Description: 1st-2nd century AD. A bust of Jupiter (Zeus) modelled in the round, gold foil over a glass(?) core; mounting loop and short chain above with iridescent glass bead. Cf. Rolland, H. Bronzes Antiques de Haute Provence, Paris, 1965, item 11. 4.05 grams, 66mm (2 1/2"). Property of a London gentleman; acquired before 1990. Jupiter was the supreme god of Rome, and along with Juno, his wife, and Minerva, his daughter, formed a trinity who had their major temple on the Capitoline Hill in Rome. His name is derived from div-pater, meaning father of light, and his form and cult were derived from the Greek Zeus and Etruscan Tinia. On the Capitol he was revered as Jupiter Optimus Maximus, the Best and Greatest. Jupiter also had other epithets such as Fulgur, being the 'thrower of lightning' and Tonans, the 'Thunderer'. As the Roman Empire expanded his warlike functions were more and more extolled and as Jupiter Stator he helped the legions stay their ground in battle, and as Jupiter Victor gave them victory. Jupiter was also closely linked to the power and authority of the Emperor and when each new ruler was invested they made their way to the temple on the Capitoline to offer their thanks. During the time of the Empire the Roman god merged to a large extent with provincial gods such as the Syrian Dolichenus, Egyptian Serapis and Celtic Taranis.
Condition Report: Fine condition, restored.
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