain as collateral such security for such Bidder's obligations to University Archives, any property in University Archives' possession owned by such Bidder. University Archives shall have the benefit of all rights of a secured party under the Uniform Commercial Code (U.C.C.) as adopted by the State of Connecticut.

Warranties. University Archives does not provide any warranties to Bidders, whether expressed or implied, beyond those expressly provided in these Conditions of Sale. All property and lots are sold "as is" and "where is". By way of illustration rather than limitation, neither University Archives nor the Consignor makes any representation or warranty, expressed or implied, as to merchantability or fitness for intended use, condition of the property (including any condition report), correctness of description, origin, measurement, quality, rarity, importance, exhibition, relevance, attribution, source, provenance, date, authorship, condition, culture, genuineness, value, or period of the property. Additionally, neither University Archives nor the Consignor makes any representation or warranty, expressed or implied, as to whether the Bidder acquires rights in copyright or other intellectual property (including exhibition or reproduction rights) or whether the property is subject to any limitations or other rights. University Archives does not make any representation or warranty as to title.

All descriptions, photographs, illustrations, and terminology including but not limited to words describing condition (including any condition reports requested by Bidder, see also Terminology), authorship, period, culture, source, origin, measurement, quality, rarity, provenance, importance, exhibition, and relevance, used in the online Auction Catalog, bill of sale, invoice, or anywhere else, represent a good faith effort made by University Archives to fairly represent the lots and property offered for sale as to origin, date, condition, and other information contained therein; they are statements of opinion only. They are not representations or warranties and Bidder agrees and acknowledges that he or she shall not rely on them in determining whether or not to bid or for what price. Price estimates (which are determined well in advance of the Auction and are therefore subject to revision) and condition reports are provided solely as a convenience to Bidders and are not intended nor shall they be relied on by Bidders as statements, representations or warranties of actual value or predictions of final bid prices.

Headings are for convenience only and shall not be used to interpret the substantive sections to which they refer.


Bidders are accorded the opportunity to inspect the lots and to otherwise satisfy themselves as to the nature and sufficiency of each lot prior to bidding, and University Archives urges Bidders to avail themselves accordingly. Bidder is encouraged to examine lots thoroughly online. Bidder may also request condition reports.


All lots sold by University Archives are guaranteed authentic. This guarantee is valid from date of the Auction in which Bidder was awarded the lot (the "Auction Date") until one (1) year after the Auction Date, without exception. We encourage the bidder to seek third party opinions on authenticity within the one year period.

Lots purchased will come with a printed Auction Certificate and a description of the item. A color, fraud-proof Certificate, hand signed by John Reznikoff, is available for an extra charge, at the discounted rate of $125 each for any lots purchased.

In the event that University Archives is prevented for any reason from delivering any property to Bidder, or Bidder is otherwise dissatisfied with the performance of University Archives, the liability, if any, of University Archives, shall be limited to, and shall not exceed, the amount actually paid for the property by Bidder. In no event shall University Archives be liable for incidental, special, indirect, exemplary or consequential damages of any kind, including but not limited to loss of profits, value of investment or opportunity cost.




Sale of Firearms. University Archives complies with all Federal and State rules and regulations relating to the purchasing, registration and shipping of firearms. A Bidder is required to provide appropriate documents and the payment of associated fees, if any. Bidder is responsible for providing a shipping address that is suitable for the receipt of a firearm.



Remedies Under no circumstance will University Archives incur liability to a Bidder in excess of the purchase price actually paid. This section sets forth the sole and exclusive remedies of Bidder in conformity with the Warranties and Limitation of Damages provisions of these Conditions of Sale, and is expressly in lieu of any other rights or remedies which might be available to Bidder by law. The Bidder hereby accepts the benefit of the Consignor's warranty of title and any other representations and warranties made by the Consignor for the Bidder's benefit. In the event that Bidder demonstrates in writing, in the sole discretion of University Archives, that there was a breach of the Consignor's warranty of title concerning a lot purchased by Bidder, University Archives shall make demand upon the Consignor to pay to Bidder the Purchase Price (including any premiums, taxes, or other amounts paid or due to University Archives). Should the Consignor not pay the Purchase Price to Bidder within thirty days after such demand, University Archives shall disclose the identity of the Consignor to Bidder and assign to Bidder all of University Archives' rights against the Consignor with respect to such lot or property. Upon such disclosure and assignment, all responsibility and liability, if any, of University Archives with respect to said lot or property shall automatically terminate. University Archives shall be entitled to retain the premiums and other amounts paid to University Archives - this remedy is as to the Consignor only. The rights and remedies provided herein are for the original Bidder only and they may not be assigned or relied upon by any transferee or assignee under any circumstances.

If Bidder wishes to challenge the the authenticity of any item, Bidder must present written evidence that the lot is not authentic as determined by two disinterested, known experts in the field, agreeable to us, within a period of one year from the auction date. If University Archives agrees that the lot is not as represented, Bidder's sole and exclusive remedy shall be a refund of their purchase price, with no other costs, liabilities or amounts recoverable. If University Archives does not agree with the claim by Bidder, then the Parties shall follow the dispute resolution procedures of these Conditions of Sale.

Any such challenge concerning authenticity must, without any exception, be brought within one (1) year of Bidder's notice to University Archives of Bidder's contention that the lot was not authentic.

If the description of any lot in the Catalog is materially incorrect (e.g., gross cataloging error), the lot is returnable if returned within five (5) calendar days of receipt, and received by University Archives no later than twenty-one (21) calendar days after the Auction Date. This paragraph shall constitute Bidder's sole right with respect to the return of items, and no refunds shall be given for any items not returned to and received by University Archives. All guarantees are applicable only to original purchaser. No returns will be accepted other than on the grounds of authenticity for any item that is described as having major flaws or restoration.

NO RETURN OR REFUND OF ANY AUCTION LOT WILL BE CONSIDERED EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN THESE CONDITIONS OF SALE.

These Conditions of Sale constitute the entire agreement between the parties together with the terms and conditions contained in the Registration Form. They may not be amended, modified or superseded except in a signed writing executed by all parties. No oral or written statement by anyone employed by University Archives or acting as agent or representative of University Archives may amend, modify, waive or supersede the terms herein unless such amendment, waiver or modification is contained in a writing signed by all parties.

If any section of these Conditions of Sale or any term or provision of any section is held to be invalid, void, or unenforceable by any court of competent jurisdiction, the remaining sections or terms and provisions of a section shall continue in full force and effect without being impaired or invalidated in any way.

The Parties agree that any agreements between the Parties including but not limited to these Conditions of Sale are entered into in Westport, Connecticut, no matter where Bidder is situated and no matter by what means or where Bidder was informed of the Auction and regardless of whether catalogs, materials, or other communications were received by Bidder in another location.

The Parties agree that these Conditions of Sale, and any other related agreement(s) are governed by the laws of the State of Connecticut, without regard for its conflict of laws principles. The Parties agree that any dispute related to or arising out of these Conditions of Sale, or related to or arising out of any other related agreement(s) shall be submitted to confidential binding arbitration (the "Arbitration") before a single Arbitrator of the American Arbitration Association (the "AAA"). The Parties agree that the Arbitration shall be conducted pursuant to the commercial rules of the AAA. In the event that the Parties cannot agree on the selection of the Arbitrator, then the Arbitrator shall be selected by the AAA. The prevailing Party in the Arbitration shall be entitled to recover all of its related costs, whether before or after the formal institution of the Arbitration, including but not limited to its reasonable attorneys' fees and, if University Archives prevails, the Buyer's Premium as defined in these Conditions of Sale. The Parties agree that Bidder shall have no right to recover consequential or indirect damages, or lost profits damages.

The Parties consent to the enforcement of the decision in the Arbitration pursuant to the Federal Arbitration Act in either the courts of the State of Connecticut or the United States District Court for the District Westport.

Except as provided in Bidder's Remedies with regard to the Certification of Authenticity, any dispute, claim, cause of action related to or arising out of these Conditions of Sale or any other agreement(s) between the Parties must be brought within one (1) year of the acts, omissions or circumstances giving rise to the alleged claim, without exceptions. This provision is intended as a full, complete and absolute release of any claims after one (1) year of such acts, omissions or circumstances. The Parties agree further that these waiver provisions are intended to be binding on all parties in the event of any dispute, specifically including but not limited to third party claims and cross-actions brought by either University Archives or Bidder. These provisions are consideration for the execution of these Conditions of Sale.

The Bidder hereby agrees that University Archives shall be entitled to present these Conditions of Sale to a court in any jurisdiction other than set forth in this paragraph as conclusive evidence of the Parties' agreement, and the Parties further agree that the court shall immediately dismiss any action filed in such jurisdiction.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, University Archives may, in its sole discretion, enforce its rights pursuant to these Conditions of Sale in the courts of the State of Connecticut or the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut rather than in an Arbitration related to or arising out of any Auction of an item sold for less than $10,000. This right shall relate to the individual item price, such that University Archives may, in its sole discretion, enforce its rights pursuant to these Conditions of Sale in the courts of the State of Connecticut or the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut rather than in an Arbitration for items that in the aggregate exceed $10,000. The prevailing Party in such a proceeding shall be entitled to recover all of its related costs, whether before or after the formal institution of the proceeding, including but not limited to its reasonable attorneys' fees and, if University Archives prevails, the Buyer's Premium as defined in these Conditions of Sale. This right of enforcement is unique to University Archives, and these Conditions of Sale are a waiver by the Bidder of any right to enforcement or adjudication outside of an Arbitration.


Under no circumstances is any employee, agent or representative of University Archives authorized by University Archives to modify, amend, waive or contradict any of these Conditions of Sale, any term or condition set forth on a registration form, any warranty or limitation or exclusion of warranty, any term or condition in either the Registration Form or these Terms and Conditions regarding payment requirements, including but not limited to due date, manner of payment, and what constitutes payment in full, or any other term or condition contained in any documents issued by University Archives unless such modification, amendment, waiver or contradiction is contained in a writing signed by all parties. Any statements, oral or written, made by employees, agents or representatives of University Archives to Bidder, including statements regarding specific lots, even if such employee, agent or representative represents that such statement is authorized, unless reduced to a writing signed by all parties, are statements of personal opinion only and are not binding on University Archives, and under no circumstances shall be relied upon by Bidder as a statement, representation or warranty of University Archives.




Agreements. Agreements between Bidders and Consignors to effectuate a non-sale of an item at Auction, inhibit bidding on a consigned item to enter into a private sale agreement for said item, or to utilize University Archives' Auction to obtain sales for non-selling consigned items subsequent to the Auction, are strictly prohibited. If a subsequent sale of a previously consigned item occurs in violation of this provision, University Archives reserves the right to charge Bidder the applicable Buyer's Premium and Consignor a Seller's Commission as determined for each auction venue and by the terms of the seller's agreement.

Acceptance of these Terms and Conditions qualifies Bidder as a client who has consented to be contacted by University Archives in the future. In conformity with "do-not-call" regulations promulgated by the Federal or State regulatory agencies, participation by the Bidder is affirmative consent to being contacted at the phone number shown in his application and this consent shall remain in effect until it is revoked in writing. University Archives may from time to time contact Bidder concerning sale, purchase, and auction opportunities available.

Rules of Construction: University Archives presents properties in a number of collectible fields, and as such, specific venues have promulgated supplemental Terms and Conditions. Nothing herein shall be construed to waive the general Conditions of Sale by these additional rules and shall be construed to give force and effect to the rules in their entirety.
SALES TAX: University Archives is required to charge the appropriate sales tax for items won if you reside in the following states: CT & CA.
SHIPPING: We do our own in-house worldwide shipping!
Applicable shipping and handling charges will be added to the invoice. ***PLEASE NOTE: IF YOU WOULD LIKE YOUR SHIPMENT TO BE SENT TO AN ADDRESS OTHER THAN THE ONE YOU HAVE ON FILE WITH INVALUABLE, YOU WILL NEED TO INFORM US OF THIS AS SOON AS PAYMENT IS SUBMITTED FOR YOUR WINNINGS*** Shipping and handling costs are competitive as we maintain discounted contracts with FedEx. If you have any questions, contact University Archives prior to bidding. After payment has been made in full, University Archives will ship your purchase within 5 business days following receipt of full payment for item. We currently ship via FedEx but if your purchase is shipping to a P.O. Box, we ship via USPS. All items are insured. We ship from our offices in Westport, CT. We may opt to use a third party shipper for very fragile, bulky or oversized items. Items requiring third party shipping will be denoted in the item description. Packages shipped internationally will have full value declared on shipping form. International buyers will be responsible for any customs fees incurred.

Please remember that the buyer is responsible for all shipping costs from University Archives' offices in Westport, CT to the buyer's door. Please see full Terms and Conditions of Sale.
View full terms and conditions