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Impressionist & Modern Prints
Though widely known for oil painting, Impressionist artists of mid- 19th century Paris experimented extensively with printmaking techniques. Impressionist prints were typically etchings, aquatints, lithographs, and more rarely, monotypes.
Many mid-century artists, such as Henri Toulouse-Lautrec were printmakers by trade, creating poster and magazine illustrations in addition to independent artistic works. Heavily influenced by Japanese Ukiyo-e woodcut prints, 19th-century artists borrowed the flat areas of color, off-center perspective, and distinct line characteristics of this printmaking tradition.
During the 20th century, modern photo reproduction methods supplanted the need for traditional printmaking techniques for mass distribution, and printmaking was increasingly used for artistic rather than commercial purposes. Modern art prints reflected the major artistic movements of the late 19th and early 20th century. The modern master Marc Chagall who defied categorization within a traditional art historical movement created a prolific body of etchings and lithographs.
German artist George Grosz worked in etching and lithography to create works that were unapologetically critical of the government in mid-20th century Germany
The first prints artist Joan Miró created were shortly after he joined the Surrealism movement. He intended the prints to accompany poems, most notably those of Tristan Tzara, a prominent figure in the Dada movement
Modern American printmakers George Bellows, John Sloan, and Reginald Marsh were notable for their social commentary and documentation of urban life in rapidly industrializing America