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Raphael (1483 - 1520)

Lot 1: Studio of Raffaello Sanzio, called Raphael (Urbino 1483-1520 Rome)


July 6, 2004
London, United Kingdom

More About this Item


The Council of the Gods
red chalk counterproof, the outlines incised, the top and left corners made up
7 5/8 x 8 1/4 in. (195 x 212 mm.)

Artist or Maker

Studio of Raffaello Sanzio, called Raphael (Urbino 1483-1520 Rome)


Dr. Ernst Mercklin, Berlin; Christie's, London, 25 June 1968, lot 49.
T.P.P. Clifford, his mark (not in Lugt); Sotheby's, London, 3 July 1989, lot 21.



In reverse to the central section of Raphael's fresco Psyche received into Olympus in the Villa Farnesina, Rome. The drawing shows several differences from the fresco, but is close to the engraving of the composition by Jacopo Caraglio (Bartsch 54). The indentations on the present drawing suggest that the drawing was used for an engraving. A drawing of Venus and Cupid before Jupiter from the same fresco, also closer to Caraglio but in the same direction as the original, is in the Lugt Collection, Paris (J. Byam Shaw, The Italian Drawings of the Frits Lugt Collection, Paris, 1983, no. 117, pl. 142). It has been suggested that the engraving may have closely followed Raphael's drawings for the project, and that the alterations in the fresco are the result of the input of studio assistants. A counterproof of a drawing by Raphael of Cupid and Psyche, for the pendant fresco to Psyche received into Olympus, was sold at Sotheby's, New York, 21 January 2003, lot 27.
The Farnesina frescoes were painted for the Sienese banker Agostino Chigi in 1517-18. Although Raphael made a number of drawings for the project, the frescoes were painted with much studio involvement, possibly by G.F. Penni or the seventeen-year-old Giulio Romano. It has been suggested that a number of the connected drawings may be by studio hands (J. Byam Shaw, op. cit., I, pp. 125-7).

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Old Master and 19th Century Drawings

July 6, 2004, 12:00 AM EST

London, United Kingdom